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molar

molar

molar Sentence Examples

  • Thank goodness the molar nightmare was over.

  • cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.

  • The molar teeth are six in number on each side, increasing in size from before backwards, and, as in the elephants, with a horizontal succession, the anterior teeth being lost before the full development of the posterior ones, which gradually move forward, taking the place of those that are destroyed by wear.

  • - Upper Molar of Mastodon arvernensis, viewed from below.

  • Mastodons have fewer ridges on their molar teeth than elephants; the ridges are also less elevated, wider apart, with a thicker enamel covering, and scarcely any cement filling the space between them.

  • Certain of the molar teeth of the middle of the series in both elephants and mastodons have the same number of principal ridges; those in front having fewer, and those behind a greater number.

  • The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.

  • molar very small, and shed before the animal leaves the mother's pouch.

  • Many important differences are also recorded between the skulls of the two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race.

  • This comparison leads to the important conclusion that the wild Bactrian Camelus bactrianus ferus comes much nearer to the fossil species than it does to the domesticated breed, the resemblance being specially noticeable in the absolutely and relatively small size of the last molar.

  • Dogs were first classified into three groups: - (i) Those having the head more or less elongated, and the parietal bones of the skull widest at the base and gradually approaching towards each other as they ascend, the condyles of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper molar teeth.

  • Crown of the last lower molar commonly bilobed.

  • In the upper molars the two outer columns or tubercles of the primitive tubercular molar coalesce to form an outer wall, from which proceed two crescentic transverse crests, the connexion between the crests and the wall being slight or imperfect, and the crests themselves sometimes tubercular.

  • Outer columns of upper molars similar, the hinder ones not flattened; ridges of lower molars oblique or directly transverse, a third ridge to the last molar in the earlier forms. The Lophiodontidae, which date from the Eocene, come very close to Hyracotherium in the horse-line; and it is solely on the authority of American palaeontologists that the division of these early forms into equoids and tapiroids is attempted.

  • Lophiodochoerus apparently represents this stage in the European Lower Eocene; Isectolophus, of the American Middle Eocene, represents a distinct advance, the last upper premolar becoming molar-like, while a second species from the Upper Eocene is still more advanced; the third lobe is, however, retained in the last lower molar.

  • 6 a Oligocene of both hemispheres appears Protapirus, which ranges well into the Miocene, and is essentially a tapir, having lost the third lobe of the last lower molar, and being in process of acquiring molar-like upper premolars, although none of these teeth have two complete inner columns.

  • The lower cheekteeth have, unlike those of the Tapiroidea, crescentic ridges, which have not the loops at their extremities characteristic of the advanced Hippoidea; the last lower molar has no third lobe.

  • With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.

  • The incisors tend to become latera l, the canines are enlarged, and the last upper molar is sub-quadrangular.

  • They differ from the other American monkeys in having one pair less of molar teeth in each jaw.

  • - Section of Upper Molar Teeth of Megatherium.

  • Unlike the Bovinae, there are frequently glands in the feet; and the upper molar teeth differ from those of that group in their narrower crowns, which lack a distinct inner column.

  • It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished.

  • - Grinding surface of Upper Molar Tooth of the7Mammoth (Elephas primigenius).

  • In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.

  • UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.

  • The upper premolar and molar teeth are not alike, the former being single and the latter two-lobed; and the last lower molar of both first and second dentition is almost invariably threelobed.

  • As regards the teeth, we have the passage of a simply tubercular, or bunodont ((30vv6s, a hillock) type of molar into one in which the four main tubercles, or columns, have assumed a crescentic form, whence this type is termed selenodont (v€X vn, the new moon).

  • The primitive Artiodactyla thus probably had the typical number (44) of incisor, canine and molar teeth, brachyodont molars, conical odontoid process, four distinct toes on each foot, with metacarpal, metatarsal and all the tarsal bones distinct, and no frontal appendages.

  • A large trade is carried on, by way of the Orebro canal and lakes Hjelmar and Molar, with Stockholm.

  • Merychippusl sp. (milk molar) .

  • - TEN Stages In The Evolution Of The Second Upper Molar Tooth Of The Right Side, Arranged According To Geological Level.

  • The teeth of the molar series gradually increase in size and complexity from first to last, and are arranged in contiguous series, except that the first lower premolar is separated by an interval from the second.

  • The crown of the third molar is nearly as long as those of the first and second together, having, in addition to the four principal lobes, a large posterior heel, composed of clustered conical cusps, and supported by additional roots.

  • The third or last molar tooth of both jaws is of great size, and presents a structure at first sight unlike that of any other mammal, being composed of numerous (22-25) parallel cylinders or columns, each with pulp-cavity, dentine and enamel-covering, and packed together with cement.

  • Examination will, however, show that a modification similar to that which has transformed the comparatively simple molar tooth of the mastodon into the extremely complex grinder of the Indian elephant has served to change the tooth of the common pig into that of Phacochoerus.

  • The tubercles which cluster over the surface of the crown of the common pig are elongated and drawn out into the columns of the wart-hog, as the low transverse ridges of the mastodon's tooth become the leaf-like plates of the elephant's molar.

  • The dentition is peculiar on account of the great size and complexity of the last upper molar, which is composed of about twelve plates, and exceeds in length the three teeth in front.

  • The palate is narrow from before backwards, this being especially the case in the hares, where it is reduced to a mere bridge between the premolars; in others, as in the rodent-moles (Bathyerginae), it is extremely narrow transversely, its width being less than that of one of the molar teeth.

  • 6) remarkably heavy, the molar teeth differing from those of Spermophilus and Arctomys by having three instead of two transverse grooves on their crowns.

  • Molar series nearly parallel, scarcely converging behind at all.

  • The front root of the zygomatic arch is nearly vertical, and placed so far back that it is above the second molar, while the orbit - a unique feature among rodents - is almost completely surrounded by bone.

  • avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.

  • They are small rat-like rodents, with one pair of upper premolars, which are mere pins, as is the last molar, and the two pairs of limbs of normal length, with the metatarsals separate; the infra-orbital opening in the skull being triangular and widest below, while the incisive foramina in the palate are elongated.

  • 13, B); in the upper teeth the outer cusps and in the lower the inner ones are the higher, and when worn the crown surfaces show oblique dentineareas; in shape the third molar is like the second, but it is smaller.

  • The humerus lacks a foramen at the lower end; and the molar teeth, as explained and illustrated in the article Vole, consist of two longitudinal rows of triangular alternating vertical prisms, and may be either rootless or rooted.

  • The large-eared African Otomys and the allied Oreomys (Oreinomys), often made the type of a distinct sub-family, may be included in this section; as well as the small African tree-mice, Dendromys, allied to which is Deomys, peculiar in the circumstance that only the first molar has three rows of cusps, the other two having only a couple of such rows, as in cricetines.

  • In the loss of the last upper molar, the Liu-Kiu rabbit approximates to the picas, as does the tailless rabbit in the abortion of its caudal appendage.

  • In this line there is a tendency 'to lose the last upper molar, but in Prolagus, which ranges in the Pliocene from Sardinia and Corsica to Spain, and forms a side-branch, the corresponding lower tooth has likewise disappeared.

  • In a second section the molar teeth have the same pattern as in Palaeotherium (except that the third lower molar has but two lobes); the interval between the upper incisors exceeds the width of the teeth; and the lower incisors have distinctly trilobed crowns.

  • ESKILSTUNA, a town of Sweden in the district (lain) of Sodermanland, on the Hjelmar river, which unites lakes Hjelmar and Molar, 65 m.

  • In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.

  • GUENON (from the French, = one who grimaces, hence an ape), the name applied by naturalists to the monkeys of the African genus Cercopithecus, the Ethiopian representative of the Asiatic macaques, from which they differ by the absence of a posterior heel to the last molar in the lower jaw.

  • In common with lemmings and other representatives of the Microtinae, voles are, however, broadly distinguished from typical rats and mice by the structure of their three pairs of molar teeth.

  • The molar teeth have respectively 5, 5 and 6 prisms above, and 9, 5 and 3 below.

  • In the upper jaw the first molar has 5, the second 4 and the third 4 prisms, of which the last is irregular and sometimes divided into two, making 5.

  • In the lower jaw the first molar has 7 prisms, of which the 3 anterior are generally not fully separated from one another, the second 5 and the third 3.

  • Upper canines are wanting; the cheek-teeth are small and low-crowned, with the third lobe of the last molar in the lower jaw minute.

  • - As regards the past history of the group, remains of fossil species of Camelus have been obtained from the superficial deposits of various parts of Russia, Rumania, and Siberia, and others from the Lower Pliocene of northern India; the molar teeth of these latter presenting the additional column referred to above as distinguishing those of the llamas from those of modern camels.

  • It is noteworthy that a molar from the Tertiary of India has been referred to Agriochoerus, a determination which if correct probably indicates the occurrence of Oreodonts in the unknown Tertiary deposits of Central Asia.

  • For example, from the evidence of molar changes due to the obvious parts of bodies, science first comes to believe in molecular changes due to imperceptible particles, and then tries to conceive the ideas of particles, molecules, atoms, electrons.

  • A short stream with a fall normally so slight as to be sometimes reversed by the tide, drains the great lake Molar into the Saltsjo.

  • There are three main divisions, Staden, the ancient nucleus of the city, properly confined to Stadholmen (the city island) which divides the stream from Molar into two arms, Norrstrom and Soderstrom; Norrmalm on the north shore of the channel, and Sodermalm on the south.

  • On Riddarholm also are various government offices, and most of the steamers for Molar and the inland navigation lie alongside its quays.

  • Vener, Vetter and Hjelmar are broad and open; Molar is very irregular in form, and of great length.

  • Molar, Vener and Hjelmar contain many islands; in Vetter there are comparatively few.

  • The scenery of these lakes, though never grand, is always quietly beautiful, especially in the case of Molar, the wooded shores and islands of which form a notable feature in the pleasant environs of the city of Stockholm.

  • Among country palaces or mansions that of Gripsholm is notable, overlooking Lake Malar, the shores of which are specially rich in historic sites and remains In ecclesiastical architecture Sweden possesses the noble cathedrals of Lund, Upsala and Linkoping; while that of Skara, near the southern shore of Lake Vener, dates originally from 1150, and that of Strengn: s on Lake Molar was consecrated in 1291.

  • In Macropus giganteus and its immediate allies, the premolars and sometimes the first molar are shed, so that in old examples only the two posterior molars and the incisors are found in place.

  • The molar teeth have cylindrical crowns, with several islands and a single lateral fold of enamel when worn.

  • It is beautifully situated on a bay of Lake Molar, which is here connected with the Baltic by the SOdertelge canal, ri m.

  • The molar teeth recall those of Palaeosyops (see Titanotheriidae).

  • The fact is that radiation is not a superficial phenomenon but a molar one, and Stefan's law, exact though it be, is not an ultimate theory but only a convenient halting-place, and the radiations of two bodies can only be compared by it when their surfaces are similar in a specific way.

  • Like goats, sheep have narrow upper molar teeth, very different from those of the oxen, and narrow hairy muzzles.

  • The third upper molar (m 3) is the only tooth wanting to complete the typical heterodont mammalian dentition.

  • In mentioning any single tooth, such a sign as mi will mean the first upper molar,, nl the first lower molar, and so on.

  • When there is a marked difference between the premolars and molars of the permanent dentition, the first milk-molar resembles a premolar, while the last has the characters of the posterior molar.

  • Molar teeth of the simple tritubercular type persist in the golden moles (Chrysochloris) among the Insectivora and also in the marsupial mole (Notoryctes) among the marsupials.

  • The structure of their molar teeth affiliates them to the antelopes of the Oryx and Hippotragus groups; but the early bovines lack horns in the female, whereas both sexes of these antelopes are horned.

  • The palate is narrow in the interval between the incisor and molar teeth, in which are situated the large anterior palatine foramina.

  • Between the molar teeth it is broader, and it ends posteriorly in a rounded excavated border opposite the hinder border of the penultimate molar tooth.

  • molar teeth.

  • The first teeth which appear are the first and second milk-molars (about five days), then the central incisor (from seven to ten days); this is followed by the second incisor (at one month), then the third molar, and finally the third incisor.

  • Of the permanent teeth the first molar appears a little after the end of the first year, followed by the second molar before the end of the second year.

  • At three years the second and third premolars, and the third molar have appeared, at from three and a half to four years the second incisor, at four to four and a half years the canine, and, finally, at five years, the third incisor, completing the permanent dentition.

  • The palate is long and narrow; its mucous surface has seventeen pairs of not very sharply defined oblique ridges, extending as far back as the last molar tooth, beyond which the velum palati extends for about 3 in., having a soft corrugated surface, and ending posteriorly in an arched border without a uvula.

  • The buccal glands are arranged in two ?., rows parallel with the molar teeth.

  • - a, Grinding surface of unworn right upper molar tooth of Anchitherium; b, corresponding surface of unworn molar of young horse; c, the same tooth after it has been some time in use.

  • - a, Side view of second upper molar tooth of Anchitherium (brachyodont form); b, corresponding tooth of horse (hypsidont form).

  • Thank goodness the molar nightmare was over.

  • The unit most commonly used in protein and peptide work is the mean molar ellipticity per residue.

  • Molar ellipticity, mean residue ellipticity and delta epsilons are all mentioned in the literature.

  • enthalpymply add together the molar bond enthalpies involved for the reactants to obtain a total endothermic value.

  • It is shown that thermal entropy can be given by: (3) where D S v is the molar thermal entropy.

  • Molar ellipticity, mean residue ellipticity and delta epsilons are all mentioned in the literature.

  • incisors in the middle of the lower jaw and the first permanent molar teeth.

  • luteal ovarian cysts, molar pregnancies, and with a rare form of ovarian cancer.

  • Overall, the primordial Thai mandibular third molar had higher calcium contents in all layers in comparison to the degenerative Japanese.

  • Additionally, the crown of a first permanent molar was affected.

  • One wonders whether his brain is bigger than the cavity in his second left upper molar.

  • molar on the left rhough, and the upper one is nearly tho.

  • Flat back molar teeth to grind food No sharp, pointed teeth.

  • molar bond enthalpies involved for the reactants to obtain a total endothermic value.

  • molar thermal entropy.

  • molar teeth, which are the large grinding teeth at the back of the mouth.

  • molar extinction coefficient using the Beer-Lambert Law.

  • molar pregnancy develops a placenta that looks like ' a bunch of grapes ' without an accompanying fetus.

  • molar ratios was studied.

  • permanent tooth be the incisors in the middle of the lower jaw and the first permanent molar teeth.

  • had left upper and lower jaw wisdom teeth extracted and molar which had previous ' expensive ' root canal work.

  • toothse tend to be the incisors in the middle of the lower jaw and the first permanent molar teeth.

  • Molar disease expressed P2Y6 in the villous trophoblast but not in the proliferative intermediate trophoblast, recapitulating the pattern of first-trimester placenta.

  • wisdom toothpper and lower jaw wisdom teeth extracted and molar which had previous ' expensive ' root canal work.

  • The more specialized of the two species is the Indian or Asiatic elephant, Elephas maximus, specially characterized by the extreme complexity of the structure of its molar teeth, which are composed of a great number of tall and thin plates of enamel and dentine, with the intervals filled by cement (see Proboscidea, fig.

  • The average number of plates of the six successive molar teeth may be expressed by the "ridge-formula" 4, 8, 12, 12, 16, 24.

  • The molar teeth are of coarse construction, with fewer and larger plates and thicker enamel; the ridge-formula being 3, 6, 7, 8, io; while the plates are not flattened, but thicker in the middle than at the edges, so that their worn grinding-surfaces are lozengeshaped.

  • cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.

  • cinereus), differs from all other members of the squirrel-family by its tall-crowned molar teeth.

  • ,u aaros, breast, 6Sous, tooth), a name given by Cuvier to the Pliocene and Miocene forerunners of the elephants, on account of the nipple-like prominences on the molar teeth of some of the species (fig.

  • The molar teeth are six in number on each side, increasing in size from before backwards, and, as in the elephants, with a horizontal succession, the anterior teeth being lost before the full development of the posterior ones, which gradually move forward, taking the place of those that are destroyed by wear.

  • There is, moreover, in many species a vertical succession, affecting either the third, or the third and second, or (in one American species, Tetrabelodon productus) the first, second and third of the six molar teeth.

  • - Upper Molar of Mastodon arvernensis, viewed from below.

  • Mastodons have fewer ridges on their molar teeth than elephants; the ridges are also less elevated, wider apart, with a thicker enamel covering, and scarcely any cement filling the space between them.

  • Certain of the molar teeth of the middle of the series in both elephants and mastodons have the same number of principal ridges; those in front having fewer, and those behind a greater number.

  • In elephants there are only two, the last milk-molar and the first true molar (or the third and fourth of the whole series), which are alike in the number of ridges; whereas in mastodons there are three such teeth, the last milk-molar and the first and second molars (or the third, fourth and fifth of the whole series).

  • a formula expressing the number of ridges on each of the six molar teeth) of most mastodons can be reduced either to I, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, or 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5.

  • As already stated, there is no vertical displacement and succession of the functional teeth except in the case of a single tooth on each side of each jaw, which is the third of the premolar series, and is preceded by a tooth having more or less of the characters of a molar (see fig.

  • The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.

  • The latter may, however, be split up into several sub-generic groups, such as Metachirus, Philander, Marmosa (Micoureus or Grymaeomys), Peramys, Dromiciops, &c. The small South American forms included in Marmosa, which lack the pouch, and have numerous teats, and molar teeth of a primitive type, are doubtless the most generalized representatives of the group (see Opossum; and WATER-Opossum).

  • molar very small, and shed before the animal leaves the mother's pouch.

  • Many important differences are also recorded between the skulls of the two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race.

  • This comparison leads to the important conclusion that the wild Bactrian Camelus bactrianus ferus comes much nearer to the fossil species than it does to the domesticated breed, the resemblance being specially noticeable in the absolutely and relatively small size of the last molar.

  • Dogs were first classified into three groups: - (i) Those having the head more or less elongated, and the parietal bones of the skull widest at the base and gradually approaching towards each other as they ascend, the condyles of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper molar teeth.

  • Crown of the last lower molar commonly bilobed.

  • In the upper molars the two outer columns or tubercles of the primitive tubercular molar coalesce to form an outer wall, from which proceed two crescentic transverse crests, the connexion between the crests and the wall being slight or imperfect, and the crests themselves sometimes tubercular.

  • Outer columns of upper molars similar, the hinder ones not flattened; ridges of lower molars oblique or directly transverse, a third ridge to the last molar in the earlier forms. The Lophiodontidae, which date from the Eocene, come very close to Hyracotherium in the horse-line; and it is solely on the authority of American palaeontologists that the division of these early forms into equoids and tapiroids is attempted.

  • Lophiodochoerus apparently represents this stage in the European Lower Eocene; Isectolophus, of the American Middle Eocene, represents a distinct advance, the last upper premolar becoming molar-like, while a second species from the Upper Eocene is still more advanced; the third lobe is, however, retained in the last lower molar.

  • 6 a Oligocene of both hemispheres appears Protapirus, which ranges well into the Miocene, and is essentially a tapir, having lost the third lobe of the last lower molar, and being in process of acquiring molar-like upper premolars, although none of these teeth have two complete inner columns.

  • The lower cheekteeth have, unlike those of the Tapiroidea, crescentic ridges, which have not the loops at their extremities characteristic of the advanced Hippoidea; the last lower molar has no third lobe.

  • With the exception of the first lower premolar, the dentit i on is complete; the incisors being normal, but the canine rudimentary, and the last upper molar distinctly triangular.

  • The incisors tend to become latera l, the canines are enlarged, and the last upper molar is sub-quadrangular.

  • The third upper molar is triangular, and most of the teeth of the upper cheek-series may have both crochet and crista (fig.

  • They differ from the other American monkeys in having one pair less of molar teeth in each jaw.

  • - Section of Upper Molar Teeth of Megatherium.

  • Unlike the Bovinae, there are frequently glands in the feet; and the upper molar teeth differ from those of that group in their narrower crowns, which lack a distinct inner column.

  • Of the whole group it is in many respects, as in the size and form of the tusks and the characters of the molar teeth, the farthest removed from the mastodon type, while its nearest surviving relative, the Asiatic elephant (E.

  • It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished.

  • - Grinding surface of Upper Molar Tooth of the7Mammoth (Elephas primigenius).

  • In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.

  • UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.

  • The upper premolar and molar teeth are not alike, the former being single and the latter two-lobed; and the last lower molar of both first and second dentition is almost invariably threelobed.

  • As regards the teeth, we have the passage of a simply tubercular, or bunodont ((30vv6s, a hillock) type of molar into one in which the four main tubercles, or columns, have assumed a crescentic form, whence this type is termed selenodont (v€X vn, the new moon).

  • The primitive Artiodactyla thus probably had the typical number (44) of incisor, canine and molar teeth, brachyodont molars, conical odontoid process, four distinct toes on each foot, with metacarpal, metatarsal and all the tarsal bones distinct, and no frontal appendages.

  • A large trade is carried on, by way of the Orebro canal and lakes Hjelmar and Molar, with Stockholm.

  • Merychippusl sp. (milk molar) .

  • - TEN Stages In The Evolution Of The Second Upper Molar Tooth Of The Right Side, Arranged According To Geological Level.

  • The teeth of the molar series gradually increase in size and complexity from first to last, and are arranged in contiguous series, except that the first lower premolar is separated by an interval from the second.

  • The crown of the third molar is nearly as long as those of the first and second together, having, in addition to the four principal lobes, a large posterior heel, composed of clustered conical cusps, and supported by additional roots.

  • The third or last molar tooth of both jaws is of great size, and presents a structure at first sight unlike that of any other mammal, being composed of numerous (22-25) parallel cylinders or columns, each with pulp-cavity, dentine and enamel-covering, and packed together with cement.

  • Examination will, however, show that a modification similar to that which has transformed the comparatively simple molar tooth of the mastodon into the extremely complex grinder of the Indian elephant has served to change the tooth of the common pig into that of Phacochoerus.

  • The tubercles which cluster over the surface of the crown of the common pig are elongated and drawn out into the columns of the wart-hog, as the low transverse ridges of the mastodon's tooth become the leaf-like plates of the elephant's molar.

  • The dentition is peculiar on account of the great size and complexity of the last upper molar, which is composed of about twelve plates, and exceeds in length the three teeth in front.

  • The palate is narrow from before backwards, this being especially the case in the hares, where it is reduced to a mere bridge between the premolars; in others, as in the rodent-moles (Bathyerginae), it is extremely narrow transversely, its width being less than that of one of the molar teeth.

  • 6) remarkably heavy, the molar teeth differing from those of Spermophilus and Arctomys by having three instead of two transverse grooves on their crowns.

  • Molar series strongly convergent behind (see Prairie-Marmot).

  • Molar series nearly parallel, scarcely converging behind at all.

  • The front root of the zygomatic arch is nearly vertical, and placed so far back that it is above the second molar, while the orbit - a unique feature among rodents - is almost completely surrounded by bone.

  • avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.

  • They are small rat-like rodents, with one pair of upper premolars, which are mere pins, as is the last molar, and the two pairs of limbs of normal length, with the metatarsals separate; the infra-orbital opening in the skull being triangular and widest below, while the incisive foramina in the palate are elongated.

  • 13, B); in the upper teeth the outer cusps and in the lower the inner ones are the higher, and when worn the crown surfaces show oblique dentineareas; in shape the third molar is like the second, but it is smaller.

  • The humerus lacks a foramen at the lower end; and the molar teeth, as explained and illustrated in the article Vole, consist of two longitudinal rows of triangular alternating vertical prisms, and may be either rootless or rooted.

  • The large-eared African Otomys and the allied Oreomys (Oreinomys), often made the type of a distinct sub-family, may be included in this section; as well as the small African tree-mice, Dendromys, allied to which is Deomys, peculiar in the circumstance that only the first molar has three rows of cusps, the other two having only a couple of such rows, as in cricetines.

  • In the loss of the last upper molar, the Liu-Kiu rabbit approximates to the picas, as does the tailless rabbit in the abortion of its caudal appendage.

  • In this line there is a tendency 'to lose the last upper molar, but in Prolagus, which ranges in the Pliocene from Sardinia and Corsica to Spain, and forms a side-branch, the corresponding lower tooth has likewise disappeared.

  • In a second section the molar teeth have the same pattern as in Palaeotherium (except that the third lower molar has but two lobes); the interval between the upper incisors exceeds the width of the teeth; and the lower incisors have distinctly trilobed crowns.

  • ESKILSTUNA, a town of Sweden in the district (lain) of Sodermanland, on the Hjelmar river, which unites lakes Hjelmar and Molar, 65 m.

  • In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.

  • GUENON (from the French, = one who grimaces, hence an ape), the name applied by naturalists to the monkeys of the African genus Cercopithecus, the Ethiopian representative of the Asiatic macaques, from which they differ by the absence of a posterior heel to the last molar in the lower jaw.

  • In common with lemmings and other representatives of the Microtinae, voles are, however, broadly distinguished from typical rats and mice by the structure of their three pairs of molar teeth.

  • The molar teeth have respectively 5, 5 and 6 prisms above, and 9, 5 and 3 below.

  • In the upper jaw the first molar has 5, the second 4 and the third 4 prisms, of which the last is irregular and sometimes divided into two, making 5.

  • In the lower jaw the first molar has 7 prisms, of which the 3 anterior are generally not fully separated from one another, the second 5 and the third 3.

  • Upper canines are wanting; the cheek-teeth are small and low-crowned, with the third lobe of the last molar in the lower jaw minute.

  • - As regards the past history of the group, remains of fossil species of Camelus have been obtained from the superficial deposits of various parts of Russia, Rumania, and Siberia, and others from the Lower Pliocene of northern India; the molar teeth of these latter presenting the additional column referred to above as distinguishing those of the llamas from those of modern camels.

  • It is noteworthy that a molar from the Tertiary of India has been referred to Agriochoerus, a determination which if correct probably indicates the occurrence of Oreodonts in the unknown Tertiary deposits of Central Asia.

  • For example, from the evidence of molar changes due to the obvious parts of bodies, science first comes to believe in molecular changes due to imperceptible particles, and then tries to conceive the ideas of particles, molecules, atoms, electrons.

  • A short stream with a fall normally so slight as to be sometimes reversed by the tide, drains the great lake Molar into the Saltsjo.

  • There are three main divisions, Staden, the ancient nucleus of the city, properly confined to Stadholmen (the city island) which divides the stream from Molar into two arms, Norrstrom and Soderstrom; Norrmalm on the north shore of the channel, and Sodermalm on the south.

  • On Riddarholm also are various government offices, and most of the steamers for Molar and the inland navigation lie alongside its quays.

  • Vener, Vetter and Hjelmar are broad and open; Molar is very irregular in form, and of great length.

  • Molar, Vener and Hjelmar contain many islands; in Vetter there are comparatively few.

  • The scenery of these lakes, though never grand, is always quietly beautiful, especially in the case of Molar, the wooded shores and islands of which form a notable feature in the pleasant environs of the city of Stockholm.

  • Among country palaces or mansions that of Gripsholm is notable, overlooking Lake Malar, the shores of which are specially rich in historic sites and remains In ecclesiastical architecture Sweden possesses the noble cathedrals of Lund, Upsala and Linkoping; while that of Skara, near the southern shore of Lake Vener, dates originally from 1150, and that of Strengn: s on Lake Molar was consecrated in 1291.

  • In Macropus giganteus and its immediate allies, the premolars and sometimes the first molar are shed, so that in old examples only the two posterior molars and the incisors are found in place.

  • The molar teeth have cylindrical crowns, with several islands and a single lateral fold of enamel when worn.

  • It is beautifully situated on a bay of Lake Molar, which is here connected with the Baltic by the SOdertelge canal, ri m.

  • The molar teeth recall those of Palaeosyops (see Titanotheriidae).

  • The fact is that radiation is not a superficial phenomenon but a molar one, and Stefan's law, exact though it be, is not an ultimate theory but only a convenient halting-place, and the radiations of two bodies can only be compared by it when their surfaces are similar in a specific way.

  • Like goats, sheep have narrow upper molar teeth, very different from those of the oxen, and narrow hairy muzzles.

  • The third upper molar (m 3) is the only tooth wanting to complete the typical heterodont mammalian dentition.

  • In mentioning any single tooth, such a sign as mi will mean the first upper molar,, nl the first lower molar, and so on.

  • When there is a marked difference between the premolars and molars of the permanent dentition, the first milk-molar resembles a premolar, while the last has the characters of the posterior molar.

  • Molar teeth of the simple tritubercular type persist in the golden moles (Chrysochloris) among the Insectivora and also in the marsupial mole (Notoryctes) among the marsupials.

  • The structure of their molar teeth affiliates them to the antelopes of the Oryx and Hippotragus groups; but the early bovines lack horns in the female, whereas both sexes of these antelopes are horned.

  • The palate is narrow in the interval between the incisor and molar teeth, in which are situated the large anterior palatine foramina.

  • Between the molar teeth it is broader, and it ends posteriorly in a rounded excavated border opposite the hinder border of the penultimate molar tooth.

  • molar teeth.

  • The first teeth which appear are the first and second milk-molars (about five days), then the central incisor (from seven to ten days); this is followed by the second incisor (at one month), then the third molar, and finally the third incisor.

  • Of the permanent teeth the first molar appears a little after the end of the first year, followed by the second molar before the end of the second year.

  • At three years the second and third premolars, and the third molar have appeared, at from three and a half to four years the second incisor, at four to four and a half years the canine, and, finally, at five years, the third incisor, completing the permanent dentition.

  • The palate is long and narrow; its mucous surface has seventeen pairs of not very sharply defined oblique ridges, extending as far back as the last molar tooth, beyond which the velum palati extends for about 3 in., having a soft corrugated surface, and ending posteriorly in an arched border without a uvula.

  • The buccal glands are arranged in two ?., rows parallel with the molar teeth.

  • - a, Grinding surface of unworn right upper molar tooth of Anchitherium; b, corresponding surface of unworn molar of young horse; c, the same tooth after it has been some time in use.

  • - a, Side view of second upper molar tooth of Anchitherium (brachyodont form); b, corresponding tooth of horse (hypsidont form).

  • Molar disease expressed P2Y6 in the villous trophoblast but not in the proliferative intermediate trophoblast, recapitulating the pattern of first-trimester placenta.

  • Parents do not need to initiate flossing until the child has teeth that touch each other, which normally occurs in the molar areas first.

  • Bicuspid-Premolar; the two-cupped tooth between the first molar and the cuspid.

  • The disease is seen more frequently in the lower molar teeth.

  • As the molar emerges, a flap of gum still covers the tooth.

  • If the upper molar fully emerges before the lower one, it may bite down on the flap during chewing and increase the irritation of the flap, leading to infection.

  • Removing debris under the flap of gum covering the molar treats pericoronitis.

  • Between the ages of about six and 12 to 14, as the jaw grows, 28 permanent teeth erupt, replacing the primary teeth, incisor for incisor, canine for canine, premolar or bicuspid for molar.

  • Bicuspid-Premolar; the two-cupped tooth between the first molar and the cuspid.

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