Modifications sentence example
Many other modifications have been used and suggested.
This system, however, which is opposed by a powerful party, I has at various times undergone modifications.
Various adjustments and modifications still continue, and a number of scattered details may indicate that internal rivalries made themselves felt.
Unlike any other buildings in Abyssinia, the castles and palaces of Gondar resemble, with some modifications, the medieval fortresses of Europe, the style of architecture being the result of the presence in the country of numbers of Portuguese.
House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.Advertisement
The first to attain practical success was Edison, and his method with some modifications is still the one in most general use.
The capacity of camels for travelling long distances without water - owing to special structural modifications in the stomach - is familiar to all.
The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made up of detached groups of verses of the Rigveda, as collected in the Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting.
They are agglutinative in nature, show hardly any signs of syntactical growth though every indication of long etymological growth, give expression to only the most direct and the simplest thought, and are purely colloquial and wanting in the modifications always necessary for communication by writing.
Such a colony may undergo two principal modifications.Advertisement
Delage and Herouard (Hydrozoa ) were the first to make an heroic attempt to unite the two classifications into one, to which Hickson (Hydrozoa ) has made some additions and slight modifications.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
When a series of the modifications of an anatomical structure has been sufficiently examined, it is frequently possible to decide that one particular condition is primitive, ancestral or central, and that the other conditions have been derived from it.
A complex apocentric modification of a kind which we cannot imagine to have been repeated independently, and which is to be designated as uniradial, frequently forms a new centre around which new diverging modifications are produced.
Numerous variations and modifications of these forms exist.Advertisement
This is not perhaps so evident in the case of axial organs as it is in that of leaves and their modifications, but even in them it can be detected to a certain extent.
Lesagef has shown that the height of certain plants is decreased by cultivation in a saline soil, and that the leaves of iLesage, Recherches exphrimentales sur les modifications de, feuilles chez les plantes maritimes, in Rev. gen.
Within it or its modifications all the vital phenomena of which living organisms are capable have their origin.
The epidermal, conducting and strengthening tissues show on the other hand considerable modifications both in form and structure.
In order to effect this the individual chromosomes must become associated in some way, for there is no diminution in the actual amount of nuclear substance, and this leads to certain modifications in the division which are not seen in the vegetative nuclei.Advertisement
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
These may be looked The six upon as being all derived by various modifications or elementa ry arrangements of the single form-unit, the slope or inclined land forms. plane surface.
These divisions merge one into the other, and admit of almost indefinite subdivision, while they are subject to great modifications by human interference in clearing and cultivating.
The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
The only really aberrant modifications of the wing-muscles are found in the Ratitae, where they are, however, all easily explained by reduction, and in the penguins, where the wings are greatly specialized into blades for rowing with screw-like motions.Advertisement
The results are as interesting from a morphological point of view (showing the subtle and gradual modifications of these organs in their various adaptations), as they are sparse in taxonomic value, far less satisfactory than are those of the hind-limb.
For instance, the Tyranninae are anacromyod, while the closely allied Pipras and Cotingas are katacromyod; both these modifications can be shown to have been derived but recently from the weak mesoand oligomyodian condition which prevails in the majority of the so-called Oligomyodi.
Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.
Properties.-Sulphur exists in several allotropic modifications, but before considering these systematically we will deal with the properties of ordinary (or rhombic) sulphur.
A larger and more brightly coloured species, C. spinoides, inhabits the Himalayas, but the siskin has many other relatives belonging to the New World, and in them serious modifications of structure, especially in the form of the bill, occur.
Newman - with modifications on becoming a Roman Catholic in the light of the church's decision in favour of Thomism.
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
The alphabet is with some modifications the same as the Javanese, but more complicated.
The Mordvinians are nearly all Orthodox Greek, as also are the Votyaks, Voguls, Cheremisses and Chuvashes, but their religions are, in reality, modifications of Shamanism under the influence of some Christian and Moslem beliefs.
In subsequent modifications the fishes were, as they continue to be, bolted to and through the rails, the sleepers being placed rather further apart and the joint being generally suspended between them.
Such modifications of the hours of work have not only been beneficial to the men, but have improved the discipline of the staff and the punctuality and regularity of the train service, particularly in respect of the goods trains.
By the year 1878 there were four parallel lines in the city of New York, and constructions of the same character had already been projected in Brooklyn and Chicago and, with certain modifications of details, in Berlin.
But once the order is confirmed by the Board, with or without modifications, it has effect as if it had been enacted by parliament, and it cannot afterwards be upset on the ground of any alleged irregularity in the proceedings.
He had already, in 1859, as the result of a visit to Budapest, made certain modifications in the Bach system by way of concession to Magyar sentiment, and in 1861 he had had an interview with Dek, during which, though unconvinced by that statesmans arguments, he had at least assured himself of his loyalty.
The Greek penal code has been adopted with some modifications.
This classification has been very generally received, and most later schemes have been modifications of it.
The most characteristic modifications may be said to have'taken place from the 11th to the middle of the 13th century.
In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
The word has, however, undergone sundry modifications of meaning.
The necessary and immediate results of such periodical changes of pressure are winds, which, speaking generally, blow from the area of greatest to that of least pressure - subject, however, to certain modifications of direction, arising from the absolute motion of the whole body of the air due to the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.
It is known that to the TibetoChinese modifications of the pure Mongolian type all the eastern Burmese tribes - Chins, Kachins, Shans, &c. - belong (as indeed do the Burmese themselves), and that a cognate race occupies the Himalaya to the eastern limits of Kashmir.
The languages of the south are Dravidian, not Sanskritic. The letters of both classes of languages, which also vary considerably, are all modifications of the ancient Pali, and probably derived from the Dravidians, not from the Aryans.
The chief modifications of this form are seen in the Mitraria larva of Ammochares with only the preoral band, which is much folded and which has provisional and long setae; the a.trochous larva, where the covering of cilia is uniform and not split into bands; and the polytrochous larva where there are several bands surrounding the body.
There are also other modifications.
The much-debated Corn Laws, after undergoing various modifications, and proving the fruitful source of business uncertainty, social discontent and angry partisanship, were finally abolished in 1846, although the act was not consummated until three years later.
Additional significance to the value of the above experiments on wheat and barley is afforded by the fact that the same series, with but slight modifications, has also been carried out since 1876 at the Woburn (Bedfordshire) experimental farm of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the soil here being of light sandy character, and thus very different from the heavy soil of Rothamsted.
The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.
In insects whose mouths are adapted for sucking and piercing, remarkable modifications may occur.
In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).
These modifications are mentioned below in the section on metamorphosis.
The genital armature of the male is formed to a considerable extent by modifications of the segments themselves.
With certain modifications in principle not very important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, Aldrovandus adopted Belon's method of arrangement, but in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression.
In the former edition Mauduyt had taken the subjects alphabetically; but here they are disposed according to an arrangement, with some few modifications, furnished by d'Aubenton, which is extremely shallow and unworthy of consideration.
That the series of natural animals is continuous, forming, as it were, a circle; so that, upon commencing at any one given point, and thence tracing all the modifications of structure, we shall be imperceptibly led, after passing through numerous forms, again to the point from which we started.
That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
Its basis is the classification of Cuvier, the modifications of which by Des Murs will seldom commend themselves to systematists whose opinion is generally deemed worth having.
This being the case, it would seem useless to take up further space by analysing the several proposed modifications of Cuvier's arrangement.
The constitution of 1820, subject to four subsequent modifications, is still the law of the land, the legislative power being vested in two chambers and the executive power being exercised by the three departments of the ministry of state.
By simple modifications the Macarthy gin can be used for all kinds of cotton.
This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.
Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.
The latter was introduced by Canadians into Galicia and, with certain modifications, has hitherto been found to be the best for that country.
Nevertheless there are three principal types under which the different modifications can be arranged.
Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
These views were extended by William Odling, and adopted by Gerhardt, but with modifications of Williamson's aspects.
At about the same time Hermann Kolbe attempted a rehabilitation, with certain modifications, of the dualistic conception of Berzelius.
Isomorphism may be defined as the existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy (after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to alterations in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances.
In general, polysymmetric and polymorphous modifications suffer transformation when submitted to variations in either temperature or pressure, or both.
Again, the pyroxenes, RS103 (R=Fe, Mg, Mn, &c.), assume the forms (I) monoclinic, sometimes twinned so as to become pseudo-rhombic; (2) rhombic, resulting from the pseudo-rhombic structure of (I) becoming ultramicroscopic; and (3) triclinic, distinctly different from (I) and (2); (I) and (2) are polysymmetric modifications, while (3) and the pair (I) and (2) are polymorphs.
The physical conditions under which polymorphous modifications are prepared control the form which the substance assumes.
Different modifications may separate and exist side by side at one and the same time from a solution; e.g.
The modifications in the army system were closely connected with Alexander's general policy, in which the fusion of Greeks of and Asiatics held so prominent a place.
Do they originate through the natural selection of those variations which are the more adaptive; or do they originate through the inheritance of those acquired modifications which are impressed on the nervous system in the course of individual and intelligent use ?
Apart from unimportant modifications, the form of the budget must have remained unchanged until the organic reforms of Selim III., while its complete transformation into European shape dates only from the year 1278 (1862), when Fuad Pasha attached a regular budget to his report on the financial situation of the empire.
Almost immediately after the budget was drawn up a change of government took place, and largely owing to this fact the parliamentary budget commission introduced various modifications on the expenditure side of the account, which increased the estimated deficit to the account just mentioned.'
He imroved the laws and institutions established by p i his predecessors and adapted them to the require ments of the age; to him are due important modifications in the feudal system, aimed.
He succeeded in carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without dividing the parties upon whose support he relied.
Many more modifications are observable in different groups of which the great family Terebratulidae is composed.
Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.
Thus it is found that the action of the heart is accelerated by pleasant, and retarded by unpleasant, stimuli; again, changes of weight and volume are found to accompany modifications of affection - and so on.
Yet it possesses the great and characteristic merit of generalizing the solutions of his predecessors, exhibiting them all as modifications of one principle.
Mithraism was at full maturity on its arrival at Rome, the only modifications it ever suffered having been experienced during its younger days in Asia.
Such is the teaching of the Roman Church, accepted by the Greeks and with certain modifications by Anglicans of the High Church school, who appeal to i Tim.
This view of order was accepted in the Calvinistic churches, but with various modifications.
As a result of consultations with Shepstone certain modifications were made in native policy, chiefly in the direction of more European supervision.
The classification of ships into six rates, and into rated and non-rated ships, continued during the existence of the old sailing fleets, with modifications in detail.
Balfour, and produced the profoundest modifications in classification.
The ecclesiastical arrangements of Hamburg have undergone great modifications since the general constitution of 1860.
But much time was consumed and the plan underwent several modifications before its execution began in earnest on the 16th of January.
Thus an individual living body is not only constantly changing its substance, but its size and form are undergoing continual modifications, the end of which is the death and decay of that individual; the continuation of the kind being secured by the detachment of portions which tend to run through the same cycle of forms as the parent.
Several modifications of this and of the Abel heat test are also in use.
Although the methods of cell-division prevailing in normal structures are maintained generally in those which are pathological, yet certain modifications of these methods are more noticeable in the latter than in the former.
Asclepiades had many pupils who adhered more or less closely to his doctrines, but it was especially one of them, Themison, who gave permanence to the teachings of his master by framing out of them, with some modifications, a new system of medical doctrine, and founding on this basis a school which lasted for some centuries in successful rivalry with the Hippocratic tradition, which, as we have seen, was up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine.
In England they were not generally accepted till adopted with some modifications by Thomas Willis the great anatomist (1621-1675), who is the chief English representative of the chemical school.
Joseph Frank (1774-1841), a German professor at Pavia, afterwards of Vienna, the author of an encyclopaedic work on medicine now forgotten, embraced the Brunonian system, though he afterwards introduced some modifications, and transplanted it to Vienna.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
The appreciation of such modifications, and of the working of such causes, has been facilitated greatly by the light thrown upon normal processes by advances in physiology; so dependent is each branch of knowledge upon the advances of contiguous and incident studies.
On the other hand, the reagents by which such modifications are apt to be produced are not necessarily simple; many of them likewise are known to be of very high degrees of complexity, approaching perhaps in complexity the molecules to which they are akin.
It is convenient here to add that such reactions and modifications, if more conspicuous in the nervous system, are of course not confined to it, but are concerned in their degree in all the processes of metabolism, being most readily traced by us in the blood.
Asquith as home secretary, and subsequent modifications of this were only arrived at, as in 1904, after a strike of the drivers affected.
With but slight modifications permitting the use of pumps and hoistingmachinery equally simple methods of mining may be seen to-day when the deposit is of small extent.
This process is repeated, with slight modifications, until the gathering is of the proper size and weight to yield the sheet which is to be blown.
The process of sheet-glass manufacture described above is typical of that in use in a large number of works, but many modifications are to be found, particularly in the furnaces in which the glass is melted.
No formal alteration has been made in the Sikh religion since Guru Govind Singh gave it his military organization, but certain modifications have taken place as the result of time and contact with Hinduism.
The law as originally compiled underwent modifications of varying importance before it took the form known to us in Latin MS. No.
The main modifications have been in the sleeves.
He continued to devote himself to questions concerning the navy and national defence, prepared a report on the English political system and the navy, and caused a decree to be passed for the formation of a committee of general defence, which after many modifications was to become the famous Committee of Public Safety.
His admiration for Plato led him to write a commentary on the Timaeus; in another way it is shown by important modifications which he made in psychological doctrine.
Apart from modifications in the details of sugar refining which have come into use in late years, it should be mentioned that loaf sugar made in conical moulds, and sugars made otherwise, to resemble loaf sugar, have practically disappeared from the trade, having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more economical as subject to less waste by grocers and housekeepers, and also less troublesome to buy and sell.
Various combinations and modifications of these two types of furnace have given rise to distinctive names, and as each system has its advantages and disadvantages local conditions determine which is the better.
The modifications, however, are all in a more spiritual direction, in keeping with the genuinely evangelic spirit which underlies and pervades even the allegorical ingenuities of the epistle.
Nevertheless he sometimes helps us to recognize in Ibn Ishaq's narrative modifications of the genuine tradition made for a purpose, and the additional details he supplies set various events before us in a clearer light.
Several modifications were proposed, in one of which, intended for the heating of non-conducting substances, the electrodes were passed horizontally through perforations in the upper part of the crucible walls, and the charge in the lower part of the crucible was heated by radiation.
The most obvious test of the reality of the required modifications would be afforded by two other bodies, the motions of whose pericentres should be similarly affected.
After arbitration by the king of Spain had been agreed upon, the question was considered by two Spanish commissions, and modifications favouring Peru were recommended.
This decision at first gave offence to the Bolivians, but friendly overtures from Peru led to its acceptance by both parties with the understanding that modifications would be made in locating the line wherever actual settlements had been made by either party on territory awarded to the other.
Some modifications were later made in the contract, owing to the government's failure to meet the annual subsidies and the corporation's failure to extend the railways agreed upon.
Another explanation, which appears first in Jewish authors of the middle ages and has found wide acceptance in recent times, derives the name from the causative of the verb; He (who) causes things to be, gives them being; or calls events into existence, brings them to pass; with many individual modifications of interpretation - creator, lifegiver, fulfiller of promises.
The ovicells commonly found as globular swellings surmounting the orifices are not direct modifications of zooecia, and each typically contains a single egg or embryo.
Littre, by far the most eminent of the scientific followers of Comte, concedes a certain force to Spencer's objections, and makes certain secondary modifications in the hierarchy in consequence, while still cherishing his faith in the Comtist theory of the sciences.
This was similar to the view now held by Cranmer and Ridley, but it is difficult to prove that Vermigli had any great influence in the modifications of the Book of Common Prayer made in 1552.
This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis, and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.
Spencer welcomed the Darwinian theory, and enriched it with the phrase" survival of the fittest "; but he did not give up the (Lamarckian) belief in the hereditary transmission of the modifications of organisms by the exercise of function.
And though Spencer's general position - that it is absurd to suppose that organisms after being modified by their life should give birth to offspring showing no traces of such modifications - seems the more philosophic, yet it does not dispose of the facts which go to show that most of the evidence for the direct transmission of adaptations is illusory, and that beings are organised to minimize the effects of life on the reproductive tissues, so that the transmission of the effects of use and disuse, if it occurs, must be both difficult and rare - far more so than is convenient for Spencer's psychology.
Many modifications have been patented by Hermite, that of 1895 specifying the use of platinum gauze anodes, held in ebonite or other frames.
They possess few reliable characters; their modifications are not weighty, and it is almost certain that some of these characters, and even combinations thereof, have been developed independently and in different countries.
Above all, the dentition, which exhibits almost endless modifications, in most cases is difficult to ascertain and to appreciate in its subtle distinctions.
This confederacy, which after many modifications and vicissitudes was finally broken up by the capture of Athens by Sparta in 404, was revived in 378-7 (the "Second Athenian Confederacy") as a protection against Spartan aggression, and lasted, at least formally, until the victory of Philip II.
In other countries various modifications have been necessary, but the General's ultimate control has been practically assured.
It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished.
In the different families of the Hymenoptera, there are various modifications of the ovipositor, in accord with the habits of the insects and the purposes to which the organ is put.
Numerous modifications of this bottle are in use.
Various modifications of this form of thermometer have been made by Chabaud of Paris and others.
These may, however, all be considered as modifications of two systems, viz.
The three last may be considered as modifications of the same principle.
Other modifications are the loss of the upper incisors; the development of the canines into projecting tusks; and the loss of the anterior premolars.
By modifications of the treaty of Vienna the garrisoning of the fortress of Luxemburg had passed into Prussian hands, an arrangement which lasted until 1867.
It has been generally supposed that there is only one palm-squirrel throughout India, but there are really two distinct types, each with local modifications.
It was followed, however, in 1552 by the second Prayer Book, which was destined to be, with some modifications, the permanent basis of the English service.
Harris has said that " The history of education since the time of Horace Mann is very largely an account of the successive modifications introduced into elementary schools through the direct or indirect influence of the normal school."
This simple device may be looked upon as the crown of the hydraulic system, since by its various modifications the installation of hydraulic power became possible in almost any situation.
To supply their wants the Americans invented modifications in natural materials, the working of which was their industries.
The question whether similarities in technology argue for contact of tribes, or whether they merely show corresponding states of culture, with modifications produced by environment, divides ethnologists.
Or the accepted modifications of a theory from those which were rejected?
With some modifications introduced by Jefferson, notably the adoption of a higher unit of value (the dollar instead of one-tenth of a cent), this plan constitutes the basis of the present American system.
Marcasite is thus the less stable of the two modifications of iron disulphide.
Public discussion of them contributed to secure radical modifications of scope and method at the census of 1850.
The coining presses now used are all modifications of the lever press invented by Uhlhorn of Grevenbroich near Cologne in 1839.
In 1851 these balances, improved by Richard Pitcher, were introduced at the Royal Mint, and modifications of them are now used at most foreign mints.
This body, consisting of twenty-five members and representing seven colonies, met in June 1754, and, besides negotiating successfully with the Iroquois, it adopted, with some modifications, a plan of colonial union prepared by Benjamin Franklin; the plan was not approved, however, either by the home government or by any of the colonies.
The influence of Herzl's pamphlet, the progress of the movement he initiated, the subsequent modifications of his plans, are told at length in the article Zionism.
The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.
Various modifications of the kaleidophone have been made (Rayleigh, Sound, § 38).
Modifications of the system have been adopted for bridges with discontinuous spans.
All the German states formed a customs union, with free trade between them, except so far as differing internal taxes in the several states made some modifications necessary.
The gastrula has now become an actinula, which may be termed the distinctive larva of the Cnidaria, and doubtless represents in a transitory manner the common ancestor of the group. In no case known, however, does the actinula become the adult, sexually mature individual, but always undergoes further modifications, whereby it develops into either a polyp or a medusa.
These two modifications are valuable lubricants.
It is a solid substance which occurs in several modifications, differing very much in their physical properties.
At the close of the Lower Miocene period (beds with Ostrea crassissima) great modifications in the relief and limits of the Algerian formations took place.
By various modifications of their valves and appendages the creatures have become adapted for swimming, creeping, burrowing, or climbing, some of them combining two or more of these activities, for which their structure seems at the first glance little adapted.
They are modifications of the lateral muscles and are supplied with numerous branches of the spinal nerves.
Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.
Spanish, with various modifications of dialect, and the introduction of many Indian words, is the principal language; and the majority of the inhabitants claim descent from the Spanish colonists - chiefly Galicians - who came hither during the 16th and subsequent centuries.
This of course is only the broadest possible statement of a position which undergoes many modifications in the hands of individual seers, but on the whole governs all prophecy from Amos to Jeremiah.
Most of these modifications are restricted to the skin, limbs, tail or tongue.
But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.
It should be borne in mind that in early times the larger values, such as minae, would be transmitted by commerce, while after the introduction of coinage the lesser values of shekels and drachmae would be the units; and this needs notice, because usually a borrowed unit was multiplied or divided according to the ideas of the borrowers, and strange modifications thus arose.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
In this connexion he developed his special theory of saltations, or of sudden modifications of structure through changes of environment, especially through the direct influences of temperature and atmosphere.
Hyatt, in a re-examination of the Steinheim deposits, proved that successive modifications occur at the same level as well as in vertical succession.
More recent analysis has shown, however, that certain modifications observed within the same stratigraphic level are really grades of mutations which show divergences comparable to those found in successive levels.
He personally sought to demonstrate such origin, first, in the existence of a specific internal growth force, which he termed bathmic force, and second in the direct inheritance of acquired mechanical modifications of, the teeth and feet.
Among extinct Tertiary mammals we can actually trace the giving off of these radii in all directions, for taking advantage of every possibility to secure food, to escape enemies and to reproduce kind; further, among such well-known quadrupeds as the horses, rhinoceroses and titanotheres, the modifications involved in these radiations can be clearly traced.
C. Osburn a summary of those modifications of form to which aquatic life invariably leads.
Caesar made no far-reaching modifications in the government of the city, such as were afterwards carried out by Augustus, and the presence in the Lex Julia Municipalis of the clauses referred to is an example of the common process of "tacking" (legislation per saturam, as it was called by the Romans).
The body may show modifications of form which can be compared to a shallow saucer, a cup, a bell or a thimble.
The sense-organs are always situated at the margin of the unbrella and may be distinguished from the morphological point of view into two categories, according as they are, or are not, derived from modifications of tentacles; in the former case they are termed tentaculocysts.
For the varieties and modifications of the trophi we simply refer to Hudson's figure above.
It was in all probability the original from which all the above-mentioned Old English glosses were derived, though in several instances changes and modifications were introduced by successive scribes.
The tribal organization of the Bechuana is maintained, and native laws and customs, with certain modifications, are upheld.
It is impracticable here to consider fully all the various developmental phases and modifications of the life-cycle described as occurring in the above parasites.
The university of King's College was finally established, with certain modifications of its charter, in 1843, Bishop Strachan being the first president.
Since 1850, however, provision has been made on an ample scale for their collection, although the constant modifications of the schedules under which the statistics were arranged makes very difficult comparisons of the latest with the earlier censuses.
Canada suggested a wider plan to include herself and, in October 1864, a conference was held at Quebec. The conference outlined a plan of federation which subsequently, with slight modifications, passed the imperial parliament as " The British North America Act," and on the ist of July 1867, the Dominion of Canada came into existence.
Certain modifications in the disposition of these classes are naturally enough rendered necessary by the vast accumulation of knowledge as to the anatomy and embryology of the forms comprised in them.
The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.
The 19th century brought no important modifications until near its close, when French and Italian styles began to appear, both in exterior decoration and in architectural design.
Indeed, despite the fact that they present much diversity of habit - some being arboreal, as the squirrels, many of which are provided with expansions of skin or parachutes on which they glide from tree to tree; some cursorial, as the hares; others jumpers, as the jerboas; others fossorial, as the mole-rats; and others aquatic, as the beavers and waterrats - no important structural modifications are correlated with such diversity of habit.
Some diversity of view obtains among naturalists with regard to the classification of the order; the scheme here followed being the one adopted (with some modifications of nomenclature) by Professor Max Weber in his Sliugethiere.
The language then underwent certain changes which gradually distinguished it from the French spoken in France; but, except for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules of pronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the language was subjected were the individual modifications of the various authors, so that, while we may still speak of AngloNorman writers, an Anglo-Norman language, properly so called, gradually ceased to exist.
Under the convention creating the customs tariffs union, signed in 1890, thirty states, including Great Britain and most British colonies, are associated for the purpose of prompt publication of custom tariffs and their modifications.
Their adaptations to parasitic life in vertebrate animals appear to have involved such modifications of structure and development that their affinities are quite problematical.
The provisions of these enactments have been applied with necessary modifications to municipal and other local government elections in Ireland by orders of the Irish Local Government Board made under powers conferred by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.
Hartmann has an affinity with all these predecessors, and with Spinoza, with whom he agrees that there is but one substance unaltered by the plurality of individuals which are only its modifications.
Lotze agreed with Leibnitz that the things which cause phenomena are immaterial elements, but added that they are not simple substances, self-acting, as Leibnitz thought, or preserving themselves against disturbance, as Herbart thought, but are interacting modifications of the one substance of God.
According to Lotze, the connexion required by reciprocity requires also that the whole of every reciprocal action should take place within one substance; the immaterial elements act on one another merely, as the modifications of that substance interacting within itself; and that one substance is God, who thus becomes not merely the primary but the sole cause, in scholastic language a causa immanens, or agent of acts remaining within the agent's being.
But, in thus adapting to his own purposes the Leibnitzian analysis of material into immaterial, he drew his own conclusions according to his own metaphysics, which required that the supposed centres of force are not Leibnitzian " monads," nor Herbartian " reals," nor divine modifications such as Lotze afterwards supposed, but are elements of a system which in outer aspect is bodily and in inner aspect is spiritual, and obeying laws of spirit.
But, with these modifications he accepted the general physics of Aristotle, the metaphysical dualism of matter and form, and the psychology founded upon it.
Essential modifications could not, of course, be at once effected or even indicated in a power whose life-blood is tradition, and whose main strength has always lain in calmly abiding the issue of events and in temporizing.
Since the 12th century, the papal court had already had officials known as penitentiaries (poenitentiarii) for matters of conscience; the organization of the Penitentiary, after several modifications, was renewed by Benedict XIV.
The climate of southern Tibet is, however, subject to considerable modifications from that of the northern and central regions, owing doubtless to its geographical connexion with northern India.
Castilian, which is the literary language of Spain, and with certain differences, of Spanish America, is spoken in Old and New Castile, Aragon, Estremadura, and the greater part of Leon; in Andalusia it is subject to various modifications of accent and pronunciation.
Berzelius to the property possessed by certain substances of existing in different modifications.
They passed through various modifications in the course of time; after leaving the mother country the script acquires a more cursive, flowing style on the stones from Cyprus and Attica; the tendency becomes more strongly marked at the Punic stage; until in the neo-Punic, from the destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.) to the 1st century A.D.; both the writing and the language reached their most degenerate form.
Many of them are but slight modifications of the older systems, and no attempt will be made here to describe them in full.
Some of the modifications of the family are very gradual, and therefore conclusions founded on them are likely to be correct; others are further apart, and the links which connect them, if not altogether missing, can but be surmised.
The alphabet (see Writing) subsequently adopted is seen in its earliest form on the stele of Mesha, and has been retained, with modifications, by the Samaritans.
But in no case does it appear that the modifications in shape and colour, which contribute to bring about a mimetic resemblance, are greater and more elaborate than those which result in the simpler examples of ordinary protective resemblance.
The structural modifications required to convert a spider into the image of an ant are of a more complicated character than those that serve the same purpose in an insect.
His son and successor, Emmanuel Philibert, made further modifications in the statute and the costume.
Vasa in 1522, and was re-established by Frederick I., with the Seraphim and the Pole Star in 1748; modifications have been made in 1798, 1814 and 1889.
In external form the heteromerous thallus presents the following modifications.
In many lichenfungi the wall shows various chemical modifications.
More drastic were other modifications which it underwent in course of time in several localities, which led to the appearance of various subsidiary forms alongside of the original type.
Hence, whereas Thales and his successors had confounded the One, the element, and the Many, its modifications, the One and the Not-One or Many became with Parmenides matters for separate investigation.
By growth is here meant mere increase in bulk, and by development the series of gradual modifications by which a plant, originally simple in its structure and conformation, becomes eventually complicated, and endowed with distinct parts or organs.
The forms chiefly adopted for trees trained to walls and espalier rails are the fan-shaped, the half-fan and the horizontal, with their various modifications.
The subjoined table expresses the typical subdivisions which can be recognized, with modifications, in the United Kingdom.
Other series of modifications arise in which the tissues corresponding to the stroma invest the sporogenous hyphal ends, and thus enclose the spores, asci, basidia, &c., in a cavity.
Many modifications in details occur, and the plants may be dioecious.
Now these modifications show hardly any tendency to persist, the one stable at high temperatures being formed at elevated temperatures, but changing in the reverse sense on cooling.
This best studied case shows that a number of mutual relations are to be found between the properties of two modifications when once the phenomenon of mutual transformation is accessible.
It was subscribed by many in both kingdoms and also in Ireland, and was approved by the English parliament, and with some slight modifications by the Westminster Assembly of Divines.
The lines laid down by St Basil have continued ever since to be the lines in which Greek and Slavonic monasticism has rested, the new multitudinous modifications of the monastic ideal, developed in such abundance in the Latin Church, having no counterpart in the Greek.
All modifications of leaves follow the same laws of arrangement as true leaves - a fact which is of importance in a morphological point of view.
Education is general and compulsory throughout the empire, and all the states composing it have, with minor modifications, adopted the Prussian system providing for the establishment of elementary schools Vol ksschulenin every town and village.
By the currency law of the 9th of July 1873, the present coinage system was established and remains, with certain minor modifications, now in.
On the 1st of September it passed, with some slight modifications, the Austrian proposals for the reconstruction of the Bund under a supreme Directory, an assembly of delegates from the variotis parliaments, a federal court of appeal and periodical conferences of sovereigns.
These arguments were reinforced by an appeal of Prince Billow to the traditions of Bismarck, and in spite of a strenuous and weighty opposition, the bill with certain modifications passed by 143 votes to III in the Upper House, and was accepted by the Lower House on the I3th of March.
In 1876 he exhibited an apparatus embodying the results of his studies in the transmission of sound by electricity, and this invention, with improvements and modifications, constitutes the modern commercial telephone.
In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.
The government as restored by Andrea Doria, with certain modifications tending to impart to it a more conservative character, remained unchanged until the outbreak of the French Revolution and the creation of the Ligurian republic. During this long period of nearly three centuries, in which the most dramatic incident is the conspiracy of Fieschi, the Genoese found no small compensation for their lost traffic in the East in the vast profits which they made as the bankers of the Spanish crown and outfitters of the Spanish armies and fleets both in the old world and the new, and Genoa, more fortunate than many of the other cities of Italy, was comparatively immune from foreign domination.
The auroral data are from Table E of Tromholt's catalogue (5), with certain modifications.
The personal character of the emperor, moreover, gained a special importance owing to the modifications that were made in the administrative system of the empire.
The Pelasgians probably spoke an Indo-European language adopted by their conquerors with slight modifications.
Beside the other canonical books of the Old Testament, translated in many cases with modifications or additions, it included translations of other Hebrew books (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, &c.), works composed originally in Greek but imitating to some extent the Hebraic style (like Wisdom), works modelled more closely on the Greek literary tradition, either historical, like 2 Maccabees, or philosophical, like the productions of the Alexandrian school, represented for us by Aristobulus and Philo, in which style and thought are almost wholly Greek and the reference to the Old Testament a mere pretext; or Greek poems on Jewish subjects, like the epic of the elder Philo and Ezechiel's tragedy, Exagoge.
The defensive force - the Northern Nigeria Regiment of the West African Frontier Force - is constituted by law, and the proclamation contains a military code based on the Army Act with modifications necessary in local circumstances.
In 1904, however, more important modifications were introduced.
Many ladies of the upper classes now dress in European style, with certain modifications, such as the head-veil.
Such is the story old by Plutarch, with certain additions and modifications i older native sources.
These institutions date from 1841, but they have undergone several modifications since.
In Iceland this tongue, with some modifications, has remained in use, and until about 110o it was the literary language of the whole of Scandinavia.
Hence a final conclusion can hardly be expected, but with certain modifications in detail the following solution of the problem may be accepted as representing the point of view of recent criticism.
His investigation (also in 1826) of the two crystalline modifications of sulphur threw much light on the fact that the two minerals calc-spar and aragonite have the same composition but different crystalline forms, a property which Mitscherlich called dimorphism.
There are many modifications and elaborations of all the tests which have been mentioned.
Here he adopted, with political modifications of his own, the extremest form of Calvinism.
He appeared to believe, however, that the successive variations and modifications had arisen in response to mechanical laws of the organisms themselves rather than to the influence of their surroundings.
He laid much stress on the unity of the organism in every stage of its existence, with the resulting correlation of variations, so that the favouring of one particular variation entailed modifications of correlated structures.
Even here there are local modifications, as at Ambato, where a shallow depression, surrounded by barren, dust-covered ridges exposed to cold winds, is celebrated for its warm, equable climate and its fruit.
But even what may be considered as common experiences have affected the individual islands in different ways; in the matter of population, for instance, Corfu has undergone much more important modifications than Ithaca.
In the first the general political history will be set forth; in the second a sketch will be given of the cult of the " holy places "; the third will contain some particulars regarding the history of modern colonization by foreigners, which, while it has not affected the political status of the country, has produced very considerable modifications in its population and life; and the fourth will consist of a brief notice of the progress of exploration and scientific research whereby our knowledge of the past and the present of the land has been systematized.
Many modifications in details of structure may be observed within the family.
In England, after receiving such modifications - attributed to Burke - as adapted it to the purposes of the opposition, this pamphlet ran through many editions, and procured for its author, as he said, "the honour of having his name inserted in a long list of proscriptions enrolled in a bill of attainder commenced in one of the two houses of parliament, but suppressed in embryo by the hasty course of events."
The general meridional direction of the ranges and valleys determines the direction of the prevailing surface winds, this being, however, subject to many local modifications.
The form of apparatus usually adopted for the method of mixtures is that of Regnault with slight modifications, and figures and descriptions are given in all the text-books.
No Doubt There Must Be Approximate Relations Between The Atomic And Molecular Heats Of Similar Elements And Compounds, But Considering The Great Variations Of Specific Heat With Temperature And Physical State, In Alloys, Mixtures Or Solutions, And In Allotropic Or Other Modifications, It Would Be Idle To Expect That The Specific Heat Of A Compound Could Be Accurately Deduced By Any Simple Additive Process From That Of Its Constituents.
Further modifications have been introduced from time to time in the British penal system, tending mostly to milder discipline, more intelligent classification of prisoners and a certain amelioration of their lot.
The cellular system has been adopted in all British colonies with various modifications, and prisons built on modern principles are to be found in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Cape of Good Hope.
Cadorna relied upon Brusati's reports, and when, at the end of April, he inspected the positions himself, the enemy attack was daily expected, and it was too late to effect more than slight modifications.
He revived the name Ch'ao-Hsien, changed the capital from Song-do to Seoul, organized an administrative system, which with some modifications continued till 1895, and exists partially still, carried out vigorous reforms, disestablished Buddhism, made merit in Chinese literary examinations the basis of appointment to office, made Confucianism the state religion, abolished human sacrifices and the burying of old men alive, and introduced that Confucian system of education, polity, and social order which has dominated Korea for five centuries.
As interpreted it was acquiesced in or revolted from and revolt ranged from a desire for some modifications of detail or expression to the call for a radical transformation.
It declared that henceforth the progress of the nations must be through harmony and co-operation, in view of the fast-changing conditions of communication and trade, and it maintained that the time had come for widereaching modifications in the tariff policy of the United States, the method preferred by McKinley being that of commercial reciprocity arrangements with various nations.
Gradually their statement of this position underwent serious modifications, as it became realized that neither Jewish nor Gentile Christianity was a uniform genus, but included several species, and that the apostolic leaders from the first stood for mutual understanding and unity.
This was doubtless due to the extreme pressure of the days which preceded the offensive, and to the many modifications which had tb be made during these days.
Fick (in 1883) and still held, with modifications, by some European scholars can no longer be maintained.
In 816 it was confirmed, with certain modifications, by the synod of Aix-la-Chapelle, and became the law for collegiate and cathedral churches in the Frankish empire.
The generic characters are based upon definite modifications of form which affect the entire facies of the animals, while the specific diagnoses depend upon minor characters, such as the number of myotomes or muscle-segments.
It appears to the author, however, that where such methods are employed merely with a view to overcoming a specific malady and there is no intention of increasing the quantity of the wine for purposes of gain, or of giving it a fictitious appearance of quality, these operations are perfectly justifiable and may be compared to the modifications of procedure which are forced upon the brewer or distiller who has to deal with somewhat abnormal raw material.
This order, afterwards with some modifications known as John Knox's Liturgy, and used in the church down to the reign of Charles I., is a complete directory of worship, with forms of all the services to be held in the church.
Unfortunately, the extant remains of Brythonic are scanty; but in the Roman period it borrowed a large number of Latin words, which, as we know their original forms, and as they underwent the same modifications as other words in the language, enable us to trace the phonetic changes by which Brythonic became Welsh.
This same press, with a few modifications, was apparently still in general use till the early part of the 17th century, when Willem Janszon Blaeu (1J71-1638) of Amsterdam, who was appointed map maker to the Dutch Republic in 1633, made some substantial improvements in it.
Much in the same way as Roman law was derived from the Twelve Tables, the Jewish written laws were used as the authority for subsequent modifications, and the continuity of the religious-legal system was secured by a skilful treatment of old precedents?
The modifications introduced have been chiefly in details, in order to economize materials and labour, to ensure purity of product, and to increase the rate of deposition.
Modifications of the process have therefore been tried.
Many of these curious modifications may, it is true, be due to other causes than climate only, but they serve to show how powerfully and mysteriously local conditions affect the form and structure of both plants and animals; and they render it probable that changes of constitution are also continually produced, although we have, in the majority of cases, no means of detecting them.
This peculiarity of jute, coupled also with the fact that the machinery on which it was first spun, although quite suitable for the stronger and more elastic fibres for which it was designed, required certain modifications to suit it to the weaker jute, was the cause of many annoyances and failures in the early days of the trade.
In 1576 a new liturgy was issued on the model of the Roman missal, but with considerable modifications.
These conditions subsist with but few modifications, if any, from the Straits northward to the 42nd parallel, the extreme humidity, abnormal rainfall and dark skies being unfavourable to the development of insect life, while the Andes interpose an impassable barrier to migration from the countries of the eastern coast.
Prieto was elected president in 1831, and a new constitution was drafted and promulgated in 1833, which, with some modifications, remains the constitution of Chile at the present time.
The muscular projection of the ventral surface called the foot, whose various modifications characterize the different classes of Mollusca, is almost entirely aborted.
In Holland the French system of oyster-culture is followed in the estuary of the Scheldt, with some modifications in detail.
In the process, however, important modifications were introduced.
Throughout the protectorate native law is administered by native courts, subject to certain modifications.
Independently of the enormous variety of topographical conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those observed in moving from the equator to the poles.
As to the physical constitution of bodies, they were content to reproduce the Peripatetic doctrine with slight modifications in detail, of hardly any importance when compared with the change of spirit in the doctrine taught.
These modifications were retained by Antipater's successors.
Very interesting modifications of these phenomena are observed when a jet from an orifice in a thin plate (Tyndall has shown that a pinhole gas burner may also be used with advantage) is directed obliquely upwards.
The whole work was divided into three main sections, the first dealing with the origin of Latin words, the second with their inflexions and other modifications, the third with syntax.
The books from the eighth to the tenth inclusive are devoted to the inflections of words and their other modifications.
Various modifications have since been made, but the routine methods in bacteriological procedure still employed are in great part those given by Koch.
All these ideas were carried out with some modifications, and gradually.
The religious part of the matter will be dealt with presently; but it is impossible to think that any unbiased judge reading Rabelais can hold the grave-philosopher view or the reckless-goodfellow view without modifications and allowances which practically deprive either of any value.
It is clear, on the contrary, that his circle of authorities for any one decade was a comparatively small one, that of these he selected one, and transcribed him with the necessary embellishments and other slight modifications until impelled by various reasons to drop him.
Various modifications of the original principle of the game were gradually introduced, but for practical purposes we may reckon two varieties.
In the latter part of 1827 he read before the Albany Institute his first important contribution,"On Some Modifications of the Electro-Magnetic Apparatus."
With some modifications this conception is taken over by Buddhism.
But his hand was to a great extent forced by a People's Federation Convention held at Bathurst, and in the early portion of 1897 delegates from New South Wales met those from all the other colonies, except Queensland, at Adelaide, and drafted the constitution, which with some few modifications eventually became law.
The visit of the Australian premiers to England on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee gave an additional impetus to federation, and in September 1897 the convention reassembled in Sydney and discussed the modifications in the constitution which had been suggested in the local parliaments.
Apart from the numerous parasitic forms, the only Crustacea which have adopted a strictly sedentary habit of life are the Cirripedia, and here, as elsewhere, profound modifications of structure have resulted, leading ultimately to a partial assumption of the radial type of symmetry which is so often associated with a sedentary life.
The parasitic habit is most common among the Copepoda and Isopoda, where it leads to complex modifications of structure and life-history.
The modifications which this original type undergoes are usually more or less plainly correlated with the functions which the appendages have to discharge.
Some of the special modifications of branchiae are referred to below.
Marey repeats Borelli and Diirckheim with very trifling modifications, so late as 1869.
The qualification of a county councillor is similar to that required of a councillor in a municipal borough, with some modifications.
In short it may be said that as the provisions relating to the election of borough councillors were merely extended to county councillors by the Local Government Act of 1888 with a few modifications, these provisions, as already stated when dealing with county councils, apply generally to the election of borough councillors.
Nevertheless, it is now acknowledged that at some far remoter time, before these nations were divided from the parent stock, and distributed over Asia and Europe, a single barbaric people stood as physical and political representative of the nascent Aryan race, speaking a now extinct Aryan language, from which, by a series of modifications not to be estimated as possible within many thousands of years, there arose languages which have been mutually unintelligible since the dawn of history, and between which it was only possible for an age of advanced philology to trace the fundamental relationship.
The chief modifications are the articulation of the deciduous blade on to the sheath, which occurs in all the Bambuseae (except Planotia) and in Spartina stricta; and the interposition of a petiole between the sheath and the blade, as in bamboos, Leptaspis, Pharus, Pariana, Lophatherum and others.
Generally speaking they do not share in the special modifications of the flowering glumes, and rarely themselves undergo modification, chiefly in hardening of portions (Sclerachne, Manisuris, Anthe- phora, Peltophorum), so as to afford greater protection to the flowers or fruit.
This moral guardianship may assume three types, - the mother, the wife and the daughter; each having several modifications, as shown in the concluding volume.
It expresses the idea of an immanent reason in the world, and, under various modifications, is met with in Indian, Egyptian and Persian systems of thought.
The elevated plateaus and summits of the Andes are responsible, however, for many important and profound modifications in climate, not only in respect to the lower temperatures of the higher elevations, but also in respect to the higher temperatures of the sheltered lowland valleys and the varying climatic conditions of the neighbouring plains.
But like every pure theory the principles of conjugate pressures in earth may lead to danger if not applied with due consideration for the angle of repose of the material, the modifications brought about by the limited width of artificial embankments, the possible contraction away from the masonry, of clayey materials during dry weather for some feet in depth and the tendency of surface waters to produce scour between the wall and the embankment.
He was a supporter of the principles of Abraham Geiger, and while still in`Germany advocated the introduction of prayers in the vernacular, the exclusion of nationalistic hopes from the synagogue service, and other ritual modifications.
This is an Arabic work perhaps based on a Coptic and ultimately on a Greek original, embodying with modifications large portions of the Canons of Hippolytus.
This immense undertaking involved the codification of the entire canon law, drawing it up in a clear, short and precise form, and introducing any expedient modifications and reforms. For this purpose the pope appointed.
They are not mere modifications of this cause or properties, as with Spinoza, - they are free forces having their power or spring of action in themselves, and this is sufficient for our idea of independent finite reality.
After the statesmen had consulted, the laws were proclaimed, with any modifications agreed upon.
But only slight modifications are required to produce the Tornaria larva of the Enteropneusta and other larvae, including the special type that is inferred from the Dipleurula larval stages of recent forms to have characterized the ancestor of the Echinoderms. We cannot enter here into all the details of comparison between these larval forms; amid much that is hypothetical a few homologies are widely accepted, and the preceding account will show the kind of relation that the Echinoderms bear to other animals, including what are now usually regarded as the ancestors of the Chordata (to which back-boned animals belong), as well as the nature of the evidence that their study has been, or may be, made to yield.
Through all modifications, which are numerous and vastly divergent, these elements persist.
The Act of Uniformity (559) restored with a few modifications the second prayer-book of Edward VI.
The administration which Lord Palmerston succeeded in forming in 1859 endured till his death in 1865, and with slight modifications, under its second chief Lord Jonn (afterwards Earl) Russell, till the summer of 1866.
Greens and Messrs Longmans histories are the only notable attempts to tell the history of England as a whole, though Stubbss Constitutional History (3 vols.) covers the middle ages and embodies a political survey as well (for corrections and modifications see Petit-Dutaillis, Supplementary Studies, 1908), while Hallams Constitutional history (3 vols.) extends from 1485 to 1760 and Erskine Mays (3 vols.) from 1760 to 186o.