The cella of the temple of Heracles underwent considerable modifications in Roman times, and the discovery in it of a statue of Asclepius seems to show that the cult of this deity superseded the original one.
CAMBALUC, the name by which, under sundry modifications, the royal city of the great khan in China became known to Europe during the middle ages, that city being in fact the same that we now know as Peking.
Frequent political changes in Venezuela have led to various modifications in the size and outlines of this state, which comprises large areas of uninhabited territory.
This system, however, which is opposed by a powerful party, I has at various times undergone modifications.
CINQUE PORTS, the name of an ancient jurisdiction in the south of England, which is still maintained with considerable modifications and diminished authority.
Various adjustments and modifications still continue, and a number of scattered details may indicate that internal rivalries made themselves felt.
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
Unlike any other buildings in Abyssinia, the castles and palaces of Gondar resemble, with some modifications, the medieval fortresses of Europe, the style of architecture being the result of the presence in the country of numbers of Portuguese.
Many other modifications have been used and suggested.
House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
The first to attain practical success was Edison, and his method with some modifications is still the one in most general use.
The capacity of camels for travelling long distances without water - owing to special structural modifications in the stomach - is familiar to all.
The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made up of detached groups of verses of the Rigveda, as collected in the Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting.
They are agglutinative in nature, show hardly any signs of syntactical growth though every indication of long etymological growth, give expression to only the most direct and the simplest thought, and are purely colloquial and wanting in the modifications always necessary for communication by writing.
Such a colony may undergo two principal modifications.
modifications of a tentacle, as in Trachylinae, or developed from the margin of the umbrella, in no connexion with a tentacle (or, if so connected, not producing any modification in the tentacle), as in Leptolinae.
- Modifications of the method of becomes reduced budding shown in fig.
For the most part, polyp and medusa have been regarded as modifications of a common type, a view supported by the existence, among Scyphomedusae (q.v.), of sessile polyp-like medusae (Lucernaria, &c.).
- Diagram showing possible modifications of persons of a gymnoblastic Hydromedusa.
Delage and Herouard (Hydrozoa ) were the first to make an heroic attempt to unite the two classifications into one, to which Hickson (Hydrozoa ) has made some additions and slight modifications.
- Diagram showing possible modifications of the persons of a Calyptoblastic Hydromedusa.
- Diagram showing possible modifications of medusiform and hydriform persons of a colony of Siphonophora.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
When a series of the modifications of an anatomical structure has been sufficiently examined, it is frequently possible to decide that one particular condition is primitive, ancestral or central, and that the other conditions have been derived from it.
A complex apocentric modification of a kind which we cannot imagine to have been repeated independently, and which is to be designated as uniradial, frequently forms a new centre around which new diverging modifications are produced.
Numerous variations and modifications of these forms exist.
In Selaginella the stelar systeim h do~ shows profounder modifications.
The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.
This is not perhaps so evident in the case of axial organs as it is in that of leaves and their modifications, but even in them it can be detected to a certain extent.
Lesagef has shown that the height of certain plants is decreased by cultivation in a saline soil, and that the leaves of iLesage, Recherches exphrimentales sur les modifications de, feuilles chez les plantes maritimes, in Rev. gen.
Within it or its modifications all the vital phenomena of which living organisms are capable have their origin.
The epidermal, conducting and strengthening tissues show on the other hand considerable modifications both in form and structure.
In order to effect this the individual chromosomes must become associated in some way, for there is no diminution in the actual amount of nuclear substance, and this leads to certain modifications in the division which are not seen in the vegetative nuclei.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
These may be looked The six upon as being all derived by various modifications or elementa ry arrangements of the single form-unit, the slope or inclined land forms. plane surface.
These divisions merge one into the other, and admit of almost indefinite subdivision, while they are subject to great modifications by human interference in clearing and cultivating.
The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
Huxley, " On the Classification of Birds and on the Taxonomic Value of the Modifications of certain of the Cranial Bones..."
The modifications of the hind-limbs are in fact many times greater (such as extremely long legs, with four, three or only two toes; very short legs, almost incapable of walking, with all four toes directed forwards, or two or one backwards, and two or more connected and therefore bound to act together, in various FIG.
The only really aberrant modifications of the wing-muscles are found in the Ratitae, where they are, however, all easily explained by reduction, and in the penguins, where the wings are greatly specialized into blades for rowing with screw-like motions.
The results are as interesting from a morphological point of view (showing the subtle and gradual modifications of these organs in their various adaptations), as they are sparse in taxonomic value, far less satisfactory than are those of the hind-limb.
But the carotids show several interesting modifications which have been examined chiefly by C. L.
According to the position of the chief sound-producing membranes, three types of syrinx are distinguishable: - (i) Tracheo-bronchial, by far the commonest form, of which the two others are to a certain extent modifications.
For instance, the Tyranninae are anacromyod, while the closely allied Pipras and Cotingas are katacromyod; both these modifications can be shown to have been derived but recently from the weak mesoand oligomyodian condition which prevails in the majority of the so-called Oligomyodi.
Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.
Properties.-Sulphur exists in several allotropic modifications, but before considering these systematically we will deal with the properties of ordinary (or rhombic) sulphur.
A larger and more brightly coloured species, C. spinoides, inhabits the Himalayas, but the siskin has many other relatives belonging to the New World, and in them serious modifications of structure, especially in the form of the bill, occur.
Newman - with modifications on becoming a Roman Catholic in the light of the church's decision in favour of Thomism.
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
The alphabet is with some modifications the same as the Javanese, but more complicated.
The Mordvinians are nearly all Orthodox Greek, as also are the Votyaks, Voguls, Cheremisses and Chuvashes, but their religions are, in reality, modifications of Shamanism under the influence of some Christian and Moslem beliefs.
likewise continued the policy of his predecessor, with certain modifications suggested by the change of circumstances.
In subsequent modifications the fishes were, as they continue to be, bolted to and through the rails, the sleepers being placed rather further apart and the joint being generally suspended between them.
Such modifications of the hours of work have not only been beneficial to the men, but have improved the discipline of the staff and the punctuality and regularity of the train service, particularly in respect of the goods trains.
By the year 1878 there were four parallel lines in the city of New York, and constructions of the same character had already been projected in Brooklyn and Chicago and, with certain modifications of details, in Berlin.
But once the order is confirmed by the Board, with or without modifications, it has effect as if it had been enacted by parliament, and it cannot afterwards be upset on the ground of any alleged irregularity in the proceedings.
The other structural characters of the Order may be briefly summarized as: - mouth-parts adapted for piercing and sucking, or for suction alone, and consisting of a proboscis formed of the labium, and enclosing modifications of the other usual parts of the mouth, some of which, however, may be wanting; a thorax fused into a single mass; and legs with five-jointed tarsi.
(4) Allotropic modifications.
He had already, in 1859, as the result of a visit to Budapest, made certain modifications in the Bach system by way of concession to Magyar sentiment, and in 1861 he had had an interview with Dek, during which, though unconvinced by that statesmans arguments, he had at least assured himself of his loyalty.
The Greek penal code has been adopted with some modifications.
This classification has been very generally received, and most later schemes have been modifications of it.
The most characteristic modifications may be said to have'taken place from the 11th to the middle of the 13th century.
In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
The word has, however, undergone sundry modifications of meaning.
The isothermals of mean annual temperature lie over northern Asia on curves tolerably regular in their outline, having their western branches in a somewhat higher latitude than their eastern; a reduction of I° of latitude corresponds approximately - and irrespective of modifications due to elevation - to a rise of 2 ° Fahr., as far say as 30° N., where the mean temperature is about 75° Fahr.
The necessary and immediate results of such periodical changes of pressure are winds, which, speaking generally, blow from the area of greatest to that of least pressure - subject, however, to certain modifications of direction, arising from the absolute motion of the whole body of the air due to the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.
It is known that to the TibetoChinese modifications of the pure Mongolian type all the eastern Burmese tribes - Chins, Kachins, Shans, &c. - belong (as indeed do the Burmese themselves), and that a cognate race occupies the Himalaya to the eastern limits of Kashmir.
The languages of the south are Dravidian, not Sanskritic. The letters of both classes of languages, which also vary considerably, are all modifications of the ancient Pali, and probably derived from the Dravidians, not from the Aryans.
The chief modifications of this form are seen in the Mitraria larva of Ammochares with only the preoral band, which is much folded and which has provisional and long setae; the a.trochous larva, where the covering of cilia is uniform and not split into bands; and the polytrochous larva where there are several bands surrounding the body.
There are also other modifications.
The much-debated Corn Laws, after undergoing various modifications, and proving the fruitful source of business uncertainty, social discontent and angry partisanship, were finally abolished in 1846, although the act was not consummated until three years later.
Additional significance to the value of the above experiments on wheat and barley is afforded by the fact that the same series, with but slight modifications, has also been carried out since 1876 at the Woburn (Bedfordshire) experimental farm of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the soil here being of light sandy character, and thus very different from the heavy soil of Rothamsted.
The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.
Such adaptations are the transparency and colourlessness of the tissues, and the modifications of the foot, which still shows in Atlanta the form common in Pectin:branchia (compare fig.
In insects whose mouths are adapted for sucking and piercing, remarkable modifications may occur.
In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).
These modifications are mentioned below in the section on metamorphosis.
The genital armature of the male is formed to a considerable extent by modifications of the segments themselves.
With certain modifications in principle not very important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, Aldrovandus adopted Belon's method of arrangement, but in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression.
In the former edition Mauduyt had taken the subjects alphabetically; but here they are disposed according to an arrangement, with some few modifications, furnished by d'Aubenton, which is extremely shallow and unworthy of consideration.
That the series of natural animals is continuous, forming, as it were, a circle; so that, upon commencing at any one given point, and thence tracing all the modifications of structure, we shall be imperceptibly led, after passing through numerous forms, again to the point from which we started.
That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.
Its basis is the classification of Cuvier, the modifications of which by Des Murs will seldom commend themselves to systematists whose opinion is generally deemed worth having.
This being the case, it would seem useless to take up further space by analysing the several proposed modifications of Cuvier's arrangement.
The constitution of 1820, subject to four subsequent modifications, is still the law of the land, the legislative power being vested in two chambers and the executive power being exercised by the three departments of the ministry of state.
By simple modifications the Macarthy gin can be used for all kinds of cotton.
This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.
Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.
The latter was introduced by Canadians into Galicia and, with certain modifications, has hitherto been found to be the best for that country.
Nevertheless there are three principal types under which the different modifications can be arranged.
Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
These views were extended by William Odling, and adopted by Gerhardt, but with modifications of Williamson's aspects.
At about the same time Hermann Kolbe attempted a rehabilitation, with certain modifications, of the dualistic conception of Berzelius.
This oscillation may be represented in the case of acridine and fluorescein as This theory brings the property of fluorescence into relation with that of colour; the forms which cause fluorescence being the coloured modifications: ortho-quinonoid in the case of acridine, paraquinonoid in the case of fluorescein.
Isomorphism may be defined as the existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy (after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to alterations in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances.
In general, polysymmetric and polymorphous modifications suffer transformation when submitted to variations in either temperature or pressure, or both.
Again, the pyroxenes, RS103 (R=Fe, Mg, Mn, &c.), assume the forms (I) monoclinic, sometimes twinned so as to become pseudo-rhombic; (2) rhombic, resulting from the pseudo-rhombic structure of (I) becoming ultramicroscopic; and (3) triclinic, distinctly different from (I) and (2); (I) and (2) are polysymmetric modifications, while (3) and the pair (I) and (2) are polymorphs.
From Reicher's determinations, the exact transition point is 95.6°; it rises with increasing pressure about 0.05° for one atmosphere; the density of the rhombic form is greater than that of the monoclinic. The equilibria of these modifications may be readily represented on a pressure-temperature diagram.
25, p. 613), but both modifications may exist in metastable forms at higher and lower temperatures respectively; the rhombic form may be cooled down to ordinary temperature without changing, the transformation, however, being readily induced by a trace of the red modification, or by friction.
14, p. 78) determined the densities and specific heats of these modifications.
The physical conditions under which polymorphous modifications are prepared control the form which the substance assumes.
Different modifications may separate and exist side by side at one and the same time from a solution; e.g.
The modifications in the army system were closely connected with Alexander's general policy, in which the fusion of Greeks of and Asiatics held so prominent a place.
Do they originate through the natural selection of those variations which are the more adaptive; or do they originate through the inheritance of those acquired modifications which are impressed on the nervous system in the course of individual and intelligent use ?
Romanes, taking up the inquiry where Darwin left it, came to the conclusion that some instinctive modes of behaviour which he termed "primary" are due to the operation of natural selection alone; that others, which he termed "secondary," and of which he could give few examples, were due to the inheritance of acquired modifications from which, in the phrase of G.
Mesityl oxime, (CH 3) 2 C: CH C(: NOH)CH 3, exists in two modifications.
Apart from unimportant modifications, the form of the budget must have remained unchanged until the organic reforms of Selim III., while its complete transformation into European shape dates only from the year 1278 (1862), when Fuad Pasha attached a regular budget to his report on the financial situation of the empire.
Almost immediately after the budget was drawn up a change of government took place, and largely owing to this fact the parliamentary budget commission introduced various modifications on the expenditure side of the account, which increased the estimated deficit to the account just mentioned.'
of the " Annex-Decree " of September 1-14, 1903, which gave the modifications to the Muharrem decree here described force of law.
He imroved the laws and institutions established by p i his predecessors and adapted them to the require ments of the age; to him are due important modifications in the feudal system, aimed.
interested had arrived at an understanding as to the modifications to be introduced in the treaty, and by a convention concluded with Turkey on the 4th of June 1878 England had undertaken to defend the Asiatic dominions of the sultan by force of arms, provided that his majesty carried out all the necessary reforms, to be agreed upon later, and assigned to England the island of Cyprus, which was however to be restored if Turkey fulfilled her engagements as to reforms and if Russia gave back to her Kars, Ardahan and Batum.
He succeeded in carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without dividing the parties upon whose support he relied.
This classification is with certain modifications as follows: I.
musculus are respectively desert and house modifications descended from some Central Asian ancestor more or less nearly allied to M.
Many more modifications are observable in different groups of which the great family Terebratulidae is composed.
Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.
Thus it is found that the action of the heart is accelerated by pleasant, and retarded by unpleasant, stimuli; again, changes of weight and volume are found to accompany modifications of affection - and so on.
Yet it possesses the great and characteristic merit of generalizing the solutions of his predecessors, exhibiting them all as modifications of one principle.
Mithraism was at full maturity on its arrival at Rome, the only modifications it ever suffered having been experienced during its younger days in Asia.
Such is the teaching of the Roman Church, accepted by the Greeks and with certain modifications by Anglicans of the High Church school, who appeal to i Tim.
This view of order was accepted in the Calvinistic churches, but with various modifications.
As a result of consultations with Shepstone certain modifications were made in native policy, chiefly in the direction of more European supervision.
The classification of ships into six rates, and into rated and non-rated ships, continued during the existence of the old sailing fleets, with modifications in detail.
Balfour, and produced the profoundest modifications in classification.
The ecclesiastical arrangements of Hamburg have undergone great modifications since the general constitution of 1860.
But much time was consumed and the plan underwent several modifications before its execution began in earnest on the 16th of January.
Thus an individual living body is not only constantly changing its substance, but its size and form are undergoing continual modifications, the end of which is the death and decay of that individual; the continuation of the kind being secured by the detachment of portions which tend to run through the same cycle of forms as the parent.
Several modifications of this and of the Abel heat test are also in use.
Although the methods of cell-division prevailing in normal structures are maintained generally in those which are pathological, yet certain modifications of these methods are more noticeable in the latter than in the former.
A little vapour is given off at ordinary temperatures and pressures, and when under a few millimetres pressure only it rapidly vaporizes below Ioo° C. The freezing-point is uncertain, owing perhaps to the existence of two modifications, as suggested by Kast (Zeits.
Asclepiades had many pupils who adhered more or less closely to his doctrines, but it was especially one of them, Themison, who gave permanence to the teachings of his master by framing out of them, with some modifications, a new system of medical doctrine, and founding on this basis a school which lasted for some centuries in successful rivalry with the Hippocratic tradition, which, as we have seen, was up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine.
In England they were not generally accepted till adopted with some modifications by Thomas Willis the great anatomist (1621-1675), who is the chief English representative of the chemical school.
Joseph Frank (1774-1841), a German professor at Pavia, afterwards of Vienna, the author of an encyclopaedic work on medicine now forgotten, embraced the Brunonian system, though he afterwards introduced some modifications, and transplanted it to Vienna.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
The appreciation of such modifications, and of the working of such causes, has been facilitated greatly by the light thrown upon normal processes by advances in physiology; so dependent is each branch of knowledge upon the advances of contiguous and incident studies.
On the other hand, the reagents by which such modifications are apt to be produced are not necessarily simple; many of them likewise are known to be of very high degrees of complexity, approaching perhaps in complexity the molecules to which they are akin.
It is convenient here to add that such reactions and modifications, if more conspicuous in the nervous system, are of course not confined to it, but are concerned in their degree in all the processes of metabolism, being most readily traced by us in the blood.
Asquith as home secretary, and subsequent modifications of this were only arrived at, as in 1904, after a strike of the drivers affected.
With but slight modifications permitting the use of pumps and hoistingmachinery equally simple methods of mining may be seen to-day when the deposit is of small extent.
This process is repeated, with slight modifications, until the gathering is of the proper size and weight to yield the sheet which is to be blown.
The process of sheet-glass manufacture described above is typical of that in use in a large number of works, but many modifications are to be found, particularly in the furnaces in which the glass is melted.
No formal alteration has been made in the Sikh religion since Guru Govind Singh gave it his military organization, but certain modifications have taken place as the result of time and contact with Hinduism.
The law as originally compiled underwent modifications of varying importance before it took the form known to us in Latin MS. No.
The main modifications have been in the sleeves.
He continued to devote himself to questions concerning the navy and national defence, prepared a report on the English political system and the navy, and caused a decree to be passed for the formation of a committee of general defence, which after many modifications was to become the famous Committee of Public Safety.
His admiration for Plato led him to write a commentary on the Timaeus; in another way it is shown by important modifications which he made in psychological doctrine.
Apart from modifications in the details of sugar refining which have come into use in late years, it should be mentioned that loaf sugar made in conical moulds, and sugars made otherwise, to resemble loaf sugar, have practically disappeared from the trade, having been replaced by cube sugar, which is found to be more economical as subject to less waste by grocers and housekeepers, and also less troublesome to buy and sell.
Various combinations and modifications of these two types of furnace have given rise to distinctive names, and as each system has its advantages and disadvantages local conditions determine which is the better.
The modifications, however, are all in a more spiritual direction, in keeping with the genuinely evangelic spirit which underlies and pervades even the allegorical ingenuities of the epistle.
Nevertheless he sometimes helps us to recognize in Ibn Ishaq's narrative modifications of the genuine tradition made for a purpose, and the additional details he supplies set various events before us in a clearer light.
Several modifications were proposed, in one of which, intended for the heating of non-conducting substances, the electrodes were passed horizontally through perforations in the upper part of the crucible walls, and the charge in the lower part of the crucible was heated by radiation.
The most obvious test of the reality of the required modifications would be afforded by two other bodies, the motions of whose pericentres should be similarly affected.
After arbitration by the king of Spain had been agreed upon, the question was considered by two Spanish commissions, and modifications favouring Peru were recommended.
This decision at first gave offence to the Bolivians, but friendly overtures from Peru led to its acceptance by both parties with the understanding that modifications would be made in locating the line wherever actual settlements had been made by either party on territory awarded to the other.
Some modifications were later made in the contract, owing to the government's failure to meet the annual subsidies and the corporation's failure to extend the railways agreed upon.
Another explanation, which appears first in Jewish authors of the middle ages and has found wide acceptance in recent times, derives the name from the causative of the verb; He (who) causes things to be, gives them being; or calls events into existence, brings them to pass; with many individual modifications of interpretation - creator, lifegiver, fulfiller of promises.
The ovicells commonly found as globular swellings surmounting the orifices are not direct modifications of zooecia, and each typically contains a single egg or embryo.
The name in various modifications - Micaiahu, Micaiehu, Micaiah - is common in the Old Testament, expressing as it does a fundamental point of Hebrew faith: Who is like Yahweh ?
Littre, by far the most eminent of the scientific followers of Comte, concedes a certain force to Spencer's objections, and makes certain secondary modifications in the hierarchy in consequence, while still cherishing his faith in the Comtist theory of the sciences.
This was similar to the view now held by Cranmer and Ridley, but it is difficult to prove that Vermigli had any great influence in the modifications of the Book of Common Prayer made in 1552.
This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis, and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.
Spencer welcomed the Darwinian theory, and enriched it with the phrase" survival of the fittest "; but he did not give up the (Lamarckian) belief in the hereditary transmission of the modifications of organisms by the exercise of function.
And though Spencer's general position - that it is absurd to suppose that organisms after being modified by their life should give birth to offspring showing no traces of such modifications - seems the more philosophic, yet it does not dispose of the facts which go to show that most of the evidence for the direct transmission of adaptations is illusory, and that beings are organised to minimize the effects of life on the reproductive tissues, so that the transmission of the effects of use and disuse, if it occurs, must be both difficult and rare - far more so than is convenient for Spencer's psychology.
Many modifications have been patented by Hermite, that of 1895 specifying the use of platinum gauze anodes, held in ebonite or other frames.
Cope (Proc. Ac. Philad., 1864, p. 230) resorted to the modifications of the squamosal, ectoand endopterygoid bones, the condition of the vestigial limbs, and the teeth:- Scolecophidia (Typhlopidae), Catodonta (Glauconiidae), Tortricina (Ilysiidae and' Uropeltidae), Asinea, Proteroglypha and Solenoglypha.
They possess few reliable characters; their modifications are not weighty, and it is almost certain that some of these characters, and even combinations thereof, have been developed independently and in different countries.
Above all, the dentition, which exhibits almost endless modifications, in most cases is difficult to ascertain and to appreciate in its subtle distinctions.
This confederacy, which after many modifications and vicissitudes was finally broken up by the capture of Athens by Sparta in 404, was revived in 378-7 (the "Second Athenian Confederacy") as a protection against Spartan aggression, and lasted, at least formally, until the victory of Philip II.
bringing no changes in Lithuania and only slight modifications in the kingdom of Poland, the revolutionary spirit led to the great rebellion of 1863.
In other countries various modifications have been necessary, but the General's ultimate control has been practically assured.
It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished.
In the different families of the Hymenoptera, there are various modifications of the ovipositor, in accord with the habits of the insects and the purposes to which the organ is put.
Numerous modifications of this bottle are in use.
Various modifications of this form of thermometer have been made by Chabaud of Paris and others.
These may, however, all be considered as modifications of two systems, viz.
The three last may be considered as modifications of the same principle.
Other modifications are the loss of the upper incisors; the development of the canines into projecting tusks; and the loss of the anterior premolars.
By modifications of the treaty of Vienna the garrisoning of the fortress of Luxemburg had passed into Prussian hands, an arrangement which lasted until 1867.
It has been generally supposed that there is only one palm-squirrel throughout India, but there are really two distinct types, each with local modifications.
It was followed, however, in 1552 by the second Prayer Book, which was destined to be, with some modifications, the permanent basis of the English service.
Harris has said that " The history of education since the time of Horace Mann is very largely an account of the successive modifications introduced into elementary schools through the direct or indirect influence of the normal school."
This simple device may be looked upon as the crown of the hydraulic system, since by its various modifications the installation of hydraulic power became possible in almost any situation.
To supply their wants the Americans invented modifications in natural materials, the working of which was their industries.
The question whether similarities in technology argue for contact of tribes, or whether they merely show corresponding states of culture, with modifications produced by environment, divides ethnologists.
Or the accepted modifications of a theory from those which were rejected?
With some modifications introduced by Jefferson, notably the adoption of a higher unit of value (the dollar instead of one-tenth of a cent), this plan constitutes the basis of the present American system.
Marcasite is thus the less stable of the two modifications of iron disulphide.
Public discussion of them contributed to secure radical modifications of scope and method at the census of 1850.
The coining presses now used are all modifications of the lever press invented by Uhlhorn of Grevenbroich near Cologne in 1839.
In 1851 these balances, improved by Richard Pitcher, were introduced at the Royal Mint, and modifications of them are now used at most foreign mints.
This body, consisting of twenty-five members and representing seven colonies, met in June 1754, and, besides negotiating successfully with the Iroquois, it adopted, with some modifications, a plan of colonial union prepared by Benjamin Franklin; the plan was not approved, however, either by the home government or by any of the colonies.
The influence of Herzl's pamphlet, the progress of the movement he initiated, the subsequent modifications of his plans, are told at length in the article Zionism.
The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.
Various modifications of the kaleidophone have been made (Rayleigh, Sound, § 38).
Modifications of the system have been adopted for bridges with discontinuous spans.
The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
All the German states formed a customs union, with free trade between them, except so far as differing internal taxes in the several states made some modifications necessary.
The gastrula has now become an actinula, which may be termed the distinctive larva of the Cnidaria, and doubtless represents in a transitory manner the common ancestor of the group. In no case known, however, does the actinula become the adult, sexually mature individual, but always undergoes further modifications, whereby it develops into either a polyp or a medusa.
These two modifications are valuable lubricants.
Two spatial modifications of pseudobutylene, CH 3 CH: CH CH 3, are known, the cis and the trans; they are prepared by heating the sodium salts of hydro-iodo-tiglic and hydro-iodo-angelic acids respectively (J.
It is a solid substance which occurs in several modifications, differing very much in their physical properties.
At the close of the Lower Miocene period (beds with Ostrea crassissima) great modifications in the relief and limits of the Algerian formations took place.
By various modifications of their valves and appendages the creatures have become adapted for swimming, creeping, burrowing, or climbing, some of them combining two or more of these activities, for which their structure seems at the first glance little adapted.
In 1899, with a view to the many modifications exhibited by parasitic and semi-parasitic species, the definitions, stripped of a too hampering precision, took a different form: (a) Ampharthrandria.
They are modifications of the lateral muscles and are supplied with numerous branches of the spinal nerves.
But the importance of these modifications is something more than the doubt which they have thrown on WH's theories: they have really shifted the centre of gravity of the textual problem.
Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.
- The views stated in this article are in general (though with some modifications) the same as those which the present writer worked out with more fulness of detail in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, i.
Spanish, with various modifications of dialect, and the introduction of many Indian words, is the principal language; and the majority of the inhabitants claim descent from the Spanish colonists - chiefly Galicians - who came hither during the 16th and subsequent centuries.
This of course is only the broadest possible statement of a position which undergoes many modifications in the hands of individual seers, but on the whole governs all prophecy from Amos to Jeremiah.
Most of these modifications are restricted to the skin, limbs, tail or tongue.
But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.
It should be borne in mind that in early times the larger values, such as minae, would be transmitted by commerce, while after the introduction of coinage the lesser values of shekels and drachmae would be the units; and this needs notice, because usually a borrowed unit was multiplied or divided according to the ideas of the borrowers, and strange modifications thus arose.
" It was reserved for Proclus," says Zeller, " to bring the Neoplatonic philosophy to its formal conclusion by the rigorous consistency of his dialectic, and, keeping in view all the modifications which it had undergone in the course of two centuries, to give it that form in which it was transferred to Christianity and Mahommedanism in the middle ages."
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
In this connexion he developed his special theory of saltations, or of sudden modifications of structure through changes of environment, especially through the direct influences of temperature and atmosphere.
Hyatt, in a re-examination of the Steinheim deposits, proved that successive modifications occur at the same level as well as in vertical succession.
More recent analysis has shown, however, that certain modifications observed within the same stratigraphic level are really grades of mutations which show divergences comparable to those found in successive levels.
He personally sought to demonstrate such origin, first, in the existence of a specific internal growth force, which he termed bathmic force, and second in the direct inheritance of acquired mechanical modifications of, the teeth and feet.
Among extinct Tertiary mammals we can actually trace the giving off of these radii in all directions, for taking advantage of every possibility to secure food, to escape enemies and to reproduce kind; further, among such well-known quadrupeds as the horses, rhinoceroses and titanotheres, the modifications involved in these radiations can be clearly traced.
C. Osburn a summary of those modifications of form to which aquatic life invariably leads.
Caesar made no far-reaching modifications in the government of the city, such as were afterwards carried out by Augustus, and the presence in the Lex Julia Municipalis of the clauses referred to is an example of the common process of "tacking" (legislation per saturam, as it was called by the Romans).
The body may show modifications of form which can be compared to a shallow saucer, a cup, a bell or a thimble.
The sense-organs are always situated at the margin of the unbrella and may be distinguished from the morphological point of view into two categories, according as they are, or are not, derived from modifications of tentacles; in the former case they are termed tentaculocysts.
For the varieties and modifications of the trophi we simply refer to Hudson's figure above.
It was in all probability the original from which all the above-mentioned Old English glosses were derived, though in several instances changes and modifications were introduced by successive scribes.
The tribal organization of the Bechuana is maintained, and native laws and customs, with certain modifications, are upheld.
It is impracticable here to consider fully all the various developmental phases and modifications of the life-cycle described as occurring in the above parasites.
The university of King's College was finally established, with certain modifications of its charter, in 1843, Bishop Strachan being the first president.
in height, and the smaller Hetch-I-Ietchy Valley not far away, are regarded by some observers as owing their peculiar forms to glacial modifications of normal preglacial valleys.
Since 1850, however, provision has been made on an ample scale for their collection, although the constant modifications of the schedules under which the statistics were arranged makes very difficult comparisons of the latest with the earlier censuses.
Canada suggested a wider plan to include herself and, in October 1864, a conference was held at Quebec. The conference outlined a plan of federation which subsequently, with slight modifications, passed the imperial parliament as " The British North America Act," and on the ist of July 1867, the Dominion of Canada came into existence.
Our present knowledge of the interesting series of modifications through which the Lamellibranch gillplates have developed to their most complicated form is due to R.
Certain modifications in the disposition of these classes are naturally enough rendered necessary by the vast accumulation of knowledge as to the anatomy and embryology of the forms comprised in them.
There are, however, variations in regard to the relation of the blastopore to the mouth and to the anus which are probably modifications of the original process described above.
The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.
The 19th century brought no important modifications until near its close, when French and Italian styles began to appear, both in exterior decoration and in architectural design.
Indeed, despite the fact that they present much diversity of habit - some being arboreal, as the squirrels, many of which are provided with expansions of skin or parachutes on which they glide from tree to tree; some cursorial, as the hares; others jumpers, as the jerboas; others fossorial, as the mole-rats; and others aquatic, as the beavers and waterrats - no important structural modifications are correlated with such diversity of habit.
Some diversity of view obtains among naturalists with regard to the classification of the order; the scheme here followed being the one adopted (with some modifications of nomenclature) by Professor Max Weber in his Sliugethiere.
The language then underwent certain changes which gradually distinguished it from the French spoken in France; but, except for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules of pronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the language was subjected were the individual modifications of the various authors, so that, while we may still speak of AngloNorman writers, an Anglo-Norman language, properly so called, gradually ceased to exist.
Under the convention creating the customs tariffs union, signed in 1890, thirty states, including Great Britain and most British colonies, are associated for the purpose of prompt publication of custom tariffs and their modifications.
Their adaptations to parasitic life in vertebrate animals appear to have involved such modifications of structure and development that their affinities are quite problematical.
The provisions of these enactments have been applied with necessary modifications to municipal and other local government elections in Ireland by orders of the Irish Local Government Board made under powers conferred by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.
Hartmann has an affinity with all these predecessors, and with Spinoza, with whom he agrees that there is but one substance unaltered by the plurality of individuals which are only its modifications.
Lotze agreed with Leibnitz that the things which cause phenomena are immaterial elements, but added that they are not simple substances, self-acting, as Leibnitz thought, or preserving themselves against disturbance, as Herbart thought, but are interacting modifications of the one substance of God.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.