Modern Sentence Examples
The road leading to the castle was modern blacktop.
Gabriel didn't need to understand modern science.
The castle was restored in modern times.
The appliances were modern but the cabinets were old and solid.
Modern history, in theory, rejects both these principles.Advertisement
Why doesn't he get the proper equipment and run it like a modern ranch?
The small kitchen showed signs of its past life, before the addition of a modern sink and electric stove.
Banbridge is a entirely modern town.
Maybe it was a relationship that was difficult for the modern wife to understand.
They need the Internet, mobile phones, computers, and the other accoutrements of the modern age for the wealth they bring.Advertisement
It had all the modern conveniences – dishwasher, garbage disposal, and even a built-in oven.
She grimaced, expecting an outhouse, and was pleasantly surprised at the cozy but modern bathroom.
It was her responsibility now and having a job would give her the opportunity for a more modern approach to being a wife and mother.
I tell this story to make a comparison between modern times and the past.
Before Katie started teaching her how to be a modern wife and mother, what were her expectations?Advertisement
Dusty stripped off the clunky modern weaponry, keeping his sword and knives.
They will take advantage of the freedom from financial want that the modern age gives them and will focus on improving themselves and the world they live in.
But modern history has not done this.
A tiny bathroom off the kitchen sported a bathtub with feet, a modern commode and a sink with porcelain handles.
Its importance, however, is of comparatively modern growth and in the early history of Wurttemberg it was overshadowed by Cannstatt, the central situation of which on the Neckar seemed to mark it out as the natural capital of the country.Advertisement
The church of St John the Baptist, though largely altered by modern restoration, retains Early English to Perpendicular portions, and some early monuments and brasses.
The hotel de ville, also by Abadie, is a handsome modern structure, but preserves two towers of the château of the counts of Angouleme, on the site of which it is built.
This latter sense has been adapted and extended by modern historians concerned with the frontiers of the Roman Empire.
The frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory - the modern Baden and Wurttemberg.
In our modern age, people disagree not just in terms of values they apply to knowledge, but they disagree on actual pieces of knowledge.Advertisement
If my reasoning elsewhere in this book is correct, we are moving toward a future where there will be nothing but healthy, well-developed, rich countries with modern infrastructure.
And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
Many of the treatments of the ancient world had high degrees of efficacy, all obtained without access to any modern knowledge or equipment.
The same is true of the more modern reformers and benefactors of their race.
They are the only oracles which are not decayed, and there are such answers to the most modern inquiry in them as Delphi and Dodona never gave.
Nothing was too trivial for the Hindoo lawgiver, however offensive it may be to modern taste.
A modern branch of mathematics having achieved the art of dealing with the infinitely small can now yield solutions in other more complex problems of motion which used to appear insoluble.
He was an excellent speaker and unabashedly told the gathering how he'd found the local sheriff's office in disarray and how it lacked up-to-date tools to deal with modern problems.
Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church.
While such judgments are naturally exaggerated, there is no doubt that he takes a very high place among modern Latin poets.
But among archaeologists the word is usually restricted in its technical modern application to a sepulchral mound of greater or less magnitude.
But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.
Mobius must be regarded as one of the leaders in the introduction of the powerful methods of modern projective geometry.
Among modern buildings may be mentioned the Bakewell and High Peak Institute, and the town hall and museum.
The houses of the city are built of stone, their walls commonly showing the massive masonry of the Incas at the bottom, crowned with a light modern superstructure roofed with red tiles.
The cruciform church of St Mary, with a central tower and short spire, is in great part Early English, with Perpendicular additions; but considerable traces of a Norman building were revealed during a modern restoration.
The church of St Luke is Perpendicular, enlarged in modern times.
Modern equity, it need hardly be said, does not profess to soften the rigour of the law, or to correct the errors into which it falls by reason of its generality.
Granted that the majority are able at last either to own or hire the modern house with all its improvements.
As I drew a still fresher soil about the rows with my hoe, I disturbed the ashes of unchronicled nations who in primeval years lived under these heavens, and their small implements of war and hunting were brought to the light of this modern day.
It would seem that having rejected the belief of the ancients in man's subjection to the Deity and in a predetermined aim toward which nations are led, modern history should study not the manifestations of power but the causes that produce it.
The town is one of the oldest in Norway, founded in the 8th or 9th century, but the present town is modern, though narrow, winding streets and wooden houses give it an antique appearance.
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
Their territory formed part of the modern Croatia.
This modern family restaurant also offers exquisite views.
Although of early origin, its appearance, like that of other great manufacturing towns of the vicinity, is wholly modern.
Aguilar "of the Frontier" was so named in the middle ages from its position on the border of the Moorish territories, which were defended by the castle of Anzur, now a ruin; but the spacious squares and modern houses of the existing town retain few vestiges of Moorish dominion.
After a few years the father quarrelled with the Russian government, and went to England, where he obtained a professorship of natural history and the modern languages at the famous nonconformist academy at Warrington.
This medieval fortress, strong by art as well as position before the invention of modern artillery, has since undergone numerous sieges.
The best modern edition of the works of Aquinas is that prepared at the expense of Leo XIII.
Near Palo is the modern sea-bathing resort Ladispoli, founded by Prince Odescalchi.
It is a modern town, although many of the houses have the flat roofs, view-turrets (miradores) and horseshoe arches characteristic of Moorish architecture.
Vancouver has well-paved streets and is well supplied with water, electric lighting, electric cars and all the improvements of a modern city.
The church of St James dates from 1763, and the other numerous places of worship and public buildings are all modern.
The jactus lapidum of which he speaks was probably more akin to the modern "putting the weight," once even called "putting the stone."
And this constitutes the modern (so-called) "Tatar city" of Peking, the south front of which is identical with the south front of the city of Kublai.
Any note may be a pitch note; for orchestras custom has settled upon a' in the treble clef, for organs and pianos in Great Britain c 2, and for modern brass instruments b flat'.
Among other buildings are the modern "Phoenix" club-house of the students; the hospital, containing some anatomical pictures, including one by the two Mierevelts.
His music is highly polyphonic, and modern in its instrumental treatment throughout.
We, from the altered modern point of view, may doubt whether Butler's curious account of the mechanism of moral psychology is a simple report of facts.
He played a conspicuous part in the modern doctrine of evolution.
Rosenkranz, who in his work Hegel's Naturphilosophie seeks to develop Hegel's idea of an earthorganism in the light of modern science, recognizing in crystallization the morphological element.
These Churches are collegia licita and come icai uris= within the liberty of association so freely conceded in modern times.
In 1869 Massachusetts had instituted a commission of more modern type, which was given only powers of investigation and recommendation, the force of public opinion being relied upon to make its orders effective.
The speed at which the journey has to be completed is obviously another important factor, though the increased power of modern locomotives permits trains to be heavier and at the same time to run as fast, and often faster, than was formerly possible, and in consequence the general tendency is towards increased weight as well as increased speed.
In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
Say the poor decide they cannot compete with a modern farm, so they move to the city and get a job at a factory.
It is this combined with the fact that their targets, too, are worth more; the cost of rebuilding a modern city today dwarfs the cost of rebuilding that city fifty years ago.
If NATO is responsible for the bulk of the world's military spending and NATO no longer has the stomach for full-on war with modern states, then large-scale war seems less likely.
Once they become more educated, they are better able to participate in the modern economy.
At the basis of the works of all the modern historians from Gibbon to Buckle, despite their seeming disagreements and the apparent novelty of their outlooks, lie those two old, unavoidable assumptions.
The strangeness and absurdity of these replies arise from the fact that modern history, like a deaf man, answers questions no one has asked.
But in the Crusades we already see an event occupying its definite place in history and without which we cannot imagine the modern history of Europe, though to the chroniclers of the Crusades that event appeared as merely due to the will of certain people.
While you wait for your food order, enjoy the inspiring modern décor of the building.
Modern mathematicians may find on reading this brilliant summary a good many dicta which they will call in question, but, whatever its defects may be, Peacock's report remains a work of permanent value.
Whether the division of the lobus dexter into two divisions - (i) lobus dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modern anatomical nomenclature - was also assumed in Babylonian hepatoscopy, is not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two sections - the fossa venae umbilicalis - was recognized and distinguished by the designation of "river of the liver."
The two appendixes attached to the upper lobe or lobus pyramidalis, and known in modern nomenclature as processus pyramidalis and processus papillaris, were described respectively as the "finger" of the liver and as the "offshoot."
In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c.
St Mary's in Builth, took its name from the ancient territorial division of Buallt in which it is situated, which was, according to Nennius, an independent principality in the beginning of the 9th century, and later a cantrev, corresponding to the modern hundred of Builth.
Nantwich retains not a few old timbered houses of the 16th and 17th centuries, but the town as a whole is modern in appearance.
The drug is not used in modern therapeutics.
Origen reprobated medical art on the ground that the prescription here cited is enough; modern faith-healers and Peculiar People have followed in his wake.
The city consists of two parts; the modern French town, built on the level ground by the seashore, and the ancient city of the deys, which climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the kasbah or citadel, 400 ft.
A large part of the modern town lies south of the square de la Republique; in this quarter are the law courts, hotel de ville, post office and other public buildings.
The streets in the modern town are regularly laid out; several are arcaded on both sides.
In 337 B.C. the town was abandoned, under the pressure of the Sidicini, in favour of the site of the modern Sessa.
The bark of young oak branches has been employed in medicine from the days of Dioscorides, but is not used in modern practice.
The professional soldiers of the Continent could rarely be brought to force a decision; but the English, contending for a cause, were imbued with the spirit of the modern "nation in arms"; and having taken up arms wished to decide the quarrel by arms. This feeling was not less conspicuous in the far-ranging rides, or raids, of the Cromwellian cavalry.
The variety of his pursuits at this time carried him over the whole field of ancient and modern literature.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
The other modern editions of the text are those of Fleckeisen (containing ten plays, excellent for his time), 1859; Ussing (with a commentary), 1875-1887, 2nd ed.
The modern town in the immediate neighbourhood, still known as Fokia, was founded by the Genoese in 1421 on account of the rich alum mines in the neighbourhood.
In modern times the manor was held by Wynne Ellis (1790-1875), who left a valuable collection of paintings to the nation.
His conduct, judged not by a modern standard, but by the ideas of his age, will be found compatible with the highest Christian charity, as that of the duke with sound political prudence.
He died before it was completed, but it was finished by Sargon, who reduced the city, deported its inhabitants, and established within it a mixed multitude of settlers (who were the ancestors of the modern Samaritans).
These last have a white or reddish ground, with ornamentation in blue, red, brown or black, and are of much better manufacture than the modern pottery of the country.
Rowland and others, necessitated by modern requirements, have shown that it is in error, but by less than 1%.
Instrumentation is in all standard text-books treated as a technical subject, from the point of view of practical students desirous of writing for the modern orchestra.
In the 16th century instrumentation was, in its normal modern sense, non-existent; but in a special sense it was at an unsurpassable stage of perfection, namely, in the treatment of pure vocal harmony.
It is in the attempt to supply the place of this continuo (or _ figured bass) by definite orchestral parts that modern per formances, until the most recent times, have shown so radical an incapacity to grasp the nature of 18th-century instrumentation.
There seems no good reason why in modern performances the pianoforte should not be used for the purpose; if only accompanists can be trained to acquire the necessary delicacy of touch, and can be made to understand that, if they cannot extemporize the necessary polyphony, and so have to play something definitely written for them, it is not a mass of interesting detail which they are to bring to the public ear.
The greater richness of tone of the modern pianoforte is a better compensation for any bareness that may be imputed to pure two-part or three-part writing than a filling out which deprives the listener of the power to follow the essential lines of the music. The same holds good, though in a lesser degree, of the resources of the harpsichord in respect of octavestrings.
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
But experiment shows that in this condition much of the violin part sounds incomplete; and the truth appears to be that Haydn is thinking, like any modern composer, of the opposition of two solid bodies of tone - the pianoforte and the stringed instruments.
There is hardly one of Wagner's orchestral innovations which is not inseparably connected with his adaptation of music to the re q uirements of drama; and modern conductors, in treating Wagner's orchestration, as the normal standard by which all previous and contemporary music must be judged, are doing their best to found a tradition which in another fifty years will be exploded as thoroughly as the tradition of symphonic additional accompaniments is now exploded in the performances of Bach and Handel.
The modern Wagnerian conductor is apt to complain that Beethoven, in his four-bar phrase, drowns a melody which lies in the weakest register of the clarinet by a crowd of superfluous notes in oboes, horns and flutes.
Experience shows that in the modern orchestra there is safety in.
Chamber-music. - Bach's and his contemporaries' combinations with the harpsichord show the natural fondness, in his day, for instruments of a tone too gentle for prominent use in large rooms, or indeed for survival in modern times.
Classical and modern chamber-music in the sonata style consists mainly of string-quartets for 2 violins, viola and violoncello; string-trios (rare, because very difficult to write sonorously); pianoforte-trios (pianoforte, violin and violoncello); pianoforte-quartets (pianoforte with string-trio); pianoforte-quintets (pianoforte with string-quartet); string-quintets (with 2 violas, very rarely with 2 violoncellos), and (in two important cases by Brahms) stringsextets.
For many years the best workshop travellers were those driven by quick running ropes; these performed admirable service, but they have given place to the more modern electric traveller.
The term came in time to mean " a beggar " and with that meaning has passed through Aramaic and Hebrew into many modern languages; but though the Code does not regard him as necessarily poor, he may have been landless.
The application of this to telegraphic purposes was suggested by Laplace and taken up by Ampere, and afterwards by Triboaillet and by Schilling, whose work forms the foundation of much of modern telegraphy.
A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.
The wide streets are traversed by a system of tramways, which pass through modern suburbs to the mining district about two leagues inland, and on the west a canal enables small vessels to enter the town without using the port.
Two pictures byMorales, unfortunately retouched in modern times, are preserved in the cathedral.
In the time of Ptolemy their territory is limited to the district between the Ciabrus (Tzibritza) and Utus (Vid), in the modern Bulgaria, their chief town being Oescus (OtvKos Tpc aXX6 v).
In city districts the modern practice is to restrict the number to four stations per line, and to equip the exchanges and stations for selective ringing.
The large modern trunk exchanges are equipped with relays and lamps for signalling purposes.
But Augustus, who was the first to give to Italy a definite political organization, carried the frontier to the river Varus or Var, a few miles west of Nice, and this river continued in modern times to be generally recognized as the boundary between France and Italy.
The whole of this portion of Central Italy is a hilly country, much broken and cut up by the torrents from the mountains, but fertile, especially in fruit-trees, olives and vines; and it has been, both in ancient and modern times, a populous district, containing many small towns though no great cities.
The eucalyptus is of quite modern introduction; it has been extensively planted in malarious districts.
The cultivation of oranges, lemons and their congeners (collectively designated in Italian by the term agrumi) is of comparatively modern date, the introduction of the Citrus Bigarcidia being probably due to the Arabs.
Modern methods have been introduced.
Carriage-roads have been greatly extended in modern times, although their ratio to area varies in different localities.
Modern battleships - 4 4 3
The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
The ethnography of ancient Italy is a very complicated and difficult subject, and notwithstanding the researches of modern scholars is still involved in some obscurity.
That they had created modern civilization for Europe availed them nothing.
Calderai, who may be compared to the Black Hundreds of modern Russia, the revolutionary spirit continued to grow, but it was not at first anti-dynastic. The granting of the Spanish constitution of 1820 proved the signal for the beginning of the Italian.
In no modern country is error or incompetence on the part of administrators more swiftly followed by retribution.
Next we may mention Muratoris Annati d italic, together with Guicciardinis Storia d Italia and its modern continuation by Carlo Botta.
For modern times, see Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (1899) antI Bolton King and Thomas Okeys Italy To-day (1901).
Newman, Frances Power Cobbe, and others, for their more modern speculative belief in God, which, while non-Christian or at least non-orthodox, held to an immanent God, continually revealing himself - in the moral consciousness.
It deserves the name, in the modern sense, of Natural Theology.
Locke had spent some years in Holland, the country of Grotius, who, with help from other great lawyers, and under a misapprehension as to the meaning of the Roman jus gentium, shaped modern concepts of international law by an appeal to law of nature.
We may probably extend this hostile judgment to the theism of the modern Samaj-es.
The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
From Socrates, in Xenophon's Memorabilia, downwards, the argument is tolerably common; it is notable in Cicero; in the modern discussion it dominates the 18th-century mode of thought, is confidently appealed to though not worked out by Butler, and is fully stated by Paley.
Herbert Spencer finds that the modern individual has intuitions of duty which represent the inherited experience of what has been good for the race in the past.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
Kant had fewer isolated points of departure than intuitionalists; yet gaps and isolation recurred in Kant, and helped to make him the father of modern agnosticism.
Those Ideas according to which all reality is objectively shaped - and therefore too, as a modern would add, subjectively construed - include the idea of the Good, which Plato identifies with God.
Rene Descartes, a faithful though not an unsuspected Roman Catholic, founded modern philosophy by his startingpoint of universal doubt and by his arguments in reply.
Modern doubt does not say there is no God; it says, We don't know.
Among many lectureships, the Gifford Lectures are supposed to be strictly appropriated to Natural Theology; yet subjects and 2 Dr MacTaggart's beliefs once more present themselves as an unexpected modern type (Studies in Hegelian Cosmology, chap. iii.).
Of their massacres of shipwrecked crews, even in quite modern times, there is no doubt, but the policy of conciliation unremittingly pursued for the last forty years has now secured a friendly reception for shipwrecked crews at any port of the islands except the south and west of Little Andaman and North Sentinel Island.
Perhaps the oldest remains are some of the piers -and buttresses of the bridge over the Moselle, which may date from about 28 B.C. The well-preserved amphitheatre just outside the modern town to the south-east was probably built in the reign of Trajan or Hadrian.
On the Constantins platz stands the magnificent brick basilica, probably of the age of Constantine, though the south and east walls are modern.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
In the modern doctrine of evolution the cosmic system appears as a natural product of elementary matter and its laws.
The doctrine of evolution in its finished and definite form is a modern product.
This substance is endowed with a generative or transmutative force by virtue of which it passes into a succession of forms. They thus resemble modern evolutionists, since they regard the world with its infinite variety of forms as issuing from a simple mode of matter.
In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
In the theory of Atomism taught by Leucippus and Democritus we have the basis of the modern mechanical conceptions of cosmic evolution.
Aristotle's teleological conception of organic evolution often approaches modern mechanical conceptions.
Very curious, in relation to modern evolutional ideas, is the Stoical doctrine that our world is but one of a series of exactly 1 Zeller says that through this distinction Aristotle first made possible the idea of development.
He vaguely anticipates the modern idea of the world as a survival of the fittest when he says that many races may have lived and died out, and that those which still exist have been protected either by craft, courage or speed.
Yet Descartes, in his Principia Philosophiae, laid the foundation of the modern mechanical conception of nature and of physical evolution.
Pollock has taken pains to show how nearly Spinoza approaches certain ideas contained in the modern doctrine of evolution, as for example that of sell-preservation as the determining force in things.
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
Instead of regarding living things as capable of arrangement in one series like the steps of a ladder, the results of modern investigation compel us to dispose them as if they were the twigs and branches of a tree.
The modern highroad follows the ancient line, and remains of the 1 It is important to note how the Romans followed up every victory with a road.
The breaking of such a promissory oath was called " perjury " (as in classical Latin and in Shakespeare), contrary to modern usage which confines the word to false evidence before a court of justice.
The position of a disestablished or an unestablished Church is comparatively modern, and has given rise to new jural con j - ceptions.
At p. 66 of the Gandha Vamsa, a modern catalogue of Pali books and authors, written in Pali, there is given a list of ten authors who wrote Pali books in India, probably southern India.
The first is Dhammapala, who wrote in Kancipura, the modern Conjevaram in south India, in the 5th century of our era.
With the Jews of Cochin, they represent a very ancient Judaic invasion of India, and are to be entirely distinguished from those Jews who have come to India in modern days for purposes of trade.
In the modern signification it is applied to the act of preparing, preserving and compounding medicines, according to the prescriptions of physicians.
In his later writings he deals with modern society, its vices, ideals and perils; yet in many essentials he is a manifest disciple of Calderon.
They will at least ensure for him an honourable place in the history of the modern Spanish theatre.
The task of preserving for modern eyes the buildings which Shakespeare himself saw was not entered upon until much of the visible connexion with his times had been destroyed.
Yet the town is under no great industrial or other modernizing influence, and therefore stands in the position of an ancient shrine, drawing a pilgrimage of modern origin.
The principal modern monument to the poet's memory in Stratford is the Shakespeare Memorial, a semi-Gothic building of brick, stone and timber, erected in 1877 to contain a theatre, picture gallery and library.
Modern writers have perpetuated the error that the Cassiterides were definite spots, and have made many attempts to identify them.
Antonius Gnipho, and Ateius Praetextatus to the authorship have been supported by modern scholars.
Of more modern writings on Orpheus and Orphism the following may be consulted.
The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
There is no reason to suppose that the peculiarities of the arctic flora are more modern than those of any other, though there is no fossil evidence to prove that it was not so.
The modern hippodrome is more for equestrian and other displays than for horse racing.
It was natural, if not strictly logical, that the ocean river should be extended from a narrow stream to a world-embracing sea, and here again Greek theory, or rather fancy, gave its modern name to the greatest feature of the globe.
But not until the voyage of Magellan shook the scales from the eyes of Europe did modern geography begin to advance.
A little-known book which appears to have escaped the attention of most writers on the history of modern geography was published at Oxford in 1625 by Nathanael Carpenter, fellow of Exeter College, with the title Geographie delineated forth Carpenter.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) was the first modern geographer to become a great traveller, and thus to acquire an extensive.
Progress Of Geographical Discovery Exploration and geographical discovery must have started from more than one centre, and to deal justly with the matter one ought to treat of these separately in the early ages before the whole civilized world was bound together by the bonds of modern intercommunication.
It does not seem that any maritime trade followed these discoveries, and indeed it is doubtful whether his contemporaries accepted the truth of Pytheas's narrative; Strabo four hundred years later certainly did not, but the critical studies of modern scholars have rehabilitated the Massilian explorer.
Authentic information respecting the great valley of the Ganges was supplied by Megasthenes, an ambassador sent by Seleucus, who reached the remote city of Patali-putra, the modern Patna.
It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical classification, partly because of the exceptional import of ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one exception may be made.
Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
The " buffer-state " of modern diplomacy is of the same ineffectual type.
It was his advice which led the king to choose all his ministers from one political party, to adopt the modern system, and he managed to effect a reconciliation between William and his sister-in-law, the princess Anne.
Its general appearance is that rather of a spacious modern, than of a medieval city full of historical associations.
The Gothic choir, forming the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and contains the tomb of the emperor Otto III.
The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.
Herodotus describes the festival of Bubastis, which was attended by thousands from all parts of Egypt and was a very riotous affair; it has its modern equivalent in the Moslem festival of the sheikh Said el Badawi at Tanta.
In modern usage " fowl," except in " wild-fowl " or " water-fowl," is confined to domestic poultry.
So long as the characters of new fossils are only of specific and generic value, it is mostly possible to assign the birds to their proper place, but when these characters indicate new families or orders, for instance Hesperornithes, Ichthyornithes, Palaelodi, their owners are put outside the more tersely constructed classifications applicable to modern birds.
The key to the distribution of recent groups lies in that of the extinct forms. Not only have many absolutely new families been discovered, but many kinds of modern birds are now known to have existed also in countries which they are now extinct.
Roger Stafford, the impoverished heir male of the ancient Staffords, had been forced to surrender his barony to the king by a deed dated in the preceding year, a piece of injustice which is in the teeth of all modern conceptions of peerage law.
The grammar school now occupies modern buildings, and ranks among the lesser public schools of England, having scholarships at Pembroke College, Oxford.
In the modern Roman Catholic Church, outside monastic services, the office is usually said on the preceding afternoon or evening.
Uwaja is probably the origin of the modern Khuzistan, though Mordtmann would derive the latter from j5 "a sugar-reed."
The Roman Catholic Buitenkerk ("outer church") is also a fine building of the 14th century, with good modern panelling.
In 1885 he became professor of modern history in the university of Berlin, and he was a member of the German Reichstag from 1884 to 1890.
In estimating the work of one who stands at the head of the religious and legal institutions of Israel, it is necessary to refrain from interpreting the traditions from a modern legal standpoint or in the light of subsequent ideas and beliefs for which the sources themselves give no authority.
In the modern church of St Stephen (1854) are preserved tiles from the former Cistercian abbey of Bordesley, founded in 1138, of which the site may be traced at Bordesley Park, 2 m.
In 1841, after fourteen years at Rugby, Dr Arnold was appointed by Lord Melbourne, then prime minister, to the chair of modern history at Oxford.
Among these was Judah IJayyuj of Cordova, the father of modern Hebrew grammar, who first established the principle of tri-literal roots.
The influence of non-Jewish methods is seen in the more modern tendency of Azariah dei Rossi, who was opposed by Joseph Karo.
It is more nearly related to modern Siamese than to modern Shan, but possesses many groups of consonants which have become simplified in both.
St Faro assigned him a spot called Prodilus (Brodolium), the modern Breuil, in the province of Brie.
The later tradition and the Shahname of Firdousi makes him (in the modern form Kai Gushtasp) king of Iran.
On the Mesopotamian side there would seem, from the accounts of Xenophon and Ptolemy, to have been an affluent which joined the Euphrates between Deir and `Ana, called Araxes by the former, Saocoras by the latter; but no trace of such a stream has been found by modern explorers and the country in general has always been uninhabited.
The `Isa, which is largely identical with the modern Sakhlawiya, left the Euphrates a little below Anbar (Perisabora) and joined the Tigris at Bagdad.
Sarsar, the modern Abu-Ghurayb, leaves the Euphrates three leagues lower down and enters the Tigris between Bagdad and Ctesiphon.
The Nahr Malk or royal river, modern Radhwaniya, leaves the Euphrates five leagues below this and joins the Tigris three leagues below Ctesiphon; while the Kutha, modern Habl-Ibrahim, leaving the Euphrates three leagues below the Malk joins the Tigris ten leagues below Ctesiphon.
Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.
The Narss, also, the modern Daghara, which is still navigable to Nippur and beyond, left the Sura a little below Hillah; and at the present day another large canal, the Kehr, branches off near Diwanieh.
Don Benito is a thriving and comparatively modern town; for it dates only from the 15th century, when it was founded by refugees from Don Llorente, who deserted their own town owing to the danger of floods from the Guadiana.
The modern city belonged to the Venetians from the 14th century until 1797.
The harbour consisted of the outer basin, or Porto di Miseno, protected by moles, of which remains still exist, and the present Mare Morto, separated from it by a comparatively modern embankment.
The ancient name is preserved in that of the modern village of Lapsaki, but the Greek town possibly lay at Chardak immediately opposite Gallipoli.
In 1827, with Stephen Elliott (1771-1830), the naturalist, he founded the Southern Review, of which he was the sole editor after Elliott's death until 1834, when it was discontinued, and to which he contributed articles on law, travel, and modern and classical literature.
In Sicily and southern Italy there is hardly any visible Norman influence, except the great historic fact which we may call the creation of Sicily and southern Italy in their modern sense.
But that they are the same is proved by the use of the French word gentilhomme, a word which has pretty well passed out of modern use, but which, as long as it remained in use, never lost its true meaning.
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
In the modern states of western Europe the existing nobility seems to have for the most part had its origin in personal service to the prince.
But in no part of Europe can the existing nobility trace itself to this immemorial nobility of primitive days; the nobility of medieval and modern days springs from the later nobility of office.
The nobles of modern Europe are rather thegnas than eorlas.
The tendency of modern times has been towards the breaking down of formal hereditary privileges.
In modern commonwealths, above all, they have been thought to be essentially inconsistent with republican institutions.
The truth of the matter is rather that the circumstances of most modern commonwealths have been unfavourable to the preservation, and still more to the growth, of privileged bodies.
And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
From a popular conception of the intellectual characteristics of the school comes the modern sense of "cynic," implying a sneering disposition to disbelieve in the goodness of human motives and a contemptuous feeling of superiority.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
It extends over the upper valleys of the Rion, Ingur and Tskhenis-tskhali, and is included in the modern government of Kutais.
Theology or Theism, (2) Christian Evidences - chiefly "miracles" and " prophecy "; or, on a more modern view, chiefly the character and personality of Christ.
The Church of Rome prefers medieval or modern statements of its position; Protestantism can use only modern statements.
Before modern philosophy began its career, there was a great revival of ancient philosophy at the Renaissance; sometimes anti-Christian, sometimes pro-Christian.
Early in the modern period occurs the great name of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662).
Positively it may be affirmed that the recovered figure of the historical Jesus is the greatest asset in the possession of modern Christian theology and apologetics.
Negatively, " unchallenged historical certainties " are becoming few in number, or are disappearing altogether, through the industry of modern minds.
Until the advent of the modern synthetic products buchu was valued in diseases of the urinary tract, but its use is now practically obsolete.
At right angles to this street lanes ascend the hill-side to Hillhead, where the more modern structures and villas have been built.
In the cathedral or church of Sveti Kral (the Saint King), a modern building, are preserved the remains of the Servian king Stefan Urosh II.
The subterranean passage of the Alpheus in the upper part of its course (confirmed by modern explorers), and the freshness of the water of Arethusa in spite of its proximity to the sea, led to the belief that it was the outlet of the river.
To appreciate the significance of the doctrines of Heraclitus, it must be borne in mind that to Greek philosophy the sharp distinction between subject and object which pervades modern thought was foreign, a consideration which suggests the conclusion that, while it is a great mistake to reckon Heraclitus with the materialistic cosmologists of the Ionic schools, it is, on the other hand, going too far to treat his theory, with Hegel and Lassalle, as one of pure Panlogism.
The winters are less severe, and modern agricultural machinery is generally employed, at all events on the larger estates.
It is of comparatively recent foundation (1860), and is carried on largely with French and Belgian capital, with modern appliances and with modern scientific knowledge.
Manufacturing industry in the modern sense can hardly be said to have existed in Russia ' See Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, in English (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1901).
Tanneries exist in nearly every government, but it is especially at Warsaw and St Petersburg, and after these at Moscow, that the largest and best modern tanneries and shoe and glove factories are established.
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
Several of his immediate predecessors had come to recognize that Russia, with her antiquated military organization, was unable to cope with her Western neighbours, and had begun to organize, with the help of foreigners, a military force more in accordance with modern requirements; but the progress made in that direction had been slow and unsatisfactory.
However that may be, it must be confessed even by Slavophils that he dragged his countrymen, more by force than by persuasion, from the paths of traditional routine and pushed them along with all his might on the broad road of progress in the modern sense of the term.
For the first time in the history of Russia public opinion in the modern sense became a power in the state and influenced strongly the policy of the government.
The new tsar, Alexander III., was an apt pupil of his tutor Pobedonostsev (q.v.), the celebrated procurator of the Holy Synod, for whom the representative system was a modern lie," and his reign covered a period of frank reaction, during which there was not only no question of affected even the stolid and apparently immovable masses of the peasantry.
The promulgation of this truncated constitution was greeted by a furious agitation, culminating in September in a general strike, rightly described as the most remarkable political phenomenon of modern times.
But the Liverpool & Manchester railway, opened in 1830, first impressed the national mind with the fact that a revolution in the methods of travelling had really taken place; and further, it was for it that the first high-speed locomotive of the modern type was invented and constructed.
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.
Under the heading of Abiogenesis is discussed the series of steps by which the modern acceptance of biogenesis and rejection of abiogenesis has been brought about.
No serious observer, acquainted with modern microscopic technical methods, has been able to confirm the explanation of their observations.
To this movement, which has been called "modern spiritualism," the present article is confined.
It was, however, at Rochester, where Kate and her sister Margaret (1836-1893)(1836-1893) went to live with a married sister (Mrs Fish) that modern spiritualism assumed its present form, and that communication was, as it was believed, established with lost relatives and deceased eminent men.
The first two causes have attracted many inquirers; but it is the last that has chiefly given to modern spiritualism its religious aspect.
In the present article it is impossible to give an exhaustive catalogue of the phenomena and modes of communication of modern spiritualism.'
If tradition is any guide, human sacrifice seems in many important areas to be of secondary character; in spite of the great development of the rite among the Aztecs, tradition says that it was unknown till two hundred years before the conquest; in Polynesia human sacrifices seem to be comparatively modern; and in India they appear to have been rare among the Vedic peoples.
But he was 10th to execute judgments upon English Puritans, and modern high churchmen complain of his infirmity of purpose, his opportunism and his failure to give Parker adequate assistance in rebuilding the shattered fabric of the English Church.
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
The speech of prophecy is poetical and rhetorical, not strictly defined and logical like that of a modern essayist.
Modern scholars, who accept this view, assign him to about 550 B.C.; others regard him as purely mythical.
Although he wrote poetry, also an anthology of verses on the monasteries of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and a genealogical work, his fame rests upon his Book of Songs (Kitab ul-Aghani), which gives an account of the chief Arabian songs, ancient and modern, with the stories of the composers and singers.
The number of modern reprints has been very considerable.
Between this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of Marmarice, noted in modern times as one of the finest harbours of the Mediterranean.
Besides these are Syme, Telos, Nisyros, Calymnos, Leros and Patmos, all of which have been inhabited, both in ancient and modern times, and some of which contain excellent harbours.
Strabo, writing probably a few years after Ravenna had been thus selected as a naval arsenal, gives us a description of its appearance which certainly corresponds more closely with modern Venice than with modern Ravenna.
Modern Plymouth has varied and important manufactures comprising cordage, woollens, rubber goods, &c. In 1905 the total value of the factory products was $11,115,713, the worsted goods and cordage constituting about nine-tenths of the whole product.
His boyhood was spent with a grandmother in Middletown, Connecticut; and prior to his entering college he had read widely in English literature and history, had surpassed most boys in the extent of his Greek and Latin work, and had studied several modern languages.
In The Idea of God as affected by Modern Knowledge (1885) Fiske discusses the theistic problem, and declares that the mind of man, as developed, becomes an illuminating indication of the mind of God, which as a great immanent cause includes and controls both physical and moral forces.
It is a well-built modern town, with no remarkable features about it.
The chief record of the dialect or patois we owe to the goddess Angitia, whose chief temple and grove stood at the south-west corner of Lake Fucinus, near the inlet to the emissarius of Claudius (restored by Prince Torlonia), and the modern village of Luco.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
But Suarez is much more moderate on this point than a writer like Mariana, approximating to the modern view of the rights of ruler and ruled.
Murkertagh was chief of the great north Irish clan, the Cinel Eoghain,' and after becoming king of Ireland about the year 517, he wrested from a neighbouring clan a tract of country in the modern County Derry, which remained till the 17th century in the possession of the Cinel Eoghain.
Probably the best modern Life is that by Jean Guiraud, in the series Les Saints (translated into English by Katharine de Mattos, 1901); the bibliography contains a useful list of the chief sources for the history of St Dominic and the order, and of the best modern works thereon.
Carniola derives its modern name from the Slavonic word Krajina (frontier).
The beginnings of modern thermochemistry, though made independently of the doctrine of the conservation of energy, are practically contemporaneous with the recognition of that law, and without it the science could scarcely have reached the degree of development which it rapidly attained.
It concluded an alliance with Rome in 308 B.C. The modern village lies higher than the ancient town, and excavations on the site of the latter in 1775 and following years led to the discovery of the baths, a theatre, a basilica and other buildings.
To this, modern history laboriously replies either that Napoleon was a great genius, or that Louis XIV was very proud, or that certain writers wrote certain books.
It is a café-style restaurant with modern and upscale style and atmosphere.
The dining room and bar are decorated in a deep red dressed with various modern art paintings.
Close to this temple on the west is the site of the gate known in later times as the Porta Aurea, through which the modern road passes, so that no traces now remain.
A village of the Byzantine period has been explored at Balatizzo, immediately to the south of the modern town (Notizie degli Scavi, 1900, 511-520).
Beyond the introduction of the spider line it is unnecessary to mention the various steps by which the Gascoigne micrometer assumed the modern forms now in use, or to describe in detail the suggestions of Hooke, 4 Wren, Smeaton, Cassini, Bradley, Maskelyne, Herschel, Arago, Pearson, Bessel, Struve, Dawes, &c., or the successive productions of the great artists Ramsden, Troughton, Fraunhofer, Ertel, Simms, Cooke, Grubb, Clarke and Repsold.
An important modern application of the micrometer, which is not dealt with in the article Transit Circle, is that which is now called " the travelling wire micrometer."
A modern edition was issued in 1901 from the Grolier Club, New York.
In some of the towns, however, and especially at Iglesias, they are good modern buildings.
It is thus clear that in the Bronze Age Sardinia was fairly thickly populated over by far the greater part of its extent; this may explain the lack of Greek colonies, except for Olbia, the modern Terranova, and Neapolis on the cians.
Its line is followed closely by the modern highroad and railway.
A portion of its course, however, between Forum Traiani and the modern Abbasanta, is not so followed, and is still well preserved.
A branch from this road ran to Olbia (followed closely by the modern highroad and railway also), and was perhaps the main line of communication, though the itineraries state that the road from Carales to Olbia ran through the centre of the island by Biora, Valentia, Sorabile (near Fonni) and Caput Thyrsi.
But, like other modern German theologians, he showed a greater disposition to compromise.
He published works on Leibnitz, empiricism and scepticism in Hume's philosophy, modern pessimism, Kantic criticism, English philosophy, Heraclitus of Ephesus and many other subjects.
Shaftesbury was the first great party leader in the modern sense, and the founder of modern parliamentary oratory.
The building has been restored in modern times to serve as a court of justice and a prison.
The modern and principal residential part of the town is called Scala.
The surrounding hills (Vinik, Goritsa, Kamenitsa) were, after 1886, fortified by modern earthworks.
He at once undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI., king of France, and defeated the French forces at Guinegatte, the modern Enguinegatt; on the 7th of August 1479.
He may, in fact, be called the father of modern pathology, for his view, that every animal is constituted by a sum of vital units, each of which manifests the characteristics of life, has almost uniformly dominated the theory of disease.since the middle of the 59th century, when it was enunciated.
The course of the road after the first six miles from Rome is not identical with that of any modern road, but can be clearly traced by remains of pavement and buildings along its course.
The modern town of Megara is situated on two low hills which formed part of the ancient site; it is the chief town of the eparchy of Megaris; pop. about 6400.
But as yet he had only glimpses of a logical method which should invigorate the syllogism by the co-operation of ancient geometry and modern algebra.
Thus Descartes gave to modern geometry that abstract and general character in which consists its superiority to the geometry of the ancients.
Descartes laid down the lines on which modern philosophy and science were to build.
It should be added that the modern theory of vortex-atoms (Lord Kelvin's) to explain the constitution of matter has but slight analogy with Cartesian doctrine, and finds a parellel, if anywhere, in a modification of that doctrine by Malebranche.
The Port Royalists, Pierre Nicole (1625-1695) and Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694), had applied it to grammar and logic; Jean Domat or Daumat (1625-1696) and Henri Francois Daugesseau (1668-1751) to jurisprudence; Fontenelle, Charles Perrault (1628-1703) and Jean Terrasson (1670-1750) to literary criticism, and a worthier estimate of modern literature.
Under the shelter of the castle lies the modern village.
The modern village is a part of the commune of Rome.
In his philosophy he was mainly concerned to defend Christianity against modern Positivism.
Modern reform in Judaism is parting to some extent from this conception, but it still holds good even among the liberals.
The churches of Notre-Dame des Champs and St Saturnin are modern buildings in the Gothic style.
The equipment of the standing army is thoroughly modern, the infantry being provided with Mauser rifles and the artillery with Krupp batteries.