Sulphur bromide, S 2 Br 2, is a dark red liquid which boils with decomposition at about 200° C. The products obtained by the action of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, although E.
In one case, indeed, the average produce by mixed minerals and nitrogenous manure was more than that by the annual application of farmyard manure; and in seven out of the ten cases in which such mixtures were used the average yield per acre was from over two to over eight bushels more than the average yield of the United Kingdom (assuming this to be about twenty-eight bushels of 60 lb per bushel) under ordinary rotation.
Experiments upon the growth of barley for fifty years in succession on rather heavy ordinary arable soil resulted in showing that the produce by mineral manures alone is larger than that without manure; that nitrogenous manures alone give more produce than mineral manures alone; and that mixtures of mineral and nitrogenous manure give much more than either used alone - generally twice, or more than twice, as much as mineral manures alone.
Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.
These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
The water in a soap is rarely directly determined; when it is, the soap, in the form of shavings, is heated to 105° C. until the weight is constant, the loss giving the amount of ' " Soap powders " and " soap extracts " are powdered mixtures of soaps, soda ash or ordinary sodium carbonate.
He emphasized that the practical training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according to established methods, (3) original research - a course which has been generally adopted.
This law states that: - gases combine with one another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are simply related to their combining weights.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.
7 represents the specific volumes of mixtures of ammonium and potassium sulphates; the ordinates re presenting specific volumes, and the abscissae the per centage composition of the mixture.
9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.
The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.
It converts many metallic oxides into mixtures of nitrates and nitrites, and attacks many metals, forming nitrates and being itself reduced to nitric oxide.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
Tschermak, in 1878, regarded them as isomorphous mixtures of the following fundamental molecules: H 2 KA1 3 (SiO 4) 3, corresponding with muscovite; Mg 6 Si 3 0 12, a hypothetical polymer of olivine; and H4S15012, a hypothetical silicic acid.
The use of the first two is restricted, as they are suited only for galena ores or mixtures of galena and carbonate, which contain not less than 58% lead and not more than 4% silica; further, ores to be treated in the ore-hearth should run low in or be free from silver, as the loss in the fumes is excessive.
Venetian white, Hamburg white and Dutch white are mixtures of one part of white lead with one, two and three parts of barium sulphate respectively.
Bradford was at one time the centre of the clothing industry in the west of England, and was especially famous for its broadcloths and mixtures, the waters of the Avon being especially favourable to the production of good colours and superior dyes.
In all such magnetizable alloys the presence of manganese appears to be essential, and there can be little doubt that the magnetic quality of the mixtures is derived solely from this component.
The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.
Brazil has never had a "colour line," and there has never been any popular prejudice against race mixtures.
We do not yet know whether such absolute blending is possible or not, or whether all apparent blending is only a more or less minutely subdivided " mosaic " of non-combinable characters of the parents, in fact whether the combinations due to heredity in reproduction are ever analogous to chemical compounds or are always comparable to particulate mixtures.
However this may be, it would always be possible, with the aid of a grating of given resolving power, to construct artificially from white light mixtures of slightly different wave-length whose resolution or otherwise would discriminate between powers inferior and superior to the given one.3 2 Compare also F.
The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or mixtures which Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity.
Equal importance attached to faulty mixtures or dyscrasiae of the blood.
In coal-mines we have to deal with " fire-damp " or marsh gas, and with inflammable coal dust, which form explosive mixtures with air and frequently lead to disastrous explosions resulting in great loss of life.
Explosive mixtures of marsh-gas and air may be fired by an unprotected light.
They pass through a viscous stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid.
Long experience has fixed the mixtures, so far as ordinary furnace temperatures are concerned, which produce the varieties of glass in common use.
The essential materials of which these mixtures are made are, for English flint glass, sand, carbonate of potash and red lead; for plate and sheet glass, sand, carbonate or sulphate of soda.
It is convenient to treat these glasses as " normal " glasses, but they are in reality mixtures of silicates, and cannot rightly be regarded as definite chemical compounds or represented by definite chemical formulae.
For this reason chemical agents are added to glass mixtures to remove or neutralize accidental colour.
Glass mixtures containing lead are melted in covered, beehive-shaped crucibles holding from 12 to 18 cwt.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
In the manufacture of tobacco for smoking, we have to do with the numerous forms of tobacco used for smoking in pipes, embracing cut smoking mixtures, cake or plug, and roll or spun tobacco.
The manufacturer having prepared his mixture of leaves, proceeds to damp them, pure water alone being used in the United Kingdom, whereas on the Continent and in America certain S mo ki ng sauces are employed, which consist of mixtures of mixtures.
is thick fleshy leaf of a dark colour, but scraps and waste pieces resulting from the preparation of smoking mixtures and cigars, and the midribs of leaves are largely used.
In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
As ores of zinc are usually shipped before smelting from widely separated places - Sweden, Spain, Algiers, Italy, Greece, Australia and the Rocky Mountains region of North America - it is important that they be separated from their mixtures at the mines.
Numerous sulphonic acids of anthracene are known, a monosulphonic acid being obtained with dilute sulphuric acid, whilst concentrated sulphuric acid produces mixtures of the anthracene disulphonic acids.
The population of Peru is mixed, including whites, Indians, Africans, Asiatics, and their mixtures and sub-mixtures.
Other race mixtures consist of the zambos (the African-Indian cross), an Asiatic graft upon these various crosses, and an extremely confusing intermixture of the various crosses, for which the Spanish races have descriptive appellations.
The theory of fractional distillation, or the behaviour of liquid mixtures when heated to their boiling-points, is more complex.
For simplicity we confine ourselves to mixtures of two components, in which experience shows that three cases are to be recognized according as the components are (I) completely immiscible, (2) partially miscible, (3) miscible in all proportions.
The distillation of completely miscible mixtures is the most common practically and the most complex theoretically.
At one time it was thought that these mixtures of constant boiling-point (an extended list is given in Young's Fractional Distillation) were definite compounds.
The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.
On distilling such a mixture pure A will come over first, followed by mixtures in which the quantity of B continually increases; consequently by a sufficient number of distillations A and B can be completely separated.
of completely miscible mixtures.
Dry distillation is extremely wasteful even when definite substances or mixtures, such as calcium acetate which yields acetone, are dealt with, valueless by-products being obtained and the condensate usually requiring much purification.
Dephlegmation of the vapours arising from such mixtures as coaltar fractions, petroleum and the "wash" of the spirit industry, is very important, and many types of apparatus are employed in order to effect a separation of the vapours.
alligare, to combine), a term generally applied to the intimate mixtures obtained by melting together two or more metals, and allowing the mass to solidify.
It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.
All these mixtures when solidified may fairly be termed alloys.'
In the case of a pure substance, and of a certain small class of mixtures, there is no further fall in temperature until the substance has become completely solid, but, in the case of most mixtures, after the freezing-point has been reached the temperature soon begins to fall again, and as the amount of solid increases the temperature becomes lower and lower.
If we determine the freezing-points of a number of mixtures varying in composition from pure A to pure B, we can plot the freezing-point curve.
All the mixtures whose composition lies between that of A and C deposit crystals of pure.
A when they begin to solidify, while mixtures between C and B in composition deposit crystals of pure B.
All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.
A great many mixtures of metals have been examined in the above-mentioned way.
The second category, or "incompletely denaturized" spirits, include numerous mixtures.
Another comparison method much used in submarine cable work is the method of mixtures, originally due to Lord Kelvin and usually called Thomson and Gott's method.
The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine, thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid, chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric acid with a chloride.
In some cases definite compounds have been isolated from amalgams which may be regarded as mixtures of one or more of such compounds with mercury in excess.
Acting on a principle quite different from any previously discussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying proportions.
The crystallized salt dissolves very readily in water with a considerable absorption of heat; hence its use in forming "freezing mixtures."
It can be obtained in three different crystalline forms, the transition points of which are 35° C., 83° C. and 125° C. It is easily soluble in water, a considerable lowering of temperature taking place during the operation; on this account it is sometimes used in the preparation of freezing mixtures.
He advanced towards the modern view of elements as the undecomposable constituents of material bodies; and understanding the distinction between mixtures and compounds, he made considerable progress in the technique of detecting their ingredients, a process which he designated by the term "analysis."
It is the constituent of most stomachic mixtures.
Fine aluminium will not burn below the temperature of molten cast iron, and previous experimenters had resorted to heating their mixtures in a crucible.
It is also added to cough mixtures, when the cough is of the dry, painful kind, which serves no purpose, as nothing is expectorated.
Dr Bones of Montpellier constructed a hydrometer which was based upon the results of his experiments on mixtures of alcohol and water.
The resins which are obtained as natural exudations are in general mixtures of different, peculiar acids, named the resin acids, which dissolve in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the resin acids are regenerated by treatment with acids.
Gases too dissolve in liquids, while mixtures of various liquids show similar properties.
All these cases of solution are to be distinguished from chemical compounds on the one hand, and from simple mixtures on the other.
This constancy both in freezing point and composition formerly was considered as a characteristic of a pure chemical compound, and hence these mixtures were described as components and given the name of "cryohydrates."
As an example we may take the case of mixtures of naphthalene and 13-naphthol, substances which form solid solutions in each other.
We should expect to find supersolubility curves lying below the solubility curves, and this result has been realized experimentally for the supersolubility curves of mixtures of salol (phenyl salicylate) and betol (/3-naphthol salicylate) represented by the dotted lines of fig.
The various kinds of brown and yellow ochre are mixtures of limonite with clay and other impurities; whilst in umber much manganese oxide is present.
There are several weak points in this reasoning, and a more accurate way of determining the best proportions is to try different mixtures of cement, stones and sand, filling them into different pails of the same size, and then ascertaining, by weighing the pails, which mixture is the densest.
- The principal soils used in gardens, either alone, or mixed to form what are called composts, are - loam, sand, peat, leaf-mould and various mixtures and combinations of these made up to suit the different subjects under cultivation.
Composts are mixtures of the foregoing ingredients in varying proportions, and in combination with manures if necessary, so as to suit particular plants or classes of plants.
The chief point to be borne in mind in making these mixtures is not to combine in the same compost any bodies that are antagonistic in their nature, as for example lime and ammonia.
Numerous hydrides are known; heated with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid the hydrocarbon yields mixtures of hydrides of composition C10H10 to C10H20.
This led to the search for these, which were not to be found in the bewildering and untested mixtures of the Galenic prescriptions.
7°, is observed for all mixtures; this has been called the "natural melting-point."
The following mixtures of seeds (stated in pounds per acre) have been recommended for sowing on water-meadows, Messrs Sutton of Reading, after considerable experience, regarding No.
The meadow should be ready by August for sowing with one of the mixtures of grass-seeds already given.
Cements of the Portland type differ in kind from those of the pozzuolanic class; they are not mechanical mixtures of lime and active silica ready to unite under suitable conditions, but consist of definite chemical compounds of lime and silica and lime and alumina, which, when mixed with water, combine therewith, forming crystalline substances of great mechanical strength, and capable of adhering firmly to clean inert material, such as stone and sand.
The supply of materials containing naturally suitable proportions of calcium carbonate and clay being limited, attempts were made to produce artificial mixtures which would serve a similar end.
The term Natural Cements is applied to cements made by burning mixtures of clay and carbonate of lime naturally occurring in approximately suitable proportions.
- Mixtures of animal, vegetable and mineral substances are employed in great variety in the arts for making joints, mending broken china and other objects, &c. A strong cement for alabaster and marble, which sets in a day, may be prepared by mixing 12 parts of Portland cement, 8 of fine sand and 1 of infusorial earth, and making them into a thick paste with silicate of soda; the object to be cemented need not be heated.
Such mixtures are obtained by the action of alkaline hypochlorites on manganous salts, or by suspending manganous carbonate in water and passing chlorine through the mixture.
The form of apparatus usually adopted for the method of mixtures is that of Regnault with slight modifications, and figures and descriptions are given in all the text-books.
The constant temperature method of mixtures was proposed by N.
No Doubt There Must Be Approximate Relations Between The Atomic And Molecular Heats Of Similar Elements And Compounds, But Considering The Great Variations Of Specific Heat With Temperature And Physical State, In Alloys, Mixtures Or Solutions, And In Allotropic Or Other Modifications, It Would Be Idle To Expect That The Specific Heat Of A Compound Could Be Accurately Deduced By Any Simple Additive Process From That Of Its Constituents.
(4) Kil'ayim (" of two sorts "), on forbidden mixtures (Lev.
(2) `Erubin (" mixtures " or amalgamations), on legitimate methods of avoiding inconvenient restrictions on the Sabbath.
It is maintained that one or other of these mixtures is absolutely necessary to enable Europeans to continue long to flourish in the tropics.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.