How to use Mixture in a sentence
His expression was a fifty-fifty mixture of pain and anger.
The mixture probably contained also some BH 3.
Her sigh was a mixture of contentment and relief.
She'd watched the arriving guests with a mixture of fascination and dread.
For narrow as are the channels between Cuba and the opposite coast of Central America, between the Bahamas and Florida, and between Grenada and Tobago, the fauna of the Antillean chain, instead of being a mixture of that of the almost contiguous countries, differs, much from all, and exhibits in some groups a degree of speciality which may be not unfitly compared with that of oceanic islands..Advertisement
He turned, his expression a mixture of annoyance and surprise.
He broke through the brush and stared down at her, his expression a mixture of concern and confusion.
He stepped back, his expression a mixture of frustration and contemplation.
The expression on her face was a mixture of dazed desire and amazement.
Katie followed Carmen, her voice a mixture of surprise and humor.Advertisement
In order to get rid of hydrogen, some oxygen is added to the helium, and the mixture exploded by an electric spark.
He threw the mixture onto the floor and asked for some more water.
A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.
He glanced up and met her startled gaze with eyes the color of fine amber - not brown, not yellow, but an indistinct mixture of both.
Iridium sesquichloride, IrC1 31 is obtained when one of the corresponding double chlorides is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, the mixture being then thrown into water.Advertisement
A mixture of the melanistic with the albinistic type will of course give rise to parti-coloured cats.
Meslin, a mixture of wheat and rye, is produced in the great majority of French departments, but to a marked extent in the basin of the Sarthe.
A characteristic difference between guncotton and collodion cotton is the insolubility of the former in ether or alcohol or a mixture of these liquids.
Instead they ask me if I want some Burmese Rain forest mixture or some leaves pressed by cloistered nuns in Nepal.
The oil mixture used differs in the several manufacturing countries, and the commercial name of the product is correspondingly varied.Advertisement
A mixture of stannous and stannic chloride, when added to a sufficient quantity of solution of chloride of gold, gives an intensely purple precipitate of gold purple (purple of Cassius).
Banbury cakes, consisting of a case of pastry containing a mixture of currants, have a reputation of three centuries' standing.
This particular product was insoluble in a mixture of ether and alcohol, and its composition could be expressed by the term tri-nitrocellulose.
Guncotton is made by immersing cleaned and dried cotton waste in a mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acids.
The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.Advertisement
Generally speaking, the lower the nitrogen content of a guncotton, as found by the nitrometer, the higher the percentage of matters soluble in a mixture of ether-alcohol.
In recent practice some sulphin trioxide, or fuming sulphuric acid, is added, so that the mixture of acids contains less than I% of water.
But if the parts of the mixture were like other things the mixture itself was not.
Here, too, he began that series of interferences on behalf of the oppressed and the ill-treated which, whatever mixture of motives may have prompted it, is an honour to his memory.
If heat be added to the mixture ice will melt and salt dissolve in the water so formed.Advertisement
Mineral manures alone give very little increase, nitrogenous manures alone considerably more than mineral manures alone, but the mixture of the two considerably more than either separately.
Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.
The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine.Advertisement
None of these Salernitan works rise much above the rank of compilations, being founded on Hippocrates, Galen and later Greek writers, with an unmistakable mixture of the doctrines of the methodists.
It is desultory to a degree; it is a base libel on religion and history; it differs from its model Ariosto in being, not, as Ariosto is, a mixture of romance and burlesque, but a sometimes tedious tissue of burlesque pure and simple; and it is exposed to the objection - often and justly urged - that much of its fun depends simply on the fact that there were and are many people who believe enough in Christianity to make its jokes give pain to them and to make their disgust at such jokes piquant to others.
Fire-damp and dust explosions are caused by the presence of marsh-gas in sufficient quantity to form an explosive mixture, or by a mixture of small percentages of marsh-gas and coal-dust, and in some cases by the presence of coal-dust alone in the air of the mine.
Semi-opacity and opacity are usually produced by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will remain in suspension in the glass, such as oxide of tin, oxide of arsenic, phosphate of lime, cryolite or a mixture of felspar and fluorspar.
It has been suggested that the colour is due to sulphur, but the effect can be produced with a glass mixture containing no sulphur, free or combined, and by increasing the proportion of charcoal the intensity of the colour can be increased until it reaches black opacity.Advertisement
The corresponding changes in the case of the mixture Tuvw are easily understood - the first halt at U, due to the crystallization of pure B, will probably occur at a different temperature, but the second halt, due to the simultaneous crystallization of A and B, will always occur at the same temperature whatever the composition of the mixture.
Potassium osmichloride, K 2 OsC1 6, is formed when a mixture of osmium and potassium chloride is heated in a current of chlorine, or on adding potassium chloride and alcohol to a solution of the tetroxide in hydrochloric acid.
The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.
This enormous edifice, founded on the cathedral rock, is an extraordinary mixture of castle and convent, palace and fortress.
Berthelot that under the influence of the silent electric discharge, a mixture of benzene vapour and argon underwent contraction, with formation of a gummy product from which the argon could be recovered.Advertisement
The facts detailed in the original memoir led to the conclusion that argon was an element or a mixture of elements, but the question between these alternatives was left open.
Dean asked with a smile as he took a sip of his sweet mixture.
The conceptions of "element," "compound" and "mixture" became more precise than they had been hitherto; in an element all the atoms are alike, in a compound all the molecules are alike, in a mixture there are different kinds of molecules.
These fine jet droppers with a mixture of alcohol and water have proved very effective for balloon observations.
The white and red lead are mixed together to form a putty, and are filled into the socket alternately with layers of well-caulked yarn, starting with yarn and finishing off with the lead mixture.Advertisement
The mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture when sulphur is precipitated.
Persulphuric anhydride, S207, is a thick viscous liquid obtained by the action of the silent discharge upon a mixture of sulphur trioxide and oxygen.
Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.
Though this narrative is a mixture of truth and fiction, it may be said with certainty that a thorough study of the philosophy of Peripatetics and Pythagoreans, Stoics and Platonists, brought home to Justin the conviction that true knowledge was not to be found in them.
In his Sylva sylvarum (1627), Francis Bacon states that " the original concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance," and observes that flame " attracts " the naphtha of Babylon " afar off."
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
Direct firing is used for the second boiling of the soap mixture; but for this superheated steam may with advantage be substituted, either applied by a steam-jacket round the pan or by a closed coil of pipe within it.
If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.
The oxyfluoride, CbOF 3, results when a mixture of the pentoxide and fluorspar is heated in a current of hydrochloric acid.
In the first hybrid generation formed by the union of the reproductive germs of the positive variety (that possessing the structural character selected for observation) with those of the negative variety, it is not surprising that all or nearly all the individuals were found to exhibit, as a result of the mixture, the positive character.
It is scarcely necessary to remark that in all such cases the calculation applies in the first instance to homogeneous light, and that, in accordance with Fourier's theorem, each homogeneous component of a mixture may be treated separately.
Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.
Uranous chloride, UC14, was first prepared by Peligot by heating an intimate mixture of the green oxide and charcoal to redness in a current of dry chlorine; it is obtained as sublimate of black-green metallic-looking octahedra.
Exposed to air this mixture is oxidized to the pigment uranium red, U6(NH4)2S09, which is a fine blood-coloured amorphous powder.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
Flores stanni is a finely divided mixture of the metal and oxide obtained by fusing the metal in the presence of air for some time.
A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.
Clay-pipes may also give rise to cancer of lips in males in England, while cancer of the mouth of both sexes is common in India where chewing a mixture of betel leaves, areca-nut, tobacco and slaked lime is the usual practice.
The normal condition or temperament of the body depended upon a proper mixture or proportion of the four elements - hot, cold, wet and dry.
Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.
Tantalum pentachloride, TaC1 5, is obtained as light yellow needles by heating a mixture of the pentoxide and carbon in a current of chlorine.
The character of the first Medician pope shows a peculiar mixture of noble and ignoble qualities.
When the relative quantities of the components can vary continuously within certain limits, the substance is either a solution or a mixture.
The distinction between these two classes is not sharp; though when the properties of the resultant are sensibly the sum of those of the pure components, as is nearly the case for a complex gas such as air, it is usual to class it as a mixture.
If, however, the energy of surface tension between the two substances were negative the surface would tend to a maximum, and complete mixture would follow.
Thus, if we supply heat to the mixture of ice, water and steam ice will melt and eventually vanish.
Thus a mixture of ice, salt and the saturated solution has a constant freezing point, and the composition of the solution is constant and the same as that of the mixed solids which freeze out on the abstraction of heat.
Then comes an outer vessel, in which a freezing mixture can be placed.
For this purpose I diminished a similar mixture of dephlogisticated [oxygen] and common air, in the same manner as before [by sparks over ], till it was reduced to a small part of its original bulk.
A still more potent absorption is afforded by calcium prepared in situ by heating a mixture of magnesium dust with thoroughly dehydrated quick-lime.
The weight of a mixture of argon and nitrogen prepared from the dissolved gases showed an excess of 24 mg.
It is mentioned in the De inventione veritatis ascribed to Geber, wherein it is obtained by calcining a mixture of nitre, alum and blue vitriol.
They may be recognized by the fact that on the addition of a solution of ferrous sulphate, followed by that of concentrated sulphuric acid (the mixture being kept quite cold), the ferrous sulphate solution becomes of a deep brown colour, owing to the reducing action of the ferrous sulphate on the nitric acid which is liberated by the action of the sulphuric acid on the nitrate.
To these is added water, which combining chemically with the cement conglomerates the whole mixture into a solid mass, and forms a rough but strong artificial stone.
Modern engineers favour the practice of having the stones of various sizes instead of being uniform, because if these sizes are wisely proportioned the whole mixture can be made more solid, and the rough "pockets" avoided.
There are several weak points in this reasoning, and a more accurate way of determining the best proportions is to try different mixtures of cement, stones and sand, filling them into different pails of the same size, and then ascertaining, by weighing the pails, which mixture is the densest.
Next water is carefully added, and the mixture again turned, when it is ready for depositing.
The shutters must be planed, and coated with a mixture of soap and oil, so as to come away easily after the concrete is set.
Concrete pavings are being used in buildings of first importance, the aggregate being very carefully selected, and in many cases the whole mixture coloured by the use of pigments.
Very special care should be taken so to proportion the sand as to make a perfectly impervious mixture.
His writings are described by Harnack as a curious mixture of Catholic orthodoxy and unconscious tendencies to Protestantism; their most noticeable point is the great importance they attach to the fact of sin, both original and actual.
Following Parmenides, Philolaus regarded the soul as a "mixture and harmony" of the bodily parts; he also assumed a substantial soul, whose existence in the body is an exile on account of sin.
Clavaria mucida, however, h a s apparently some claims to be considered as a Basidiolichen, since the base of the fruit body and the thallus from which it arises, according to Coker, always shows a mixture of hyphae and algae.
In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.
To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.
Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.
The central space of the furnace was filled with a mixture of corundum, coarsely-powdered charcoal and copper; and an iron lid lined with firebrick was luted in its place to exclude air.
Minet took out patents for electrolysing a mixture of sodium chloride with aluminium fluoride, or with natural or artificial cryolite.
Aluminium chloride, AlC1 3, was first prepared by Oersted, who heated a mixture of carbon and alumina in a current of chlorine, a method subsequently improved by Wohler, Bunsen, Deville and others.
The saving salt of Elizabeth's character, with all its wellnigh incredible mixture of heroism and egotism, meanness and magnificence, was simply this, that, overmuch as she loved herself, she did yet love England better.
The joints are packed or caulked with tow, smeared with a mixture of white and red lead.
Free-rooting subjects strike in any lightish sandy mixture; but difficult subjects should have thoroughly well-drained pots, a portion of the soil proper for the particular plants made very sandy, and a surfacing of clean sharp silver sand about as deep as the length of the cutting.
The spores should be sown in well-drained pots or seed pans on the surface of a mixture of fibrous sifted peat and small broken crocks or sandstone; this soil should be firmly pressed and well-watered, and the spores scattered over it, and at once covered with propagating glasses or pieces of sheet glass, to prevent water or dry air getting to the surface.
Paint the hot-water pipes with sulphur mixture, as recommended in January.
The pharmacopoeial mixture is best avoided, being almost uniquely nauseous.
Hofmann having previously shown that oxidation of pure aniline alone or of pure toluidine yielded no fuchsine, whilst oxidation of a mixture of aniline and para-toluidine gave rise to the fine red dyestuff para-fuchsine (pararosaniline hydrochloride) CH 3 C 6 H 4 NH 2 +2C 6 H 5 NH 2 +30 = HOC(C 6 H 4 NH 2) 3 +2H20.
On oxidation, the molecule is split at the carbonyl group and a mixture of acids is obtained.
By the action of nitro-sulphuric acid it is converted into, a mixture of 1 .
Just as a granite is a conglomerate or mechanical mixture of distinct crystalline grains of three perfectly definite minerals, mica, quartz, and felspar, so iron and steel in their usual slowly cooled state consist of a mixture of microscopic particles of such definite quasiminerals, diametrically unlike.
These freezing-point curves and transformation curves thus divide the diagram into 8 distinct regions, each with its own specific state or constitution of the metal, the molten state for region 1, a mixture of molten metal and of solid austenite for region 2, austenite alone for region 4 and so on.
Clearly the mushy mixture of solid austenite and molten iron of which the metal in region 2 consists cannot cohere under either the blows or the pressure by means of which welding must be done.
Carbon-Content of Hardened Steels.-Turning from these cases in which the steel is used in the slowly cooled state, so that it is a mixture of pearlite with ferrite or cementite, i.e.
Both the primary and eutectic austenite have changed in cooling into a mixture of pearlite and pro-eutectoid cementite, too fine to be distinguished here.
Snag a delicious smoothie concoction consisting of a mixture of fruits, berries, veggies and yogurt.
Their pizza is enhanced by pizza sauce containing a secret mixture of spices, which has earned their recipes international acclaim.
Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.
They probably are aborigines fundamentally, with a mixture of what are now called the Scythian tribes, which at a very early time overran India.
As a preventive repeated spraying with dilute Bordeaux mixture is recommended, during the flowering season and early development of the fruit.
It was about this time that the value of a mixture of lime and sulphate of copper (bouillie bordelaise), sprayed in solution upon the growing plants, came to be recognized as a check upon the ravages of potato disease.
Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.
The true nitrile of malonic acid is methylene cyanide, CH 2 (CN) 2, which is obtained by distilling a mixture of cyanacetamide and phosphorus pentoxide.
It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.
North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay.
Its characteristic civilization grew out of a mixture of various elements, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek and Roman.
This mixture dissolves in petroleum, escaping when the oil is stored, and conversely it invariably carries a certain amount of water and oil, which is deposited on compression.
The product actually obtained is a mixture of several paraffins and several olefines.
The law which is expounded in these assizes is a mixture of Frankish law with the Graeco-Roman law of the Eastern empire which prevailed among the native population of Syria.
The soap solution which results from the combination forms soap-size and is a mixture of soap with water, the excess alkali, and the glycerin liberated from the oil.
But in all countries a mixture of several oils enters into the composition of curd soaps and the proportions used have no fixity.
Yellow Soap consists of a mixture of any hard fatty soap with a variable proportion - up to 40% or more - of resin soap. That substance by itself has a tenacious gluey consistence, and its intermixture in excess renders the resulting compound soft and greasy.
The soap is melted by heat, the glycerin is stirred in, and the mixture strained and poured into forms, in which it hardens but slowly into a transparent mass.
The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.
Lampadius, who obtained it by heating a mixture of charcoal and pyrites.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the violet or actinic rays.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and sulphuretted hydrogen, when passed over heated copper, gives, amongst other products, some methane.
Fusion with caustic potash converts it into a mixture of potassium ruthenate and ruthenium sesquioxide, Ru 2 0 3, which is a black, almost insoluble powder.
The insoluble residue contains a mixture of two sulphides, one of which is converted into the sulphate by nitric acid, whilst the other (a crystalline solid) is insoluble in acids.
At this period there were between twelve and fifteen thousand students attending the university, and the life was an extraordinary mixture of licentiousness and devout zeal.
There was in his character a peculiar mixture of conservatism and a keen sense of the requirements of the day.
It may be obtained direct from pure and bright coloured portions of the native ore cinnabar, or, artificially, by subliming a mixture of mercury and sulphur.
When two substances which by their action upon each other develop much heat enter into reaction, the reaction is usually complete without the employment of an excess of either; for example, when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions to form water 2E12+0, =20H2, is exploded, it is entirely converted into water.
In this, as in most other cases in which substances act upon one another under such circumstances that the resulting compounds are free to react, the extent to which the different kinds of action which may occur take place is dependent upon the mass of the substances present in the mixture.
Chemical change which merely involves simple decomposition is thus seen to be influenced by the masses of the reacting substances and the presence of the products of decomposition; in other words the system of reacting substances and resultants form a mixture in which chemical action has apparently ceased, or the system is in equilibrium.
Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.
Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the meta-compounds, and this is independent of the nature of the second group introduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, homologous-, and hydroxy-benzenes yield principally a mixture of the orthoand para-compounds.
For many years it had been known that a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric or sulphuric acids possessed strong.
Analytical Chemistry This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of compounds.
Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide.
Small portions should be successively tested with waterMilute hydrochloric acid, dilute nitric acid, strong hydrochloric acid, and a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, first in the cold and then with warming.
In the above account we have indicated the procedure adopted in the analysis of a complex mixture of salts.
Manasse (German patent 73,279) prepared an intimate mixture of phenol and potassium carbonate, which is then heated in a closed vessel with carbon dioxide, best at 130 -160 C. The Chemische Fabrik vorm.
The majority of plant specimens are most suitably fastened on paper by a mixture of equal parts of gum tragacanth and gum arabic made into a thick paste with water.
For use, the mixture is warmed to render it fluid, and applied by means of a camel's hair brush to the under side of the specimen, which is then laid neatly on paper.
In 1862 Fleck passed a mixture of steam, nitrogen and carbon monoxide over red-hot lime, whilst in 1904 Woltereck induced combination by passing steam and air over red-hot iron oxide (peat is used in practice).
A dark blue liquid is produced, and the first portions of gas boiling off from the mixture correspond fairly closely in composition with nitrogen trioxide.
Nitrogen peroxide, NO 2 or N204, may be obtained by mixing oxygen with nitric oxide and passing the red gas so obtained through a freezing mixture.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
It is readily decomposed by water and alkaline hydroxides, yielding a mixture of nitrite and chloride.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
Successful so far by means of the mixture which Medea, daughter of Aeetes, had given him as proof against fire and sword, Jason was next allowed to approach the dragon which watched the fleece; Medea soothed the monster with another mixture, and Jason became master of the fleece.
She was at this time, and indeed generally, enthusiastic for a mixture of Rousseauism and constitutionalism in politics.
Castren considers them as a mixture of Ugrians with Mongolians, and Zograf as brachycephalic Mongolians.
Yttria is an exceedingly complex mixture, which has been decomposed, yielding as an intermediate product terbia.
The salt must therefore be derived from an acid, chloroplatinic acid, H 2 PtC1 6, and have the formula Na 2 PtC1 6, the ions being Na and PtCls", for if it were a double salt it would decompose as a mixture of sodium chloride and platinum chloride and both metals would go to the cathode.
Since the salts, both before and after mixture, exist mainly as dissociated ions, it is obvious that large thermal effects can only appear when the state of dissociation of the products is very different from that of the reagents.
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
It is now agreed that the a variety is a mixture of the a and -y.
The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
It is then coagulated by the addition of an acid liquid, acetic acid or lime juice being generally employed, and the mixture allowed to stand.
At present the caoutchouc present in crude rubber is usually estimated indirectly, and it is possible that what generally passes as caoutchouc may be in some instances a mixture of similar chemical substances, which if separated would be found to differ in those physical properties on which the technical value of rubber depends.
Either they are placed in a leaden cupboard into which the vapour is introduced, or they are dipped for a few seconds in a mixture of one part of chloride of sulphur and forty parts of carbon disulphide or purified light petroleum.
The electro-deposition of brass-mainly on iron ware, such as bedstead tubes-is now very widely practised, the bath employed being a mixture of copper, zinc and potassium cyanides, the proportions of which vary according to the character of the brass required, and to the mode of treatment.
The mixture may be separated by dissolving out the ammonium euchroate with water.
Thus, a mixture of lead sulphate (45%) and oxide (44%) with some sulphide (8%), zinc and carbonaceous matter, is agglomerated by a heap-roast and then smelted in a slag-eye furnace with grey slag from the ore-hearth.
Tin is removed mainly as a powdery mixture of stannate of lead and lead oxide, arsenic and antimony as a slagged mixture of arsenate and antimonate of lead and lead oxide.
Before it can be cupelled it has to be freed from most of the zinc, which is accomplished by distilling in a retort made of a mixture similar to that of the plumbago crucible.
The distillation of 1000 lb charge lasts 5-6 hours, requires 500-600 lb coke or 30 gallons reduced oil, and yields about to% metallic zinc and I% blue powder - a mixture of finely-divided metallic zinc and zinc oxide.
The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.
A yellowish powdery mixture of zinc and lead oxides collects on the lead; it is skimmed off and sold as paint.
The Kassner process for the manufacture of oxygen depends upon the formation of calcium plumbate, Ca2Pb04, by heating a mixture of lime and litharge in a current of air, decomposing this substance into calcium carbonate and lead dioxide by heating in a current of carbon dioxide, and then decomposing these compounds with the evolution of carbon dioxide and oxygen by raising the temperature.
It is decomposed by acids into a mixture of lead monoxide and dioxide, and may thus be regarded as lead metaplumbate, PbPbO 3.
By fusing litharge with boron trioxide, glasses of a composition varying with the proportions of the mixture are obtained; some of these are used in the manufacture of glass.
Since the molecule contains an asymmetric carbon atom, the acid exists in three forms, one being an inactive "racemic" mixture, and the other two being optically active forms. The inactive variety is known as paramandelic acid.
The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other' hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form.
By this means a mixture is obtained which by distillation or the action of hydrochloric acid yields trithioaldehyde, (C2H4S)3.
It is also produced by the action of sodium on a mixture of epichlorhydrin and methyl iodide, C 3 H S OC1+CH 3 I+2Na= C 3 H 4 0+NaI+NaC1+CH 4.
It is prepared by oxidizing cinnamyl alcohol, or by the action of sodium ethylate on a mixture of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
It was most commonly an iron sulphate, sometimes probably an aluminium sulphate, and usually a mixture of the two.
Columbium pentachloride, CbC1 5, is obtained in yellow needles when a mixture of the pentoxide and sugar charcoal is heated in a current of air-free chlorine.
A hardy and enterprising race of men had sprung from this mixture, and supplies being sent by sea from Holland.
It is a curious mixture of Latin, Greek, Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit.
The fauna is a mixture of the Siberian and the Daurian - the latter penetrating up the valleys of the Selenga basin.
Ruff (Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 457) from nitro-di-isobutyl by reducing it to the corresponding hydroxylamino compound with aluminium amalgam and oxidizing this with chromic acid mixture.
The whole question as to the mixture of characters in offspring thus produced was - and remains - very imperfectly observed.
If oxide of copper is added to a glass mixture containing a strong reducing agent, a glass is produced which when first taken from the crucible is colourless but on being reheated develops a deep crimson - ruby colour.
Oxidation may be effected by the addition to the glass mixture of a substance which gives up oxygen at a high temperature, such as manganese dioxide or arsenic trioxide.
With the same object, red lead and saltpetre are used in the mixture for potash-lead glass.
The older optical glasses, now generally known as the " ordinary " crown and flint glasses, are all of the nature of pure silicates, the basic constituents being, in the case of crown glasses, lime and soda or lime and potash, or a mixture of both, and in the case of flint glasses, lead and either (or both) soda and potash.
When a suitable temperature for the fusion of the particular glass in question has been attained, the mixture of raw materials is introduced in comparatively small quantities at a time.
It is then mixed with the glass mixture and broken glass (" cullet "), and replaced in the J a 6 FIG.
The furnaces are driven to a white heat in order to fuse the mixture and expel bubbles of gas and air.
The actual composition, however, of a mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be directly calculated from these figures and the known composition of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, particularly of alkali, occur during melting.
For the commoner grades of dark-coloured bottles the glass mixture is cheapened by substituting common salt for part of the sulphate of soda, and by the addition of felspar, granite, granulite, furnace slag and other substances fusible at a high temperature.
The invention, if it may be regarded as one, consisted in eliminating lime from the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using a very large proportion of lead oxide.
It is probable that flintglass was not invented, but gradually evolved, that potash-lead glasses were in use during the latter part of the 17th century, but that the mixture was not perfected until the middle of the following century.
Silicon fluoride, SiF4, is formed when silicon is brought into contact with fluorine (Moissan); or by decomposing a mixture of acid potassium fluoride and silica, or of calcium fluoride and silica with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Berzelius (Jahresb., 182 5, 4, p. 91) by the action of chlorine on silicon, and is also obtained when an intimate mixture of silica and carbon is heated in a stream of chlorine and the products of reaction fractionated.
Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.
From the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue consisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left.
Aqua Regia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, converts all metals (even gold, the "king of metals," whence the name) into chlorides, except only rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which, when pure, are not attacked.
Iron, for instance, is converted first into FeC1 21 ultimately into FeCl 3, which practically means a mixture of the two chlorides, or pure FeC1 3 as a final product.
Yet, even in those days, the Babylonian syllabary continued to be a mixture of ideographic and phonetic writing.
It is well after the borders are completed to remove the top soil, in which no roots are to be found, every two or three years, and to replace it with a mixture of good loam, rotten manure, lime rubbish and bone meal, to the depth of 6 or 7 in.
It was surmised that a-acrose was a mixture of dextro and laevo fructose, a supposition which was proved correct by an indirect method.
On reduction it yields an inactive mixture of galactonic acids, some molecules being attacked at one end, as it were, and an equal number of others at the other.
Consequently, after the last crushing the mixture retained by the residual megass was not juice, as was the case when crushing was employed without maceration, but juice mixed with water; and it was found that the loss in juice was reduced by one-half.
S i milarly soils can be improved by applying to them marl, a substance consisting of a mixture of clay with variable proportions of lime.
Among the gildsmen there was a strong spirit of fraternal cooperation or Christian brotherhood, with a mixture of worldly and religious ideals - the support of the body and the salvation of the soul.
By a proper mixing and blending the manufacturer is enabled to prepare the smoking mixture which is desirable for his purpose; but certain of the rough, bitter qualities cannot be manufactured without a preliminary treatment by which their intense disagreeable taste is modified.
The manufacturer having prepared his mixture of leaves, proceeds to damp them, pure water alone being used in the United Kingdom, whereas on the Continent and in America certain S mo ki ng sauces are employed, which consist of mixtures of mixtures.
When uniformly damped, the leaves are separately opened out and smoothed, the midrib, if not already removed, is torn out, except when " bird'seye " cut is to be made, in which mixture the midrib gives the peculiar " bird's-eye " appearance.
Here very clean non-magnetic concentrate of willemite, which is an anhydrous zinc silicate and a very highgrade zinc ore, is separated from an intimate mixture of willemite, zincite and franklinites, with calcite and some manganese silicates.
The mixture of ore and charcoal is put into the crucible around the pipe, the crucible closed by a luted-on lid, and placed in a furnace constructed so as to permit of the lower end of the pipe projecting into the ash-pit.
The charge of the retorts consists of a mixture of 1100 lb of roasted calamine and 550 lb of dry powdered coal per furnace.
The former contains a mixture of semi-solid and molten metal, which is raked out into iron ladles and cast into plates of 66 to 77 lb weight, to be sold as "spelter."
The contents of the iron recipient consist of a powdery mixture of oxide and metal, which is added to the next charge, except what is put aside to be sold as "zinc dust."
Even a machine of simple type, like the ordinary drain-pipe machine, in which the retorts are made by forcing the plastic clay mixture through a die, may result in greater economy and uniformity than is possible when retorts are made by hand.
A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.
The so-called "stearin" of candles is a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids.
The tumultuous mixture of interests and passions to be found in a city like Bagdad are the subjects of a poet's verse.
Practically the first of these furnaces was that of Despretz, in which the mixture to be heated was placed in a carbon tube rendered incandescent by the passage of a current through its substance from end to end.
A thin carbon pencil, forming a bridge between two stout carbon rods, is set in the midst of the mixture to be heated.
By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
The Hevea product is obtained annually by tapping the trees and coagulating the sap over a smoky fire, but the caucho is procured by felling the tree and collecting the sap in a hollow in the ground where it is coagulated by stirring in a mixture of soap and the juice of a plant called vetilla.
Generally the components of a mixture will be vaporized in the order of their boiling-points; consequently if the condensates or "fractions" corresponding to definite ranges of temperature be separately collected, it is obvious that a more or less partial separation of the components will be effected.
If a complex mixture be operated upon, and a separation effected by collecting the distillates in several portions, the operation is termed "fractional distillation."
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
By fractional distillation is meant the separation of a mixture having components which boil at neighbouring temperatures.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
The mixture consequently distils at the temperature at which the sum of the partial pressures equals that of the atmosphere.
When distilling a mixture of partially miscible components a distillate of constant composition is obtained so long as two layers are present, i.e.
As the distillation proceeded one layer would diminish more rapidly than the other until only the latter would remain; this would then distil as a completely miscible mixture.
On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.
Another mixture of this type is formic acid and water.
On distilling such a mixture, a mixture of constant composition will distil first, leaving in the distilling flask one or other of the components according to the composition of the mixture.
The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.
On distilling such a mixture pure A will come over first, followed by mixtures in which the quantity of B continually increases; consequently by a sufficient number of distillations A and B can be completely separated.
One of the earliest red-hot tube syntheses of importance was the formation of naphthalene from a mixture of alcohol and ether vapours.
In its simplest form the apparatus consists of a straight tube, made of glass, porcelain or iron according to the temperature required and the nature of the reacting substances, heated in an ordinary combustion furnace, the mixture entering at one end and the vapours being condensed at the other.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.
Sometimes Chinese cobalt was used, sometimes Japanese, and sometimes a mixture of both.
In the later heresy of Manichaeism there were affinities to Gnosticism, but it was a mixture of many elements, Babylonian-Chaldaic theosophy, Persian dualism and even Buddhist ethics (p. 126).
Ketones, secondary alcohols and tertiary alcohols yield a mixture of acids on oxidation.
We may also notice the disruption of unsaturated acids at the double linkage into a mixture of two acids, when fused with potash.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
Mixture by fusion is the general method of producing an alloy, but it is not the only method possible.
Let us suppose that a molten mixture of two substances A and B, which at a sufficiently high temperature form a uniform liquid, and which do not combine to form definite compounds, is slowly cooled until it becomes wholly solid.
If a mixture of A and B be melted and then allowed to cool, a thermometer immersed in the mixture will indicate a gradually falling temperature.
This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.
There may be other halts in the cooling, both before and after complete solidification, due to evolution of heat in the mixture.
These halts in temperature that occur during the cooling of a mixture should be carefully noted, as they give valuable information concerning the physical and chemical changes that are taking place.
In such a diagram, a point P defines a particular mixture, both as to percentage, composition and temperature; a vertical line through P corresponds to the mixture at all possible temperatures, the point Q being its freezing-point.
It consists of two branches AC and BC, which meet in a lowest point C. It will be seen that as we increase the percentage of B from nothing up to that of the mixture C, the freezing-point becomes lower and lower, but that if we further increase the percentage of B in the mixture, the freezing-point rises.
The mixture C has a lower freezing or melting point than that of any other mixture; it is called the eutectic mixture.
Let us con sider a little more closely the solidification of the mixture represented by the vertical line Pqrs.
Consequently the temperature does not change and there is another well-marked halt in the cooling, and this halt lasts until the mixture has become wholly solid.
It is evident that every mixture except the eutectic mixture C will have two halts in its cooling, and that its solidification will take place in two stages.
At temperatures between the solidus and the liquidus a mixture is partly solid and partly liquid.
The addition of a third metal will sometimes render the mixture of two other metals homogeneous.
Ambrosius Macrobius Theodosius (c. 400) wrote a treatise on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis and seven books of miscellanies (Saturnalia); and Martianus Capella (c. 430), a native of Africa, published a compendium of the seven liberal arts, written in a mixture of prose and verse, with some literary pretensions.
It mixes with water in all proportions, the mixing being attended by a contraction in volume and a rise in temperature; the maximum contraction corresponds to a mixture of 3 molecules of alcohol and I of water.
It was found, however, that certain classes were addicted to drinking this mixture, and since 1891 the sale of such spirit has been confined to manufacturers who must purchase it in bulk from the "methylators."
The "general" mixture consists of Too litres of spirit, and 5 litres of wood spirit or 2 litre of pyridine.
This mixture is supplied to manufacturers and corresponds to the British unmineralized methylated spirit; but the regulations are more stringent.
Its general colour is blackish, lighter by mixture of brown or grey on the head and upper fore part of the body, with no light patch on the throat, and unlike other martens generally darker below than above.
It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in aqua regia - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids - and when very finely divided in a heated mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from this solution.
In solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of " purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.
Thorpe and Laurie converted potassium auribromide into a mixture of metallic gold and potassium bromide by careful heating.
The Japanese use for ornament an alloy of gold and silver, the standard of which varies from 350 to 500, the colour of the precious metal being developed by " pickling " in a mixture of plum-juice, vinegar and copper sulphate.
The separation of gold from silver in the wet way may be effected by nitric acid, sulphuric acid or by a mixture of sulphuric acid and aqua regia.
Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.
Another process consists in treating a mixture of the residue with one-quarter of its weight of calcined sodium sulphate with sulphuric acid, the residue being finally boiled with a large quantity of acid.
Its causes and results are fundamental for the study of ethnology (formation and mixture of races), of political and social history (formation of states and survival of institutions), and of political economy (mobility of labour and utilization of productive forces).
This V Olkerwanderung, as it is called by German historians, again transformed the face of Europe, resulting in the establishment of independent kingdoms and a great mixture of races and institutions.
On the plateau there are but few hills; the streams run slowly and the country is a mixture of plain and undulating ground covered by dense sdl forests.
Their conversion by St Paul added difference of religion to the causes which prevented mixture of race.
The plants are slow growers and must have plenty of sun heat; they require sandy loam with a mixture of sand and bricks finely broken and must be kept dry in winter.
Further, it is probably in the mixture of Greek, Persian and Indian deities which characterizes the pantheon of the Kushan kings that are to be sought many of the features found in Mahayanist Buddhism and Hinduism (as distinguished from the earlier Brahmanism).
The method of using these liquids is in all cases the same; a particle is dropped in; if it floats a diluent is added and the mixture well stirred.
Blomstrand, and others, especially of Marignac, proved the identity of columbium, dianium and niobium, and that ilmenium was a mixture of columbium and tantalum.
It is very probable that neptunium is a similar mixture.
It is unaffected by any acid or mixture of acids, but burns to the pentoxide when heated.
A particularly fine-grained mud is formed on the low coasts of the eastern border of the North Sea by a mixture of the finest sediment carried down by the slow-running rivers with the calcareous or siliceous remains of plankton.
Hemipelagic deposits are a mixture of deposits of terrigenous and pelagic origin.
One can look on sea-water as a mixture of very dilute solutions of particular salts, each one of which after the lapse of sufficient time fills the whole space as if the other constituents did not exist, and this interdiffusion accounts easily for the uniformity of composition in the sea-water throughout the whole ocean, the only appreciable difference from point to point being the salinity or degree of concentration of the mixed solutions.
Such, for instance, were those of Spindler and Wrangell in the Black Sea by sinking an electric lamp, those of Paul Regnard by measuring the change of electric resistance in a selenium cell or the chemical action of the light on a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen, by which he found a very rapid diminution in the intensity of light even in the surface layers of water.
The colour of sea-water as it is seen on board ship is most readily determined by comparison with the tints of Forel's xanthometer or colour scale, which consists of a series of glass tubes fixed like the rungs of a ladder in a frame and filled with a mixture of blue and yellow liquids in varying proportions.
This is well shown by taking a cylinder one-half full of acetylene and one-half of air; on applying a light to the mixture a lurid flame runs down the cylinder and a cloud of soot is thrown up, the cylinder also being thickly coated with it, and often containing a ball of carbon.
If now, after a few moments' interval to allow some air to diffuse into the cylinder, a taper again be applied, an explosion takes place, due to a mixture of carbon monoxide and air.
A good working mixture of these materials may be taken as being loo parts by weight of lime with 68 parts c arbide.
The arc is struck in a crucible into which the mixture is allowed to flow, partially filling it.
Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.
The run carbide, however, is never so rich as the ingot carbide, since an excess of lime is nearly always used in the mixture to act as a flux, and this remaining in the carbide lowers its gasyielding power.
The vessel, however, which contains this mixture has to be of earthenware, porcelain or enamelled iron on account of the free acid present; the gas must be washed after purification to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and care must be taken to prevent the complete neutralization of the acid by the ammonia present in the gas.
The loess soil, chiefly a mixture of porous clay and carbonate of lime, forms the bluffs that border the bottom lands of the Missouri.
Let a mixture of gases contain per unit volume v molecules of the first kind, v' of the second kind, and so on.
His curious encyclopaedic work, entitled Satyricon, or De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii et de septem Artibus liberalibus libri novem, is an elaborate allegory in nine books, written in a mixture of prose and verse, after the manner of the Menippean satires of Varro.
The mixture of races among the inhabitants, especially the presence of numerous Malays, who on all festive occasions appear in gorgeous raiment, gives additional animation and colour to the street scenes.
In the low and sub-mountainous lands the flora is a mixture of Malayan, Australian and Polynesian forms. There are, according to Muller, twice as many palms known from New Guinea as from Australia.
But the typical "germania" is a mixture of slang and of the gipsy language.
After this treatment, the mixture is run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and the anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone.
In the regions of greatest linguistic mixture is the greatest heterogeneity of cephalic index.
It obviously attains its maximum in the case of the firing of pure "oxyhydrogen" gas (a mixture of hydrogen with exactly half its volume of oxygen, the quantity it combines with in becoming water,, German Knall-gas).
Many forms of oxyhydrogen lamps have been invented, but the explosive nature of the gaseous mixture rendered them all more or less dangerous.
Porous carbon blocks, made by strongly heating a mixture of powdered charcoal with oil, resin, &c., were introduced about a generation later, and subsequently various preparations of iron (spongy iron, magnetic oxide) found favour.
The Lurs are thought to be aboriginal Persians with a mixture of Semitic blood.
Outwardly they are Mussulmans of the Shiah branch, but most of them show little veneration for either Prophet or Koran, and the religion of some of them seems to be a mixture of Ali-Illahism involving a belief in successive incarnations combined with mysterious, ancient, heathen rites.
His controversies on the Lord's Supper with Luther, and his correspondence with Lelio Sozini (see SocINus), exhibit, in different connexions, his admirable mixture of dignity and tenderness.
The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.
Zirconium chloride, ZrC1 4, is prepared as a white sublimate by igniting a mixture of zirconia and charcoal in a current of chlorine.
The study of calcination and combustion during the 17th and 18th centuries culminated in the discovery that air consists chiefly of a mixture of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
Formerly bullion was melted in crucibles made of refractory clay, but they are liable to crack and require careful handling These were succeeded by iron crucibles, especially for melting silver, and these have now been generally replaced by graphite (plumbago) crucibles made of a mixture of clay and graphite.
At Moriah and Port Henry, in Essex county, is a stone known as ophlite marble, a mixture of serpentine, dolomite and calcite interspersed with small flecks of phlogopite.
The population of Kerbela, necessarily fluctuating, is estimated at something over 60,000, of whom the principal part are Shiites, chiefly Persians, with a goodly mixture of British Indians.
The soils of western Washington are chiefly glacial, those of eastern Washington chiefly volcanic. In the low tidewater district of the Puget Sound Basin an exceptionally productive soil has been made by the mixture of river silt and sea sand.
Since the quality of the note sounded depends on the mixture of harmonics, the quality therefore is to some extent dependent on the point of excitation.