Mitochondrial Sentence Examples
Mitochondrial biogenesis and function are of vital importance during anther development.
Currently, only the metazoan mitochondrial sequences are considered " reviewed " (manually curated ).
Equivalent enzymes for shorter chain fatty acids are soluble proteins of the mitochondrial matrix.
The human mitochondrial genome is a small circular DNA molecule 16 568 bp in length containing 37 genes.
In any other context mitochondrial antibodies are clinically insignificant.Advertisement
Two carrier proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane are required for this metabolic cycle.
Transfer of the fatty acid moiety across the inner mitochondrial membrane involves carnitine.
Robbin's text on pathology also contains sections on mitochondrial myopathy, stating that this kind of muscle wasting results in severe weakness.
The mitochondrial processing peptidase consists of two structurally related domains.
To analyze data from mitochondrial respiration to identify a metabolic defect.Advertisement
Mitochondrial ribosomes are the 70S (bacterial) type, in contrast to the 80S ribosomes found elsewhere in the cell.
This entails investigating mitochondrial glutathione and protein thiols and the enzyme systems involve in their metabolism.
Mitochondrial disorders, also called mitochondrial cytopathies, are a diverse group of diseases caused by damage to small structures found in human cells that are essential in converting food to energy.
Before the mid-twentieth century, little was known about mitochondrial disorders.
The first diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder occurred in 1959, and the genetic material of microchondria, called mtDNA, was discovered in 1963.Advertisement
Further research in the 1990s led to classification of mitochondrial disorders.
As it became evident that tissues other than muscle could be affected by mitochondrial defects, the term "mitochondrial cytopathies" (cytopathy meaning cell disorder) was adopted.
Disorders in which skeletal muscle is the primary target of the mitochondrial dysfunction are called mitochondrial myopathies.
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies are disorders in which muscle and brain tissue is involved.
As of 2004 there were more than 40 distinct mitochondrial cytopathies.Advertisement
Approximately 1,000 to 4,000 children are born with mitochondrial disease in the United States each year.
Typically, by the age of ten, approximately one in 4,000 American children is diagnosed with mitochondrial disease.
In many cases, a mitochondrial disorder is passed genetically from parent to child (inheritance).
Some mitochondrial disorders are, therefore, only passed from mother to child.
Because more than 90 percent of the energy needed by the human body to function is generated by mitochondria, the effects of mitochondrial disorders can be farreaching.Advertisement
The array of symptoms that are displayed by children suffering from mitochondrial disorders are common to many other diseases, and the age of onset can range from early infancy to adulthood.
Often, the hallmark sign of a mitochondrial disorder that distinguishes it from other diseases with similar symptoms is additional features (such as the above symptoms) that do not normally appear with the non-mitochondrial disease.
Because of the complex nature of mitochondrial disorders, physicians take a multi-faceted approach to diagnosing such diseases.
To diagnose a mitochondrial disorder and rule out other diseases, more extensive tests may need to be performed.
In some cases, a physician may not be able to diagnose the patient with a specific mitochondrial disorder even after extensive evaluation.
Parents should, therefore, be advised that despite the complexity of testing for mitochondrial disorders, diagnosis is not always possible.
As of 2004, there are no cures for mitochondrial disorders.
Alcohol, cigarette smoke, and monosodium glutamate (MSG, added to many Asian foods) may also exacerbate a mitochondrial disorder.
Parents of a child affected with a mitochondrial disorder may be referred to a dietician to help formulate a diet specific to his or her disease.
The prognosis of mitochondrial disease depends on many factors, including the specific disorder, the mode of inheritance, the age of onset, and what organs are affected.
Two children suffering from the same mitochondrial disorder may have two distinctly different courses.
Prevention of inherited mitochondrial disorders is not possible unless parents decide against having more children.
In the case of mitochondrial cytopathies that are caused by environmental factors such as certain drugs or toxins, avoidance of these substances may minimize the risk of developing mitochondrial disease.
Because of the potential of passing on inherited mitochondrial disorders to other children, parents may be interested in genetic counseling.
Genetic testing, however, cannot determine with certainty if or when a child will develop a mitochondrial disease or what the severity will be.
Blood and urine biochemical tests, as well as genetic tests, may be used to rule out other possible causes, including muscle and peripheral nerve diseases, mitochondrial and metabolic diseases, and other inherited disorders.
Mitochondrial myopathies are inherited only through the mother, since sperm do not contain mitochondria.
While you've probably heard about the role of DNA in tracing ancestry, mitochondrial DNA might be a new concept for you.
Traditional DNA testing looks at the information contained in the nucleus, but mitochondrial DNA testing examines the genetic material in the mitochondria themselves.
In a way, mitochondrial DNA is a clue about the identity of our ancient female relatives.
Your mitochondrial DNA comes from your mother and from her mother before that.
While men have their mother's mitochondrial DNA, they do not pass this information on to their children.
Instead, the children inherit mitochondrial DNA from their own mother.
He tested the mitochondrial DNA of modern people and found that most of us had one of these seven strands of mitochondrial DNA.
Testing your mitochondrial DNA will give you some interesting insights about your ancestry, but it will not provide you with names or dates.
Mitochondrial DNA testing will tell you where some of your oldest ancestors lived, giving you insight into your ethnic background.
If you find that you have an especially rare type of mitochondrial DNA, it could help you fill in some of the blanks in your family tree.
Most people simply use mitochondrial DNA to get some insight into the lives of their ancient ancestors.
Mitochondrial DNA testing is coming down in price, but it is still fairly expensive.
Many genealogists are used to the free research tools on the Internet and can't help but balk at the idea of spending hundreds of dollars to test their mitochondrial DNA.
While it can be a useful tool in tracing ancestry, mitochondrial DNA testing will not give you specific information about your relatives.
Some people see DNA-related research, particularly mitochondrial DNA research , to be an exciting, albeit expensive, way to establish the relationships between ancestors.
This type of DNA is passed from mother to child without any mixing, so your mitochondrial DNA is exactly the same as your mother's DNA and your grandmother's DNA.
However, a man does not pass his mitochondrial DNA onto his offspring.
Maternal DNA or mitochondrial DNA, is contained on the X chromosome.
These days, you can expect to pay less than $500 for a complete DNA profile, including Y-chromosome genetic testing and mitochondrial DNA testing.
The primary connection between autism and vaccines in the Poling case seems to be Hannah's underlying mitochondrial dysfunction.
Mitochondrial disorder can be aggravated by starvation, illness and extreme environmental conditions.
Some assert that individuals who have mitochondrial dysfunction problems cannot produce the necessary energy required to ward off the elements introduced to the cells by the vaccines.
The United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation asserts that one in 4,000 children develop mitochondrial dysfunction by the time they reach age ten.
Mitochondrial disease is often misdiagnosed as seizure disorders, atypical cerebral palsy and other diseases.
Many professionals suggest that there is no direct link between mitochondrial dysfunction and autism.
Most autistic children do not have mitochondrial disease according to Dr. Bruce Cohen.
Cohen is a Cleveland Clinic pediatric neurologist and the former president of the Mitochondrial Medicine Society.
More information about mitochondrial dysfunction and autism is available through the Autism Research Institute and Defeat Autism Now.
Parents can work with their children's pediatricians to determine the best course of action if mitochondrial disease is suspect or if pervasive developmental disorders are present in other family members.
In March 2008, the Vaccine Court awarded Hannah Poling compensation because her childhood vaccinations aggravated a preexisting mitochondrial disorder and caused autism-like symptoms.
An autism and mitochondrial disease diagnosis can be overwhelming for parents.
Resources specific to mitochondrial dysfunction paired with autism therapies can yield excellent results.
The presence of a pervasive developmental delay leads to possible connections between autism and mitochondrial disorder.
A dual autism and mitochondrial disease diagnosis may signal that the symptoms of the autistic disorders are related.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) explains that a person diagnosed with mitochondrial disease may have a pervasive developmental disorder as well.
A person with mitochondrial disease may not show any signs of autism at all.
Both fragile X and mitochondrial disorder are distinct conditions that may or may not appear with the symptoms of autistic disorders.
In addition, a person with a diagnosis of autistic disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction may experience other complications.
Among the most outstanding resources for families affected by mitochondrial disorders is the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation.
The UMDF also funds research into diagnosing, treating and curing mitochondrial disease.
The fundamental problem is that little research about the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and autism has been conducted.
So what should parents of a child diagnosed with mitochondrial disease and autism do?
The United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation is an excellent place to start.
This diet can be part of a medical treatment plan as long as the patient does not present any mitochondrial or metabolical issues that could be complicated by following the ketogenic diet.