It was seized in November 1897 by the German fleet, nominally to secure reparation for the murder of two German missionaries in the province of Shantung.
He took the first steps towards the canonization of Queen Margaret of Scotland, and sent missionaries under Portuguese auspices to the Congo.
The earliest printed works in Albanian are those of the Catholic missionaries; the first book containing specimens of the language was the Dictionarium Latino-Epiroticum of Bianchi, printed in 1635.
on the best mode of maintaining union, voluntary boards of arbitration, missionary bishops and missionaries, continental chaplains and the report of a committee on difficulties submitted to the conference.
1710) was another of the New England missionaries along the Delaware river and bay.
In December 1797 he joined his brother and some others in the formation of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home," in building chapels or "tabernacles" for congregations, in supporting missionaries, and in maintaining institutions for the education of young men to carry on the work of evangelization.
In the south (of the Netherlands) Christianity was spread by the labours of devoted missionaries, foremost amongst whom were St Amandus, St Bavon and St Eligius, and bishoprics were set up at Cambrai, Tournai, Arras, Therouanne and Liege.
In 1653 he had made the astonishing proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the Holy Gospel."
He did not really illumine or convert great Armenia, for the people were in the main already converted by Syrian missionaries to the Adoptionist or Ebionite type of faith which was dominant in the far East, and was afterwards known as Nestorianism.
After obtaining the establishment of an apostolic prefecture in Eritrea under the charge of Italian Franciscans, Baratieri expelled from the colony the French Lazarist missionaries for their alleged complicity in the Bath-Agos insurrection; and in March 1895 undertook the conquest of Tigr.
Missionaries continued to do useful geographical work.
Their missionaries were received at the court of Akbar, and Benedict Goes, a native of the Azores, was despatched on a journey overland from Agra to China.
The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.
Several European missionaries had previously found their way from India to Tibet.
The new creed, the new speech, the new social system, had taken such deep root that the descendants of the Scandinavian settlers were better fitted to be the armed missionaries of all these things than the neighbours from whom they had borrowed their new possessions.
The contention that Xavier should be regarded as the greatest of Christian missionaries since the first century A.D.
During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.
The attempt to introduce a new faith led to renewed strife, this time between converts and pagans, but King George (who fully appreciated the value of intercourse with foreigners) supported the missionaries, and by 1852 the rebels were subdued.
The missionaries, finding their position secure, presently began to take action in political affairs, and persuaded the king to grant a constitution to the Tongans, who welcomed it with a kind of childish enthusiasm, but were far from fitted to receive it.
The ancient British and Celtic churches followed the cycle of 84 years which they had originally received from Rome, and their stubborn refusal to abandon it caused much bitter controversy in the 8th century between their representatives and St Augustine of Canterbury and the Latin missionaries.
the scene of the earliest labours of Protestant missionaries in India.
Barth's descriptions of the wealth and importance of the city attracted great attention in Europe, and Kano was subsequently visited by several travellers, missionaries, and students of Hausa, but none was permitted to live permanently in the city.
2 The existence of the Mandaeans has been known since the middle 'of the 17th century, when the first Christian missionaries, Ignatius a Jesu and Angelus a Sancto, began to labour among them at Basra; further information was gathered at a somewhat later date by Pietro della Valle' and Jean de Thevenot 5 (1633-1667), and in the following century by Engelbrecht Kaempfer (1651-1716), Jean Chardin (1643-1713) and Carsten Niebuhr.
This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
1 Its methods were stated to be: " To afford information to every country capable of producing cotton, both by the diffusion of printed directions for its cultivation, and sending competent teachers of cotton planting and cleaning, and by direct communication with Christian missionaries whose aid and co - operation it solicits; to supply, gratuitously, in the first instance, the best seeds to natives in every part of the world who are willing to receive them; to give prizes for the extended cultivation of cotton; and The Association published a weekly paper known as The Cotton Supply Reporter.
In the religious literature they are almost exclusively represented as magicians and diviners opposing the Christian missionaries, though we find two of them acting as tutors to the daughters of Laegaire, the high-king, at the coming of St Patrick.
When one remembers that missionaries like Piano Carpini, and traders like the Venetian Polos, either penetrated by land from Acre to Peking, or circumnavigated southern Asia from Basra to Canton, one realizes that there was, about 1300, a discovery of Asia as new and tremendous as the discovery of America by Columbus two centuries later.
Nine-tenths of the scholars are in the schools of the French Protestant Mission, which are conducted by English, or English-speaking, missionaries.
In 1833 Moshesh invited the missionaries of the Societe des Missions Evangeliques of Paris to settle in his country, and from that day until his death proved their firm friend.
Basel is the seat of the chief missionary society in Switzerland, the training school for missionaries being at St Chrischona, 6 m.
Oberlin is primarily an educational centre, the seat of Oberlin College, named in honour of Jean Frederic Oberlin, and open to both sexes; it embraces a college of arts and sciences, an academy, a Theological Seminary (Congregational), which has a Slavic department for the training of clergy for Slavic immigrants, and a conservatory of music. In 1909 it had twenty buildings, and a Memorial Arch of Indiana buff limestone, dedicated in 1903, in honour of Congregational missionaries, many of them Oberlin graduates, killed in China in 1900.
They then took the vows of poverty and chastity, and pledged themselves to go to the Holy Land as missionaries or for the purpose of tending the sick; or if this design should prove impracticable, to go to Rome and place themselves at the disposal of the pope for any purpose.
inland is the former capital of Formosa, the walled city of Tainan, which has a population of ioo,000 Chinese, 2300 Japanese, and a few British merchants and missionaries.
32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.
In 1909 the number of missionaries (including wives) was 113; organized churches, 194; members and adherents, 21,085; schools, 135; pupils, 7042; hospitals and dispensaries, 17; patients treated, 6865; subscriptions raised from Friends in Great Britain and Ireland, £26,689, besides £3245 received in the fields of work.
The islanders were converted to Christianity in the 6th and 7th centuries by Irish missionaries, in commemoration of whose zeal several isles bear the name of Papa or "priest."
In 1762 the Sieur de la Perriere, acting as an agent of the French government, established on the west bank of Lake Pepin a fortified post (Fort Beauharnois), which was to be a headquarters for missionaries, a trading post and a starting-point for expeditions in search of the " western sea."
In 1691, however, they made the Jesuit missionaries welcome, and rapidly became civilized.
In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway.
It was introduced into the new world by early Spanish missionaries, and is now cultivated in the dry districts of the south-western United States and in Mexico.
The popes had, from time to time, sent the pallium or the dalmatic - specifically Roman vestments - as gifts of honour to various distinguished prelates; Britain, converted by a Roman mission, had adopted the Roman use, and English missionaries had carried this into the newly Christianized parts of Germany; but the great Churches of Spain and Gaul preserved their own traditions in vestments as in other matters.
In 1908 its statistics showed 2343 chapels with accommodation for 714,793 persons, 848 ministers and 5621 local preachers, 165,463 church members and 332,756 Sunday scholars; there were 55 foreign missionaries, and about 30,000 church members and probationers in the foreign field.
The action of missionaries, who cared only about nominal Christianizing, had no better effect.
Abeokuta is the headquarters of the Yoruba branch of the Church Missionary Society, and British and American missionaries have met with some success in their civilizing work.
In 1874 he founded the Sahara and Sudan mission, and sent missionaries to Tunis, Tripoli, East Africa and the Congo.
The order of African missionaries thus founded, for which Lavigerie himself drew up the rule, has since become famous as the Peres Blanes.
The source of the Orange was first reached by the French Protestant missionaries T.
The islands were subsequently visited by a few travellers; but the natives have only in modern times been reconciled to the presence of foreigners; an early visit of missionaries (1731) resulted in one of several murderous attacks on white men which darken the history of the islands; and it was only in 1875 that Spain, claiming the group, made some attempt to assert her rights.
After the Zulus retired, less than a dozen Englishmen returned to live at the port; the missionaries, hunters and other traders returned to the Cape.
But conversion, after all, was the chief aim of these devoted missionaries, and when some Venetian priests had invented a Latin alphabet for the Magyar language a great step had been taken towards its accomplishment.
The physical features of the Scyths are not described by Herodotus, but Hippocrates (Lc.) draws a picture of them which makes them very similar to the Mongols as they appeared to the Franciscan missionaries in the 13th century.
They were for some time ruled by a Portuguese, Joao Albasini, who had adopted native customs. Since 1873 Swiss Protestant missionaries have lived among then and many of the Shangaans are Christians and civilized.
Education of the natives is chiefly in the hands of the missionaries, but the government gives grants in aid to over loo schools for natives.
Within a few weeks of the signing of the convention Pretorius had asked the British authorities to close the " lower road " to the interior, that is the route through Bechuanaland, opened up by Moffat, Livingstone and other missionaries.
His History of the Manicheans is dedicated to the archbishop of Bulgaria, whither the Paulicians were sending missionaries.
She sent him and her other son John to Armenia as missionaries, and they settled at the village of Episparis, or "seedplot," in Phanarea.
To the Jesuit missionaries is due the introduction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of phonetic characters.
Between 1847 and 1858 branch societies were formed in different parts of India, especially in Bengal, and the new society made rapid progress, for which it was largely indebted to the spread of English education and the work of Christian missionaries.
In 1836 American missionaries were also allowed to open stations; in 1837 he permitted the Rev. F.
The number of converts was few, but the missionaries exercised a very wholesome influence and to them in measure was due the comparative mildness of Panda's later years.
Moreover, the missionaries were to be unmolested and a British resident was to be accepted.
It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.
Of recent years many conversions to Christianity have been made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or Muhso hill tribesmen.
His principal works (5 vols., Andover, 1849-50) were Lectures on the Inspiration of the Scriptures (1829), Memoirs of American Missionaries (1833), Examination of the Doctrine of Perfection (1841), Lectures on Church Government (1843), and Lectures on Swedenborgianism (1846); he also wrote a History of Andover Seminary (1848), completed by his son.
In 1843 French missionaries arrived at the island, and it was claimed for France, but on British representations the claim was renounced.
And when the emperor suppressed the school of Edessa ("the Athens of Syria") in 4 89, and expelled its members, they travelled far afield as eager and successful missionaries of the Gospel.
Like the Nestorians they were great missionaries, and up to the 7th century, and again in the 12th and 13th, produced the bulk of Syriac literature (q.v.).
The 400,000 Syrian Christians ("Christians of St Thomas," see Thomas, St) who live in Malabar no doubt owe their origin to Nestorian missionaries, the stories of the evangelization of India by the Apostles Thomas and Bartholomew having no real historical foundation, and the Indian activity of Pantaenus of Alexandria having proved fruitless, in whatever part of India it may have been exercised.
Their campaign was one of deliberate conquest, one of the greatest ever planned by Christian missionaries.
One of the Nestorian bishops joined the Russian Orthodox Church in 1898, and returned the same year with a small band of missionaries sent by the Holy Synod of Russia.
Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.
Wuchang is not open to foreign trade and residence, but a considerable number of missionaries, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, live within the walls.
Introduced by missionaries on the continent, they were re-copied, augmented and continued, especially in the kingdom of Austrasia.
Since 1861-1862 there has been an independent Episcopal Native Church; but the Church Missionary Society, which in 1804 sent out the first missionaries to Sierra Leone, still maintains various agencies.
As a memorial of his work the Duff Hall was erected in the centre of the educational buildings of Calcutta; and a fund of Li 13000 was raised for his disposal, the capital of which was afterwards to be used for invalided missionaries of his own church.
He also established a reputation as a preacher, and having been summoned to court, succeeded in vanquishing the native priests and in converting Za-Denghel, the negus, who wrote to the pope and the king of Spain for more missionaries, an act of zeal which involved him in civil war with the Abyssinian priests (who dreaded the influence of Paez) and ultimately cost him his life (Oct.
Funds were raised for the new organization, and from these the leader and missionaries, who were to have nothing to do with worldly life, drew their pay.
The missing link which has hitherto been lacking in the evidence has been found by Barns in the influence of Celtic missionaries who streamed across from Europe until they came in touch with the remnants of the Old Latin Christianity of the Danube.
700, and disseminated through the Benedictine missionaries.
Missionaries, especially the Catholic " White Fathers," are also active on its shores.
Jesuit missionaries established themselves on the spot; and in 1580 Gregory XIII.
Besides a number of settlers a Roman Catholic bishop and a party of four missionaries and nuns were murdered in the Kilwa hinterland, while nearer Nyasa the warlike Wangoni held possession of the country.
The education of the natives is confined to the schools maintained by the missionaries, who are doing an excellent work.
In the 'forties and 'fifties Egyptian officials, Austrian missionaries, and British, Dutch, Italian, and German explorers had carried our knowledge of the Nile beyond Khartum as far south as Gondokoro.
Stanley, in response to Mutesa's questions about religion, obtained from that king an invitation to Anglican missionaries, which he transmitted to London through the Daily Telegraph.'
Wilson, one of a party of missionaries sent in answer to Stanley's appeal by the Church Missionary Society of England, arrived in Uganda, and towards the end of 1878 was joined by Alexander Mackay.
The intrigues of the Arabs led him to suspect the designs of the missionaries.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
A few missionaries have established themselves, but otherwise the Dutch have scarcely occupied their possession, which at present merely forms part of the residency of Ternate in the Moluccas.
Happily for him, however, he was able to acquire in his youth a knowledge of English and Dutch, and by the help of some missionaries he succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific and political subjects.
There is no foreign settlement at Wen-chow, and the foreign residents are mainly officials and missionaries.
Poland, after a defection of years, was ultimately recovered for the papacy by the zeal and devotion of the Jesuit missionaries.
In many parts the Benedictine Rule met the much stricter Irish Rule of Columbanus, introduced by the Irish missionaries on the continent, and after brief periods, first of conflict and then of fusion, it gradually absorbed and supplanted it; thus during the 8th century it became, out of Ireland and other purely Celtic lands, the only rule and form of monastic life throughout western Europe, - so completely that Charlemagne once asked if there ever had been any other monastic rule.
Pious people were eager to bring about the conversion of the Indians, and were zealously served by missionaries.
While the English colonies were slowly digging their way, taking firm hold of the soil, and growing in numbers, from the sea to the Alleghanies, French missionaries and explorers had ranged far and wide.
He has brought together, in the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington, many hundreds of manuscripts, written by travellers, traders, missionaries, and scholars; and, better still, in response to circulars, carefully prepared vocabularies, texts and long native stories have been written out by trained collectors.
Warminster has also a free school established in 1707, a missionary college, a training home for lady missionaries and a reformatory for boys.
Of these it is enough to name John Cotton, able both as a divine and as a statesman, potent in England by his expositions and apologies of the " New England way," potent in America for his organizing and administrative power; Thomas Hooker, famed as an exponent and apologist of the " New England way "; John Eliot, famous as the " apostle of the Indians," first of Protestant missionaries to the heathen; Richard Mather, whose influence and work were carried on by his distinguished son, and his still more distinguished grandson, Cotton Mather.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions reported for the year ending August 31, 1907: 579 missionaries and 4135 native workers; 580 churches with 68,00o communicants and 65,000 scholars.
English missionaries, headed by Samuel Marsden, landed in 1814, to make for many years but slow progress.
Still, cruel experience and the persevering preaching of the missionaries gradually checked the fighting, and by the year 1839 it could be claimed that peace and Christianity were in the ascendant.
Lord Glenelg, the colonial minister, had the support of the missionaries in withstanding Wakefield's New Zealand Company, which at length resolved in desperation to send an agent to buy land wholesale in New Zealand and despatch a shipload of settlers thither without official permission.
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
In Nejran Syrian missionaries seem to have introduced Christianity (Noldeke).
Bethulie, 1686, on the Orange river, in the " Conquered Territory," has been the scene of the labours of French Protestant missionaries since 1832, and possesses a fine park.
Up to this time the few white men who had crossed the Orange had been chiefly hunters or missionaries.
In 1833 he had welcomed as workers among his people a band of French Protestant missionaries, and as the Boer immigrants began to settle in his neighbourhood he decided to seek support from the British at the Cape.
There are a Church of England and a Roman Catholic church in the town, and a training college under the Roman Catholic missionaries of the Societe des Missions Etrangeres at Palau Tikus, a few miles outside the town.
The latter give the names of the donors of particular portions of the architectural ornamentation, and most of them are written in the characters used before and after the time of Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The monuments are Buddhist, the bas-reliefs illustrate passages in the Buddhist writings, and the inscriptions make use of Buddhist technical terms. Some of the smaller topes give us names of men who lived in the Buddha's time, and others give names mentioned among the missionaries sent out in the time of Asoka.
About this time the conversion of the Thuringians to Christianity was begun by British missionaries and continued by St Boniface, who founded a bishopric at Erfurt.
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
The missionaries in Siam are entirely French Roman Catholics and American Protestants.
There are about 170 Christian missionaries, and the progress of their work may be illustrated by showing that the number of Christians among the natives and foreign Orientals was: - About 10,000 natives go annually to Mecca on pilgrimage.
Whilst curate in charge at Hurstpierpoint, his thoughts were turned by the murder of two missionaries on the shores of Victoria Nyanza to mission work.
Contributing also to the growth of the Church was the zeal of its converts, the great majority of whom regarded themselves as missionaries and did what they could to extend the new faith.
The apostles were travelling missionaries or evangelists.
Missionaries and evangelists went continually from place to place.
Celtic monks worked as missionaries in this part of the country side by side with Franks.
The Uighurs employed an alphabet based upon the Syriac and borrowed from the Nestorian missionaries.
The statistics of the Indian Mission are equally good: communicants 8027, adherents 26,787, missionaries 23, native ministers (ordained) 15, preachers (not ordained) 60.
SAMUEL CHAPMAN ARMSTRONG (1839-1893), American soldier, philanthropist and educator, was born on Maui, one of the Hawaiian Islands, on the 30th of January 1839, his parents, Richard and Clarissa Armstrong, being American missionaries.
When the enterprise of Christian missionaries had gone on for some little time, especially in the regions outside Palestine where there was little or no previous knowledge of Christ and of Christian ideals, the wandering prophets and apostles by whom the missions were mainly conducted must have soon begun to feel the need for some sort of written manual to supplement their own personal teaching.
Fruits are abundant, though indigenous fruits are few; the majority have been introduced by missionaries and others.
itinerating missionaries) were obliged to preach from place to place, the prophets were at liberty either, like the teachers, to settle in a certain church or to travel from one to another.
But an ascetic life was expected of them only when, like the apostles, they went about as missionaries, in which case the rules in Matt.
Douen, Histoire de la societe biblique protestante de Paris, Paris, 1868, pp. 46-51.) Christian missionaries to non-Christian lands have naturally been among the most skilful translators and the most assiduous distributors of the Bible.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
Protests from other Indian missionaries led the society to determine that it could circulate only such versions as gave neutral renderings for the terms in question.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
Some of them (Themistius in particular) are known as commentators on the older philosophers, and others as the missionaries of mysticism.
The Jesuits had to find their all such external peculiarities of dress or rule as tended to put obstacles way of his followers acting freely as emissaries, agents or missionaries in the most various places and circumstances.
It was also about this same period that the grave scandal of the Chinese and Malabar rites began to attract attention in Europe, and to make thinking men ask seriously whether the Jesuit missionaries in those parts taught anything which could fairly be called Christianity at all.
Scottish missionaries and a few European traders have become established here.
He had not been influenced by the teaching of the Christian missionaries, and his first step on his accession was to marry his father's widow.
Largely as the result of the work of Moffat (who reduced the Bechuana tongue to writing), and of other missionaries, the Bechuana advanced notably in civilization.
At the time of the first contact of the Bechuana with white men the Cape government was the only civilized authority in South Africa; and from this cause, and the circumstance that the missionaries who lived among and exercised great fluence over them were of British nationality, the connexion between Bechuanaland and the Cape became close.
In 1858 the Boers told the missionaries that they must not go north without their (the Boers') consent.
The administration, besides fostering the: scanty material resources of the country, aids the missionaries in their endeavours to raise the Bechuanas in the scale of civilization.
These dramas, which deal with religious and historical subjects, are of Indian origin, and somewhat resemble the mystery-plays of medieval Europe, a resemblance heightened by the introduction, due to Spanish missionaries, of Christian saints and heroes such asCharlemagne.
The unorganized territories are sparsely inhabited by Indians, the people of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts and a few missionaries.
The Jesuits have attracted chief attention, not merely on account of their superior zeal and numbers, but also because of the tragic fate of some of their missionaries in Canada.
Missionaries to the Iroquois themselves met with a similar fate and the missions failed.
Her missionaries and leaders were already at Sault Ste Marie commanding the approach to Lake Superior, and at Michilimackinac commanding that to Lake Michigan.
Papa Stronsay (16) commemorates in its name, as others of both the Orkneys and Shetlands do, the labours of the Celtic papae, or missionaries, who preached the Christian gospel before the arrival of the Northmen.
The monumental stone with Ogham inscription, which was discovered in the broch of Burrian, must date from the days of the early Christian missionaries.
In the wake of the Scots incursionists followed the Celtic missionaries about 565.
It was only in post-Roman days that Roman civilization, brought perhaps by Christian missionaries like Patrick, entered the island.
Kharput is an important station of the American missionaries, who have built a college, a theological seminary, and boys' and girls' schools.
Several Persian missionaries, including the aged and learned Mirza Abu'l-Fazl of Gulpayagan, were thereupon despatched to America by `Abbas Efendi, who was generally accepted by the American Baha'is as " the Master."
The first white men to visit the site of Buffalo were undoubtedly the adventurous French trappers and various Jesuit missionaries.
Traders now endeavoured to settle in the islands, and missionaries began to think of this fresh field for labour, but neither met with much success, and little was heard of the islanders save accounts of murder and plunder.
Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.
The Mormons claim more than 4000 adherents, whose principal settlement is at Laie, on the north-east shore of Oahu; the first Mormon missionaries came to the islands in 1850.
These conditions did not last long after the coming of the missionaries.
The language was not reduced to a written form until after the arrival of the missionaries.
Captain Cook estimated the number of natives at 400,000, probably an over-estimate; in 1823 the American missionaries estimated their number at 142,000; the census of 1832 showed the population to be 130,313; the census of 1878 proved that the number of natives was no more than 44,088.
The school system is essentially American in its text-books and in its methods, thanks to the foundations laid by American missionaries.
Between 1820 and 1824 the missionaries taught about 2000 natives to read.
of Honolulu; it was founded in 1841 as the Punahou School for missionaries' children, and was chartered as Oahu College in 1852.
On the 31st of March 1820 missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions - two clergymen, two teachers, a physician, a farmer, and a printer, each with his wife - and three Hawaiians educated in the Cornwall (Connecticut) Foreign Missionary School, arrived from America and began their labours at Honolulu.
Finding the language of the two groups nearly the same, Mr Ellis, who had spent several years in the southern islands, was able to assist the American missionaries in reducing the Hawaiian language to a written form.
In the years 1830-1845 the educational work of the American missionaries was so successful that hardly a native was unable to read and write.
Its leading spirits were the " Sons of Missionaries " (as E.
As part of compensation for the murder of two German missionaries in 1897 in this province - Protestant mission work in Shan-tung dates from 1860 - the Germans took possession on lease of the port of Kiao-chow, 300 m.
Most probably it was introduced by the Irish missionaries who evangelized the north of England, though Welsh influence is scarcely impossible.
There is no evidence that it was still practised when the Roman and Celtic missionaries arrived, but it is worth noting that according to the tradition given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Oxfordshire, where the custom seems to have been fairly common, was not conquered before the latter part of the 6th century.
His work and influence were not confined to his own immediate flock, but radiated by means of his homilies and treatises, and through the disciples he despatched as missionaries, among all the Gothic tribes beyond the Danube.
Catholic missionaries had not been wanting in the meanwhile, and in the indiscriminate persecution by Athanaric, between 370 and 375, Catholics and Arians stood and fell side by side.
Favourably received by the regent, they opened a little chapel, and were in a fair way to establish an important mission, when the Chinese ambassador interfered and had the two missionaries conveyed back to Canton, where they arrived in October of the same year.
The Bogomils wore garments like mendicant friars and were known as keen missionaries, travelling far and wide to propagate their doctrines.
Zealous missionaries carried their doctrines far and wide.
In 1790 there were 294 preachers and 71,668 members in Great Britain, 19 missionaries and S30o members on the mission stations; 198 preachers and 43,265 members in.
He sailed with six missionaries on the 30th of December, but died in the following May in the Indian Ocean.
Two missionaries were sent to the Friendly Islands in 1826, and in 1835 a mission was undertaken among the cannibals of Fiji, which spread and deepened till the whole group of islands was transformed.
But the most fundamental spiritual progress of the papacy was made by its devoted missionaries.
in 1622, and added to by Urban VIII., who founded the celebrated College of the Propaganda for the education of missionaries, and his polyglot press for printing the liturgical books of the East.
An important trade road starts from Likiang Fu in Yunnan, and by way of Chung-tien (Guiedam of the French missionaries) joins the Gyalam at Batang.
In1844-1846the French missionaries, Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet, made their way to Lhasa from China.
The two churches of Iberia and Albania at first depended on the Armenian for ordination of their primates or catholici, and in large part owed their first constitution to Armenian missionaries sent by Gregory the Illuminator.
Such was the activity of these Jewish and Christian missionaries that their imitations have swamped the originals.
India) and at Amoy in China (1842); and the work of the Church in Japan was very successful, especially under Guido Fridolin Verbeck 2 (1830-1898), and 1877 native churches built up by Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed missionaries were organized as the United Church of our Lord Jesus Christ in Japan.
missio, a sending) the term used specially for the propagandist operations of the Christian Church among the heathen, the executants of this work being missionaries.
We know very little about the missionaries of the first three centuries.
404 an institution in which Goths might be trained to preach the Gospel to their own people; 3 Martin of Tours, who evangelized the central districts of Gaul; Valentinus, the " apostle of Noricum," about 440; Honoratus, who from his monastic home in the islet of Lerins, about 410, sent missionaries among the masses of heathendom in the neighbourhood of Arles, Lyons, Troyes, Metz and Nice; and St Patrick, who converted Ireland into " the isle of saints " (died either in 463 or 495).
(b) The English Missionaries.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
Mission work commenced in Bulgaria during the latter part of the 9th century; thence it extended to Moravia, where in 863 two Greek missionaries - Cyril and Methodius - provided for the people a Slavonic Bible and a Slavonic Liturgy; thence to Bohemia and Poland, and so onwards to the Russian kingdom of Ruric the Northman, where about the close of the 10th century the Eastern Church " silently and almost unconsciously bore into the world her mightiest offspring."
Out of the crusades, however, arose other efforts to develop the work which Nestorian missionaries from Bagdad, Edessa and Nisibis had already inaugurated along the Malabar coast, in the island of Ceylon, and in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea.
5 Some steps indeed were taken for disseminating Christian principles, and the pope had induced a band of missionaries, chiefly of the mendicant orders, to go forth to this new mission fields But only five bishoprics had been established by 1520, and the number of genuine converts was small.
Grotius also persuaded seven law students of Lubeck to go to the East as missionaries; the best known of them was Peter Heiling, who worked for 20 years in Abyssinia.
Amongst the most eminent of its missionaries was the celebrated John Eliot, the Puritan minister of Roxbury, Massachusetts, who, encouraged and financially assisted by Boyle, brought out the Bible in the Indian language in 1661-1664.
10,000 was subscribed by June 1796, and in August 29 missionaries sailed for Tahiti.
In Scotland Robert Haldane sold his estate and devoted f, 25,000 to the cause; with others he would have gone to India himself but for the prohibition of the East India Company, one of whose directors said he would rather see a band of devils in India than a band of missionaries.
In particular, university graduates have since then gone out as missionaries in much larger numbers than before.
From an early date many of the wives of missionaries have done good service; but the going forth of single women in any appreciable number has only been encouraged by the societies in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Although nearly half the male missionaries (Protestant) are unmarried, these are exceeded in number by the unmarried women; and consequently, the husbands and wives being equal, the aggregate of women in the Missions is greater than the aggregate of men.
These committees comprise not only real experts, such as retired veteran missionaries, and retired civil and military officers who have been active friends of missions while on foreign service, but also leading clergymen and laymen who, though not personally acquainted with the mission fields, become almost equal experts by continuous attendance and careful study.
The " mission " consists of the missionaries themselves, and they are governed by a " director," with possibly small advisory councils in the field and at home, the latter undertaking the duty of engaging missionaries and raising funds.
In New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand and Canada there are also Church missionary associations which supply missionaries, and support them, for the mission fields of the Church Missionary Society.
Its total membership is under ioo,000, and it has some 350 missionaries, labouring in the most unpromising fields - Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, Central America, Tibet, and among the Hottentots.
The Basel Society, with its famous seminary at Basel, which formerly supplied many able German missionaries to the Church Missionary Society, has extensive work in India, West Africa and South China.
International Missionary Alliance (1887), which has sent many missionaries to India and China.
The London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews includes among its missionaries about 80 who are converts.
It has sent out no missionaries of its own.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
The majority of the missionaries are French (over 7000); the bulk of the money - so far as it is voluntary contribution (but the propaganda at Rome has large endowments) - is raised in France.
Protestant missionaries are opposed, not merely because they are heretical, but because they are English or (if American) English-speaking;.
and the Greek Church missionaries in Persia and Japan, not only because they are schismatic, but because they are 'Russian - the Franco-Russian alliance notwithstanding.
When the tsar Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) began the great advance of Russia into Northern Asia, a large number of missionaries accompanied the troops, and during the 17th century many thousands of Tatars were baptized, though from lack of fostering influences they lapsed into heathenism.
Stock's Short Handbook of Missions has a chapter on " Some Notable Missionaries " and another on " Some Prominent Native Christians."
In 1822 Wesleyan missionaries reached the island.
Later came Mormon missionaries, and these have to some extent further depleted the Christian ranks.
In this large island some Gossner missionaries (1854) were the pioneers.
The London Mission ship " Duff " in 1797 landed eighteen missionaries (mainly artisans) at Tahiti, ten more in the Tonga or Friendly Islands, and one on the Marquesas.
To Fiji in 1834 came James Calvert and other Wesleyan missionaries beginning a work which under .them and their successors had extraordinary success.
Meanwhile the original work in Tahiti had been taken over by missionaries of the Paris Society, though the last London Missionary Society agent did not leave that group till 1890.
P. Crook) on the Marquesas did not remain long, and after he went nothing was done till 1833-1834, when first some American and then some English missionaries arrived, but met with scant success and gave it up in 1841.
In Hawaii itself much was accomplished by American missionaries, the first of whom were H.
In the Carolines and Marshalls it has now largely passed to German missionaries, the Americans having enough to do in the Philippines, where there are already over 27,000 Protestants.
In East Africa, as in the West, Christian missionaries fear most the aggressive Moslem propaganda.
The French authorities were hostile to the English missionaries, and even the handing over of part of the field to the Paris Evangelical Society did not do much to ease the situation.
- The earliest missionaries to India, with the possible exception of Pantaenus of Alexandria (c. A.D.
Perhaps, too, the methods adopted by missionaries have not always been the wisest, and they have sometimes failed to remember the method of their Master, who came " not to destroy, but to fulfil."
In 1910 there were 4614 missionaries (including wives), representing 122 societies, 1272 Indian ministers, and 34,095 other native workers, including teachers and Bible-women.
It only remains to be said that the work of the missionaries individually and collectively has over and over again received the warmest recognition and praise from the highest officials of the Indian government.
i - The earliest Christian missionaries to China, as to India, were the Nestorians (q.v.).
missionaries and converts being banished.
Though the missionaries were chiefly concentrated in the treaty ports they gradually pushed inland,.
Even after the removal of the edicts the old prejudices remained, and the missionaries were regarded as political emissaries, the forerunners of military aggression.
In 1870 there was a great outbreak concentrating in the massacres at Hankow and Tientsin; in 1891 at Hunan and in 1895 at Ku Cheng there: were other attacks which were only preliminary to the Boxer uprising of 1899-1900,, when 135 missionaries, besides 52 children.
Early in the 29th century the missionaries had not been able to do much by way of education, but the new openings were seized with such power as was possible, and while in 1876 there were 289 mission schools with 4909 pupils, in 1910 there were 312 9 schools with 79,823 scholars.
The total number of Protestant missionaries (including wives) in China in 1910 was 4175, one to about IIoo sq.
It showed itself in a desire to throw off the governance of the missionaries, in a criticism of Protestant creeds as not adapted to Japanese needs, and in a slackened growth numerically and intensively.
After a period of stress and uncertainty, due very largely to the variety of denominational creed and polity, matters assumed an easier condition, the missionaries recognizing the national characteristics and aiming at guidance rather than control.
Missionaries went through the island as never before, and their evangelistic work was built upon by Japanese ministers.
In Korea, the " Hermit Nation," or as the Koreans prefer to say, " The Land of the Morning Calm," Christianity was introduced at the end of the 18th century by some members of the Korean legation at Pekin who had met Roman Catholic missionaries.
The medical work won the favour of the government, and so wisely did the missionaries act, that during all the turbulent changes since 1884 they escaped entanglement in the political disturbances and yet held the confidence of the people.
Medical work made an impression on the people and won the favour of the government, which has always been cordial and has employed missionaries as court-tutors.
The Roman Catholic missionaries also are scattered over these immense territories, and have a large number of Indian adherents.
(I) Carrying the Gospel to all the non-Christian world; (2) the Church in the mission field; (3) education in relation to the Christianization of national life; (4) the missionary message in relation to non-Christian religions; (5) the preparation of missionaries; (6) the home base of missions; (7) missions and governments; (8) co-operation and the promotion of unity.
From 1883 to 1894 the government, with the help of missionaries, extended its authority over the south-east and south-west of the island, and also over some of the lands to the east and north of Toba lake, including the districts of Toba, Silindong and Tanah Jawa, and in 1895 over the southern part of the peninsula of Samosir in Toba lake.
There are a few Mahommedans in Ashanti, most of them traders from other countries, and the Basel and Wesleyan missionaries have obtained some converts to Christianity; but the great bulk of the people are spirit-worshippers.
Mr and Mrs Ramseyer (two of the missionaries imprisoned by King Kofi Karikari for four and a half years) returned to Kumasi, and other missionaries followed.
Mr Ramseyer and the other Basel missionaries, and Sir F.
The first Christian missions in Paraguay were established by the Franciscans - Armenta, Lebron, Solano (who was afterwards canonized as the " Apostle of Paraguay ") and Bolanos - between 1542 and 1560; but neither they nor the first Jesuit missionaries, Salonio, Field and Ortega, were allowed to make their enterprise a permanent success.
In 1580 he came to London, attended the court of Elizabeth, and joined the secret society formed that year supporting the Jesuit missionaries.
It is a common error to suppose that the whole of African religion is embraced in the practices connected with these tutelary deities; so far from this being the case, belief in higher gods, not necessarily accompanied with worship or propitiation, is common in many parts of Africa, and there is no reason to suppose that it had been derived in every case, perhaps not in any case, from Christian or Mahommedan missionaries.
These means are such as the digging of wells, planting medicinal herbs, and trees for shade, sending out of missionaries, appointment of special officers to supervise charities, and so on.
The missionaries were sent to Kashmir, to the Himalayas, to the border lands on the Indus, to the coast of Burma, to south India and to Ceylon.
Hugh College is maintained by government; and there are a number of schools, several of which are carried on by Scottish Presbyterian missionaries.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.