Missionaries Sentence Examples
Missionaries continued to do useful geographical work.
Several European missionaries had previously found their way from India to Tibet.
Barth's descriptions of the wealth and importance of the city attracted great attention in Europe, and Kano was subsequently visited by several travellers, missionaries, and students of Hausa, but none was permitted to live permanently in the city.
The apostles were travelling missionaries or evangelists.
The contention that Xavier should be regarded as the greatest of Christian missionaries since the first century A.D.Advertisement
The attempt to introduce a new faith led to renewed strife, this time between converts and pagans, but King George (who fully appreciated the value of intercourse with foreigners) supported the missionaries, and by 1852 the rebels were subdued.
Moreover, the missionaries were to be unmolested and a British resident was to be accepted.
Whilst curate in charge at Hurstpierpoint, his thoughts were turned by the murder of two missionaries on the shores of Victoria Nyanza to mission work.
Contributing also to the growth of the Church was the zeal of its converts, the great majority of whom regarded themselves as missionaries and did what they could to extend the new faith.
Christian soldiers and zealous missionaries came from Rome to Britain.Advertisement
Stanley, in response to Mutesa's questions about religion, obtained from that king an invitation to Anglican missionaries, which he transmitted to London through the Daily Telegraph.'
Wilson, one of a party of missionaries sent in answer to Stanley's appeal by the Church Missionary Society of England, arrived in Uganda, and towards the end of 1878 was joined by Alexander Mackay.
The intrigues of the Arabs led him to suspect the designs of the missionaries.
The annexations of Emin on Albert Nyanza, the visit of Thomson to the closed door of Busoga, the opposition of the Europeans to the slave trade, and, lastly, the identification of the missionaries with political embassies and their letters of introduction from secular authorities, added to Mwanga's.
A few missionaries have established themselves, but otherwise the Dutch have scarcely occupied their possession, which at present merely forms part of the residency of Ternate in the Moluccas.Advertisement
Happily for him, however, he was able to acquire in his youth a knowledge of English and Dutch, and by the help of some missionaries he succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific and political subjects.
There is no foreign settlement at Wen-chow, and the foreign residents are mainly officials and missionaries.
Poland, after a defection of years, was ultimately recovered for the papacy by the zeal and devotion of the Jesuit missionaries.
In many parts the Benedictine Rule met the much stricter Irish Rule of Columbanus, introduced by the Irish missionaries on the continent, and after brief periods, first of conflict and then of fusion, it gradually absorbed and supplanted it; thus during the 8th century it became, out of Ireland and other purely Celtic lands, the only rule and form of monastic life throughout western Europe, - so completely that Charlemagne once asked if there ever had been any other monastic rule.
Pious people were eager to bring about the conversion of the Indians, and were zealously served by missionaries.Advertisement
While the English colonies were slowly digging their way, taking firm hold of the soil, and growing in numbers, from the sea to the Alleghanies, French missionaries and explorers had ranged far and wide.
He has brought together, in the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington, many hundreds of manuscripts, written by travellers, traders, missionaries, and scholars; and, better still, in response to circulars, carefully prepared vocabularies, texts and long native stories have been written out by trained collectors.
Warminster has also a free school established in 1707, a missionary college, a training home for lady missionaries and a reformatory for boys.
Of these it is enough to name John Cotton, able both as a divine and as a statesman, potent in England by his expositions and apologies of the " New England way," potent in America for his organizing and administrative power; Thomas Hooker, famed as an exponent and apologist of the " New England way "; John Eliot, famous as the " apostle of the Indians," first of Protestant missionaries to the heathen; Richard Mather, whose influence and work were carried on by his distinguished son, and his still more distinguished grandson, Cotton Mather.
English missionaries, headed by Samuel Marsden, landed in 1814, to make for many years but slow progress.Advertisement
Still, cruel experience and the persevering preaching of the missionaries gradually checked the fighting, and by the year 1839 it could be claimed that peace and Christianity were in the ascendant.
Lord Glenelg, the colonial minister, had the support of the missionaries in withstanding Wakefield's New Zealand Company, which at length resolved in desperation to send an agent to buy land wholesale in New Zealand and despatch a shipload of settlers thither without official permission.
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
In Nejran Syrian missionaries seem to have introduced Christianity (Noldeke).
Bethulie, 1686, on the Orange river, in the " Conquered Territory," has been the scene of the labours of French Protestant missionaries since 1832, and possesses a fine park.
Up to this time the few white men who had crossed the Orange had been chiefly hunters or missionaries.
In 1833 he had welcomed as workers among his people a band of French Protestant missionaries, and as the Boer immigrants began to settle in his neighbourhood he decided to seek support from the British at the Cape.
There are a Church of England and a Roman Catholic church in the town, and a training college under the Roman Catholic missionaries of the Societe des Missions Etrangeres at Palau Tikus, a few miles outside the town.
The latter give the names of the donors of particular portions of the architectural ornamentation, and most of them are written in the characters used before and after the time of Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The monuments are Buddhist, the bas-reliefs illustrate passages in the Buddhist writings, and the inscriptions make use of Buddhist technical terms. Some of the smaller topes give us names of men who lived in the Buddha's time, and others give names mentioned among the missionaries sent out in the time of Asoka.
About this time the conversion of the Thuringians to Christianity was begun by British missionaries and continued by St Boniface, who founded a bishopric at Erfurt.
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
The missionaries in Siam are entirely French Roman Catholics and American Protestants.
Missionaries and evangelists went continually from place to place.
Celtic monks worked as missionaries in this part of the country side by side with Franks.
The Uighurs employed an alphabet based upon the Syriac and borrowed from the Nestorian missionaries.
When the enterprise of Christian missionaries had gone on for some little time, especially in the regions outside Palestine where there was little or no previous knowledge of Christ and of Christian ideals, the wandering prophets and apostles by whom the missions were mainly conducted must have soon begun to feel the need for some sort of written manual to supplement their own personal teaching.
Fruits are abundant, though indigenous fruits are few; the majority have been introduced by missionaries and others.
But an ascetic life was expected of them only when, like the apostles, they went about as missionaries, in which case the rules in Matt.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
Protests from other Indian missionaries led the society to determine that it could circulate only such versions as gave neutral renderings for the terms in question.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
Some of them (Themistius in particular) are known as commentators on the older philosophers, and others as the missionaries of mysticism.
The Jesuits had to find their all such external peculiarities of dress or rule as tended to put obstacles way of his followers acting freely as emissaries, agents or missionaries in the most various places and circumstances.
It was also about this same period that the grave scandal of the Chinese and Malabar rites began to attract attention in Europe, and to make thinking men ask seriously whether the Jesuit missionaries in those parts taught anything which could fairly be called Christianity at all.
Scottish missionaries and a few European traders have become established here.
He had not been influenced by the teaching of the Christian missionaries, and his first step on his accession was to marry his father's widow.
Largely as the result of the work of Moffat (who reduced the Bechuana tongue to writing), and of other missionaries, the Bechuana advanced notably in civilization.
At the time of the first contact of the Bechuana with white men the Cape government was the only civilized authority in South Africa; and from this cause, and the circumstance that the missionaries who lived among and exercised great fluence over them were of British nationality, the connexion between Bechuanaland and the Cape became close.
In 1858 the Boers told the missionaries that they must not go north without their (the Boers') consent.
These dramas, which deal with religious and historical subjects, are of Indian origin, and somewhat resemble the mystery-plays of medieval Europe, a resemblance heightened by the introduction, due to Spanish missionaries, of Christian saints and heroes such asCharlemagne.
The unorganized territories are sparsely inhabited by Indians, the people of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts and a few missionaries.
The Jesuits have attracted chief attention, not merely on account of their superior zeal and numbers, but also because of the tragic fate of some of their missionaries in Canada.
Missionaries to the Iroquois themselves met with a similar fate and the missions failed.
Her missionaries and leaders were already at Sault Ste Marie commanding the approach to Lake Superior, and at Michilimackinac commanding that to Lake Michigan.
Papa Stronsay (16) commemorates in its name, as others of both the Orkneys and Shetlands do, the labours of the Celtic papae, or missionaries, who preached the Christian gospel before the arrival of the Northmen.
The monumental stone with Ogham inscription, which was discovered in the broch of Burrian, must date from the days of the early Christian missionaries.
In the wake of the Scots incursionists followed the Celtic missionaries about 565.
It was only in post-Roman days that Roman civilization, brought perhaps by Christian missionaries like Patrick, entered the island.
Several Persian missionaries, including the aged and learned Mirza Abu'l-Fazl of Gulpayagan, were thereupon despatched to America by `Abbas Efendi, who was generally accepted by the American Baha'is as " the Master."
The first white men to visit the site of Buffalo were undoubtedly the adventurous French trappers and various Jesuit missionaries.
Traders now endeavoured to settle in the islands, and missionaries began to think of this fresh field for labour, but neither met with much success, and little was heard of the islanders save accounts of murder and plunder.
Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.
The Mormons claim more than 4000 adherents, whose principal settlement is at Laie, on the north-east shore of Oahu; the first Mormon missionaries came to the islands in 1850.
These conditions did not last long after the coming of the missionaries.
The language was not reduced to a written form until after the arrival of the missionaries.
Captain Cook estimated the number of natives at 400,000, probably an over-estimate; in 1823 the American missionaries estimated their number at 142,000; the census of 1832 showed the population to be 130,313; the census of 1878 proved that the number of natives was no more than 44,088.
The school system is essentially American in its text-books and in its methods, thanks to the foundations laid by American missionaries.
Between 1820 and 1824 the missionaries taught about 2000 natives to read.
On the 31st of March 1820 missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions - two clergymen, two teachers, a physician, a farmer, and a printer, each with his wife - and three Hawaiians educated in the Cornwall (Connecticut) Foreign Missionary School, arrived from America and began their labours at Honolulu.
Finding the language of the two groups nearly the same, Mr Ellis, who had spent several years in the southern islands, was able to assist the American missionaries in reducing the Hawaiian language to a written form.
In the years 1830-1845 the educational work of the American missionaries was so successful that hardly a native was unable to read and write.
As part of compensation for the murder of two German missionaries in 1897 in this province - Protestant mission work in Shan-tung dates from 1860 - the Germans took possession on lease of the port of Kiao-chow, 300 m.
Most probably it was introduced by the Irish missionaries who evangelized the north of England, though Welsh influence is scarcely impossible.
There is no evidence that it was still practised when the Roman and Celtic missionaries arrived, but it is worth noting that according to the tradition given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Oxfordshire, where the custom seems to have been fairly common, was not conquered before the latter part of the 6th century.
His work and influence were not confined to his own immediate flock, but radiated by means of his homilies and treatises, and through the disciples he despatched as missionaries, among all the Gothic tribes beyond the Danube.
Catholic missionaries had not been wanting in the meanwhile, and in the indiscriminate persecution by Athanaric, between 370 and 375, Catholics and Arians stood and fell side by side.
Favourably received by the regent, they opened a little chapel, and were in a fair way to establish an important mission, when the Chinese ambassador interfered and had the two missionaries conveyed back to Canton, where they arrived in October of the same year.
The Bogomils wore garments like mendicant friars and were known as keen missionaries, travelling far and wide to propagate their doctrines.
Zealous missionaries carried their doctrines far and wide.
In 1790 there were 294 preachers and 71,668 members in Great Britain, 19 missionaries and S30o members on the mission stations; 198 preachers and 43,265 members in.
He sailed with six missionaries on the 30th of December, but died in the following May in the Indian Ocean.
Two missionaries were sent to the Friendly Islands in 1826, and in 1835 a mission was undertaken among the cannibals of Fiji, which spread and deepened till the whole group of islands was transformed.
But the most fundamental spiritual progress of the papacy was made by its devoted missionaries.
An important trade road starts from Likiang Fu in Yunnan, and by way of Chung-tien (Guiedam of the French missionaries) joins the Gyalam at Batang.
In1844-1846the French missionaries, Evariste Regis Huc and Joseph Gabet, made their way to Lhasa from China.
The two churches of Iberia and Albania at first depended on the Armenian for ordination of their primates or catholici, and in large part owed their first constitution to Armenian missionaries sent by Gregory the Illuminator.
Such was the activity of these Jewish and Christian missionaries that their imitations have swamped the originals.
We know very little about the missionaries of the first three centuries.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
Mission work commenced in Bulgaria during the latter part of the 9th century; thence it extended to Moravia, where in 863 two Greek missionaries - Cyril and Methodius - provided for the people a Slavonic Bible and a Slavonic Liturgy; thence to Bohemia and Poland, and so onwards to the Russian kingdom of Ruric the Northman, where about the close of the 10th century the Eastern Church " silently and almost unconsciously bore into the world her mightiest offspring."
Out of the crusades, however, arose other efforts to develop the work which Nestorian missionaries from Bagdad, Edessa and Nisibis had already inaugurated along the Malabar coast, in the island of Ceylon, and in the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea.
Grotius also persuaded seven law students of Lubeck to go to the East as missionaries; the best known of them was Peter Heiling, who worked for 20 years in Abyssinia.
Amongst the most eminent of its missionaries was the celebrated John Eliot, the Puritan minister of Roxbury, Massachusetts, who, encouraged and financially assisted by Boyle, brought out the Bible in the Indian language in 1661-1664.
In Scotland Robert Haldane sold his estate and devoted f, 25,000 to the cause; with others he would have gone to India himself but for the prohibition of the East India Company, one of whose directors said he would rather see a band of devils in India than a band of missionaries.
In particular, university graduates have since then gone out as missionaries in much larger numbers than before.
From an early date many of the wives of missionaries have done good service; but the going forth of single women in any appreciable number has only been encouraged by the societies in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Although nearly half the male missionaries (Protestant) are unmarried, these are exceeded in number by the unmarried women; and consequently, the husbands and wives being equal, the aggregate of women in the Missions is greater than the aggregate of men.
These committees comprise not only real experts, such as retired veteran missionaries, and retired civil and military officers who have been active friends of missions while on foreign service, but also leading clergymen and laymen who, though not personally acquainted with the mission fields, become almost equal experts by continuous attendance and careful study.
The " mission " consists of the missionaries themselves, and they are governed by a " director," with possibly small advisory councils in the field and at home, the latter undertaking the duty of engaging missionaries and raising funds.
In New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand and Canada there are also Church missionary associations which supply missionaries, and support them, for the mission fields of the Church Missionary Society.
Its total membership is under ioo,000, and it has some 350 missionaries, labouring in the most unpromising fields - Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, Central America, Tibet, and among the Hottentots.
The Basel Society, with its famous seminary at Basel, which formerly supplied many able German missionaries to the Church Missionary Society, has extensive work in India, West Africa and South China.
International Missionary Alliance (1887), which has sent many missionaries to India and China.
The London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews includes among its missionaries about 80 who are converts.
It has sent out no missionaries of its own.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
The majority of the missionaries are French (over 7000); the bulk of the money - so far as it is voluntary contribution (but the propaganda at Rome has large endowments) - is raised in France.
Protestant missionaries are opposed, not merely because they are heretical, but because they are English or (if American) English-speaking;.
When the tsar Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) began the great advance of Russia into Northern Asia, a large number of missionaries accompanied the troops, and during the 17th century many thousands of Tatars were baptized, though from lack of fostering influences they lapsed into heathenism.
Stock's Short Handbook of Missions has a chapter on " Some Notable Missionaries " and another on " Some Prominent Native Christians."
In 1822 Wesleyan missionaries reached the island.
Later came Mormon missionaries, and these have to some extent further depleted the Christian ranks.
In this large island some Gossner missionaries (1854) were the pioneers.
The London Mission ship " Duff " in 1797 landed eighteen missionaries (mainly artisans) at Tahiti, ten more in the Tonga or Friendly Islands, and one on the Marquesas.
To Fiji in 1834 came James Calvert and other Wesleyan missionaries beginning a work which under .them and their successors had extraordinary success.
Meanwhile the original work in Tahiti had been taken over by missionaries of the Paris Society, though the last London Missionary Society agent did not leave that group till 1890.
In the Carolines and Marshalls it has now largely passed to German missionaries, the Americans having enough to do in the Philippines, where there are already over 27,000 Protestants.
In East Africa, as in the West, Christian missionaries fear most the aggressive Moslem propaganda.
The French authorities were hostile to the English missionaries, and even the handing over of part of the field to the Paris Evangelical Society did not do much to ease the situation.
Perhaps, too, the methods adopted by missionaries have not always been the wisest, and they have sometimes failed to remember the method of their Master, who came " not to destroy, but to fulfil."
In 1910 there were 4614 missionaries (including wives), representing 122 societies, 1272 Indian ministers, and 34,095 other native workers, including teachers and Bible-women.
It only remains to be said that the work of the missionaries individually and collectively has over and over again received the warmest recognition and praise from the highest officials of the Indian government.
Though the missionaries were chiefly concentrated in the treaty ports they gradually pushed inland,.
Even after the removal of the edicts the old prejudices remained, and the missionaries were regarded as political emissaries, the forerunners of military aggression.
Early in the 29th century the missionaries had not been able to do much by way of education, but the new openings were seized with such power as was possible, and while in 1876 there were 289 mission schools with 4909 pupils, in 1910 there were 312 9 schools with 79,823 scholars.
The total number of Protestant missionaries (including wives) in China in 1910 was 4175, one to about IIoo sq.
It showed itself in a desire to throw off the governance of the missionaries, in a criticism of Protestant creeds as not adapted to Japanese needs, and in a slackened growth numerically and intensively.
After a period of stress and uncertainty, due very largely to the variety of denominational creed and polity, matters assumed an easier condition, the missionaries recognizing the national characteristics and aiming at guidance rather than control.
Missionaries went through the island as never before, and their evangelistic work was built upon by Japanese ministers.
In Korea, the " Hermit Nation," or as the Koreans prefer to say, " The Land of the Morning Calm," Christianity was introduced at the end of the 18th century by some members of the Korean legation at Pekin who had met Roman Catholic missionaries.
The medical work won the favour of the government, and so wisely did the missionaries act, that during all the turbulent changes since 1884 they escaped entanglement in the political disturbances and yet held the confidence of the people.
Medical work made an impression on the people and won the favour of the government, which has always been cordial and has employed missionaries as court-tutors.
The Roman Catholic missionaries also are scattered over these immense territories, and have a large number of Indian adherents.
From 1883 to 1894 the government, with the help of missionaries, extended its authority over the south-east and south-west of the island, and also over some of the lands to the east and north of Toba lake, including the districts of Toba, Silindong and Tanah Jawa, and in 1895 over the southern part of the peninsula of Samosir in Toba lake.
There are a few Mahommedans in Ashanti, most of them traders from other countries, and the Basel and Wesleyan missionaries have obtained some converts to Christianity; but the great bulk of the people are spirit-worshippers.
Mr and Mrs Ramseyer (two of the missionaries imprisoned by King Kofi Karikari for four and a half years) returned to Kumasi, and other missionaries followed.
In 1580 he came to London, attended the court of Elizabeth, and joined the secret society formed that year supporting the Jesuit missionaries.
It is a common error to suppose that the whole of African religion is embraced in the practices connected with these tutelary deities; so far from this being the case, belief in higher gods, not necessarily accompanied with worship or propitiation, is common in many parts of Africa, and there is no reason to suppose that it had been derived in every case, perhaps not in any case, from Christian or Mahommedan missionaries.
These means are such as the digging of wells, planting medicinal herbs, and trees for shade, sending out of missionaries, appointment of special officers to supervise charities, and so on.
The missionaries were sent to Kashmir, to the Himalayas, to the border lands on the Indus, to the coast of Burma, to south India and to Ceylon.
Hugh College is maintained by government; and there are a number of schools, several of which are carried on by Scottish Presbyterian missionaries.
It was in the reign of Bimbisara that Vardhamana Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, and Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, preached in Magadha, and Buddhist missionaries issued thence to the conversion of China, Ceylon, Tibet and Tatary.
Under Mahipala (c. 1026), the ninth of his line, and his successor Nayapala, missionaries from Magadha succeeded in firmly re-establishing Buddhism in Tibet.
He effected some reforms in the monastic orders; urged the conversion of the sectaries in Bohemia; and sent missionaries to America, India, Abyssinia and the Congo.
Germany, but the bulk of the people were heathen, in spite of the efforts of Frank and Irish missionaries and the command of King Dagobert I.
These devoted missionaries of the church gave their attention mainly to the young, and,during the reign of Rudolph II.
Duala is the headquarters of the merchants and missionaries.
In 1870 the station at Bimbia was given up by the missionaries, but that at Akwa town continued to flourish, the Dualla showing themselves eager to acquire education, while Saker reduced their language to writing.
Like the earlier missionaries he explored the adjacent districts, discovering the Sanaga in its lower course.
The settlement of the English Baptists at Victoria, Ambas Bay, was at first excluded from the German protectorate, but in March 1887 an arrangement was made by which, while the private rights of the missionaries were maintained, the sovereignty of the settlement passed to Germany.
King Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. sent Buddhist missionaries from India to the Mediterranean lands; their preaching has, it is true, left little or no trace in our Western records.
The Europeans (mostly British) number about a thousand, and are civil servants, soldiers, traders or missionaries.
He promulgated the famous bull In Coena Domini in its final form, 1627; published the latest revision of the Breviary, 1631; founded the College of the Propaganda for the education of missionaries, 1627; and accorded the title of "eminence" to the cardinals, 1630.
Missionary work, carried on in the northern peninsula of Halmahera since 1866, has been fairly successful among the heathen natives, but less so among the Mahommedans, who have often incited the others against the missionaries and their converts.
A monument of the labours of the missionaries is a manuscript dictionary (c. 1720) of the language of the Illinois, with catechism and prayers, probably the work of Father Le Boulanger.
Political complications arising out of the work of the Arabian mission have been singularly few, a happy circumstance which must be attributed chiefly to the missionaries themselves, whose general opinion is that for a Mahommedan country the Persian Gulf and eastern Arabia are peculiarly free from religious fanaticism.
But their influence, especially that of the missionaries, is felt in every part of the protectorate, and in few parts of equatorial Africa have the natives more readily responded to European influences.
Education is wholly in the hands of the missionaries.
The first protestant missionaries (those under the London Society for the Promotion of Christianity among the Jews), settled in Jerusalem in 1823; to them is due the inception of the trade in olive-wood articles, invented for the support of their converts.
Meanwhile the missionaries made the field of vernacular education their own.
The interest of the missionaries in education, which has never ceased to the present day, though now comparatively overshadowed by government activity, had two distinct aspects.
This he accomplished by five means - by a council to settle the faith, by edicts promulgating its principles, by a state department to watch over its purity, by missionaries to spread its doctrines, and by an authoritative collection of its sacred books.
The rock inscriptions record how he sent forth missionaries " to the utmost limits of the barbarian countries," to "intermingle among all unbelievers" for the spread of religion.
Gon9alo de Sousa was despatched on a formal embassy in 1490; and the first missionaries entered the country in his train.
The missionaries were charged with the task of undermining the authority of the Omayyads, by drawing attention to all the injustices that took place under their reign, and to all the luxury and wantonness of the court, as contrasted with the misery of many of their subjects.
The missionaries had great success, especially among the non-Arabic inhabitants of Khorasan and Transoxiana.
So severe indeed was the discipline he exercised, that one of the chief missionaries, who by a secret warning had rendered possible the escape of Nasr from Merv, paid for it with his life.
He was an ardent champion of the orthodox faith, repudiating all the extravagant doctrine preached by the Abbasid missionaries and formerly professed by his father.
This mission in 1900 had about 30 missionaries and 40,000 converts.
In 1884 and 1885, toleration being established, Protestant missionaries of the American Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal Churches entered Korea, and were followed by a large number of agents of other denominations.
In 1866, 1867, and 1871 French and American punitive expeditions attacked parts of Korea in which French missionaries and American adventurers had been put to death, and inflicted much loss of life, but retired without securing any diplomatic successes, and Korea continued to preserve her complete isolation.
Jesuit missionaries entered Lower California as early as 1697, maintaining themselves there until Charles III.'s expulsion in 1767 of all Jesuits from his dominions; but not until Russian explorations in Alaska from 1745-1765 did the Spanish government show interest in Upper California.
The last phrase scarcely does justice to the truly humane and devout intentions of the missionaries; but in truth the mission system was a complete failure save in the accumulation of material wealth.
France had its traditions of the destruction of serpents by the early missionaries (Deane, 283 seq.), and the memory possibly survived at Luchon in the Pyrenees, where the clergy and people celebrated the eve of St John by burning live serpents.
He sought to increase the influence of his archbishopric, sent missionaries to Finland, Greenland and the Orkney Islands, and aimed at making Bremen a patriarchal see for northern Europe, with twelve suffragan bishoprics.
Another form of the Aramaic alphabet, namely, the so-called Estrangela writing which was in use amongst the Christians of northern Syria, was carried by Nestorian missionaries into Central Asia and became the ancestor of a multitude of alphabets spreading through the Turkomans as far east as Manchuria.
In 1625 he set out again, accompanied by Mendez, the patriarch of Ethiopia, and eight missionaries.
Although the heathen Angles had their own runic alphabet, it is unlikely that any poetry was written down until a generation had grown up trained in the use of the Latin letters learned from Christian missionaries.
In the meantime the Presbyterians, who had been officially recognized in Virginia under the Toleration Act in 1699, and had been guaranteed religious autonomy in the Valley by Governor Gooch in 1738, had sent missionaries into the border counties of eastern Virginia.
He accordingly set himself to obtain information about other religions, sent to Goa, requesting that the Portuguese missionaries there should visit him, and listened to them with intelligent attention when they came.
About 1580 Jesuit missionaries began to come, and soon became involved in bitter quarrels with the secular missionaries already at work.
In 1582 the missions of New Mexico were undertaken, and from 1601 Catholic missionaries were at work along the Pacific coast, especially in California.
The names assigned to the wives of Noah and his three sons (Phercoba, 011a, 0111va, 0111vani 1) have been traced to an Irish source, and this fact seems to point to the influence of the Irish missionaries in Northumbria.
Although the Franciscan missionaries by 1617 had built seven churches and had baptized 14,000 Indians, there were in this year only 48 soldiers and settlers in the province.
All her missionaries left her but one.
The foreign mission employs fifty-two ordained and about as many unordained, medical, industrial and other missionaries, with a large number of native agents, in India, East Africa and China.
Nantygof, the blacksmith's brook; Trefecca, the house of Rebecca; Llwyn Madoc, Madoc's grove; Pantsaeson, the Saxons' glen, &c. An historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word llan (church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as Llandudno, Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS.
With the accession of Constantine, Christianity was introduced by the Romans into the parts of Wales already colonized, and the efforts of the Roman priests were later supplemented during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries by the devoted labours of Celtic missionaries, of whom nearly five hundred names still remain on record.
A few Baptists of the general (Arminian) type appeared in Virginia from 1714 onward, and were organized and fostered by missionaries from the English General Baptists.
The Taytao peninsula, incorrectly called the Tres Montes on some maps, is a westward projection of the mainland, with which it is connected by the narrow isthmus of Ofqui, over which the natives and early missionaries were accustomed to carry their boats between the Moraleda Channel and Gulf of Penas.
The real missionaries of culture in the empire were the Aramaeans (Syrians), who were connected with the West by their Christianity, and in their translations diffused Greek literature through the Orient.
The same writer greatly praises him for his kindness to Christian missionaries.
The Swedish Protestant missionaries whose headquarters are at Kashgar maintain a medical mission at Yarkand.
There is a Roman Catholic missionaries' college.
According to the legends which grew up under the care of the monks, the first church of Glastonbury was a little wattled building erected by Joseph of Arimathea as the leader of the twelve apostles sent over to Britain from Gaul by St Philip. About a hundred years later, according to the same authorities, the two missionaries, Phaganus and Deruvianus, who came to king Lucius from Pope Eleutherius, established a fraternity of anchorites on the spot, and after three hundred years more St Patrick introduced among them a regular monastic life.
Among the leading agents in spreading civilization were the missionaries sent out from 1804 onwards by the Church Missionary Society.
Meantime (in April 1898) the Mendi tribes rose, and massacred several British and American missionaries, including four ladies, at Rotifunk and Taiama, some native officials (Sierra Leonis) in the Imperri district, and a large number of police throughout the country.
In 1829 the Paris Evangelical Society (whose agents have laboured chiefly in Basuto and Barotse lands) sent out their first missionaries, who were closely followed by the agents of other societies (see Mlsslons).
Various Protestant missions had sent agents among the natives during the closing years of the 18th century, and after the definite acquisition of the Cape by Great Britain the number of missionaries in the country greatly increased.
At this period Dr John Philip, of the London Missionary Society, was the most prominent of the missionaries in the colony, and his influence was powerful with the home government.
The championship of the natives by the missionaries led to attacks, in part justified, upon the policy of the missions not only by the Dutch, but by the British colonists.
The zeal of the missionaries frequently outran their discretion.
But, admitting all that may be justly urged against the extreme attitude of some of the missionaries, no unprejudiced man will deny that their work on the whole has been a good one.
Cassalis among the Basutos, Francois Coillard among the Barotse, James Stewart in Cape Colony, to name but a few of the great missionaries, have all had an excellent influence upon the natives.
These treaty states, as they were called, were intended to serve Treat States double purpose; they would be a barrier protecting the colony from the inroads of hostile tribes, and they would enable native civilized nations to grow up (under the tutelage of the missionaries) strong enough to protect themselves from the encroachments of the whites.
Enough has already been said as to the relations between the missionaries, the Boer farmers and the Hottentots; this grievance, however, " proved quite secondary to the intensity of feeling with which the colonists saw the steps taken by the government to deprive them of that labour (slave labour) over which they claimed an unquestionable right of property."
Rep. 6 Bengal, 39 2, 45 6, 49 8), and it has also been applied to settle controversies between Hindus and missionaries as to the custody of a young convert (R.
Japan, accidentally discovered by three Portuguese traders in 1542, soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries (see Japan, § viii.).
He was interested in the spiritual condition of Germans who had emigrated to the United States, and built two training homes for missionaries to them.
In the Mojos and Chiquitos districts the natives were taught by the Jesuit missionaries to weave an excellent cotton cloth, and the industry still exists.
In the East, too, it took on new life and Catholic missionaries freely used it in their propaganda.
It was cultivated in the Chelsea Physick Garden in 1752, and was believed to have been sent to Europe by French missionaries.
Vieira was accused of want of patriotism and usurpation of jurisdiction, and in 1661, after a popular revolt, the authorities sent him with thirty-one other Jesuit missionaries back to Portugal.
Laymen as well as monks take part in the proceedings, the details of which are unknown to us except from the accounts of the Catholic missionaries - Fathers Huc and Gabet - who describe the principal ceremonial as, in outward appearance, wonderfully like the high mass.
Blantyre was founded in 1876 by Scottish missionaries, and is named after the birthplace of David Livingstone.
But the missionaries were not interested in the settlement of the country by Europeans, the fur traders were generally opposed to it, there was bitter strife between the missionaries and Cadillac, and the French system of absolutism in government and monopoly in trade were further obstacles to progress.
Of all the Jesuit missionaries who suffered for their allegiance to the ancient religion, Campion stands the highest.
The returns for 1909 showed 45 ministers, 8 recognized leaders, 10 recognized missionaries, 70 societies, 6665 registered members, 7907 Sunday scholars.
While the missionaries of the Greek Church have nominally converted the natives to Christianity, white adventurers have more effectually converted them to various bad habits.
Trade monopolies were prohibited, and provision made for civilizing the natives, the suppression of the slave trade, and the protection of missionaries, scientists and explorers.
The state makes no provision for their religious teaching, but by the Berlin Act missionaries of all denominations are secured perfect freedom of action.
Missionaries have displayed great activity on the Congo.
In 1907 there were about 500 missionaries in the colony, divided in about equal proportion between Protestants and Roman Catholics.
The missionaries do not confine themselves to religious instruction, but have schools for ordinary and technical training.
This mission was succeeded by many travellers, missionaries and merchants of all countries, and the stream of Europeans continued until well into Theodore's reign.
For convenience' sake we insert at this point a partial list of missionaries and others who visited the country during the second third of the 19th century - merely calling attention to the fact that their visits were distributed over widely different parts of the country, ruled by distinct lines of monarchs or governors.
In 1838 other missionaries were obliged to leave the country, owing to the opposition of the native priests.
Bishop Gobat having conceived the idea of sending lay missionaries into the country, who would engage in secular occupations as well as carry on missionary work, Dr Krapf returned to Abyssinia in 1855 with Mr Flad as pioneers of that mission; Krapf, however, was not permitted to remain in the country.
To him came many French missionaries and travellers, chief of whom were Lieut.
The Royal School for Oriental Languages owes its existence to Matteo Ripa,who in 1732 established a school for Chinese missionaries.
The missionaries, who have reduced the language to writing (Gospel of St Luke, London, 1881), assert that it contains no fewer than 30,000 words, although the numerals stop at five, already a compound form, and although the same word expresses both hand and finger; but it appears that a large number of the words included in this total are compounds.
Subsequently the work of exploration was continued by Dumont d'Urville (1837), Charles Wilkes (1839), Parker Snow (1855), various later travellers, a selection of whose works are quoted below, and British, American and Roman Catholic missionaries.
Ordained in July 1840 by the bishop of Winchester, he at once entered on ministerial work in that city, and during his ministry there and under the influence of the missionaries Henry Martyn and David Brainerd, whose lives he studied, he carried devotional asceticism to an injurious length.
Mackenzie and a party of missionaries sent out by the Universities Mission to establish a station on the upper Shire.
His example and his death acted like an inspiration, filling Africa with an army of explorers and missionaries, and raising in Europe so powerful a feeling against the slave trade that through him it may be considered as having received its deathblow.
The championship of Hottentot grievances by the missionaries caused much dissatisfaction among the majority of the colonists, whose views, it may be noted, temporarily prevailed, for in 1812 an ordinance was issued which empowered magistrates to bind Hottentot children as apprentices under conditions differing little from that of slavery.
Meantime, however, the movement for the abolition of slavery was gaining strength in England, and the missionaries at length appealed from the colonists to the mother country.
An ordinance passed in 1827, abolishing the old Dutch courts of landroost and heemraden (resident magistrates being substituted) and decreeing that henceforth all legal proceedings should be conducted in English; the granting in 1828, as a result of the representations of the missionaries, of equal rights with whites to the Hottentots and other free coloured people; the imposition (1830) of heavy penalties for harsh treatment of slaves, and finally the emancipation of the slaves in 1834,3 - all these things increased the dislike of the farmers to the government.
On the advice of the missionaries, who exercised great influence with all the non-Dutch races, a number of native states were recognized and subsidized by the Cape government, with the object - not realized - of obtaining peace on this northern frontier.
By his energetic action, however, in support of the missionaries Moffat and Livingstone, Sir George kept open for the British the road through Bechuanaland to the far interior.
The number of foreign residents in 1900 was about 30, most of them officials or missionaries.
After a successful series of tours, during which he debated publicly with orthodox pundits and with Christian missionaries, he died at Ajmere in 1883.
In this year Jason Lee returned to the Eastern states and carried back to Oregon with him by sea over fifty people, missionaries and their families.
The new government encountered the opposition of the missionaries and of the non-American population, but it was soon strengthened by the "Great Immigration" in 1843, when nearly nine hundred men, women and children, after assembling at Independence, Missouri, crossed the plains in a body and settled in the Columbia Valley.
Irish origin, and although certain of them were com piled on the continent, under the influence of the island missionaries, it seems quite certain that a Roman Penitential has never existed.'
The first Europeans to visit the state were probably French coureurs des bois or Jesuit missionaries.
It was finally evangelized from quite another quarter, by Irish missionaries brought by King Oswald from Columbas monastery of lona.
Yet even in those English regions where the missionaries from lona were the founders of the Church, the representatives of Rome were to be its organizers.
Not merely did it produce the great band of missionaries who converted heathen GermanyWilliEli h brord, Suidbert, Boniface and the restbut it excelled church, the other national churches in learning and culture.
The period when the English kingdoms began to enter into the commonwealth of Christendom, by receiving the Formation missionaries sent out from Rome or from lona, practikingdoms. cally coincides with the period in which the occupation of central Britain was completed, and the kingdoms of the conquerors assumed their final size and shape.
How he gathered, scholars from the continent, Wales and Ireland; how he collected the old heroic poems of the nation, how he himself translated books from the Latin tongue, started schools, and set his scribes to write up the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is told elsewhere, as are his mechanical inventions, his buildings, and his dealings with missionaries and explorers (see ALFRED).
But the Lollards were a feeble and helpless minority; they no longer produced writers, organizers or missionaries.
The Anglo-Saxons themselves could not write until Christian missionaries had reintroduced the art at the end of the 6th century, and history was not by any means the first purpose to which they applied it.
The former accepted the name Maranon in Peru, and as the missionaries penetrated the valley they extended the name until they reached the mouth of the Ucayali; while, as the Portuguese ascended the Amazon, they carried this name to the extent of their explorations.
Between the Huallaga and the Ucayali lies the famous " Pampa del Sacramento," a level region of stoneless alluvial lands covered with thick, dark forests, first entered by the missionaries in 1726.
Later, the missionaries of Cuenca and Quito established many missions in the Pais de los Maynas, and made extensive use of the Pongo de Manseriche as an avenue of communication with their several convents on the Andean plateau.
The French adventurers, bent on finding either a "North-west passage" or some land route to the Pacific (which they believed to be no farther west than the Mississippi), naturally went west by the water routes of Wisconsin; as a fine field for their bartering and trading with water-courses by which they could convey their pelts and skins back to Montreal, the region attracted the coureurs de bois and fur traders; and it seemed promising also to the zealous French Catholic missionaries.
An Indian village occupied the site of Red Wing probably for many years before the arrival of the first whites, two Swiss missionaries, Samuel Denton and Daniel Gavin, who maintained a mission here in 18374 6.
It was organized "to diffuse the knowledge and promote the interests of pure Christianity"; and it published tracts and books, supported poor churches, sent out missionaries into every part of the country, and established new churches in nearly all the states.
He entered a monastery, but under the influence of Western missionaries he became possessed with the idea of propagating Western ideas and culture in Armenia, and of converting the Armenian Church from its monophysitism and uniting it to the Latin Church.
Judson was perhaps the greatest, as he was practically the first, of the many missionaries sent from the United States into foreign fields; his fervour, his devotion to duty, and his fortitude in the face of danger mark him as the prototype of the American missionary.
The Lapp tongue was long ago reduced to writing by the missionaries; but very little has been printed in it except school-books and religious works.
In western New Guinea, according to the Dutch missionaries, there is a vague notion of a universal spirit, practically represented Spirit by several malevolent powers, as Manoin, the mostn the woods; Narw, in the worship. c p louds, u above the trrees, l a sort of Erl-Konig h o carries off children; Faknik, in the rocks by the sea, who raises storms. As a protection against these the people construct - having first with much ceremony chosen a tree for the purpose - certain rude images called karwars, each representing a recently dead progenitor, whose spirit is then invoked to occupy the image and protect them against their enemies and give success to their undertakings.
The labours of the Wesleyan missionaries, however, must always have a prominent place in any history of Fiji.
The peculiarities which owing to Ireland's isolation had survived were brought into prominence when the Irish missionaries came into contact with Roman ecclesiastics.
Owing to these controversies the real work of the early Irish missionaries in converting the pagans of Britain and central Europe, and sowing the seeds of culture there, is apt to be overlooked.
What Irish missionaries and their foreign pupils had implanted for more than a century quite independently of Rome, Winfrid organized and established under Roman authority partly by force of arms.
The fate of Bishop Daly of Kildare, who preached in Irish, and who thrice had his house burned over his head, was not likely to encourage missionaries.
The Malagasy had never invented for themselves a written character, and had consequently no manuscripts, inscriptions or books, until their language was reduced to writing, and its orthography settled by English missionaries.
At the same period (1820) Christian Introduc- teaching was commenced in the capital by the London Missionary Society, and by its missionaries Chris- the language was reduced to a systematic written tianity.
In 1835 the profession of the Christian religion was declared illegal; all worship was to cease, and all religious books were ordered to be given up. By the middle of 1836 all the English missionaries were obliged to leave the island, and for twenty.-five years the most strenuous efforts were made by the queen and her government to suppress all opposition to her commands.
As already noticed, the Malagasy owe to missionaries of the London Missionary Society their first school system and their first literature, in 1820 and subsequent years; 1 and for fifteen years all educational work was carried on by them, some 10,000 to 12,000 children having been instructed in their schools.
For many years (1862-1896), all medical aid to the sick, the formation of hospitals and dispensaries, the training of native doctors, midwives and nurses, and the production of medical literature was entirely due to the Protestant missionaries, viz.
The few European residents are officials, traders or missionaries.
Our evidence for the intellectual ideas of man in the period of savagery we derive partly from the reports of voyagers, historians, missionaries, partly from an examination of the customs, institutions, and laws in which the lower races gave expression to their notions.
Where religion is concerned, travellers in general and missionaries in particular are biased in several distinct ways.
If Strabo and Herodotus and Pomponius Mela, for example, describe a custom, rite or strange notion in the Old World, and if mariners and missionaries find the same notion or custom or rite in Polynesia or Australia or Kamchatka, we can scarcely doubt the truth of the reports.
The article contains a critical description of the difficulty with which missionaries obtain information about the prior creeds.
This was facilitated by the Chinese system of transfer of public officers from one province of the empire to another, and in the later movements of the missionaries they frequently met with one and another of their old acquaintances in office, who were more or less well disposed.
With the sanction of the visitor it was ordered that in future the missionaries should adopt the costumes of Chinese literates, and, in fact, they before long adopted Chinese manners altogether.
But the missionaries were summoned to the palace; their presents were immensely admired, and the emperor had the curiosity to send for portraits of the fathers themselves.
When the missionaries of other Roman Catholic orders made their way into China, twenty years later, they found great fault with the manner in which certain Chinese practices had been dealt with by the Jesuits, a matter in which Ricci's action and policy had given the tone to the mission in China - though in fact that tone was rather inherent in the Jesuit system than the outcome of individual character, for controversies of an exactly parallel nature arose two generations later in southern India, between the Jesuits and Capuchins, regarding what were called "Malabar rites."
He wrote three articles against the doctrine of the missionaries.
The Merovingian monarchy thus attained the utmost limits of its territorial expansion, bounded as it was by the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhine; it exercised influence over the whole of Germany, which it threw open to the Christian missionaries, and its conquests formed the first beginnings of German history.
Descended as he was from Arnuif, bishop of Metz, he was before all things a churchman, and behind his armies marched the missionaries to whom the Carolingian dynasty, of which he was the founder, were to subject all Christendom.
He protected the missionaries who paved the way for his militant invasions.
The execution of its orders in the departments was carried out by omnipotent representatives on mission in the armies, by popular societiesveritable missionaries of the Revolutionand by the revolutionary committees which were its backbone.
Under the protection of the Frankish king Dagobert (622-638), the Christian missionaries Amandus (St Amand) and Eligius (St Eloi) attempted the conversion of these Flemish Frisians, and their efforts were attended with a certain measure of success; but farther north the building of a church by Dagobert at Trajectum (Utrecht) at once aroused the fierce hostility of the heathen tribesmen of the Zuider Zee.
Dissensions which arose among the missionaries and their apparent lack of success led to a resolution (February 1842) of the Prudential Committee of the Board to abandon the southern station.
The town church was built during the 16th century by Spanish missionaries.
Calhoun in 1819-1827; in 1825 the government acquired the first Indian lands, and in the 'thirties of the 19th century missionaries began to settle among the tribes; the first Ft.
The Protestant movement, initiated at Constantinople by American missionaries in 1831, was opposed by the patriarchs and Russia.
The missionaries afterwards founded colleges on the Bosporus, at Kharput, Marsivan and Aintab, to supply the needs of higher university education, and they opened good schools for both sexes at all their stations.
The revolutionary movement was joined by some of the younger men, who formed local committees on the Nihilist plan, but it was strongly opposed by the Armenian clergy and the American missionaries, who saw the impossibility of success; and its irreligious tendency and the self-seeking ambition of its leaders made it unacceptable to the mass of the people.
In the last case the object of the Huntchagists was to compromise the missionaries, and in this they succeeded.
The natives are skilful with their lands, and though they never cultivate cereals, exercise some care and knowledge over the coco-nut and tobacco, and have had much success with the foreign fruits and vegetables introduced by the missionaries.
In the 17th century the islands began to attract the attention of missionaries.
Owing to its patronage by the Jesuit missionaries the Guarani language became a widespread medium of communication, and in a corrupted form is still the common language in Paraguay.
In 1813 the American Commodore David Porter failed to establish a colony here; and in May 1842, after French Roman Catholic missionaries had prepared the way, Rear-admiral Dupetit-Thouars took formal possession of the archipelago for France.
Centres of population in Menado are Amurang (3000), the seat of a Dutch controller, and a calling place for the steamers of the Indian Packet Company; Menado (io,000), the chief town of the residency, the principal station of the Dutch missionaries, with a fair amount of trade, but an unsafe roadstead; Tondano (12,000), near the lake and river of the same name, at an altitude of nearly 2000 ft., and one of the chief centres; Gorontalo, one of the most important towns of Celebes, carrying on direct trade with Singapore and Europe.
Many missionaries used music, playing a small accordion to draw a group together.
Only by setting an example of humility, obtained through fulfilling the commandments, can we ever hope to be successful missionaries.
And such mission is not done by fire and sword, as so often heterodox missionaries have done.
The women missionaries could often get where no male missionary could.
The raja has a palace, and Protestant missionaries have a church.
Messrs Spencer and Gillen appear to think that such rudimentary idea of an All-Father as has, it is thought, been detected among the blackfellows is an exotic growth fostered by contact with missionaries.
The complete conversion was, however, in the end due rather to the arms of the Carolingian kings than to the unaided efforts of the missionaries.
These traders were also missionaries of their religion, as indeed is every Mahommedan, and to them is due the conversion of the Malays from rude pantheism, somewhat tinctured by Hindu mythology, to the Mahommedan creed.
The principles and methods of surveying and position finding had by this time become well advanced, and the most remarkable example of the early application of these improvements is to be found in the survey of China by Jesuit missionaries.
It is an adaptation of the Syriac writing introduced by the early Nestorian missionaries.
The title of " apostle " was not limited to the immediate disciples of our Lord, but was given to missionaries or evangelists who went about founding new churches; the prophets spoke by revelation; the teachers were enabled by supernatural illumination to instruct others.
Yet the night was not without its stars; at Rome Leo the Great and Gregory the Great could preach, and the missionaries Patrick, Columba, Columbanus, Augustine, Wilfrid, Willibrord, Gall and Boniface are known by their fruits.
The romantic character of island-history has perhaps, however, tended to emphasize its dark side, and it is well to turn from it to recognize the work of the missionaries, who found in the Pacific one of their most extensive and important fields of labour, and have exercised not only a moral, but also a profound political influence in the islands since the London Missionary Society first established its agents in Tahiti in 1797.
This mission, on one side, carried on an active propaganda against Elizabeth in favour of Spain; and on the other, among the true missionaries, was marked with devoted zeal and heroism even to the ghastly death of traitors.
The traders engaged in the nefarious traffic in Kanaka labour for Fiji and Queensland had taken to personating missionaries in order to facilitate their kidnapping; Patteson was mistaken for one of these and killed.
But there was relentless war between the Hurons and the Iroquois occupying the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and when in 1649 the Iroquois ruined and almost completely destroyed the Hurons, the Jesuit missionaries also fell victims to the conquerors' rage.
When the Abyssinia mission was closed in 1838 one of the missionaries, Krapf, went among the Gallas and then on to Mombasa, working in company with Rebmann.
More significant still is the way in which the foremost Chinese officials have turned to missionaries like Timothy Richard and Griffith John for assistance in guiding the new impulse.
On the Pacific, however, there were great gains; long-established plans for obtaining a port in China which might serve as a base for the growing trade at Tientsin were carried out at the end of 1897; the murder of two Catholic missionaries was made the pretext for landing troops in the bay of Kiao-chau; and in amends China granted the lease of some 50 sq.
Victoria is a flourishing town in Ambas Bay, founded by the British Baptist missionaries expelled from Fernando Po in 1858 (see below).
A minister of justice and religion (Dharma Mahamatra) directed its operations; and, one of its first duties being to proselytize, he was specially charged with the welfare of the aborigines among whom its missionaries were sent.
The Omayyads were accused by their numerous missionaries of every imaginable vice; in their hands Islam was not safe; it would be a godly work to extirpate them from the earth.
The missionaries were only the field workers sent out to convert and civilize the Indians, who were to be turned over then to the regular clergy, the monks pushing further onward into new fields.
The terrible cruelty at first exercised on the natives was restrained, not merely by the zeal of the missionaries, but by effective official measures; and ultimately home-born Spaniards and Creoles lived on terms of comparative fairness with the Indians and with the half-breed population.