The most widely spread of the sedimentary beds belong to the Miocene period.'
In Tertiary times the Central Plateau was the theatre of great volcanic activity from the Miocene, to the Pleistocene periods, and many of the volcanoes remain as nearly perfect cones to the present day.
The Miocene and Pliocene are absent.
It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania.
It is found in flat rolled pieces, irregularly distributed through a blue clay probably of Miocene age.
70 contained Sequoia, planes, maples and magnolias, and closely agrees with the Miocene flora of central Europe.
This was accompanied in Europe by a drastic weeding out of Miocene types, ultimately leaving the flora pretty much as it now exists.
This, as will be explained, did not take place to anything like the same extent in North America, the vegetation of which still preserves a more Miocene facies.
Torreya, now confined to North America and Japan, still lingered,- as did Ocotea, now profusely developed in the tropics, but in north temperate regions only existing in the Canaries: the evergreen oaks, so characteristic of the Miocene, were reduced to the existing Quercus hex.
In the Old World the boreal zone is almost sharply cut off and afforded no means of escape for the Miocene vegetation when the climate became more severe.
In North America there is no such barrier: the Miocene flora has been able to escape by migration the fluctuations of climate and to return when they ameliorated.
While it has been customary to describe the Miocene flora of Europe as of a North American type, it would be more accurate to describe the latter as having in great measure preserved its Miocene character.
We must, however, agree with Starkie Gardner that it is only Miocene as regards its present position, which was originally farther north, and that its actual origin was much earlier.
Glacial elimination has been less severe, or rather there has been, at any rate on the Atlantic side, an unimpeded return of Miocene types.
Labrusca, reappears in Japan), and others; an assemblage, as long ago pointed out by Asa Gray, which can only be paralleled in the Chino-japanese region, another centre of preservation of Miocene types.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
It is remarkable that the characteristic features of the Miocene flora, which in other partm of the world have spread and developed southwards, are conspicususly absent from the African tropical flora.
It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.
There were, for instance, trogons, secretary-birds, parrots, and other now Ethiopian forms in Miocene France.
The Miocene has yielded by far the greatest number of bird-bones, including even eggs and imprints of feathers.
For instance, from the lower Miocene beds of Allier and Puy-de-Dome MilneEdwards has described about so species.
A similarly mixed avifauna has been found in the mid-Miocene beds of various other parts of France, Germany and Italy.
Instead of the age of lower Eocene, as had been stated originally, these beds are not older than mid-Miocene, and not a few of the bones are of a much younger, even latest Tertiary date.
Mesembriornis, Miocene or Pliocene of Argentina.
Here also Pelagornis, Miocene of France; Argillornis and probably Odontopteryx from the London Clay.
Serpentariidae, secretary-bird, Ethiopian; Miocene, France.
Trogon gallicus, Miocene of France.
The sulphur occurs in Miocene marls and limestone, associated with.
An important zone of sulphur-bearing Miocene rocks occurs on the east side of the Apennines, constituting a great part of the province of Forli and part of Pesaro.
Nodular forms of sulphur occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near Swoszowic, south of Cracow.
Coming to the Tertiary we find the Oligocene beds of Aix, of east Prussia (amber) and of Colorado, and the Miocene of Bavaria, especially rich in remains of beetles, most of which can be referred to existing genera.
The Miocene (Sarmatian stage) occupies extensive tracts in S.
Tertiary Cretaceous Ievel of the Miocene sea, which was very shallow to the N.
All these are involved in the earth movements to which the mountains of the island owe their formation, but the Miocene beds (with Clypeaster) and later deposits lie almost undisturbed upon the coasts and the low-lying ground.
The Oeningen beds of Baden, of Miocene age, have also yielded an extensive insect fauna, described fifty years ago by O.
Nummulitic limestone (Eocene) overlies the Cretaceous in Philistia, and north of Lebanon Eocene and Miocene deposits cover the greater part of the country.
In most cases the eruptions appear to be of Pliocene or later date, but in the extreme north some of the basalt seems to belong to the Miocene period.
It is of Tertiary formation (Miocene), and has a chain of volcanic elevations along the axis, reaching a height of 2600 ft.
6 a Oligocene of both hemispheres appears Protapirus, which ranges well into the Miocene, and is essentially a tapir, having lost the third lobe of the last lower molar, and being in process of acquiring molar-like upper premolars, although none of these teeth have two complete inner columns.
Finally, Tapirus itself, in which the last three upper premolars, makes its appearance in the Upper Miocene, and continues till the present day.
With the short-skulled, short-footed, three-toed and generally horned rhinoceroses ranging in Europe and America from the Lower Miocene to the Lower Pliocene, typified by the European R.
Wortman and C. Earle, "Ancestors of the Tapir from the Lower Miocene of Dakota," Bull.
They are found on both sides of Smith Sound, rising to heights of 2000 ft., and underlie the Miocene and Cretaceous rocks of Disco Island, Noursoak Peninsula and the 2 E.
These Miocene strata have not been found farther north on the Greenland shore than the region mentioned; but in Lady Franklin Bay, on the Grinnell Land side of Smith Sound, they again appear, so that the chances are they will be found on the opposite coast, though doubtless the great disintegration Greenland has undergone and is undergoing has destroyed many of the softer beds of fossiliferous rocks.
On the east coast, more particularly in Hochstetter Foreland, the Miocene beds again appear, and we may add that there are traces of them even on the west coast, between Sonntag Bay and Foulke Fjord, at the entrance to Smith Sound.
The geological sequence of events appears to have been the following: - After the deposition of the Eocene (or Oligocene) limestone - which reposes upon a floor of basalts and trachytes - basalts and basic tuffs were ejected, over which, during a period of very slow depression, orbitoidal limestones of Miocene age - which seem to make up the great mass of the island - were deposited; then elapsed a long period of rest, during which the atoll condition existed and the guano deposit was formed; from then down to the present time there has succeeded a series of sea-level subsidences, resulting in the formation of the terraces and the accummulation of the detritus now seen on the first inland cliff, the old submarine slope of the island.
In depth, which renders it scarcely possible that they were deposited in a continuous area, for such an enormous depression of the sea-floor could hardly have occurred since Miocene times without involving also Christmas Island.
Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.
Five subdivisions may be recognised in the Miocene deposits, corresponding with five different stages in the evolution of southern Europe.
There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene.
Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the sea spreads over the western Miocene zone.
The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.
Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward.
Intrusions of a serpentine-like rock break through the Miocene strata north of Bhamo, and similar intrusions occur in the western ranges.
The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.
Crassum) have been found in the Miocene deposits of France.
Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly to the Pleistocene.