Pa never did any mining himself.
I think we just started a mining business.
Charlie asked, mentioning the area's last major mining operation.
Charlie asked, mentioning the area's last major mining operation.
The dust emitted from mining the ore was poisonous in its raw state.
The Denver and Rio Grande Western made daily warm-weather trips up the mountain to the mining town of Silverton, 40 miles away.
The centre of the mining district (Metalla of the itineraries) was probably about 5 m.
Cattle and sheep are produced in large numbers in some of the provinces, while in others mining forms the chief industry.
In 1840 the freedom of mining was introduced, 2 By the law of 1906 the state has not assumed the responsibility of the construction of reservoirs for irrigation.
The mining industry in Sardinia is confined in the main to the south-western portion of the island.
If he didn't know anything about mining, how could he convince Dawkins?
Some samples of ore, coal and limestone, obtained in the Mittagong district, with pig-iron and castings manufactured therefrom, were exhibited at the Mining Exhibition in London and obtained a first award.
The city is a distributing point for the neighbouring mining region.
As in every western city, particularly those in mining regions whose sites attained speculative values, Denver had grave problems with " squatters " or " landjumpers "in her early years; and there was the usual gambling and outlawry, sometimes extra-legally repressed by vigilantes.
In the south-western portion of the island are several private railways belonging to various mining companies, of which the lines from Monteponi to Portoscuso, and from S.
The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.
Sheep production, mining volumes, births, crop production, weather patterns... it's all public information reports and numbers.
You can make fun of that stuff, but a lot of wild things happened around this old mining town a hundred years ago.
I might need a little of that as well, but mostly I'm trying to track down a guy named Josh who worked in mining in Ouray back in the 1960's.
Brownhills, Burntwood and Chase Town, Great Wyrley, Hednesford, Hammerwich, and Pelsall are townships or villages of the mining population.
From mining the clay to make the lead, to the lacquer applied to the pencil, to the rubber eraser, to the metal band holding the eraser to the yellow paint, no one person knows how to make a complete pencil.
Shortly after reaching Neheim it bends to the south-west, courses through the mining district around Hagen, and receives from the left the waters of the Lenne.
It is in this south-western portion of the island, and more particularly in the group of mountains to the north of Iglesias, that the mining industry of Sardinia is carried on.
chat or chatchasteil) was a movable pent-house used to protect besiegers when approaching a wall or gateway, for the purpose of sapping, mining or direct attack, or to cover a ram or other battering-engine.
At Selinitza, near Avlona, there is a remarkable deposit of mineral pitch which was extensively worked in Roman times; mining operations are still carried on here, but in a somewhat primitive fashion.
Upper Hungary and the mining towns were soon in Thbkoly's possession.
In 1882-1884 three successive annual exhibits of a National Mining and Industrial Exposition were held.
The lack of employment in factories naturally affected the coal mining industry, and indeed every industry in the states, except those connected with the export trade, was severely affected.
NEW GLASGOW, a manufacturing and mining town of Pictou county, Nova Scotia, Canada, on the East river, near its entrance into Pictou Harbour, and the Intercolonial railway, 104 m.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
Excursions may be made in all directions into the mountains, affording beautiful scenery and interesting views of the mining camps.
The prosperity of the city depends on that of the rich mining country about it, on a very extensive wholesale trade, for which its situation and railway facilities admirably fit it, and on its large manufacturing and farming interests.
of country, and has developed into one of the principal mining centres of the world.
At the Cape of Good Hope exhibit, I learned much about the processes of mining diamonds.
The development of French coal and lignite mining in the i9th century, together with records of prices, which rose considerably at the end of the period, is set forth in the table below:
The Nord, which serves the rich mining, industrial and farming districts of Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Aisne and Somme, connecting with the Belgian railways at several points.
The mines belong to the Kopparberg Mining Company (Stora Kopparbergs Bergslags Aktiebolag, formerly Kopparbergslagen).
There are museums of mineralogy and geology, a lower school of mining, model room and scientific library.
Over 70,000 men are employed in the gold-mining industry, more than two-thirds of them being engaged in quartz mining.
The satisfactory price obtained during recent years has enabled renewed attention to be paid to copper mining in South Australia, and the production of the metal in 1905 was valued at £470,324.
Turquoises have been found near Wangaratta, in Victoria, and mining operations are being carried on in that state.
Agriculture everywhere expanded, the mining industry revived, and, if it had not been for the low prices of staple products, the visible effects of the crisis would have passed away within a very few years.
Exceptions were made permitting the states to grant bounties on mining and (with the consent of the parliament) on exports of produce or manufactures - Western Australia being for a time partially exempted from the prohibition to impose import duties.
Mining is hampered by the lack of roads and by the want of machinery.
(2) Polnisch-Ostrau (Polish Ostrau), a mining town in Austrian Silesia, opposite MahrischOstrau.
side of the island, in the mining district.
The wide streets are traversed by a system of tramways, which pass through modern suburbs to the mining district about two leagues inland, and on the west a canal enables small vessels to enter the town without using the port.
The opening of the railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding new quays, docks and other harbour works.
Sulphur mining M h 1 supplies large industries of sulphur-refining and grinding, - in spite of American competition.
In the mining and woollen industries they have fallen, but have increased in mechanical, chemical, silk and cotton industries.
Textile, building and mining industries show the highest percentage of strikes, since they give employment to large numbers of men concentrated in single localities.
Among the schools may be mentioned the magnificently equipped Rhenish-Westphalian Polytechnic School (built 1865-1870) and the school of mining and electricity, founded in 1897.
It lies in the midst of the great red and brown hematite iron-ore deposits of the Mesabi Range - the richest in the Lake Superior district - and the mining and shipping of this ore are its principal industries.
WIELICZKA, a mining town in Galicia, Austria, 220 m.
The mining industry, for which the town was formerly also famous and which embraced tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased.
The capital of the state is GoYAz, or Villa-Boa de Goyaz, a mining town on the Rio Vermelho, a tributary of the Araguaya rising on the northern slopes of the Serra de Santa Rita.
l Bibliography: Memoirs, Izvestia and Geological Maps of the Committee for the Geological Survey of Russia; Memoirs and Sborniks of the Mineralogical Society, of the Academy of Science and of the Societies of Naturalists at the Universities; Mining Journal; Murchison's Geology of Russia; Helmersen's and MSller's Geological Maps of Russia and the Urals; Inostrantsev in Appendix to Russian translation of Reclus's Geogr.
3 law schools, 4 veterinary institutes, 4 agricultural colleges, 2 mining institutes, 4 engineering institutes, 2 universities for women (93 o students at St Petersburg), 3 technical pedagogic schools, to technical institutes, I forestry and 1 topographical school.
(1884); Regel, Flora Rossica (1884); Brown, Forestry in the Mining Districts of the Urals (1885); Reports by Commissioners of Woods and Forests in Russia (1884) birds, even to hazel-hen (Tetrao bonasa), capercailzie (T.
Notwithstanding the wealth of the country in minerals and metals of all kinds, and the endeavours made by government to encourage mining, including the imposition of protective Mining tariffs even against Finland (in 1885), this and the related and re- industries are still at a low stage of development.
The Iaterlin- remoteness of the mining from the industrial centres, the dustrles.
The two principal mining centres of European Russia are the Urals, Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov and the Don Cossacks territory.
The mining region of S.
For the petroleum industry and the mining of the Caucasus region, see Caucasia.
Mining in Poland and Siberia are more fully discussed under those headings.'
Chelyabinsk was linked by a transverse line with the middle Urals railway, which connects Perm, the head of navigation in the Volga basin, with Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Ob and Irtysh, passing through Ekaterinburg and other mining centres of the middle Urals.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
After this last year the output of the Comstock mines declined on account of the exhaustion of the ore supply, the increased expense of mining at great depths, and the decrease in the price of silver.
Another mining region that attained importance in the early period was the Eureka District, in Eureka county, about 90 m.
With the working out of the deposits in the Comstock region, the mining industry declined, and between 1877 and 1900 there was a period of great depression, in which Nevada fell from first to sixth place among the silver-producing states and Territories.
In May 1900, however, very rich deposits of gold and silver were discovered in Nye county, near the summit of the San Antonio Mountains, and a new era began in Nevada's mining industry.
This discovery gave a new impetus to prospecting in south-western Nevada, and it was soon discovered that the district was not an isolated mining region but was in the heart of a great mineral belt.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
Mines and mining claims are exempt from taxation, but a quarterly tax is levied on the net proceeds of mines, and is not to be paid a second time so long as the products remain in the hands of the original producer.
The instrument contained a very unpopular clause taxing all mining property, unproductive as well as productive.
It possesses two Protestant and four Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue, a mining school, a convent, a hospital, two orphanages, and barracks.
Gleiwitz is the centre of the mining industry of Upper Silesia.
The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found.
A large number of applications for mining concessions have been received since the establishment of the autonomous government.
Michoacan is essentially a mining region, producing gold, silver, lead and cinnabar, and having rich deposits of copper, coal, petroleum and sulphur.
of Morelia on a branch of the Mexican National, which also passes through the mining town of Angangueo (9115) in the same district; and Tacambaro (5070), 46 m.
"HERBERT CLARK HOOVER (1874-), American mining engineer and public official, was born of Quaker parentage on a farm at West Branch, Ia., Aug.
Then he went to San Francisco and secured employment in the office of a mining engineer.
In 1897 he went to Australia as mining engineer for an English syndicate and developed successful mines.
After his return to America he had other offers from abroad, and thereafter was engaged in mining development throughout the world.
Later he was connected with several mining companies, with offices in London, and there he was when the World War broke out in 1914.
He was the author of Principles of Mining (1909), based on lectures given at Stanford and at Columbia universities.
During the first half of the 19th century North Carolina was a mining state of the first importance; in 1804 it was the only state in the United States from which gold was obtained.
The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
Iron ores are widely distributed within the state, and there have been times since the eve of the War of Independence when the mining of it was an industry of relatively great importance.
Myers, Gold Mining in North Carolina and other Appalachian States (1897), by H.
JEREMIAS BENJAMIN RICHTER (1762-1807), German chemist, was born at Hirschberg in Silesia on the 10th of March 1762, became a mining official at Breslau in 1794, and in 1800 was appointed assessor to the department of mines and chemist to the royal porcelain factory at Berlin, where he died on the 4th of April 1807.
Minas Geraes is a mining state, though the mining industry has lost much of its importance through the decline in the output of gold and diamonds.
The state monopoly was abolished in 1832, and mining has since been carried on by private enterprise.
A considerable admixture from other nationalities has resulted from the influx of mining adventurers, and some German colonies have been established in the state.
In the southern half of the range are the chief mining districts of Russia.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
Mining attracts much attention in the sierras, and its mineral deposits are rich.
The mining industry is growing rapidly in importance in spite of costly and deficient means of communication, want of capital, and lack of general initiative.
Derbyshire has always been mainly a mining and manufacturing county, though the rich land in the south formerly produced large quantities of corn.
Soon after her marriage miners had been brought from Lorraine to dig for gold at Crawford Moor, and she now carried on successful mining enterprises for coal and lead, which enabled her to meet the expenses of her government.
Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908 - in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons.
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908.
Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of engines, boilers, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second among the state's manufactures; their value increased from $43,617,07 2 in 1890 to $72,399,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in 1905.
The iron mines are among the oldest in the country; mining began probably as early as 1731.
KONGSBERG, a mining town of Norway in Buskerud amt (county), on the Laagen, 500 ft.
The fierce mining population of the town was mainly German, and fanatically Catholic, in contrast with Prague, which was Czech and utraquist.
He may lease the settled land, or any part of it, for any time not exceeding (a) in the case of a building lease, 99 years; (b) in the case of a mining lease, 60 years, (c) in the case of any other lease, 21 years.
The profits obtained from ground-nuts (Arachis hypogea) in Gambia, gold mining in the Gold Coast, and from products of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in the palm-oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.
Beeby Thompson, Petroleum Mining (1910); L.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
Among institutions there are a specially fine public library, museums of geology and natural history and antiquities, mining and science schools, the West Cornwall Infirmary and a meteorological station.
GELLIVARA [GELLIVARE], a mining town of Sweden in the district (ltin) of Norrbotten, 815 m.
It is an old mining town, situated at an altitude of 1945 ft.
It possesses a famous academy of mining and forestry, founded by Maria Theresa in 1760, to which are attached a remarkable collection of minerals, and a chemical laboratory.
In the 12th century, together with the whole mining region of northern Hungary, it was colonized by German settlers, who later embraced the Reformation.
In the mining districts of Pennsylvania the organization fell under the control of a lawless element,, 014k (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
After the war its activity was shown by an increasing number of assassinations, burnings and other outrages, until by 1875 it completely dominated the mining classes and forced a general strike in the coal regions.
Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
Mining industries are still undeveloped, but considerable progress has been made in manufactures, especially of textile fabrics.
The industries of the Lake District include slate quarrying and some lead and zinc mining, and weaving, bobbin-making and pencil-making.
The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.
From a mining settlement the city grew as the inequalities of the site permitted.
Ouro Preto is the seat of the best mining school in Brazil.
With the decay of her mining industries, Ouro Preto had become merely the political centre of the state.
Many industries flourish on the outskirts of the town, including rope and net manufactures, flour mills, saw mills, mining railways, paper mills.
While washing out the sands of the North Saskatchewan for gold is still somewhat resorted to, the only real mining in Alberta is that for coal.
It is one of the most populous mining centers in the county.
Mining is carried on only to a small extent for arsenic, although there are traces of former more extensive workings for other metals.
In 1907 48.5% of all wage-earners were engaged in agriculture, fishing and mining, 16.3 in manufactures, and 17.7 in trade and transportation.
Mining is of very considerable importance.
After 1868 the mines were again abandoned and flooded, the mining property being ruined during the civil war.
No shafts or tunnels are necessary except for exploration; the mining consists entirely in open-cut and terrace work.
Mining for the precious metals ceased at a very early date, after rich discoveries were made on the continent.
Commerce (resting largely upon specialized agriculture) is vastly more prominent as yet than manufacturing and mining in the island's economy.
CHARTERS TOWERS, a mining town of Devonport county, Queensland, Australia, 82 m.
After 1881 the Mining Company of Bosnia began to develop the coal and iron fields; and from 1886 its operations were continued by the government.
Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture, and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans.
Bordeaux, La Bosnie populaire (Paris, 1904) for social life and mining.
This last surtax, which produces about £T90,000 per annum, was specially affected to a loan, known as the " Tejhizat-i-'Askerieh of 1905," of £T2,640,000, by virtue of a contract between the government and the Deutsche Bank (April 17, ' It should be noted that the classification of the revenues included respectively under the " direct " and " indirect " categories has now been quite properly changed, the sheep-tax, tithes, mining royalties and forest royalties being comprised under " direct taxes "; stamps and registration duties are placed in a special category, and salt and tobacco under " monopolies."
Should a different mineral from that specified in the imperial firman for a mining concession be discovered in a free state, a fresh firman is necessary to exploit it.
If a mining concession is granted within lands which are private property or which are " real vakuf lands " (arazii-mevkufe-i-sahiha) only one-fifth of the proportional rent is payable to the state, the other four-fifths reverting to the land-owner or the vakufs, as the case may be.
The other public buildings of the town include the infirmary founded in 1837, the present buildings being erected in 1883, and subsequently enlarged; the sanatorium, the seamen's hospital, the South Wales Institute of Mining Engineers (which has a library) built in 1894, the exchange, an institute for the blind, a school for the deaf and dumb, and one of the two prisons for the county (the other being at Swansea).
According to his views this nation, very numerous at that epoch - which preceded the Iron-Period civilization of the Turco-Tatars, - were pretty well acquainted with mining; the remains of their mines, sometimes 50 ft.
The whole district is rich in coal, the mining of which is extensively carried on.
Although the iron ranges in the north-east had been explored about 1860 and were known to contain a great wealth of ore, it was not until 1884 that mining was actually begun on the Vermilion Range.
Since that date the development of iron mining in Minnesota has been remarkable, and the increase both in volume and value of the output has been practically uninterrupted.
The ore, which in many places is found in an almost pure state, is at or near the surface and the process of mining is one of great simplicity and ease.
By the state census of 1905 the population of the principal cities was as follows: Minneapolis, 261,954; St Paul, 197,023; Duluth, 64,942; Winona, 20,334; Stillwater, 12, 435; and Mankato, 10,996; by the same census four other cities, all in the mining region in the north-east, had passed the 5000 limit, viz.
The maintenance of peace and order, and the mining development of the interior, have added to the trade and prosperity of the port.
The Bochumer Verein fur Bergbau (mining) and Gusstahl Fabrication (steel manufacture) is one of the principal trusts in this industry, founded in 1854.
There are a mining and a metallurgical school.
The first settlement was made here in 1849; rich deposits of gold were soon afterwards found on or near the surface, and the settlement had the characteristic growth of a western mining town; its output of gold reached its maximum in 1850-1851.
A typical feature of the north-eastern border of the high plateau is a succession of broad longitudinal 5 valleys along its outer base, ' The wide area between the middle Lena and the Amur, as well as the hilly tracts west of Lake Baikal, and the Yeniseisk mining region are in this condition.
Mining is the next most important industry after agriculture.
In East Siberia gold is obtained almost exclusively from gravel-washings, quartz mining being confined to three localities, one near Vladivostok and two in Transbaikalia.
Mining, the second industry in point of importance, is dealt with above.
There is considerable movement of grain in Siberia itself, the populations of vast portions of the territory, especially of the mining regions, having to rely upon imported corn.
It starts from Perm on the Kama, and, crossing the Urals, reaches Ekaterinburg - the centre of mining industry - and Tyumen on the Tura, whence steamers ply via Tobolsk to Tomsk.
The principal mining districts are those of Hazaribagh in Bengal and Nellore in Madras; in the former district the mica has usually a ruby tint, whilst in the latter it is more often greenish.
Mica mining is an industry of considerable importance, especially in India; but here the methods of mining are very primitive and wasteful.
P. Merrill, The Non-Metallic Minerals (New York, 1904), pp. 163180; "The Mining and Preparation of Mica for Commercial Purposes," Bulletin of the Imperial Institute (London, 1904), ii.
Mining is only of slight importance, small quantities of coal and iron-ore being extracted in the Alpine foothill region; graphite is found near Miihldorf.
The Caldera & Copiapo railway (built 1848-1851 and one of the first in South America) extends beyond Copiapo to the Chanarcillo mines (50 m.) and other mining districts.
It was primarily a military station and transport post on the road to Peru, but after the discovery of the rich silver deposits near Chanarcillo by Juan Godoy in 1832 it became an important mining centre.
It has a good mining school and reduction works, and is the supply station for an extensive mining district.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
Extending across the great central valley of Chile, the province has a considerable area devoted to agriculture, but much attention is given to cattle and mining.
It is situated in a rich agricultural and mining district, and contains county and railway buildings and numerous mills andfactories.
The more arid districts offer no inducement for settlement and are inhabited only by a few roving bands of Indians, but there were settlements of whites in the grazing districts of the Rio Branco at an early date, and a few hundreds of adventurers have occupied the mining districts of the east.
Of the exports of 1905, 36% were of this class, while those of the pastoral and mining industries combined were not quite 61%.
As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a provedor, and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account of all discoveries and produce.
The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.
Pornbal's arrangements extended also to the interior of the country, where he extinguished at once the now indefinite and oppressive claims of the original donatories of the captaincies, and strengthened and enforced the regulations of the mining districts.
Thenceforward affairs went on prosperously; the mining districts continued to be enlarged; the trading companies of the littoral provinces were abolished, but the impulse they had given to agriculture remained.
above the sea, and is a mining centre of some importance.
Newcastle is also a mining town, but depends chiefly on its large trade in wool.
Textiles, largely cotton goods, hardware, mining and agricultural machinery, tobacco and foodstuffs form the bulk of the imports.
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
The value of the mining (except salt) and smelting production in Hungary amounted in 1900 to £4,500,000, while in 1877 the value was only £I,50o,000.
The number of persons employed in mining and smelting works was (1900 census) 70,476.
those related to agriculture, forestry, mining, &c. Lastly, encouragement is given to all branches of industry concerned with the manufacture of articles used in the more important Hungarian industries, i.e.
Other principal branches of industry are: tobacco manufactories, belonging to the state, tobacco being a government monopoly; iron foundries, mostly in the mining region; agricultural machinery and implements, notably at Budapest; leather manufactures; paper-mills, the largest at Fiume; glass (only the more common sort) and earthenwares; chemicals; wooden products; petroleum-refineries; woollen yarns and cloth manufactories, as well as several establishments of knitting and weaving.
Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbanya, Nagyag and Felsobanya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvar; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbanya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Deva and Zagrab, and a naval school at Fiume.
He himself erected a whole cordon of forts round the flourishing mining towns of northern Hungary.
At this very time northern Hungary, including the wealthy mining towns, was in the possession of the Hussite mercenary Jan Giszkra, who held them nominally for the infant king Ladislaus V., still detained at Vienna by his kinsman the emperor.
Of agricultural produce there was barely sufficient for home consumption, but the mining industries had reached a very high level of excellence, and iron, tin and copper were very largely exported from the northern counties to Danzig and other Baltic ports.
of France took the Hungarian mining system as the model for his metallurgical reforms, and Hungarian master-miners were also in great demand at the court of Ivan the Terrible.
The mineral wealth of the state is very great, and the mining industries, largely operated with foreign capital, are important.
The mining operations are chiefly centred in the Sierra Mojada, Sierra Carmen, and in the Santa Rosa valley.
Besides the alluvial deposits a little mining is carried on, gold being present in the thin veins of quartz which cross the sandstone.
The ground was discovered to be diamondiferous in 1897, but it was not until 1903, when mining began on the Premier mine, situated 20 m.
In June 1903 mining began and the diamonds found in the first five months realized over £90,000.
Next to mining agriculture is the most important industry.
There are few manufacturing undertakings other than those connected with mining, agriculture and the development of Johannesburg.
The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions.
The mining nien, especially the heads of the larger houses, did not care at this juncture to run the risk of political agitation.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
In the absence of Charles Leonard, who had been sent as one of the delegates to Cape Town to interview Rhodes, Lionel Phillips, a partner in Messrs Eckstein & Co., the largest mining firm on the Rand, was elected chairman.
Besides law, the important departments of finance and mines were organized, and steps taken to remedy the grievances of the commercial and mining classes.
Sir David Barbour, who had presided over a commission to inquire into the concessions granted by the late republic, presented a valuable report in June, and suggested a tax of io% on the profits of the gold mining industry, a suggestion carried out a year later (June 1902).
The first instalment of this loan, to be issued in 1904, was guaranteed by the great mining firms of Johannesburg.
The operations in the metallurgy of tin may be enumerated as: (1) mining and dressing, (2) smelting, (3) refining.
The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.
Charleton, Tin Mining; Henry Louis, The Production of Tin, and C. Schnabel, Handbook of Metallurgy (English trans.
ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or Anchylostomiasis (also called helminthiasis, "miners' anaemia," and in Germany Wurmkrank- heit), a disease to which in recent years much attention has been paid, from its prevalence in the mining industry in England, France, Germany, Belgium, North Queensland and elsewhere.
It is connected by rail with the inland town of Tarapaca and various mining centres, and through them with the ports of Pisagua on the N., and Patillos on the S.
COBAR, a mining town of Robinson county, New South Wales, Australia, 459 m.
In addition to the mining, the district produces large quantities of wool.
Cobar is a municipality, as also is the adjacent township of Gladstone, with a mining population.
In addition to these, there are normal, polytechnic, mining and agricultural schools, the last at Caracas and provided with a good library and museum.
to Constance, Lady Despenser, in September 1403, but it was shortly afterwards taken by Owen Glyndwr, to whose mining operations tradition ascribes the leaning position of a large IV.
Mining is now the chief industry of the district.
The mineral resources include silver, gold, copper, lead, tin, iron and coal, and mining is the chief industry.
DIAMANTINA (formerly called Tejuco), a mining town of the: state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, in the N.E.
It is the terminus of some important narrow-gauge mining railways and steam tramways, which place it in communication with the mining districts of Guipuzcoa and Navarre, and with the valuable oak, pine and beech forests of both provinces.
MINING, the general term for the working of deposits of valuable mineral.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
Mining may be subdivided into the operations of prospecting or search for minerals, exploration and development, work preparatory to active operations, and working.
Finally, under the heads of administration, mine valuation, mining education, accidents, hygiene and mining law, will be discussed matters having important bearing on mining operations.
Special methods of mining are dealt with in the separate articles on Coal, Gold, and other minerals and metals.
Quarrying and ORE-Dressing, which may be considered as branches of mining, are also discussed in separate articles.
Work undertaken to secure this information must be distinguished from prospecting, which is the search for mineral deposits and from development, work undertaken to prepare for actual mining operations.
The risk of failure in mining enterprises is offset by the chances of more than ordinary profits.
By sinking additional pits or by extending the costeaning trenches and uncovering the outcrop of the deposit more fully it is sometimes possible to obtain all the information required for the most extensive and important mining operations.
In the case of such altered deposits surface exploration alone is likely to be misleading, and it is important to push the underground exploration far enough to reach the unaltered part of the deposit, or at least deep enough to make it certain that there is a sufficient quantity of altered or enriched ore to form the basis of profitable mining operations.
The money so spent, if judiciously used, insures the undertaking against loss by diminishing the mining risk, and is thus analogous to premiums paid to insure against fire or other sources of loss.
As soon as it appears reasonably certain that the property is workable the mine will be opened by one or more shafts, drifts or tunnels, and the underground passages for active mining operations will be started.
Drifts, entries and tunnels find their chief application in mining regions cut by deep valleys.
In metal mining, when the workable portions of the deposit are small and separated by unworkable areas, the levels serve also the purpose of exploration, and in such cases must not be so far apart as to risk missing valuable mineral.
In irregular and uncertain deposits this work of development should be kept at all times so far in advance of mining operations as to ensure a regular and uniform output.
A mine, however, may be over-developed, which results in loss of interest on the capital unnecessarily locked up for years by excessive development, and involves additional cost for the maintenance of such openings until they are needed for active mining operations.
The method, of mining adopted must secure the extraction of the mineral at a minimum cost.
The principal item in mining cost is that of labour, which is expended chiefly in breaking down the mineral, either by the use of hand tools or with the aid of powder.
While the width of the working-place is thus limited by the strength of the roof, its length is determined by other considerations - namely, the rapidity with which the mining work can be conducted and the length of time it is practicable to keep the working-place open, and also by the increased difficulty of handling the minerals sometimes experienced when the workings reach undue length.
In long-wall and in the work of mining pillars the roof will be supported on one side only, the overhanging beds acting as cantilevers.
In the early history of mining there was but little attempt at systematic development and working, and the mines were often irregular and tortuous.
With but slight modifications permitting the use of pumps and hoistingmachinery equally simple methods of mining may be seen to-day when the deposit is of small extent.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
In this method of mining the different stopes must be kept close together; otherwise there is much added labour in shovelling the broken ore down to the main level.
This method of mining requires but little timbering, FIG.
In this method of mining no pillars need be left under the levels, as the rock-filling gives sufficient support to the roof.
This method of mining affords the maximum of safety to the miners.
This mat of timber forms a roof under the protection of which the mining of the ore proceeds downward floor by floor.
These separate areas are then mined in small rooms, each room being timbered as in mining under a weak roof rock.
Before abandoning a room it is usual to cover the bottom of the working-place with laggingpoles, which facilitate the mining of the floor below.
The mining of each floor is carried on in sections with small working-places which are first driven of moderate height to their full length and width, leaving a back of ore above and pillars of ore between to support the upper portion of the upper layer or floor.
The bottom-slice caving system of mining begins at the bottom of a hundred-foot block of ground, a floor being excavated under the whole area, leaving pillars of sufficient size to support the ground above.
When rock filling is available, as when the ore contains much barren material to be left behind in mining, the ore body is divided into blocks of convenient height as above, and these blocks are divided into floors, the bottom floor of each block however being attacked.
Instead of mining in horizontal floors the filling method permits the ore to be mined in vertical chambers or slices which extend from one level to the next above and from one wall of the deposit to the other.
This method of mining and filling can be used when the work is done in horizontal floors or in transverse chambers.
The use of the heavy timbers and continuous framing which characterize this system facilitates greatly the work of mining and maintaining the haulage roads on the different floors, and gives more rigid support to the unmined portions of the block of ground above.
Examples of other mining methods will be found under Coal.
'Where mineral deposits lie near the surface underground mining may be replaced by open excavations, and the reduced cost of mining makes it possible to remove the overlying soil and rock to considerable depths.
The cost of mining by the milling method does not greatly exceed the cost of steam-shovel work.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
Steel frames are more durable than those of wood, and have become common in nearly all mining countries, especially where timber is scarce.
- Ore and water skips mining cage and car for gold for inclined shaft.
Man-engines were long used, but are now practically abandoned in both Great Britain and the United States, and few remain in any of the mining regions of the world.
In mining regions where 'water transportation is interrupted during certain months of the year the mineral must be stored underground, or in great stock-piles on the surface.
In coal mining the market demand varies in different seasons, and surface storage is sometimes necessary to permit regular work at the mines.
In many mining regions long tunnels have been driven at great expense to secure natural drainage.
Under modern mining conditions drainage tunnels have lost much of their former importance.
Taking into account the risk attending all mining operations, which make necessary large interest and amortization charges on the cost of a tunnel, it will in most cases be advisable to raise the water to the surface by mechanical means.
In mining operations explosives are used on a large scale and the powder gases contain large quantities of the very poisonous gas, carbon monoxide, a small percentage of which may cause death, and even a minute percentage of which in the air will seriously affect the health.
This has a serious effect on the health and efficiency of the workmen employed, and in extreme cases may even result in increased cost of mining operations.
Two compartments of a shaft may be utilized for this purpose, but greater safety is ensured by two separate openings, as required by law in most mining countries.
There has been much speculation as to the depth to which it will be practicable to push the work of mining.
The special difficulties which attend deep mining, in addition to the problems of hoisting ore and raising water from great depths, are the increase of temperature of the rocks and the pressure of the overlying strata.
The possibility of hoisting and pumping from great depths has been discussed, and it remains now to consider the other conditions which will tend to limit mining operations in depth - namely, increase of temperature and increase of rock pressure.
In the Comstock mines at Virginia City, Nevada, it is possible to continue mining operations at rock temperatures of 130° F.
It is apparent that the combined effect of internal heat and rock pressure will greatly increase the cost of mining at depths of 8000 or 10,000 ft., and will probably render mining impracticable in many instances at depths not much greater.
In organizing a mining company it must be recognized that mining is of necessity a temporary business.
Mining is also subject to the risks of ordinary business enterprises, and to additional risks and uncertainties peculiar to itself.
In addition mining operations are subject to interruption and added expense from explosions, mine fires, flooding, and the caving-in of the workings.
To provide for the repayment from earnings of the capital invested in a mining property and expended in development, and to provide for the depreciation in value of the plant and equipment, an amortization fund must be accumulated during the life of the mine; or, if it be desired to continue the business of mining elsewhere, a similar fund must be created for the purchase, development and equipment of a new property to take the place of the original deposit when that shall be exhausted.
To cover the special risks of mining, capital should earn a higher interest than in ordinary business, and if we assume that the sinking-fund be safely invested, we must compute the amortization on a lower basis than 5%.
In the case of mining properties these profits are more or less uncertain, and cannot be accurately determined until the deposit has been thoroughly explored and fully developed.
In many instances, indeed, profits are more or less uncertain during the whole life of the mine, and it is evident that the value of the mining property must be more or less speculative.
Further, both time and money are required for the development of the mining property before any profit can be realized.
In order to determine the probable profit and life of the mine a definite scale of operations must be assumed, the money required for development and plant and for working capital must be estimated, the methods of mining and treating the ore determined, and their probable cost estimated.
It is necessary to have the work directed by men thoroughly familiar with the characteristics of mineral deposits, and with wide experience in mining.
For the purpose of training such men special schools of mining engineering (ecoles des mines, Bergakademie) have been established in most mining countries.
A student of mining must receive thorough instruction in geology; he must study mining as practised in different countries, and the metallurgical and mechanical treatment of minerals; and he should have an engineering education, especially on mechanical and electrical lines.
These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.
The training of a mining engineer merely begins in the schools, and mining graduates should serve an apprenticeship before they accept responsibility for important mining operations.
Mining is an extra-hazardous occupation, and the catastrophes, which from time to time have occurred, have caused agencies to enforce their authority.
While in some cases these laws are unnecessarily stringent and tend to restrict the business of mining yet on the whole they have had the effect of reducing greatly the loss of life and injuries of miners where they have been well enforced.
In some mining districts the coal is liable to spontaneous combustion.
Under favourable conditions mining may be conducted under the protection of a few yards of solid rock only, as in the submarine work for the removal of reefs in the harbours of San Francisco and New York.
At Silver Islet, Lake Superior, mining was successfully carried on for years under the protection of a coffer dam and an arch of rich silver ore less than 20 ft.
When large areas are undermined, as in submarine coal mining, it is best to have several hundred feet of protecting rock.
The history of mining is full of dramatic episodes of this character.
The conditions under Accidents which explosives may be stored, handled and used are from carefully formulated in the mining laws of most states, fro Explosives.
While mining is not necessarily an unhealthy occupation, miners are subject to certain diseases resulting from vitiated air, and from unusual or special conditions under which at times they are forced to work.
This seems to be due to the dust abundantly produced in mining operations, and especially by machine drills when boring " dry " (rising) blast holes.
On the other hand, as in mining ores containing lead, arsenic and mercury, the dust may be poisonous.
Ankylostomiasis is a disease which finds a congenial habitat in the warm damp atmosphere of mines, and has become a veritable scourge in some mining regions.
- Mine law is that branch of the law of real property relating to mineral and mining rights as distinct from rights pertaining to the surface of the ground.
Under the common law the owner of the surface possesses all mining rights as well, unless these have been reserved by some previous owner of the property.
This has been recognized from the earliest times, and laws have been framed in all countries for the encouragement of mining enterprise.
In many cases the state or the ruler has sought to obtain a share in the profits of mining, or even to work mines for the individual profit of the ruler or of the state.
But in most cases it has been found better policy for the state to divest itself of all interest in mining property, and to extend all possible encouragement to those who undertake the development of the mineral wealth of the nation.
The mining laws of most civilized states grant the right of free prospecting over the public lands, protect the rights of the discoverer of the mineral deposit during the period of exploration, and provide for the acquisition of mineral property on favourable terms. Striking examples of the far-reaching effect of such laws is shown in the history of the Rocky Mountain region and western coast of the United States, the colonization and development of Australia, and the development of Alaska.
- See C. Le Neve Foster's Ore and Stone Mining (6th ed., London, 1905), or G.
The following works may also be consulted: Books - Bertolio, Coltivazione delle minere (Milan, 1902); Brown, The Organization of Gold Mining Business (Glasgow, 1897); Brough, Mine Surveying (12th ed., London, 1906); Bulman and Redmayne, Colliery Working and Management (London, 1896); Colomer, Exploitation des mines (Paris, 1899); Curle, The Gold Mines of the World (2nd ed., London, 1902); Demanet, Traite d'exploitation des mines de houille (2nd ed., Brussels, vols.
1897); Hoefer, Taschenbuch fiir Bergmanner (Leoben, 1897); Hughes, Coal Mining (4th ed., London, 1900); M.
C. Ihlseng, A Manual of Mining (4th ed., New York, 1905); Kirschner, Grundriss der Erzaufbereitung (Leipzig and Vienna, vol.
1899) Lawn, Mine Accounts and Mining Book-keeping (London, 1897); Lupton, Mining (3rd ed., London, 1899); T.
Rickard, The Sampling and Estimation of Ore in a Mine (New York, 1904); Truscott, The Witwatersrand Goldfields - Banket and Mining Practice (London, 1898; G.
There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month.
Other buildings are the castle, until 1793 the residence of the princes of the house of Nassau-Saarbrucken; a gymnasium, founded in 1615, and a celebrated mining academy.
For a considerable portion of the period between 1853 and 1865 John Petherick, a Welshman, originally a mining engineer, explored the Ghazal region, particularly the main stream and the Jur.
Next in importance to copper mining was the development of the palm-oil industry, which up to 1911 had been practically confined to the Mayumba district.
1910, Kambove, the mining centre, in 1913 and Bukama, at the head of navigation on the Lualaba in May 1918.
On his return he assisted his father in surveying the Stockton & Darlington and Liverpool && Manchester lines, but in 1824 he accepted an engagement in South America to take charge of the engineering operations of the Colombian Mining Association of London.
It is the headquarters of the Bulli Mining Company, whose coal-mine on the flank of the Illawarra Mountains is worked by a tunnel, 2 m.
Coal mining is an important industry, and the borough is supplied with natural gas.
The foreign population is chiefly concentrated in Lima and Callao, though mining and other industries have drawn small contingents to other places.
The professional schools include a school of civil and mining engineering at Lima (created 1876), a military school at Chorrillos under the direction of French instructors, a naval school at Callao, nine episcopal seminaries (one for each diocese), a national agricultural school in the vicinity of Lima (created 1902), and a few commercial schools.
It contains many valuable articles on history, topography, botany, mining, commerce and statistics.
Although her mining industries have been the longest and most widely known, the principal source of Peru's wealth is agriculture.
Mining was the chief industry of Peru under Spanish rule.
The Inca tribes were an agricultural and pastoral people, but the abundance of gold and silver in their possession at the time of the conquest shows that mining must have received considerable attention.
There was a decline in mining enterprise after the revolt of the colonists against Spanish rule, owing to the unsettled state of the country, and this decline continued in some measure to the end of the century.
In 1876 new mining laws were enacted which gave better titles to mining properties and better regulations for their operation, but the outbreak of the war with Chile at the end of the decade and the succeeding years of disorganization and partisan strife defeated their purpose.
Another new mining code was adopted in 1901, and this, with an improvement in political and economic conditions, has led to a renewal of mining enterprise.
Modern methods of hydraulic mining have been introduced to work the auriferous banks of Poto; elsewhere antiquated methods only are employed.
The number of mining claims (pertenencias) registered in 1907 was 12,858, according to official returns, each subject to a tax of 30 soles, or £3, per annum, the payment of which secures complete ownership of the property.
The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
Higginson, Mines and Mining in Peru (ibid.
above sea-level (whence its name, from an Ojibway Indian word, said to mean "high up"), in the centre of the Marquette Range iron district, and has seven mines within its limits; the mining of iron ore is its principal industry.
The longer Christina ruled, the more anxious for the future fate of her empire grew the men who had helped to build it up. Yet she gave fresh privileges to the towns; she encouraged trade and manufactures, especially the mining industries of the Dales; in 1649 she issued the first school ordinance for the whole kingdom; she encouraged foreign scholars to settle in Sweden; and native science and literature, under her liberal encouragement, flourished as they had never flourished before.
The province contains gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal and salt, but mining has never been developed to any extent.
The mining of iron ore was begun about 1767 in the vicinity of the present Cranston, and much of the metal was used in the making of cannon during the War of Independence, but the supply was soon exhausted.
Lead is of frequent occurrence, and indeed the area through which copper, silver, lead, tin and zinc are distributed in sufficient quantities to make mining answer, comprises at least 80,000 sq.
The richest mining districts are those of Cadereyta and Toliman, where there are metallurgical works for the reduction of ores.
end of the state and afford transportation facilities for the agricultural districts, but the mining districts of the N.
Olmiitz is an important railway junction, and is the emporium of a busy mining and industrial district.
Next in importance comes the mining of brown coal, which has also been carried on for a long time.
south-east by rail from Caldera, the principal port of this great mining district.
It is the largest city in eastern Oregon, and is the centre of important mining, lumber, farming and live-stock interests.
In 463 after a siege of more than two years the Athenians captured Thasos, with which they had quarrelled over mining rights in the Strymon valley.
In these thoroughfares and in several of the streets which intersect them are the offices of the mining companies, the banks, clubs, newspaper offices, hotels and shops, the majority being handsome stone or brick buildings, while the survival of some wooden shanties and corrugated iron buildings recalls the early character of the town.
The Transvaal university college, founded in 1904 as the technical institute (the change of title being made in 1906), provides full courses in science, mining, engineering and law.
- There is an ample supply of water to the town and mines, under a water board representing all the Rand municipalities and the mining companies.
By 1892 the leading mines had proved their dividend-earning capacity, and in 1895 there was a great "boom" in the shares of the mining companies.
Since 1887 the management of the town had been entrusted to a nominated sanitary board, under the chairmanship of the mining commissioner appointed by the South African Republic. In 1890 elected members had been admitted to this board, but at the end of 1897 an elective stadsraad (town council) was constituted, though its functions were strictly limited.
There was a great development in the mining industry during 18 971898 and 1899, thei value of the gold extracted in 1898 exceeding £15,000,000, but the political situation grew worse, and in September 1899, owing to the imminence of war between the Transvaal and Great Britain, the majority of the Uitlanders fled from the city.
social science (r900) - which offers courses in commerce, administration, modern history and practical philanthropy - and a school of education, first opened in 1907, to train secondary and college teachers and school principals and superintendents; a college of law (1868); a college of medicine (1870), including a training school for nurses (1897); a college of homoeopathic medicine (1877), including a nurses' training school (1894); a college of dentistry (1882); a college of pharmacy (1885); a graduate college; a college of applied science (1903), with courses in civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, municipal and sanitary engineering and courses in chemistry; a summer school for teachers and librarians and a university extension department.
Besides mining, the local industries are the manufacture of Epsom pottery, bricks and tiles, iron-founding, stone-cutting, brewing, tanning and coach-building.
This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.
On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.
Not only is vein-material formerly regarded as unremunerative now extracted at a profit, but in many instances increased gold-values have been encountered below zones of relative barrenness, and operators have been encouraged to make costly preparations for really deep mining - more than 3000 ft.
Of this increase, a considerable part was derived from gold-quartz mining, though much was also obtained as a by-product in the working of the ores of other metals.
By far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come fromWestAustralia,which began its production in 1887 - about the time of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South Africa-and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899, £6,179,000 in 1900, and L8,212,000 in 1905.
So certain is the ore-bearing formation that engineers in estimating its auriferous contents feel justified in assuming, as a factor in their calculations, a vertical extension limited only by the lowest depths at which mining is feasible.
Mining and Metallurgy.
In alluvial deposits the richest ground is usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach the auriferous ground.
- This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e.
Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.
Gold dredging is treated by Captain C. C. Longridge in Gold Dredging, and hydraulic mining is discussed by the same author in his Hydraulic Mining.
Truscott,Witwaters- rand Goldfields Banket and Mining Practice; Australasia: D.
Clark, Australian Mining and Metallurgy; Karl Schmeisser, Goldfields of Australasia; A.
Charleton, Gold Mining and Milling in Western Australia; India: F.
Although the state is supposed to have several of the minerals found in this part of Mexico (silver, cinnabar, iron, lead, gold, petroleum and coal), its mining industries continue undeveloped and neglected.
It has important iron and steel works and iron foundries, at which armour-plates, guns and projectiles are made for the Italian navy, also steel castings, machinery and rails, a royal arms factory, and lignite mining.
The mining of these, together with blast furnaces and engineering works, occupies the large industrial population.
Mining is likewise an important industry.
pop. 8000 in 1896), on the Rio Santa or Huaraz, is a large mining centre in the sierras, 9931 ft.
KORMOCZBANYA (German, Kremnitz), an old mining town, in the county of Bars, in Hungary, 158 m.
He was educated at the Kreuzschule in Dresden and entered at the age of seventeen the mining academy at Freiburg in Saxony, where he remained two years.
Another very important industry is the manufacture of dynamite and other explosives at Baracaldo, closely connected with the mining interests.
The mining and industrial interests of Biscay were very materially assisted by the quick and important development of means of communication of every kind.
Columbia is in a fine farming region; is engaged extensively in the mining and shipping of phosphates; has an important trade in live-stock, especially mules; manufactures cotton, lumber, flour, bricks, pumps and woollen goods; and has marble and stone works.
Stonehouse (pop. 2961), a mining and weaving town about 4 m.
Eisleben has long been the centre of an important mining district (Luther was a miner's son), the principal products being silver and copper.
It possesses smelting works and a school of mining.
2% of the wage-earners were engaged in mining.
- Information about manufactures, mining and .agriculture may be found in the reports of the Twelfth Census of the United States, especially Bulletins 69 and zoo.
In mining, a "gouge" is the layer of soft rock or earth sometimes found in each side of a vein of coal or ore, which the miner can scoop out with his pick, and thus attack the vein more easily from the side.
In the other chief industrial region of Germany, in Saxony, Zwickau and Lugau, are important mining centres.
Another kind of application of machinery to coal mining is that of Messrs Bidder & Jones, which is intended to replace the use of blasting for bringing down the coal.
This corps rendered invaluable service at the exploring and rescue operations after the explosion at Courrieres in March 1906, the most disastrous mining accident on record, when 110o miners were killed.
The drawing or winding of the coal from the pit bottom to the surface is one of the most important operations in coal mining, and probably the department in which winding mechanical appliances have been brought to the highest state of development.
With the increased activity of working characteristic of modern coal mining, the depth of the mines has rapidly increased, and at the present time the level of 4000 ft., formerly assumed as the possible limit for working, has been nearly attained.
The most useful general work on coal mining is the Text Book of Coal Mining, by H.
Current progress in mining and other matters connected with coal can best be followed by consulting the abstracts and bibliographical lists of memoirs on these subjects that have appeared in the technical journals of the world contained in the Journal of the Institute of Mining Engineers and that of the Iron and Steel Institute.
m., established there a settlement of miners and continued his mining operations, together with a trade in furs, until his death in 1810.
Waldenburg lies in the centre of the productive coal district of the Waldenburger Gebirge, a branch of the Sudetic chain, and its inhabitants are largely occupied in the mining industry.
Huancavelica was founded by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572 as a mining town, and mining continues to be the principal occupation of its inhabitants.
The principal industry is mining for silver and quicksilver.
Mining began in 1905.
Numerous companies are engaged in developing the resources of the country by trading, planting and mining.
From 1890 to 1903 this company was in possession of extensive mining, railway, banking and coining rights, but in the last-named year, by agreement with the German government, it became a land company purely.
European industries include gold mining, in which 500 miners, besides natives, are engaged (chiefly in the Louisiade Archipelago), and the beche de mer and pearl-shell fisheries, which were formerly more productive than at present.
Salt is also found in large quantities; but mining and quarrying are not practised on a large scale; only lead, lignite and asphalt being worked.
Mines and Mining.
In that year the total value of the minerals and mining products of the state was $5,9 2 5,949.
Among other institutions are the new post office, begun in 1902 and finished in 1907; the Mineria, occupied by the schools of mining and engineering; the military school, occupying a part of the castle of Chapultepec; the Iturbide palace, now occupied as a hotel; the Iturbide theatre, occupied by the chamber of deputies, for which a new legislative palace to cost 2,500,000 pesos was under construction in 1909; the new palace of justice; the old mint, dating from 1537; the new penitentiary, completed in 190o; the Panteon, with its monuments to the most celebrated Mexicans; the new general hospital; the jockey club on Plaza Guardiola, a new university (1910) and new school edifices of modern design.
from its confluence with the northern Donets, in the Lugan mining district, 213 m.
In the former act he embodied a provision regulating and giving authority to the peculiar customs, usages, and regulations voluntarily adopted by the miners in various districts of the state for the adjudication of disputed mining claims. This, as Judge Field truly says, "was the foundation of the jurisprudence respecting mines in the country," having greatly influenced legislation upon this subject in other states and in the Congress of the United States.
He had taught his child to whistle, dined with his servants, talked of "worldly things such as baking, brewing, enclosing, ploughing and mining," preferred walking to riding, and denounced the debasement of the coinage.
In order to get a practical knowledge of mining he worked for a few months as a miner at the Wiethe colliery.
He then, in 1889, attended a course of instruction at the Academy of Mining in Berlin.
He was a director of many of the greatest industrial and mining companies of Westphalia, the Rhineland and Luxemburg.
It is the centre of the mining district of Upper Silesia, and its population is mainly engaged in such operations and in iron and zinc smelting.
Phosphate mining began in South Carolina in 1868, and for twenty years that state was the principal producer.
In 1900 mining for phosphates was commenced in Arkansas.
It is therefore a sparsely settled region with lumbering for one of the leading industries, though there is some mining, as of iron.
In 1750 the mining of iron ore was begun near Monroe, Orange county.
From 1880 to 1885 the first brines were obtained in Wyoming and Genesee counties by boring deep wells into beds of rock salt, and in 1885 the mining of the extensive deposits of rock salt in Livingston county was begun.
Graphite is widely distributed in the Adirondack region, but the mining of it is confined for the most part to Essex and Warren counties; in 1908 the output was 1,932,000 lb.
The Devonian system is well exposed in the Reef ton mining field.
For many years the surface alluvial mining in South Island became less and less profitable.
Excellent as the quality of the best New Zealand coal is, the cost of mining and shipping it prevents the growth of any considerable export trade.
Pastoral and mining enterprise, however, could not save the settlers from severe depression in the years 1867 to 1871.
In 1901 the government of the colony began the granting of mining concessions, in which British capital was largely invested.
Its industries include wool-spinning, mining, tanning and dyeing.
Although the district is principally devoted to mining it is well adapted for sheep-farming, and some of the finest wool in the world is produced near Ballarat.
are: Philippolis, 809, at one time capital of the Griqua chief Adam Kok and named after the Rev. John Philip. Fauresmith, 1363, a mining centre, 6 m.
Next to agriculture the most important industry is that of diamond mining.
During each of its seven years of existence there had been a surplus of revenue over expenditure, despite the fact that taxation had not materially increased, save in respect to mining, which did not affect the general population.
Departments of agriculture, mining, health and native affairs had been organized, and the civil service rendered thoroughly efficient.
He bought wild lands, took stock in mining companies, desiccated egg companies, patent looms, photo-lithographic companies, gave away profusely, lent to plausible rascals, and was the ready prey of every new inventor who chanced to find him with money or with property that he could readily convert into money.
This prepared the way for mining, which had already been begun at Erh-Lung.
On the north front the Japanese returned to mining.
The rainfall is sufficient for good grazing, but except in the Flathead valley cultivation was long considered to be dependent on irrigation; and consequently farming was only incidental to stock raising and mining until after 1870, and as late as 1900 the ratio of improved farm land to the total land area was less than in any other state or territory except New Mexico, Wyoming, Arizona and Hawaii.
Minerals and Mining.
- Mining has been the leading industry of Montana ever since the discovery of gold in 1862.
It contains the largest copper producing district in the world, and in 1907 mined more copper than any other state or territory except Arizona; this metal constituted nearly three-fourths in value of the state's mining products in 1907, the total value being $60,663,511 and that of copper $44, 8 5 2, 75 8.
Gold was discovered in Deerlodge county as early as 1852 but very little mining was done until ten years later.
Then copper mining rapidly developed and considerable gold was obtained from copper ores.
Until the development of copper mining, silver was produced only in small quantities along with gold, but as much more silver than gold was obtained from the copper ores the value of the silver product increased from $2,630,000 in 1881 to $24,615,822 in 1892.
Nor was the concentration of wealth the only danger of this policy; it led to the destruction of forests, the exhaustion of farming soils and the wasteful mining of coal and minerals, since the desire for quick profits, even when they entail risk to permanency of capital, is always a powerful human motive.
The country is divided into four mining districts: Freiberg, where silver and lead are the chief products; Altenberg, where tin is mainly raised; Schneeberg, yielding cobalt, nickel and ironstone; and Johanngeorgenstadt, with ironstone and silver mines.
The leading branch is the machinery used in the industries of the country - mining, paper-making and weaving.
Saxony is particularly well-equipped with technical schools, the textile industries being especially fostered by numerous schools of weaving, embroidery and lace-making; but the mining academy at Freiberg and the school of forestry at Tharandt are probably the most widely known.
He visited all parts of the country himself, and personally encouraged agriculture; he introduced a more economical mode of mining and smelting silver; he favoured the importation of finer breeds of sheep and cattle; and he brought foreign weavers from abroad to teach the Saxons.
The foundation of the famous school of mining at Freiberg, and the improvement of the Saxon breed of sheep by the importation of merino sheep from Spain, were due to his care.
Vapours are emitted which deposit sulphur and alum, and some mining is carried on.
The city is the commercial and financial centre of the state (Butte being the mining centre), and is one of the richest cities in the United States in proportion to its population, It has large railway car-shops, extensive smelters and quartz crushers (at East Helena), and various manufacturing establishments; the value of the factory product in 1905 was $1,309,746, an increase of 68.7% over that of 1900.
Helena was established as a placer mining camp in 1864 upon the discovery of gold in Last Chance Gulch.
above sea-level, and under and near it are some of the most productive iron-ore deposits in the state, the mining of which is the principal industry of the city.
The company which took up the mining was unsuccessful, and boring ceased in 1901, but the work was resumed by the Consolidated Kent Collieries Corporation, and an extension of borings revealed in 1905 the probability of a successful development of the mining industry in Kent.
Mining is carried on along the Northern Pacific railway W.
Tin-mining is a flourishing industry near Puket on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, and since 1905 much prospecting and some mining has been done on the east coast.
The Mining Department of Siam is a well-organized branch of the government, employing several highly-qualified English experts.
Pupils are sent to the best foreign agricultural, forestry and mining schools, and, after going through the prescribed course, often with distinction, return to Siam to apply their knowledge with more or less success.
Iglau is an old mining town where, according to legend, the silver mines were worked so early as 799.
The townhall contains a collection of municipal and mining laws dating as far back as 1389.
Litigation in mining matters is conducted before special benches attached to the district courts in.
A first step towards democratizing industrial undertakings was taken by an enactment touching mining councils.
On the principle of the mining councils, factory or industrial councils were projected for all industrial undertakings.
One of the principal mining districts is Kai Chow, in the prefecture of Kwei-yang Fu, and this district has the advantage of being situated near Hwang-p`ing Chow, from which place the products can be conveniently and cheaply shipped to Hankow.
Barbacena was formerly a principal distributing centre for the mining districts of Minas Geraes, but this distinction was lost when the railways were extended beyond that point.
The city was at one time an important commercial and mining centre, but much of its importance was lost through the transfer of trade to Cali and Pasto, through the decay of neighbouring mining industries, and through political disturbances.
It is the oldest port on this part of the coast, and was for a time the principal outlet for a large mining district.
CRIPPLE CREEK, a city and the county-seat of Teller county, almost at the geographical centre of Colorado, U.S.A., one of the phenomenal mining camps of the West.
Some peculiarities of the ores have required the use of new methods in their treatment, and in general the development of mining methods and machinery is of a wonderful character.
Among the towns around Cripple Creek in the same mining district is Victor, pop. (I goo) 4986, incorporated in 1894, chartered as a city in 1898.
He took out patents for lamps to burn oil of tar, for the propulsion of ships at sea, for facilitating excavation, mining and sinking, for rotary steam-engines and for other purposes; and so early as 1843 he was an advocate of the employment of steam and the screw propeller in warships.
The chief industries of the Basque Provinces are the sea fisheries and iron mining.
The development of the Basque mining industry is fully described in Las Minas de hierro de la provincia de Vizcaya, progressos realizados en esta region derde 1870 hast y 1899 (Bilbao, 1900).
In 1898 there began an increased activity in the mining of fluorspar, and Crittenden, Fayette and Livingston counties produced in 1902, 29,030 tons (valued at $143,410) of this mineral, in 1903 30,835 tons (valued at $153,960) and in 1904 19,096 tons (valued at $111,499), amounts (and values) exceeding those produced in any other state for these years; but in 1907 the quantity (21,058 tons) was less than the output of Illinois.
Lead and zinc are mined in small quantities near Marion in Crittenden county and elsewhere in connexion with mining for fluorspar; in 1907 the output was 75 tons of lead valued at $7950 and 358 tons of zinc valued at $4 2, 2 44.
In 1773 the mine was leased by the General Court and was fitted up as a public gaol and workhouse (called Newgate Prison), the prisoners being employed in mining.
The principal cities of Mexico, other than the capitals above mentioned, are as follows, the populations being those of 1900 except when otherwise stated: Acapulco (pop. 4932), a famous port on the Pacific coast in Guerrero, which was wrecked by the earthquake of 1909; Carmen, or Laguna de Terminos (about 6000), a thriving commercial town and port on the Gulf coast in Campeche; Celaya (2 5,5 6 5), a railway centre and manufacturing town of Guanajuato; Ciudad Guzman, or Zapotlan (about 17,500), an interesting old town of Jalisco; Cholula (about 9000), an ancient native town of Puebla, widely known for its great pyramid; Comitan (9316), the commercial centre of Chiapas; Cordoba (7974 in 1895), a picturesque Spanish town in the sierras of Vera Cruz; Cuautla (6269), the centre of a rich sugar-producing district of Morelos; Guaymas (8648), a flourishing port of Sonora on the Gulf of California; Leon (62,623), the largest city in Guanajuato and distinguished for its commercial activity, manufactures and wealth; Linares (20,690), the second city of Nuevo Leon in size and importance; Matamoros (8347), a prominent commercial centre and river port of Tamaulipas; Mazatlan (17,852), the foremost Mexican port on the Pacific coast; Orizaba (32,894), a city of Vera Cruz famous for its delightful climate and picturesque surroundings; Parral (14,748), a well-known mining centre of southern Chihuahua; San Cristobal (about 16,00o), once capital of Chiapas and rich in historical associations; Tampico (16,313), a Gulf port and railway terminus of Tamaulipas; Tehuantepec (10,386), the largest town on the Tehuantepec railway in Oaxaca; Vera Cruz (29,164), the oldest and best known Gulf port of Mexico.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
Agriculture, however, received slight attention, owing to the early development of the mining industries.
The best-known and most productive of the industries of Mexico is that of mining.
Agricultural and pastoral industries gradually gained footholds here and there, and in time became important, but mining continued far in advance until near the end of the 19th century.
According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.
The .absence of coal from this list is due to the circumstance that coal mines were at that time considered as private property and were 'not registered under the general mining laws.
A comparison with 1888-1889, when 8970 properties were registered, will show how rapidly the mining industries have been developed during that period.
Besides these, the government maintains schools of law, medicine, agriculture and veterinary practice, engineering, mining, commerce and administration, music and fine arts.
Mining taxes, which are subject to periodic changes, consist of an initial or registry tax on the claim (pertenencia), an annual or rental tax on each claim, and a tax of 32% (1905) on the export of unrefined gold and silver, 21% on partially refined ores, and 12% on pure silver.
of the capital, on the slopes of the Serra da Chapada, and noted for its mining industries, cotton and tobacco.
He studied at the famous mining academy of Freiberg, in Saxony, and on completing his curriculum travelled in Germany and France.
There are gold-bearing quartz reefs at Madibi, near Mafeking, where mining began in 1906.
In mining it is applied to various machines used in breaking and crushing the ore (see ORE-Dressing) .
About 15% of the population are supported by agriculture and forestry, and about 18% by mining and cognate industries.
It was chiefly the mineral wealth of the Cordilleran region, first developed on the far Pacific slope, and later in many parts of the inner mountain ranges, that urged pioneers across the dry plains into the apparently inhospitable mountain region; there the adventurous new-corners rapidly worked out one mining district after another, exhausting and abandoning the smaller camps to early decay and rushing in feverish excitement to new-found river fields, but establishing important centres of varied industries in the more important mining districts.
Here the streams that drain the higher areas descend to the plains through narrow canyons in the mountain border, impassable for ordinary roads and difficult of entrance even by railways; a well-known example is the gorge of Clear Creek east of the Georgetown mining district.
The dwindlings and growths of Nevada down to the present day, and to not a slight degree the general history of the settlement of the states of the Rocky Mountain region, arc a commentary on the fate of mining industries.
The first and third lead to-day in manufacturing interests; the third in agricultural; the fifth in mining.
Outside of these are the groups of mining and fishing.
In the second half of the 18th century, during the period of French and Spanish domination in the valley, lead was a common medium of exchange, but no real mining development took place.
The first mining excitement of the United States dates back to the discovery of gold by the whites in the Southern states, along the eastern border of the Appalachian range, in Virginia, and in North and South Carolina.
The development of the coal and iron interests, and the increasing importance of the gold product of the Appalachian auriferous belt, and also of the lead product of the Mississippi Valley, led to a more general and decided interest in geology and mining; and about 1830 geological surveys of several of the Atlantic states were begun, and more systematic explorations for the ores of the metals, as well as for coal, were carried on over all parts of the country then open to settlement.
Here explorations for copper immediately began, and for the first time in the United States the business of mining for the metals began to be developed on an extensive scale, with suitable appliances, and with financial success.
The total production of coal from 1814 (the year in which anthracite was first mined in Pennsylvania) to 1908 amounted to 7,280,940,265 tons, which represented an exhaustionadding 50% for waste in mining and preparationof 11,870,049,900, or four-tenths of I% of the supposed original supply.
This waste, however, is decreasing, the coal abandoned in the mine having averaged, in the beginning of mining, two or three times the amount taken out; and the chief part of the remaining waste is in imperfect combustion in furnaces and fire-boxes.
The most powerful impulse to mining operations, and the immediate cause of a somewhat lengthy period of wild excitement and speculation, was the discovery and successful opening of the Comstock lode in 1859, in the western part of what is now Nevada, but was then part of Utah.
This is due to improvements in mining methods and reduction processes, which have made profitable low-grade ores that were not commercially available in 1880.
This reflects the revolutionary change in the history of lead mining since the first discovery of argentiferous lead ores in the Rocky Mountain states in 1864, which became available only after the building of railways.
All of these rivers are waterways of some importance in their lower course, and are navigated by powerful stern-wheel boats supplying the posts and mining camps of the interior with their requirements.
Coal of a bituminous and also semi-anthracite kind is produced, the best mined on the Pacific slope of the continent, the coking coals of the Fernie region supplying the fuel of the great metal mining districts of the Kootenays in British Columbia, and of Montana and other states to the south.
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