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minimum

minimum

minimum Sentence Examples

  • Its minimum depth is 850 ft.

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  • In that world, everyone will be guaranteed a minimum income.

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  • He did the minimum required to keep Charles from dying.

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  • The minimum thickness of the formation is 240 ft.

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  • The principal maximum is usually found in the evening between 8 and pp P.M., the principal minimum in the morning from 3 to 5 A.M.

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  • The afternoon minimum at Kew gradually deepens as midsummer approaches.

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  • night afternoon minimum tending to disappear.

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  • The problem has been how to accomplish this work with the minimum of labour consistent with the desired accuracy.

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  • There will be so much wealth that a minimum income will be guaranteed to everyone.

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  • To create a fake identity, one would need at a minimum, our age, physical description and picture.

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  • The diurnal variation showed only a single maximum and minimum, between 5 and 6 P. M.

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  • The other extreme type is the shallow construction, where the railway is brought to the minimum distance below the street level.

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  • They give the minimum of interference with quay space and have rapidly come into favour.

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  • I can, of course, see everything in it, or if I prefer, set the system to "minimum supplements" or "maximum supplements" and let the system decide.

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  • This minimum was at first fixed at 50%, but on and after the 1st of August 1906 it was raised to 75%, with the result that soon after that date practically all the rolling stock of American railways, whether passenger or freight, was provided with compressed air brakes.

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  • They might have considered her an innocent bystander in her relationship with Allen, but being on the sideline again would, at minimum, make them suspicious.

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  • They follow the most primitive forms of religion (mainly fetishism), live on products of the woods or of the chase, with the minimum of work, and have only a loose political organization.

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  • It has a minimum temperature of 29°, and a maximum of 104.5°, the average yearly mean being 54.1°.

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  • If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the causes of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom.

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  • On British railways the duty of the companies to provide all practicable safeguards and to educate and caution the servants may be said to have been faithfully performed, and the accident totals must be taken as being somewhat near the " irreducible minimum" - unless some of the infirmities of the human mind can be cured.

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  • As it is, though a fixed minimum of peasant delegates must be returned, they by no means probably represent the opinion of the peasantry.

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  • Or these jobs can be divorced from economic realities, as the struggling painter or actor decides simply to do what he loves and live off the minimum income afforded by this planet-wide prosperity.

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  • You could have the libertarian state, the green state, the clothing-optional state, the state with free public housing for all, the state where puns are outlawed, the state with a two-drink minimum, the fiercely pro-business state—even a state that guarantees free speech but requires that you sing your speech like a show tune.

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  • But besides this, even if, admitting the remaining minimum of freedom to equal zero, we assumed in some given case--as for instance in that of a dying man, an unborn babe, or an idiot--complete absence of freedom, by so doing we should destroy the very conception of man in the case we are examining, for as soon as there is no freedom there is also no man.

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  • He showed that in a simple Marconi antenna the variations of potential are a maximum at the insulated top and a minimum at the base, whilst the current amplitudes are a maximum at the top earthed end and zero at the top end.

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  • The mean annual temperature is 62.8° F., the maximum 112°, and the minimum 25°.

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  • a word, with a minimum of rod.

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  • After an interval the polarization begins to be incomplete in the perpendicular direction, the light which reaches the eye when the nicol is set to minimum transmission being of a beautiful blue, much richer than anything that can be seen in the earlier stages.

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  • On the other hand, at Altjoch, an Alpine station, from nine days' observations in July 1903 they obtained a mean of 137, the maximum being 224, and the minimum 92.

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  • Those of the first class, which comprise rather less than half the entire system, have a minimum depth of 64 ft., with locks 126 ft.

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  • On the lines actually authorized by the Board of Trade under the 1896 act the normal minimum radius of the curves has been fixed at about 600 ft.; when a still smaller radius has been necessary, the speed has been reduced to 10 m.

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  • Those of the first class, which comprise rather less than half the entire system, have a minimum depth of 64 ft., with locks 126 ft.

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  • The minimum is either set by a minimum wage law or determined by the demand and supply of that labor.

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  • In its most basic form (which I'll discuss here for simplification's sake), it is a guarantee of a minimum income above the poverty line for every citizen.

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  • This law, however, did not serve in practice to secure so general a use of power brakes on freight trains as was thought desirable, and another act was passed in 1903 to give the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to prescribe what should be the minimum number of power-braked cars in each train.

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  • At some stations the minimum in the afternoon is indistinctly shown, but at Tokyo and Batavia it is much more conspicuous than the morning minimum.

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  • In each case the minimum annual amount for message fees is £1,.

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  • It provides extensive quayage with a minimum depth of water of 28 ft.

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  • per call, with a minimum of £1, Ios.

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  • Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.

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  • This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.

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  • 0.5 in.); weight of rails, 12 (26.45 lb) to 20 (44 lb) kilos; mean load per axle, 6 tons; minimum curve, 70 m.

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  • At Aden the minimum is a few degrees below 70°, the maximum not much exceeding 90°.

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  • The country requires a minimum wage because workers paid below the poverty line have an added cost on society.

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  • The award of the court is thus the equivalent of the determination of a special board in Victoria, and deals with the same questions, the most important of which are the minimum rates of wages and the number of working hours per week.

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  • This form of micrometer is of course capable of giving results of high precision, but the drawback is that the process involves a minimum of six pointings and the entering of six screw-head readings in order to measure the two co-ordinates of the star.

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  • The minimum of 1.27 is found in the Basilicata, though Calabria gives only 2.13.

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  • in 1900 the maximum rate was 107.32, and the minimum 105.40, but in 1901 rates fell considerably, and were at par in 1902-1909.

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  • Pain and sin must have been reduced to a minimum by God; though they are so ingrained in the finite that we have to make up our minds even to the endless sin and endless punishments of hell.

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  • In support of his theory Exner states that he has found but little trace of the double maximum and minimum in Ceylon and elsewhere.

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  • 25° N.; farther south the minimum breadth is reached between Africa and South America, Cape Palmas being only 1600 m.

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  • per call to those outside it, with a minimum of £3.

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  • The minimum annual premium is six lire for an annuity of one lira per day at the age of sixty, and insurance against sickness.

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  • These pass imperceptibly into - (5) the arid desert, where rainfall is at a minimum, and the only plants are those modified to subsist with the smallest supply of water.

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  • an hour and a minimum radius of curve of 300 ft.

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  • Cuttings are reduced to a minimum; and where the roads are sufficiently wide, the rails are laid on the margins.

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  • The licences were for 31 years, expiring in 1922, without any provision for purchase or compensation, and were subject to the payment of a minimum royalty to the Post Office of 10 per cent.

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  • The pupils of the secondary schools reach a maximum of 6~6o per 1000 in Liguria and 5~92 in Latium, and a minimum of 2.30 in the Abruzzi, 227 in Calabria and 1.65 in Basilicata.

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  • This form of micrometer is of course capable of giving results of high precision, but the drawback is that the process involves a minimum of six pointings and the entering of six screw-head readings in order to measure the two co-ordinates of the star.

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  • Mayer's assessment of Byrne's true abilities were kept to a minimum.

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  • In the vicinity of Buenos Aires the climatic conditions vary very little from those of the pampa region; the mean annual temperature is about 63° (maximum 104°; minimum 32°), and the annual rainfall is 34 in.; snow is rarely seen.

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  • It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff.

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  • By this method of transmission the battery is always to the line for the same interval of time, and alternately with opposite poles, so that the effect of electrostatic induction is reduced to a minimum.

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  • von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.

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  • Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.

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  • The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.

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  • south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people by combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to "the colony founded by me."

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  • Between these two occurrences came the disastrous decline in the value of grain in the autumn of 1894, when the weekly average price of English wheat fell to the record minimum of 17s.

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  • The minimum annual average was 22S.

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  • The acreage of rye grown in the United Kingdom as a grain crop is small, the respective maximum and minimum areas during the period 1875-1905 having been 102,676 acres in 1894 and 47,937 acres in 1880.

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  • The effect was to reduce to a minimum the risk of the introduction of disease amongst the herds and flocks of the country, and at the same time to confine the trade in store stock exclusively to the breeders of Great Britain and Ireland.

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  • Glanders (including farcy) was the subject during the twentyfour years 1877-1900 of outbreaks in Great Britain ranging between a minimum of 518 in 1877 and a maximum of 1657 in 1892; in the former year 758 horses were attacked, and in the latter 3001.

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  • Between 1870 and 1889 the annual outbreaks had ranged between a minimum of 312 in 1884 and a maximum of 3262 in 1874, the largest number of cattle attacked in any one year being 7983 in 1872.

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  • In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.

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  • Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.

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  • Kitson), Leif Ericson (Anne Whitney), and Alexander reservoirs holding 2,200,000,000 gallons for immediate use, aqueducts capable of carrying 420,000,000 gallons daily, and a minimum daily supply of 173,000.000 gallons.

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  • The longer the staple above the minimum the higher the counts that can be spun.

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  • In the United States, various methods of testing and various minimum standards have been adopted.

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  • From this it follows that hot-wire ammeters are generally not capable of giving visible indications below a certain minimum current for each instrument.

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  • The 1232 convicts " on hand" at the close of 1908 were held in 38 camps, 4 being the minimum, and 160 the maximum number, at a camp. In 1908 two central hospitals for the prisoners were maintained by the lessee company.

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  • The contents of the pan are once more allowed to cool and settle, and the soap as now formed constitutes a pure curd coap, carrying with it some proportion of uncombined alkali, but containing the minimum amount of water.

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  • The level of the lake is subject to seasonal fluctuations, reaching a maximum in midsummer and a minimum in February, as well as to alternating cycles of years of high and low water.

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  • long, with a minimum width of 6 m.; the water is generally deep and the shoals lying near the usually travelled routes are well marked.

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  • The climate is temperate, but liable to sudden changes; the mean temperature is 63° I F., the maximum (in July) 99° 01, the minimum (in January) 31°.

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  • Carychium minimum is British.

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  • Referring to the esters C9H1802 previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boilingpoints belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least symmetrical, while the minimum belongs to amyl butyrate, the most symmetrical.

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  • South of that line peace was to be enforced and a small tribute exacted, with a minimum of interference in their private affairs.

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  • There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.

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  • The money given by the state to the public schools is distributed among the parishes according to their school population, and the constitution of 1898 set a generous minimum to such aid.

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  • Such convicts are classified according to physical ability and a minimum rate is fixed for their hire, for not more than ten hours a day.

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  • to a minimum of about 22 M.

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  • The total revenues of the empire are thus estimated to produce 725,848,332, and seeing the careful and moderate manner in which the estimates have been framed, this may be looked upon rather as a minimum than a maximum.

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  • On this reduced capital a minimum interest of% was to be paid, the rate of interest to be increased by quarters per cent.

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  • The capital sum per section was fixed, in round figures, at 54,000,000 francs (£2,160,000), subject to adjustment when the section was completed and its actual length definitely measured up. A minimum net price of 812% was fixed for the realization of these securities on the market.

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  • the nights in the beginning of September, and the minimum during the winter may probably sink to-90° F.

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  • When the fruit has stoned - that is, as soon as the kernels have been formed - the temperature should be raised to about 65° as a minimum, and to 70°, with 75° by sun heat, as a maximum.

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  • This is Liebig's " law of the minimum."

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  • If a certain minimum charge must be collected in order to start coagulation, it will need the conjunction of 6n monovalent, or 3n divalent, to equal the effect of 2n trivalent ions.

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  • If the plates be covered with a deposit of platinum black, in which the gases are absorbed as fast as they are produced, the minimum decomposition point is 1.07 volt, and the process is reversible.

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  • Formally to legalize the minimum enjoined by the rubrics of 1549 would, on the other hand, offend the "Protestant" section of the Church, without reconciling those who would be content with nothing short of the Catholic maximum.

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  • At present it cannot be said that finality has been reached on the subject of the best method, giving a good return of latex with a minimum of damage to the tree.

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  • America undoubtedly are susceptible of considerable improvement, and certainly waste can be reduced to a minimum.

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  • The minimum temperatures recorded at these two stations are - 84° F.

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  • and - 90° respectively; the minimum at Krasnoyarsk is - 67° F., at Irkutsk - 51°, at Omsk - 56°, and at Tobolsk - 58°58° F.

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  • This is the minimum of critical procedure required to do justice to the facts.

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  • Elaborate rules are accordingly drawn up to secure the maximum of benefit, and the minimum of inconvenience, from this sacred fire; and in the application of these rules does savage casuistry consist.

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  • Casuistry might insist that it only proposed to fix the minimum of a minimum, and beg them for their soul's sake to aim a little higher.

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  • At the opposition of1900-1901the minimum distance was 0.3 2, much less than that of any other planet.

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  • If one pole of a strong magnet is presented to the like pole of a weaker one, there will be repulsion so long as the two are separated by a certain minimum distance.

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  • The body (or each element of it) will tend to set itself with its axis of greatest susceptibility parallel to the lines of force, while, if the field is not uniform, each volume-element will also tend to move towards places of greater or smaller force (according as the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic), the tendency being a maximum when the axis of greatest susceptibility is parallel to the field, and a minimum when it is perpendicular to it.

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  • Further, if the alternations take place so slowly that the full maximum and minimum values of the magnetization are reached in the intervals between the reversals, there will again be no dissipation of energy.

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  • Little or no change of length was observed until the strength of the field Ho reached about 50; then the rod began to contract, and after passing a minimum at Ho= 000, recovered its original length at Ho = 750; beyond this point there was extension, the amount of which was still increasing fast when the experiment was stopped at Ho= 1400.

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  • It appears that as the temperature rises the resistance decreases to a minimum and then increases, the minimum point occurring at a higher temperature the stronger the field.

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  • For H =11,500 the temperature of minimum resistance was about 50°; for much lower or higher values of H the actual minimum did not occur within the range of temperature dealt with.

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  • It will be seen that for H = 2450 and H =5500 the minimum resistance occurs at temperatures of about -80° and -7° respectively.

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  • The essential point in his advance on Euler's mode of investigating curves of maximum or minimum consisted in his purely analytical conception of the subject.

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  • His determination 2 of maximum and minimum values for the slowly varying planetary eccentricities was the earliest attempt to deal with the problem.

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  • The chamber of deputies contains 212 members, the membership being distributed among the states on a basis of one for each 70,000 of population, but with a minimum representation of four for each state.

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  • being the par value of the milreis) to a minimum of 58 pence.

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  • From the first day that he assumed office, President Moraes showed that he intended to suppress praetorian systems and reduce militarism to a minimum.

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  • In 1830 the number of annual lectures or sermons was reduced from twenty to eight; after 1861 they were further reduced to a minimum of four.

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  • The yearly amount of rain at Urga (altitude 4350 ft., at the northern foot of the Kentei Mountains) is only 92 in., and the average temperatures are: year 27° F., January-18°, July 64°; a minimum of - 35° F.

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  • The minimum of the temperature is attained in January and the maximum in July.

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  • The device known as the method of least squares, for reducing numerous equations of condition to the number of unknown quantities to be determined, had been adopted as a practically convenient rule by Gauss and Legendre; but Laplace first treated it as a problem in probabilities, and proved by an intricate and difficult course of reasoning that it was also the most advantageous, the mean of the probabilities of error in the determination of the elements being thereby reduced to a minimum.

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  • The last phrase was treated in some quarters as a proof of confirmed Austrophilism: in reality it was a minimum concession to the existing order, without which its framers could not have continued their activity.

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  • The Zagreb press could only comment indirectly, but conveyed its meaning by insisting that the Reichsrat programme of May 30 was an absolute minimum.

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  • As the minimum focal length increases with the square of the aperture, a quite impracticable distance would be required to rival the resolving power of a modern telescope.

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  • The path of a ray from the wave-surface AoBo to A or B is determined by the con dition that the optical distance, µ ds, is a minimum; and, as AB is by supposition a wave-surface, this optical distance is the same for both points.

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  • The path of a ray from the wave-surface A 0 B 0 to the point A is changed; but in virtue of the minimum property the change may be neglected in calculating the optical distance,as it influences the result by quantities of the second order only in the changes of refrangibility.

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  • The " deviation " is (0+0), and is therefore a minimum when e = 4), i.e.

    0
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  • If 8 and 4' denote the angles with the normal made by the incident and diffracted rays, the formula (5) still holds, and, if the deviation be reckoned from the direction of the regularly reflected rays, it is expressed as before by (0+0), and is a minimum when 8 = 0, that is, when the diffracted rays return upon the course of the incident rays.

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  • In either case (as also with a prism) the position of minimum deviation leaves the width of the beam unaltered, i.e.

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  • If BQ be the direction for the first minimum (the darkness between the central and first lateral band), the relative retardation of the extreme rays is (mn+1)X.

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  • The first maximum in fact occurs when 6=2A-0046X, and the first minimum when 5 = 8X- oo16X, the corrections being readily obtainable from a table of G by substitution of the approximate value of V.

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  • It is easy to see that the length of the chord (which passes in all cases through 0) increases to a maximum near the place where the phase-retardation is s of a period, then diminishes to a minimum when the retardation is about a of a period, and so on.

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  • Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.

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  • It was therefore only made possible at all by reducing the rations of the fighting men to a minimum and by undertaking the risks of changing the line of communication three times.

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  • The drop will consequently be more intensely illuminated when viewed along these directions of minimum deviation, and since it is these rays with which we are primarily concerned, we shall proceed to the determination of these directions.

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  • Since the angles of incidence and refraction are connected by the relation sin i=µ sin r (Snell's Law), µ being the index of refraction of the medium, then the problem may be stated as follows: to determine the value of the angle i which makes D = 2 (i - r) +n (7r - 2r) a maximum or minimum, in which i and r are connected by the relation sin i =µ sin r, µ being a constant.

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  • By applying the method of the differential calculus, we obtain cos i= { (µ 2 - 1)/(n24-2n)} as the required value; it may be readily shown either geometrically or analytically that this is a minimum.

    0
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  • Taking the refractive index of water for the red rays as 0;, and for the violet rays as 1 r, we can calculate the following values for the minimum deviations corresponding to certain assigned values of n.

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  • It may be readily deduced that the directions of minimum deviation for a pencil of parallel rays lie on the surface of cones, the semi-vertical angles of which are equal to the values given in the above table.

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  • 2 represents sections of the drop and the cones containing the minimum deviation rays after I, 2, 3 and 4 reflections; the order of the colours is shown by the letters R (red) and V (violet).

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  • This was first suggested by Thomas Young, who showed that the rays producing the bows consisted of two systems, which, although emerging in parallel directions, traversed different paths in the drop. Destructive interference between these superposed rays will therefore occur, and, instead of a continuous maximum illumination in the direction of minimum deviation, we should expect to find alternations of brightness and darkness.

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  • The mathematical discussion of Airy showed that the primary rainbow is not situated directly on the line of minimum deviation, but at a slightly greater value; this means that the true angular radius of the bow is a little less than that derived from the geometrical theory.

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  • Among these, in Africa, South America, Australia and so forth, where clothing is at a minimum, the men are always more elaborately ornamented than the women.

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  • The lowest temperatures recorded in official reports are those of Mucuchies, in the state of Merida, where the maximum is 68°, the minimum 43° and the mean 56°.

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  • As a result of these labours there is now in the Bohemian portion of the river a minimum depth of 2 ft.

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  • 8 in., whilst from the Bohemian frontier down to Magdeburg the minimum depth is 3 ft., and from Magdeburg to Hamburg, 3 ft.

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  • wide at the top, has a minimum depth of 86 ft., and is equipped with seven locks, each 2622 ft.

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  • If the injury be a small incised wound through the skin and subcutaneous tissues without any septic contamination, there usually follows a minimum of reaction on the part of the tissues.

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  • The method, of mining adopted must secure the extraction of the mineral at a minimum cost.

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  • The shrinkage of the rock-filling and the settlement of the workings /, Yan be greatly lessened by the use of hard rock with a minimum of fine stuff; but even so the advantage lies with the American system of timbering.

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  • The minimum grade is that which will enable the loaded cars in travelling down the plane to pull up the empty cars.

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  • To mine ore or coal at minimum cost it is necessary to work the mine plant at nearly or quite its full capacity and to avoid interruption and delays.

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  • The mean of the minimum readings in December in the central zone districts is a few degrees under 60° F.

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  • In the hilly district of Mogok (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°.

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  • The average temperature throughout the year is about 57° Fahr.; the maximum heat is about 96.8°, and the minimum 36.5°, sometimes sinking to 21°.

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  • Tchihatchef mentions that at Erivan in Russian Armenia the mean winter temperature is 7 0.1 C. and falls in January to - 30° C., and at Bokhara the mean temperature of January is 4° C. and the minimum -22° C., and yet at both places the vine is grown with success.

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  • The claying system involved the expense of large curing houses and the employment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum.

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  • Thus a maximum of filtering surface with a minimum of liquor in each bag is obtained, and a fa .r greater number of bags are got into a given area that would otherwise be possible, while the danger of bursting the bags by leaving them unsupported is avoided.

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  • appears to be 60° F.; for July the mean maximum was 77°, mean minimum 54°; for January the figures were 62 ° and 40° respectively, the lowest recorded temperature in 1878 was 26.6° on the 26th of January.

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  • It is best given in the maximum dose which causes the minimum of irritation.

    0
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  • 28), the exact place in the kingdom or consummated church (the Tower), is given as reward for zeal in doing God's will beyond the minimum requisite in all.

    0
    0
  • The vapour pressure composition curve will be convex to the axis of compositions, the maximum vapour pressures corresponding to pure A and pure B, and the minimum to some mixture of A and B.

    0
    0
  • On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.

    0
    0
  • The curves Pa4Q, having a minimum at a4, Pa3Q, having a maximum at a 31 and Pa 5 Q, with neither a maximum nor minimum, correspond to the types i., ii., iii.

    0
    0
  • the Federal government during 1902-1905 increased its minimum depth at low water from 251 ft.

    0
    0
  • The island, with a minimum length of 15 m., an average width of 22 m., and an area of about 47 sq.

    0
    0
  • The average shade maximum temperature is 84°; the minimum 39°.

    0
    0
  • But, while the Tsarist regime, unable to denationalize a homogeneous population of a different religion and language, initially conceded a minimum of rights to the Polish nation, in Lithuania proper from the outset an unrelenting system of tyranny was established which was designed to break by force every non-Russian element in the country.

    0
    0
  • sary to satisfy Laplace's equation is also one which makes the potential energy a minimum and therefore the energy stable.

    0
    0
  • The condition of stable equilibrium of a system at constant temperature and volume is that the total J should be a minimum.

    0
    0
  • This function is also called the " thermodynamic potential at constant volume " from the analogy with the condition of minimum potential energy as the criterion of stable equilibrium in statics.

    0
    0
  • state v", the value of J for unit mass of the mixture is mJ' + (1m) This must be a minimum in the state of equilibrium at constant temperature.

    0
    0
  • The condition of stable equilibrium is that G should be a minimum, for which reason it has been called the " thermodynamic potential at constant pressure."

    0
    0
  • production of the five years 1881-1885 was the smallest since the Australian and Californian mines began to be worked in 1848-1849; the minimum 4,614,588 oz., occurred in 1882.

    0
    0
  • The climate is extremely hot, the maximum temperature being III° (Mulhall), minimum 32°, and the mean annual 71°, with an annual rainfall of 25 in.

    0
    0
  • Though a minimum temperature below 60° F.

    0
    0
  • to the minimum level at the time of least rainfall in early spring.

    0
    0
  • At this period an exact knowledge of the depths of the ocean off after the beginning of the south-west monsoon to a minimum assumed an unlooked-for practical importance from the daring in August, the total range being 92 in.

    0
    0
  • It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.

    0
    0
  • In each of the three oceans there are two maxima of salinity-one in the north, the other in the south tropical belt, separated by a zone of minimum salinity in the equatorial region, and giving place poleward to regions of still lower salinity.

    0
    0
  • In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.

    0
    0
  • The belt of equatorial minimum salinity corresponds with the excessively rainy belt of calms and of the equatorial countercurrent, the salinity diminishing towards the east.

    0
    0
  • The tropical maxima of salinity on the poleward side of the trade-winds coincide with the regions of minimum rainfall, high temperature, strong winds and consequently of maximum evaporation.

    0
    0
  • Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.

    0
    0
  • The second form of deep-sea thermometer is the self-registering maximum and minimum on James Six's principle.

    0
    0
  • Buchan's discussion of the two-hourly observations on the " Challenger " the total range between the daily maximum and minimum in the warmer seas is between o 7° and o 8° F., and for the colder seas still less (0.2° F.), compared with 3.2° F.

    0
    0
  • The maximum usually occurs between 1 and 2.30 P.M., the minimum shortly before sunrise.

    0
    0
  • The greatest change of temperature at any place has been recorded to the east of Nova Scotia, a minimum of 28° F.

    0
    0
  • and a maximum of 80°, and to the north-east of Japan with a minimum of 27° F.

    0
    0
  • The minimum depth of water is 30 ft.

    0
    0
  • as the minimum workable thickness, and after making all necessary deductions, estimated the available quantity of coal in the proved coalfields of the United Kingdom as 100,914,668,167 tons.

    0
    0
  • In the South Wales system of working, cross headings are driven from the main roads obliquely across the rise to get a sufficiently easy gradient for horse roads, and from these the stalls are opened out with a narrow entrance, in order to leave support on either side of the road, but afterwards widening to as great a breadth as the seam will allow, leaving pillars of a minimum thickness.

    0
    0
  • By this means the time of stoppage is reduced to a minimum, 8 seconds for a three-decked cage as against 28 seconds, as the operations of lowering the tubs to the level of the pit-top, discharging, and replacing them are performed during the time that the following load is being drawn up the pit.

    0
    0
  • When a belt, in which the maximum and minimum tensions are respectively P and p lb, drives a pulley, the torque exerted FIG.

    0
    0
  • The king was secured a minimum civil list of £1500 a year out of the native revenues; pensions were accorded to other members of the Buganda royal family; the salaries of ministers and governing chiefs were guaranteed; compensation in money was paid for removing the king's control over waste lands; definite estates were allotted to the king, royal family, nobility and native landowners; the native parliament or " Lukiko " was reorganized and its powers were defined; and many other points in dispute were settled.

    0
    0
  • The rivers, which have a minimum discharge of loo cub.

    0
    0
  • maximum and minimum terms are established by law and on the expiration of the latter a revocable permit of liberty may be issued.

    0
    0
  • The temperature ranges from a minimum of 35° F.

    0
    0
  • and its minimum 49°, the mean annual temperature being 70°.

    0
    0
  • Ozone occurs, in an amount supposed to be associated with the development of atmospheric electricity (lightning, &c.); this amount varies with the seasons, being a maximum in spring, and decreasing through summer and autumn to a minimum in winter.

    0
    0
  • In the theological seminaries there were 417 students in 1907-1908, as compared with a maximum of 596 in 1891-1892, and a minimum of 181 in 1864-1865.

    0
    0
  • The amplitude of the phase is 1�1 magnitude; and the absence of any stationary interval at minimum proves the eclipse to be partial, not annular.

    0
    0
  • Algol gives a helium-spectrum which undergoes no alteration at minimum.

    0
    0
  • Each of the three canals is to have a minimum depth of 12 ft., a minimum bottom width in rivers and lakes of 200 ft., and in other sections a bottom width generally of 75 ft.

    0
    0
  • The state controls professional and technical schools through the regents' examinations of candidates for admission to such schools and to the professions, determines the minimum requirements for admission to college by the regents' academic examinations, maintains the large State Library and the valuable State Museum, and occasionally makes a gift to a college or a university for the support of courses in practical industries; but it maintains no college or university that is composed of a teaching body.

    0
    0
  • The fixing of the legal minimum "factory age" for children at fourteen undoubtedly favours school attendance.

    0
    0
  • Grand Bassam is situated at the point where the lagoon and the river Komoe enter the sea and there is a minimum depth of 12 ft.

    0
    0
  • Until 1894 the fairway up to Bremen had a minimum depth of little over 8 ft.; thereafter important works were undertaken, the minimum depth was made 18 ft., and the importance of Bremen as a port was greatly enhanced.

    0
    0
  • in Washington have a minimum elevation exceeding 3000 ft.; an approximately equal area has a maximum elevation less than 500 ft., and the mean elevation of the entire state is 1700 ft.

    0
    0
  • For minimum audible sounds Wien found a somewhat smaller value of the amplitude than Rayleigh.

    0
    0
  • If the difference of phase be varied gradually from zero to - X, the resulting sound will 2 gradually decrease from a maximum to a minimum.

    0
    0
  • But when the pasteboard is removed, then there is at the ear opposition of phase between the first and the second pair of waves, and consequently a minimum of sound.

    0
    0
  • When two notes are not quite in unison the resulting sound is found to alternate between a maximum and minimum of loudness recurring periodically.

    0
    0
  • At this moment, therefore, opposite displacements will be produced of the air particles by the two notes, and the sound due to them will be at a minimum.

    0
    0
  • 105 m., and the minimum breadth, on a line drawn through Schlettstadt, 24 m.

    0
    0
  • In all countries there are legal regulations fixing the minimum span and height of such bridges and the width of roadway to be provided.

    0
    0
  • He proposed to accomplish this by carefully nursing her resources, and in the meantime securing and enriching her by alliances, which would bring in large subsidies while imposing a minimum of obligations.

    0
    0
  • Immovably entrenched behind their privileges, they rendered him only the minimum of service; but he compelled their representatives, assembled at Kassa, to recognize his daughter Maria and her affianced husband, Count Sigismund of Brandenburg, as their future king and queen by locking the gates of the city and allowing none to leave it till they had consented to his wishes (1374).

    0
    0
  • The average temperature is 90° in the hot season, and falls to 60° or 61° in the cold season, the maximum and minimum readings being 104° and 56°.

    0
    0
  • The rule laid down by the Order is abstinence so far as possible from all foods which are obtained by the cruel infliction of pain, and the minimum that is set is complete "abstinence from flesh and fowl," while net-caught fish may be used by associate members.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual temperature for the state is 39° F., with an extreme of I to° recorded for the summer and a minimum of - 54° for the winter.

    0
    0
  • In the central region of the state (at Jamestown, Stutsman county) the mean annual temperature is 40 0; the mean for the winter, 10°, with a minimum of - 40° recorded in February; the mean for the summer is 67°, with an extreme of 103° recorded in July.

    0
    0
  • The minimum age for senators is twenty-five years and for representatives twenty-one years.

    0
    0
  • The supreme court consists of three judges (minimum age thirty years), chosen by popular vote for six years.

    0
    0
  • The minimum school term allowed by law is six Before the law passed by the first Legislative Assembly of the state to carry out this provision could come into effect, it was partially annulled by the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Leisy v.

    0
    0
  • 'Nevertheless, some provision was made for negotiations with foreign countries by establishing a minimum tariff, with rates lower than those of the general or maximum tariff, the rates of this minimum tariff being applicable to countries which might make concessions to France.

    0
    0
  • As a rule the minimum tariff has been applied, after negotiation, and thus is the tariff in practical effect; yet its rates are still high, and, most significant of all, agricultural products are granted no reductions whatever as compared with the maximum tariff, there being heavy and unrelaxed duties upon grain, animals, meats and the like.

    0
    0
  • In the preface Legendre remarks: " La methode qui me paroit la plus simple et la plus generale consiste a rendre minimum la somme des quarres des erreurs, .

    0
    0
  • and S.E., and has a circumference of 51 m., the extreme length being 20, the extreme breadth Io, and the minimum breadth 6 m.

    0
    0
  • The legislature of 1908 passed a law under which the minimum pay for a teacher holding a first-class certificate should be $350 a year after three years' teaching, $400 after five years' teaching and $450 after eight years' teaching.

    0
    0
  • After the increase, in 1892, of the French minimum tariff, which applied to Algeria also, foreign trade greatly diminished.

    0
    0
  • The commercial salt usually has an alkaline reaction; it may be purified by dissolving in the minimum amount of water, and neutralizing with dilute sulphuric acid; alcohol is now added to precipitate the potassium sulphate, the solution filtered and crystallized.

    0
    0
  • Crude potash is used for the manufacture of glass, and, after being causticized, for the making of soft soap. For many other purposes it must be refined, which is done by treating the crude product with the minimum of cold water required to dissolve the carbonate, removing the undissolved part (which consists chiefly of sulphate), and evaporating the clear liquor to dryness in an iron pan.

    0
    0
  • 37; (ii.) do€i Etwv Tptarcovra does not mean " on attaining the full age of thirty, before which he could not have publicly taught," for if there was by Jewish custom or tradition any minimum age for a teacher, it was not thirty, but forty (Bab.

    0
    0
  • The legislature provides by law for registration in cities of the first, second, third and fourth classes - the minimum population for a city of the fourth class being 3000.

    0
    0
  • The minimum age for a representative is 24 years, for a senator 30 years.

    0
    0
  • A minimum rate is fixed by the condition that they must be at least sufficient to enable a man and his wife to maintain themselves and, in general, bring up a family.

    0
    0
  • The climate is comparatively dry (annual precipitation about 21.75 in.); between 1898 and 1902 the minimum recorded temperature was io° (March), the maximum 92° (July), and the greatest monthly range 73° (March).

    0
    0
  • Self-control in the choice of pleasures with a view to reducing pain to a minimum is indispensable.

    0
    0
  • of all persons below the minimum census) was represented by 95 or 96 centuries.

    0
    0
  • The minimum state average of 1790, which was 5~4 in Georgia, was greater than the maximum of 1900.

    0
    0
  • So also the three decades immediately succeeding the above showed minimum decreases; and this has been attributed to a supposed greater birth-rate among the immiggants.

    0
    0
  • In the decline that followed the Civil War an apparent minimum was reached of 4,068,034 tons in 188o; but this does not adequately indicate the depression of the, shipping interest, inasmuch as the aggregate was kept up by the tonnage of vessels engaged in the coasting trade and commerce of the inland waters, from which foreign shipping is by law excluded.

    0
    0
  • In times of war they have of course fallen to a minimum.

    0
    0
  • A system coaxal with the two given circles is readily constructed by describing circles through the common points on the radical axis and any third point; the minimum circle of the system is obviously that which has the common chord of intersection for diameter, the maximum is the radical axis - considered as a circle of infinite radius.

    0
    0
  • In the case of non-intersecting circles, it is seen that the minimum circles of the coaxal system are a pair of points I and I', where the orthogonal circle to the system intersects the line of centres; these points are named the " limiti,ng points."

    0
    0
  • Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.

    0
    0
  • river canal system from Lake Superior to tide water overcomes a difference of about 600 ft., and carries large quantities of grain from the west to Montreal, the head of summer navigation on the Atlantic. These canals have a minimum depth of 14 ft.

    0
    0
  • His objective is the minimum of change.

    0
    0
  • When it is conscientiously obtained, it is arrived at by handi capping, more or less heavily, intrinsic probability as compared with documental probability, or by raising the minimum of probability which shall qualify a reading for admission into the text until it is in agreement with the notions of the editor.

    0
    0
  • The average winter minimum for the entire state is 35°, and there is an average of 35 days in each year in which the thermometer falls below the freezing-point.

    0
    0
  • At extremely rare intervals the thermometer has fallen below zero, as was the case in the remarkable cold wave of the lath-13th of February 1899, when an absolute minimum of 17° was registered at Valley Head.

    0
    0
  • part of the state; the minimum is 39.4 at Swainsboro, Emanuel county, a little S.E.

    0
    0
  • (winter 3 5°, summer 70, with an average maximum of 9 0°, and an average minimum of 17°.

    0
    0
  • and a minimum, between the arsenal of war (Ponta do Calabouro) and the opposite Ponta da Gravata, of about 3 500 yds.

    0
    0
  • The mean annual temperature is slightly under 69° F., the average maximum being a little over 82° and the average minimum 59°.

    0
    0
  • Lord Rayleigh, to whom we owe the first general discussion of the theory of the spectroscope, found by observation that if two spectroscopic lines of frequencies n1 and n, are observed in an instrument, they are just seen as two separate lines when the centre of the central diffraction band of one coincides with the first minimum intensity of the other.

    0
    0
  • In that case the image of the double line shows a diminution of intensity along the centre, just sufficient to give a clear impression that we are not dealing with a single line, and the intensity at the minimum is 0.81 of that at the point of maximum illumination.

    0
    0
  • We may say therefore that if the difference between the frequencies n 1 and n, of the two waves is such that in the combined image of the slit the intensity at the minimum between -the two maxima falls to 0.81, the lines are just resolved and n l /(n l n 2) may then be called the resolving power.

    0
    0
  • The power may be increased, but with a diminution of intensity, by using a train of prisms. Steinheil made an instrument of four prisms, each of which had, however, to be set in the position of minimum deviation by trial.

    0
    0
  • A large lethal dose kills by this action, but the minimum lethal dose by its combined action on the respiration and the heart.

    0
    0
  • For Honolulu the mean annual rainfall (1884-1899) was 28.18 in.; the maximum 49.82; and the minimum 13.46.

    0
    0
  • Their aperient action is dependent upon the minimum of irritation of the bowel, and is exercised by their abstraction from the blood of water, which passes into the bowel to act as a diluent of the salt.

    0
    0
  • Matter he held to be mind at the minimum of its action, and evolution the " expansion de l'activite incessante de la cause finale."

    0
    0
  • Great steadiness of card under severe shocks and vibrations, combined with a minimum of friction in the cap and pivot, is obtained with this compass.

    0
    0
  • Several important points were gained in the latter: the quadrantal deviation could be finally corrected for all latitudes; frictional error at the cap and pivot was reduced to a minimum, the average weight of the card being 200 grains; the long free vibrational period of the card was found to be favourable to its steadiness when the vessel was rolling.

    0
    0
  • The difficulty that is naturally experienced by a traveller in finding sufficient support on a sparsely populated "ground" has brought into vogue the traveller on commission who represents several firms. The traveller with salary and allowances for expenses survives, but the quickening induced by an interest in the amount of sales has caused many firms to adopt the principle of commission, which may, however, be an addition to a minimum salary.

    0
    0
  • of water, but in 1899 the Federal government adopted a project for obtaining a channel having a minimum depth of 30 ft.

    0
    0
  • It is certain then that when dissolution occurs the available energy of the whole system is decreased by the process, while when equilibrium is reached and the solution is saturated the available energy is a minimum.

    0
    0
  • When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.

    0
    0
  • Equilibrium requires that the available energy and therefore the area of contact should be a minimum, as is demonstrated in Plateau's beautiful experiment, where a large drop of oil is placed in a liquid of equal density and a perfect sphere is formed.

    0
    0
  • Thus in interpreting complicated freezing point curves, we must look for chemical compounds where the curve shows a maximum, and for a eutectic or cryohydrate where two curves meet at a minimum point.

    0
    0
  • The second and third figures, too, show that the presence of solid solutions may simulate the phenomena of chemical combination, where the curve reaches a maximum, and of non-variant systems where we get a minimum.

    0
    0
  • If we assume that a certain minimum electric charge must be brought into contact with a group of colloid particles to produce coagulation, twice as many univalent ions must collect to produce the same effect as a number of divalent ions, and three times as many as an effective number of trivalent ions.

    0
    0
  • This consists of a series of vertical earthenware condensing tubes through which compressed air is passed in order to reduce the quantity of nitrogen peroxide to a minimum.

    0
    0
  • Mariotte explained the inner halo as being due to refraction through a pair of alternate faces, since the minimum deviation of an ice-prism whose refracting angle is 60° is about 22°.

    0
    0
  • Since the minimum deviation is least for the least refrangible rays, it follows that the red rays will be the least refracted, and the violet the more refracted, and therefore the halo will be coloured red on the inside.

    0
    0
  • When the sun is near the horizon the rays fall upon the principal section of the prisms; the minimum deviation for such rays is 22 °, and consequently the parhelia are not only on the inner halo, but also on the parhelic circle.

    0
    0
  • As the sun rises, the rays enter the prisms more and more obliquely, and the angle of minimum deviation increases; but since the emergent ray makes the same angle with the refracting edge as the incident ray, it follows that the parhelia will remain on the parhelic circle, while receding from the inner halo.

    0
    0
  • The different values of the angle of minimum deviation for rays of different refrangibilities give rise to spectral colours, the red being nearest the sun, while farther away the overlapping of the spectra forms a flaming colourless tail sometimes extending over as much as ro° to 20 °.

    0
    0
  • Cryolite is not a safe body to electrolyse, because the minimum voltage needed to break up the aluminium fluoride is 4.0, whereas the sodium fluoride requires only 4.7 volts; if, therefore, the current rises in tension, the alkali is reduced, and the final product consists of an alloy with sodium.

    0
    0
  • Their width and height are sufficient to transmit (at the position of minimum deviation) the entire beam received from the collimator.

    0
    0
  • may be taken as the minimum in winter.

    0
    0
  • The minimum temperature during winter should range at night from about 55° in the cooler to 65° in the warmer house, and from 65° to 75° by day, allowing a few degrees further rise by sun heat.

    0
    0
  • On an average of fifty years the mean annual temperature was 49.8° Fahr.; the maximum, 93.9° Fahr.; the minimum, - 5.8° Fahr.

    0
    0
  • This divergence is partly explained by the difference of soil - which in Drente comprises the maximum of waste lands, and in South Holland the minimum - and partly also by the greater facilities which the seaward provinces enjoy of earning a subsistence, and the greater variety of their industries.

    0
    0
  • The members of the second chamber are chosen in the electoral districts by all capable male citizens not under 23 years of age, who pay one or more direct taxes, ranging from a minimum of one guilder (is.

    0
    0
  • The minimum salary of teachers is determined by law.

    0
    0
  • Votes were given to all householders paying a certain minimum house duty, and to all lodgers who had for a given time paid a minimum of rent, also to all who possessed certain educational and social qualifications, whose definition was left to be specified by a later law.

    0
    0
  • Two slight innovations were introduced: the minimum age of an abbess was fixed at sixty, and the period of novitiate was prolonged from one year to two.

    0
    0
  • Aeolotachic contraction further leads to the " pipes " or contraction cavities already described in § 121, and the procedure must be carefully planned first so as to reduce these to a minimum, and second so as to induce them to form either in those parts of the casting which are going to be cut off and re-melted, or where they will do little harm.

    0
    0
  • The average maximum temperature is 80.5° and the average minimum 55.5°

    0
    0
  • The size varies from a minimum with circles 3 in.

    0
    0
  • Cleanthes, who maintains that the doctrine of the incomprehensibility of God is hardly distinguishable from atheism, is compelled by the arguments of Philo to reduce to a minimum the conclusion capable of being inferred from experience as regards the existence of God.

    0
    0
  • Each generator can develop 5000 H.P. at a potential of 2200 volts, and is driven by three horizontal double turbines on the same shaft; when working under a minimum head of 32 ft.

    0
    0
  • The phenomena were first observed without mutual transformation, aldehyde melting at - 118°, paraldehyde at 13°, the only mutual influence being a lowering of melting-point, with a minimum at - 120° in the eutectic point.

    0
    0
  • The citizen in order to possess a vote for the election of representatives to the chambers was to be of a minimum age of twenty-five years, and of thirty years for the election of senators and provincial and communal councillors.

    0
    0
  • Earliest frost Latest frost Absolute maximum temperature Absolute minimum temperature Annual rainfall (total).

    0
    0
  • The holdings of the peasant families vary generally from 8 to 13 acres, the minimum in Russia being 16 to 22 acres.

    0
    0
  • For the twenty years1883-1902the annual average of mean monthly temperatures was 26.8° C., the maximum being 27.4° in 1889 and 1897, and the minimum 26.2° in 1884.

    0
    0
  • From the researches of Philippov it appears that during the period 1851-1888 the level reached a maximum on three separate occasions, namely in 1868-186 9, 1882 and 1885, while in 1853 and 1873 it stood at a minimum; the range of these oscillations did not, however, exceed 3 ft.

    0
    0
  • and a minimum about 5 A.M.

    0
    0
  • At the same time, the epoch of maximum or minimum was retarded, about 4 hours at 4 in., and nearly 12 hours at io in., where the maximum temperature was reached between 1 and 2 A.M.

    0
    0
  • It doubtless arose from the necessity of reducing bulk to a minimum for conveyance by caravan across the great trade routes of Asia, and now B r cks a ad that the railway and the steamship have supplemented tablets.

    0
    0
  • In the first period (roughly 1871-1899), which is characterized by the development of the offensive spirit, the fortresses, except on the French and Russian frontiers, were reduced to a minimum.

    0
    0
  • The system thus established was repeatedly revised, and always with the same objectto reduce to a minimum the power of the national representatives, and to exalt and extend that of the government.

    0
    0
  • The institution of a minimum salary by the provincial department led to such resistance that it was withdrawn, but a distinct advance in salaries has taken place since 1906.

    0
    0
  • The largest ships can enter the harbour, which has a minimum depth of 30 ft.; it has two dry docks, a graving dock and a floating dry dock.

    0
    0
  • If sunlight and twilight were the sole cause of the apparent annual variation, the frequency would have a simple period, with a maximum at midwinter and a minimum at midsummer.

    0
    0
  • in Europe the frequency near the equinoxes rises above that at midwinter, and we have a distinct double period, with a principal minimum at midsummer and a secondary minimum at midwinter.

    0
    0
  • The other months at Cape Thorsden show a single maximum and minimum, the former before midnight.

    0
    0
  • During the period 1764 to 1872 there have been ten years of maximum, and ten of minimum, in sun-spot frequency.

    0
    0
  • Taking the three years of greatest frequency at each maximum, and the three years of least frequency at each minimum, we get thirty years of many and thirty of few sun-spots.

    0
    0
  • Also we can split the period into an earlier half, 1764 to 1817, and a later half, 1818 to 1872, containing respectively the earlier five and the later five of the above groups of sun-spot maximum and minimum years.

    0
    0
  • The pupils of the secondary schools in Sicily number 3'94 per moo, the maximum being 6.60 in Liguria and the minimum 1.65 in Basilicata.

    0
    0
  • The temperature in the central part of the protectorate is much the same average as at the coast, but the range is far greater, varying from a shade minimum of 59° to a shade maximum of 107 0.1 The rainfall is much scantier on the plateaus than in the maritime regions, averaging in Northern Nigeria about 50 in.

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  • The rate of denudation in exposed positions is exceedingly rapid; while spots sheltered from the sand blast suffer a minimum of erosion, as shown by the preservation of ancient inscriptions.

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  • Thus at Assuan the mean maximum is Ii8 F., the mean minimum 42 F.

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  • The atmospheric pressure varies between a maximum in January and a minimum in July, the mean difference being about 029 in.

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  • (minimum date).

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  • Dut the end of the XIIth Dynasty at 2565 B.C.; in 1884 even Nleyer had suggested 1930 B.C. as its minimum date, thus allowing 400 years at the least for the period from the XIIIth Dynasty to the XVIIth.

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  • Of these deputies one-half are elected in the same way as members of the Folkething, without any property qualification for the voters; the other half of the deputy electors are chosen in the towns by those who during the last preceding year were assessed on a certain minimum of income, or paid at least a certain amount in rates and taxes.

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  • The peace of Bromsebro was the first of the long series of treaties, extending down to our own days, which mark the progressive shrinkage of Danish territory into an irreducible minimum.

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  • So valuable are certain of the properties of atropine that it is often desirable to give doses of one-twentieth or onetenth of a grain; but these will never be ventured upon by the practitioner who is ignorant of the great interval between the minimum toxic and the minimum lethal dose.

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  • At Alexandrovsk near Dui the annual range is from 8r ° in July to -38° in January, while at Rykovsk in the interior the minimum is -49° Fahr.

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  • The principle on which they are established may be briefly stated thus: towns with a minimum population of Boo can, on a poll demanded by the ratepayers showing a majority in favour of it, acquire the status of a police burgh subject to representations from neighbouring burghs, a proviso devised to check the growth of " parasitic " burghs in the immediate vicinity of a great centre of population and industry, enjoying all the public improvements initiated by their powerful neighbour and yet contributing nothing towards the cost and upkeep of them.

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  • The mean velocity of winds for 1906 was 110 m.; the maximum recorded being 148 in May, the minimum velocity recorded being 76 in December.

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  • trade winds; the temperature ranges from an absolute minimum of 61° to an absolute maximum of 99° (1904).

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  • de Waal, who had been colonial secretary in the last ministry of Cape Colony, was the first administrator, and he guided the province through the period of change caused by the 'The particulars here given of provincial administration are the same in all four provinces (the Cape, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal) save that the minimum number of members of a provincial council is 25, whereas Natal and the Free State return fewer members to Parliament.

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  • In Quito the mean annual temperature is 58.8°, the diurnal variation 10°, the annual maximum 70°, and the annual minimum 45°.

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  • This law applies to counties having a minimum population of 500,000.

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  • The hygienic conditions should be such as to reduce the strain to a minimum.

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  • end of the Gulf varies from a minimum of 4° or 5° F.

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  • has been recorded, the lowest minimum being 55°.

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  • God is the absolute maximum and also the absolute minimum, who can be neither greater nor less than He is, and who comprehends all that is or that can be ("deum esse omnia, ut non possit esse aliud quam est").

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  • This action must be promoted by heating the mixture, but even then nothing like all of the hydrochloric acid employed is made to act as above, because the attack on the manganese ore requires a certain minimum concentration of the acid.

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  • Moreover, the ammonia process has been gradually elaborated into a very complicated but perfectly regularly working scheme, in which the cost of labour and the loss of ammonia are reduced to a minimum.

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  • 2 The average number of deaths from yellow fever annually from 1885 (when reliable registration began) to 1898 was 455; maximum 1282 in 1896 (supposed average for 4 years, 1856-1859, being 1489.8 and for 7 years, 18 7318 79, 1395.1), minimum 136, in 1898; average deaths of military, 1885-1898, 2784 (in 1896-1897 constituting 1966 out of a total of 2140); deaths of American soldiers, 1899-1900, 18 out of 431.

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  • In the northern Herat districts, too, records of the coldest month (February) show the mean minimum as 17° F., and the maximum 38°.

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  • The average maximum temperature is 92.3° F., and the minimum 74.8°.

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  • The right of sale is also usually farmed out to the highest bidder, subject to regulations fixing the minimum quantity of liquor that may be sold at one time.

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  • The rate is a little more than 2l% on all incomes exceeding £133 a year, and a little more than 2% on incomes exceeding £66, the minimum income liable to assessment having been raised in 1903 from £33.

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    0
  • An agreement with France at the beginning of the decade secured to Indian produce imported into that country the benefits of the minimum tariff, thus protecting the coffee industry from taxation in French ports on a scale which would have seriously hampered the trade.

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  • In 1908 the breakwaters and the greater part of the dredging had been completed, and the entrance channel, with a minimum depth of 242 ft., permitted the admission of large steamers.

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  • The Heat Loss Can Be Reduced To A Minimum By Enclosing The Flow Tube In A Hermetically Sealed Glass Vacuum Jacket.

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  • Stracciati By The Method Of Mixture Between O° And 30° C., Though Their Curve Is Otherwise Similar To Rowland'S, Had Appeared To Indicate A Minimum At 20° C., Followed By A Rapid Rise.

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  • This Lowering Of The Minimum Was Probably Due To Some Constant Errors Inherent In Their Method Of Experiment.

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  • 6, Show A Minimum At 25° C., And A Maximum At 87° C., The Values Being 9935 And 1.0075 Respectively In Terms Of The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 100° C. He Paid Great Attention To The Thermometry, And The Discrepancies Of Individual Measurements At Any One Point Nowhere Exceed O 3%, But He Did Not Vary The Conditions Of The Experiments Materially, And It Does Not Appear That The Well Known Constant Errors Of The Method Could Have Been Completely Eliminated By The Devices Which He Adopted.

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  • The Natural Point To Select Would Be That Of Minimum Specific Heat, But If This Occurs At 40° C. It Would Be Inconveniently High For Practical Realization Except By The Continuous Electrical Method.

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  • This Is The Value Of The Minimum Of Atomic Heat Calculated By Perry From Diatomic Hydrogen, But The Observations Themselves Might Be Equally Well Represented By Taking The Imaginary Limit 3, Since The Quantity Actually Observed Is The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 182 5° C. Subsequent Experiments On Other Metals At Low Temperatures Did Not Indicate A Similar Diminution Of Specific Heat, So That It May Be Doubted Whether The Atomic Heats Really Approach The Ideal Value At The Absolute Zero.

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  • Others, however, are periodic, that is to say, the sequence of changes is repeated at regular intervals, and it is thus possible to predict when the maximum and minimum brightness will occur.

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  • In its period of 406 days it fluctuates between the thirteenth and the fourth magnitudes; thus at maximum it emits 4000 times as much light as at minimum.

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  • In both cases the rise to a maximum is more rapid than the decline to a minimum, and in fact some of the minor peculiarities of the sunspot curve are closely imitated by the light-curves of variable stars.

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  • The range of variation is much smaller, the difference between maximum and minimum rarely exceeding two magnitudes.

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  • Supposing that the two stars are of unequal surface brilliancy, the magnitude at minimum will depend on which of the two stars is the nearer to us, accordingly there are two unequal minima in each revolution.

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  • A large eccentricity also produces an unsymmetrical light variation, the minimum occurring at a time not midway between two maxima; stars of this character are called Cepheid variables, after the typical star S Cephei.

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  • Cellular separation is not inflicted for long periods, the minimum being six months and the maximum three years.

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  • There is a minimum of ten years, but the individual may elect to continue in separation, or be transferred to partial association.

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  • Army to the minimum in order to strengthen his attack on the Isonzo, and in reply to Brusati's expressions of anxiety regarding the adequacy of his forces during this period Cadorna pointed out that the requirements of the Isonzo front made it necessary to reduce the numbers of the I.

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  • He ordered all heavy artillery not absolutely necessary for defensive purposes, and all stores beyond the minimum required for immediate supplies, to be withdrawn from the Isonzo front and brought south of Treviso, behind the Silo.

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  • The flight from a cursory survey of facts to wide so-called principles must give way to a gradual progress upward from propositions of minimum to those of medium generality, and in these consists the fruitfulness of science.

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  • 2 From the purely logical thesis, developed at quite an early stage of his thinking, 3 that in any true proposition the predicate is contained in the subject, the main principles of his doctrine of Monads are derivable with the minimum of help from his philosophy of dynamics.

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  • Minimum volume or co-volume of vapour, equation (I Concentration of solution, gm.

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  • At any rate it may be said that generally speaking the maximum, minimum and mean temperatures of points of approximately equal altitude are respectively but slightly different in northern or southern California.2 Death Valley surpasses for combined heat and aridity any meteorological stations on earth where regular observations are taken, although for extremes of heat it is exceeded by places in the Colorado desert.

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  • The minimum daily temperature in summer is rarely below 70° F.

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  • Convicts other than those for life are sentenced to the penitentiary for a maximum and a minimum term, and when one has served his minimum term the governor, under rules prescribed by the Board of Pardons, may release him on parole, but he may be returned to prison at any time upon the request of the Board of Pardons.

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  • Extremes ranged, however, from an absolute maximum of 104° to an absolute minimum of - 15°.

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  • If, further, V be a minimum, the equilibrium is necessarily stable, as was shown by P. G.

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  • Let B/C be the velocity ratio required, reduced to its least terms, and let B be greater than C. If B/C is not greater than 6, and C lies between the prescribed minimum number of teeth (which may be called t) and its double 2t, then one pair of wheels will answer the purpose, and B and C will themselves be the numbers required.

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  • Let W be the weight of a flywheel, R its radius of gyration, ai its maximum, aj its minimum, and A=~1/8(a1+ai) its mean angular velocity.

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  • Thus within recent years the output of the Château Lafite was at a minimum in 1903 when only 229 hogsheads (the hogshead of claret = 46 gallons) were produced, into wine, are entirely different from those prevalent in the red wine districts.

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  • During the last decade it was at a maximum in 1904, when 70,000 pipes were produced, and at a minimum in 1903, when only 18,000 pipes were obtained.

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  • During the period1891-1905the total production of Germany has averaged roughly 62 million gallons, attaining a maximum of III million gallons in 1896 and a minimum of 16 million gallons in 1891.

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  • Naturally, therefore, he did not participate in debate; and he seems to have spoken but once, and then to favour an amendment reducing from 40,000 to 30,000 the minimum population required as a basis of representation in the House.

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  • long, and has a maximum breadth at the northern entrance of 24 m., a minimum breadth of about Boo yds., and a depth varying from 20 to 66 fathoms in mid-stream.

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  • At Mesilla Park, in the lower Rio Grande Valley, the mean annual temperature is 60°; for the winter it is 43°, with a minimum of I°, and for the summer 77°, with a maximum of 106°.

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  • 2 Towards the end of the third quarter of the 19th century it therefore became clear that electricity, whatever be its nature, was associated with atoms of matter in the form of exact multiples of an indivisible minimum electric charge which may be considered to be " Nature's unit of electricity."

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  • Varley discovered the interesting fact that no current could be sent through the rarefied gas unless a certain minimum potential difference of the electrodes was excited.

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  • (mean maximum 78°, and minimum 57°).

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  • 424, proposes as a " minimum definition" of religion " the belief in spiritual beings."

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  • When using iron as the precipitant, it is desirable that the solution should be as neutral as possible, and the quantity of ferric salts present should be reduced to a minimum; otherwise, a certain amount of iron would be used up by the free acid and in reducing the ferric salts.

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  • There are, however, certain cases in which the sources of error above mentioned are reduced to a minimum, and cannot seriously affect the results; such as those of the Jews, the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope and in the Moluccas, and the Spaniards in South America.

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  • The minimum temperature should now be about 55°, to be increased io or 15° in spring.

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    0
  • Under this act the maximum term of the labour contract is fixed at four years, and a minimum monthly wage is laid down, the payment of which, however, is contingent on the completion of a daily task by the labourer.

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  • distinguished in five great orders, according to the census of 1901: Agriculture.-The following table illustrates broadly the difference in the position of agriculture in Great Britain and in Ireland: Minerals and Mining.-The mineral production of the United Kingdom reached a total value in 1890 of £100,802,657 and in 1909 of £119,394,486, with a maximum during that period of £160,605,154 in 1900 and a minimum of £ 73,024,066 in 1893.

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  • The maximum quantity extracted in any one year between 1890 and 1910 was 267,830,962 tons in 1907, and the minimum 164,325,795 in 1893.

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  • The amount of pig-iron obtained found its minimum, during the period 1890-1910, of 6,976,990 tons in 1893, and its maximum of 10,183,860 in 1906, and in 1905 the quantity produced from foreign ores (4,847,899 tons) for the first time exceeded that produced from British ores (4,760,187).

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  • mum annual production of metallic lead from British ore was 33,590 tons in 1890, valued at £449,8 2 6; the production fluctuated somewhat, but generally fell, to the minimum of 17,704 tons in 1902 (value £198,875).

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  • of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for Cot consumption for various years during the period1890-1910were as follows: During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1, 0 55, 8 55,3 60; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 4 2 3, 0 5 2, 44 8; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 2 3 8, 74 6, 7 0 4; (1909), 75,621,168;75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,4 6 4,59 2; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6, 1 75,344; (1909), 2 4,4 1 3,§4 8.8.

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  • The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity retained for use in various years (1890-19ò5):--- During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95, 6 3 2, 59 8; (1909), 1 7 6, 457, 1 5 0; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), 10, 8 73,7 88; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.

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  • The minimum is practically always exceeded, and trebled or quadrupled in the case of the more enthusiastic men, and the chief difficulty with which the officers responsible for training have to contend is the fact that no man can be compelled to attend on any particular occasion.

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    0
  • This is an extreme instance for the locality, but the minimum for all Sweden is found at Karesuando, with 12.32 in.

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    0
  • The period of maximum is generally the latter half of summer, and the minimum in February and March; but the maximum occurs in October at coast stations in Skane and in the island of Gotland.

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    0
  • The mean maximum temperature was 49.24°, and the mean minimum 35.8 3°.

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    0
  • For a single lens of very small thickness and given power, the aberration depends upon the ratio of the radii r: r', and is a minimum (but never zero) for a certain value of this ratio; it varies inversely with the refractive index (the power of the lens remaining constant).

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  • The rays with an angle of aperture smaller than u* would not have the same distance of intersection and the same sine ratio; these deviations are called "zones," and the constructor endeavours to reduce these to a minimum.

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    0
  • Observations for temperature have been taken for many years at the stations of the Indo-European Telegraph and for a few years at the British consulate in Meshed, and the monthly and annual means shown in the following table have been derived from the indications of maximum and minimum thermometers in degrees Fahrenheit.

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  • It is usual to reduce the quantity of proteid food to a minimum, in order to lessen the amount of nitrogenous waste to be excreted by the kidneys.

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  • An entirely opposite dietary is that in which butcher's meat is completely excluded and proteids reduced to a minimum, as advocated by Dr Haig.

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  • The dietaries already mentioned, the whey cure, the grape cure, the meat cure and the vegetarian cure, are all more or less systems of starvation, one or other article of ordinary diet being either reduced to a minimum or omitted altogether.

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  • In short, its aim was to bring about the best conditions for an ideal civilization, reducing to a minimum the labour necessary for mere existence, and by this and by the simplicity of its social machinery saving the !maximum of time for mental and spiritual education and development.

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  • The dryness of the air tempers the heat of summer, which reaches in January a mean maximum of 87° F., whilst July, the coldest month, has a mean minimum of 36° F.

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  • in summer, and drops below freezing-point in winter; where there is a deadly monotony of dust-coloured scenery for the greater part of the year, with the minimum of rain and the maximum of heat.

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  • The historical narrative with which P connects his account of the sacred institutions of Israel is reduced in Leviticus to a minimum, and presents no special features.

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  • The new buildings, on which an estimated amount of $150,000,000 had been expended up to April 1909, and numbering 25,000 at that date, were built under stringent city ordinances governing the methods of building employed, to reduce the danger from fire to a minimum.

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  • The condition of equilibrium is that this expression (which we may for the sake of distinctness call the potential energy) shall be a minimum.

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  • He also calculated the effect of surface-tension on the propagation of waves on the surface of a liquid, and determined the minimum velocity of a wave, and the velocity of the wind when it is just sufficient to disturb the surface of still water.

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  • The problem is to make the sum of the interfacial tensions a minimum, each tension being proportional to the square of the difference of densities of the two contiguous liquids in question.

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  • We see, then, that the removal of a stratum from between neighbours where it is out of order and its introduction between neighbours where it will be in order is doubly favourable to the reduction of the sum of tensions; and since by a succession of such steps we may arrive at the order of magnitude throughout, we conclude that this is the disposition of minimum tensions and energy.

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  • At first the tension will diminish, but if the process be continued the tension will reach a minimum value and will afterwards increase to infinity as the chain between A and B approaches to the form of a straight line.

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  • Hence for every tension greater than the minimum tension there are two catenaries passing through A and B.

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  • Now it is shown in hydrodynamics that she velocity of propagation of waves in deep water is that acquired by a heavy body falling through half the radius of the circle whose circumference is the wave-length, or _ f_X _ ga 27rT 'I ' v2- 2r 2r pn This velocity is a minimum when X=2.7r gp' and the minimum value is v= 4 - p g For waves whose length from crest to crest is greater than X, the principal force concerned in the motion is that of gravitation.

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  • Of these, the waves of minimum velocity form a stationary wave nearest to the front of the body.

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  • Then comes the stationary wave of minimum velocity, which is the most marked of the series.

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  • But those whose wave-length is near to that of the wave of minimum velocity will diverge less than any of the others, so that the most marked feature at a distance from the body will be the two long lines of ripples of minimum velocity.

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  • It takes any ordinary rodlet 30-40 minutes to double its length and divide into two equal daughter cells when growth is at its best; nearer the minimum it may require 3-4 hours or even much longer.

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  • W.) split by means of energy derived from the oxidation of nitrogen, but apart from the fact that none of these processes can proceed until the temperature rises to the minimum cardinal point, Engelmann's experiment shows that in the purple bacteria rays are used other than those employed by green plants, and especially ultra-red rays not seen in the spectrum, and we may probably conclude that " dark rays " - i.e.

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  • It is also to be noted that, as in the case of poisons of known constitution, each toxin has a minimum lethal dose which is proportionate to the weight of the animal and which can be ascertained with a fair degree of accuracy.

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  • The unit of antitoxin in Ehrlich's new standard is the amount requisite to antagonize i oo times the minimum lethal dose of a particular toxin to a guinea-pig of 250 grm.

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  • The summum bonum is the maximum of pleasure with the minimum of pain.

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  • North of Clearwater river the climate is comparatively mild, the maximum in 1902 (96° F.) being lower than the highest temperature in the state and the minimum (- 16°) higher than the lowest temperature registered.

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  • The mildest region of the state is the Snake river basin between Twin Falls and Lewiston, and the valley of the Boise, Payette and Weiser rivers; here the mean annual temperature in 1902 was 52° F., the maximum was 106° F., and the minimum was - 13° F.

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  • in length, with a minimum depth of io ft.

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  • wide, and with a minimum depth of 5 ft.

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  • The mean annual temperature is 79° F., with a range from 85° in the hot season and 83° in the rains to 72° in the cool season, a mean maximum of 102° in May and a mean minimum of 48° in January.

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  • At Dover the mean annual temperature is 490; the mean for the winter is 28°, with an extreme minimum recorded of - 13°; and the mean for the summer is 70°, with an extreme maximum recorded of 102°.

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  • of Staten Island, lie the narrow channels of the Kill van Kull and Arthur Kill, with a minimum depth of 9 or to ft.

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  • In water we get a maximum recoil with a minimum of displacement; in air, on the contrary, we obtain a minimum recoil with a maximum of displacement.

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  • As a rule she reduces the passive surfaces of the body to a minimum; she likewise reduces as far as possible the actively moving or flying surfaces.

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  • As this arrangement extends also to the margins, the wings are more or less twisted upon themselves and present a certain degree of convexity on their superior or upper surface, and a corresponding concavity on their inferior or under surface, - their free edges supplying those fine curves which act with such efficacy upon the air in obtaining the maximum of resistance and the minimum of displacement.

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  • " From this description it will be evident that by the mere rotation of the bones of the forearm and hand the maximum and minimum of resistance is FIG.

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  • This arises from the fact that bodies moving in air experience a minimum of resistance and occasion a maximum of displacement.

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  • The normal seasonal march of pressure-change produces a maximum gradient in December and January, and a minimum gradient in April; but for every month in the year the mean gradient is for winds from southerly and westerly quarters.

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  • The entrance to the harbour was obstructed by a formidable sand bar, but as the result of dredging operations there is now a minimum depth of water at the opening of the channel into the bay of over 30 ft., with a maximum depth of over 33 ft.

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  • It possesses a floating dock capable of lifting a vessel of 850o tons, a floating workshop, a patent slip for small craft, hydraulic cranes, &c. The minimum depth alongside the quays at low water is 23 ft., increased at places to over 30 ft.

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  • Maine has no general law under which cities are chartered, and does not even set a minimum population.

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  • The minimum length of the school year is fixed by a statute of 1893 at twenty weeks; the average length is about twenty-eight weeks; A compulsory education law, enacted in 1901, requires the attendance at some public or approved private school of each child between the ages of seven and fifteen during all the time that school is in session, except that necessary absences may be excused.

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  • March is also a month of great heat; in April and May the temperature falls, with a more rapid decline in June, the minimum being reached again in July.

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  • Geology has made it manifest that our earth must have been the seat of vegetable and animal life for an immense period of time; while the first appearance of man, though comparatively recent, is positively so remote, that an estimate between twenty and a hundred thousand years may fairly be taken as a minimum.

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  • The navigable portion from Casale Monferrato to the mouth is 337 m.; the minimum width of this portion 656 ft., and its minimum depth 7 ft.

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  • A common type of mirage is the appearance of an isolated lake frequently seen in hot sandy deserts, as in the Sahara, Turkestan, &c. The explanation is as follows: The sand, being abnormally heated by the solar rays, causes the neighbouring air to expand, consequently its density, and therefore its refractive index, is diminished, and attains a minimum value in the lowest layers.

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  • In buildings to be used as offices, hotels, apartments, &c., it is usual in establishing the loads for the purpose of computation to assume that the columns carrying the roof and the upper storey will be called upon to sustain the full dead load due to material and the maximum computed variable load, but it is customary' to reduce the variable loads at the rate of about 5% storey by storey towards the base, until a minimum of about 20% of the entire variable load is reached, for it is evidently impossible that the building can be loaded by a densely-packed moving crowd in all of its storeys simultaneously.

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  • The reasons are that with the tax at a low rate it has been found much less intolerable than during the Napoleonic War, when it was at the rate of 10 per cent., while the pressure of the tax has also been greatly mitigated by placing very high the minimum income subject to it, and giving abatements upon the lower taxable incomes.

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  • There have been great complaints also of injustice by the possessors of temporary and precarious incomes, who have to pay the same rate of tax as the owners of permanent incomes from property, although these complaints have been diminished to some small extent by the raising of the minimum limit of the income assessed and the increase of the principle of abatements.

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  • As to the justice of such a progressive tax, there is a common opinion in its favour among economists, at least to .the extent of exempting a certain minimum of subsistence from taxation; but the present writer, after accepting this view in early life on the authority of Mill, must now express the greatest doubt.

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  • The ideal is equality, and no measure of a minimum of subsistence can really be devised.

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  • But his idea certainly was that his friars should not only practise the utmost personal poverty and simplicity in their life, but that they should have the minimum of possessions - no lands, no funded property, no fixed sources of income.

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  • The man with no cattle received the minimum; the owner of 2 oxen got 10 acres, and the possessor of 4 received 121 to 15 acres.

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  • minimum depth of water, is between two bold sandstone cliffs, called the Heads.

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  • On the Karroo the mean maximum temperature is 77° F., the mean minimum 49°, the mean daily range about 27°.

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  • When no reservoir exists, the volume of continuous supply from any watershed area Dry is evidently limited to the minimum, or, so-called, extreme dry weather flow of the stream draining it.

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  • and the rate of minimum discharge is generally smaller.

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  • It may be taken as an axiom that the variation of minimum discharges from their mean values increases as the separate areas diminish.

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  • When, however, a reservoir is employed to equalize the flow during and before the period of dry weather, the minimum flow continuously available may be increased to a much higher figure, depending upon the capacity of that reservoir in relation to the mean flow of the stream supplying it.

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  • Adopting this general minimum as the unit, we find that the flow from such areas up to about 5000 acres, whose mean annual rainfall exceeds 50 in., may be expected occasionally to reach 300 cub.

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  • The diagram applies to ordinary areas suitable for reservoir construction and in which the minimum flow of the stream reaches about one-fifth of a cubic foot per second per moo acres.

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  • After the reservoir begins to fall - in this case at the end of February - no ordinary change in the variation of demand can affect the question, subject of course to the cumulative demand not exceeding the reservoir yield for the assumed year of minimum rainfall.

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  • The percolation will then be very small, and the risk of disintegration will be reduced to a minimum.

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  • It can be shown, for example, that for masonry having a density of 3, water being 1, the figure of minimum section is a right-angled triangle, with the water against its vertical face; while for a greater density the water face must lean towards the water, and for a less density away from the water, so that the water may lie upon it.

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  • A minimum thickness must safety be adopted to give substance to the upper part; and where the dam is not used as a weir it must necessarily rise several feet above the water, and may in either event have to carry a roadway.

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  • The two systems of lines mutually at right angles show the directions of the maximum and minimum stresses respectively.

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  • per second per woo acres, or 1500 times the minimum dry weather flow, taken as one-fifth of a cubic foot; and if we provide against such an occasional discharge, with a possible maximum of 400 cub.

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  • The objection to the insanitary effect of the meter-payment system has, in some places, been sought to be removed by providing a fixed quantity of water, assumed to be sufficient, as the supply for a fixed minimum payment, and by using the meter records simply for the purpose of determining what additional payment, if any, becomes due from the water tenant.

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  • Land is not in a satisfactory condition with respect to drainage unless the rain that falls upon it can sink down to the minimum depth required for the healthy development of the roots of crops and thence find vent either through a naturally porous subsoil or by artificial channels.

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  • In the valleys between the Coast Range and the Cascade Mountains the range of temperature is much greater than it is along the coast; the absolute maximum and minimum being respectively 102° and - 2° at Portland, in the N.W., and 108° and - 4° at Ashland, in the S.W.

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  • deep) by large oceangoing vessels, and which will have a minimum depth of 25 ft.

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  • There is an annual fluctuation in the level of the lake, varying from a minimum of 9 in.

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  • wide, with a minimum draft (1907) of 31 ft.

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  • The governor and lieutenant-governor (minimum age, 30 years) and the clerk of the Supreme Court are chosen in presidential years for a term of four years,' the other state officers - secretary of state, attorney-general, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction - every two years.

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  • The state legislature, known as the General Assembly, which meets biennially in odd-numbered years and in special session summoned by the governor, consists of a Senate of fifty members (minimum age, 25 years) elected for four years, and a House of Representatives of one hundred members (minimum age, 21 years) elected for two years.

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  • The thermometer rises to over loo° in the hot months, and the mean of minimum in December is about 49°.

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  • Up to this moment the civil war had been conducted like a great faction fight; the barons and their livened retainers had been wont to seek some convenient heath or hill and there to fight out their quarrel with the minimum of damage to the countryside.

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  • He himself advocated with some force that it would be wiser and more popular to fix the county franchise at 20 and the borough franchise at 6 rateable value; and he contended that such a settlement could be defended on the old principle that taxation and representation should go together, for 20 was the minimum rent at which the house tax commenced, and a rateabie value of 6 was the point at which the householder could not compound to pay his rates through his landlord.

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  • wide can always be found with a minimum depth of 5 ft.

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  • Adaptation for speed is further exhibited in the moulding of the shape of the body so as to present the minimum amount of resistance to the air, as well as in increase in heart and lung capacity to meet the extra expenditure of energy.

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  • Important factors in the use of carburetted water gas for enrichment are that it can be made with enormous rapidity and with a minimum of labour; and not only is the requisite increase in illuminating power secured, but the volume of the enriched gas is increased by the bulk of carburetted water gas added, which in ordinary English practice amounts to from 25 to 50%.

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  • The mean maximum temperature is 76.7° Fahr., the mean minimum 45.8°; the mean annual rainfall about 24 in.

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  • A minimum division might be threefold - Gottesbegriff, Selbstbeurteilung, Weltanschauung.3 But historically it is more important to note that Christian theology has developed as a doctrine concerning Christ: his relation to God, our relation to God in or through him.

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  • and 86° 51' E.), beside the lower Tarim, the January mean is - 1.3° F., the June mean 88°, and the lowest minimum recorded - 14° (February).

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  • and a minimum, at the Culebra Pass, of 290 ft., the lowest point, except the interoceanic water-parting in Nicaragua, which is 153 ft., in the western continental system.

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  • The thermometer rises to about 107° in the shade in the hot weather, and the minimum in the month of December is about 55°.

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  • Township government, owing to the abolition of the committee on general business and the consequent confusion of handling so many and minute details, and to the addition to the population of a large Irish element and a large New Hampshire element, both workmen in the quarries, reached the minimum of efficiency in 1840-1870; in 1870, however, the town-meetings were reformed, and in 1874 a committee to consider business details was again appointed.

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  • Wheat is grown year after year without rotation - except in a few cases - on a third or more of our wheat acreage; not one acre in fifty is directly fertilized for the crop, and only a minimum amount of attention is given to the betterment of seed stock.

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  • He did not shrink from any of the consequences of thin theory, for he would give the same remuneration to the worst mason as to a Phidias; but he looks forward also to a period in human development when the present inequality in the talent and capacity of men would be reduced to an inappreciable minimum.

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  • Heinrich Schwabe established, in 1851, the cyclical variation, in eleven years, of spot-frequency; terrestrial magnetic disturbances manifestly obeyed the same law; and the peculiar winged aspect of the corona disclosed by the eclipse of the 29th of July 1878, at an epoch of minimum sun-spots, intimated to A.

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  • Near the autumnal equinox this angle is at a minimum; hence the phenomenon of the " harvest moon," when for several successive days the difference of times of rising on one day and the next may be only from 15 to 20 minutes.

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  • Near the vernal equinox the case is reversed, the interval between two risings of the nearly full moon being at its maximum, and between two settings at its minimum.

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  • They wear a minimum of covering, but, unlike the Melanesians, are strictly decent, while they are more moral than the Polynesians.

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  • Feeling in this higher sense (as distinguished from "organic" sensibility, Empfindung), which is the minimum of distinct antithetic consciousness, the cessation of the antithesis of subject and object, constitutes likewise the unity of our being, in which the opposite functions of cognition and volition have their fundamental and permanent background of personality and their transitional link.

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  • By means of a series of training walls, by groynes thrown out from the banks, by revetments of the banks, and by dredging, all done with the view of narrowing the river, a minimum depth of II ft.

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  • This work, designed in 1857, but unexecuted during a quarter of a century, owing to insufficiency of funds, was completed in 1882; and in 1886, after other comparatively short cuttings had been made to get rid of difficult bends and further to deepen the channel without having to resort to dredgers, the desired minimum depth of 15 ft.

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  • in length from Sulina to St George's Chatal, with a minimum depth of 20 ft.

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  • The mean temperature at Bathurst is 77° F., the shade minimum being 56° and the solar maximum 165°.

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  • The zones of minimum rainfall have a very scanty flora, consisting of plants adapted to resist the great dryness.

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  • From the mouth of the Forcados to the main stream is 105 m., with a minimum depth in the dry season of 7 ft.

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  • In 1910 the British began dredging with the object of obtaining from the mouth of the river to Baro a minimum depth of 6 ft.

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  • In conformity with the form of the path, the light is said to be elliptically polarized, rightor left-handedly as the case may be, and the axes of the elliptic path are determined by the planes of maximum and minimum polarization of the light.

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