Coal.The principal mines of France are coal and iron mines.
Most of the mines are operated under " non-union " rules.
The more important mines are those of Cobar, where the Great Cobar mine produces annually nearly 4000 tons of refined copper.
If they didn't own the ore mines, they'd be using rocks to fight.
The mines will chain-detonate.
There is a manufacture of tape in the town, and lead-mining and stone-quarrying are carried on in the neighbourhood; relics of the Roman working of the lead mines have been discovered.
Mines and Quarries.
He died on the 26th of February 1608, leaving a large fortune from lead mines discovered in the Mendip Hills.
Near the city are valuable coal mines, and there is one within the city limits.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
How often had she heard how dangerous abandoned mines were?
The mines were rigged, and he'd never wanted to think he'd need to destroy his home in order to rid it of the blight affecting it.
"And the mines give us nothing we can use to barter for more food and water," his uncle added.
To meet the needs of technical and industrial education there are a school of mines at San Juan, a school of viticulture at Mendoza, an agronomic and veterinary school at La Plata, several agricultural and pastoral schools, and commercial schools in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Bahia Blanca and Concordia.
But what is best of all," he went on, his excitement subsiding under the delightful interest of his own story, "is that the sergeant in charge of the cannon which was to give the signal to fire the mines and blow up the bridge, this sergeant, seeing that the French troops were running onto the bridge, was about to fire, but Lannes stayed his hand.
That's when I knew what everyone says about old mines being dangerous is true.
Long ago, his ancestors had rigged the planet to blow the mines and turn the atmosphere into a toxic mix no one would survive.
He destroyed the mines.
Romas rescued me from the cave before you blew up the mines.
Parkside's economy was less than spectacular, but at least it didn't require dependency on the fickle business of mines, steel or manufacturing for its fiscal survival.
Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot springs, including some of great repute medicinally.
The government let the mines to contractors for forty years and then took them over; but in the period from 1720 to 1840 only 14,620 tons of galena were extracted and 2772 of lead.
There are besides in the island 10 gymnasia, 3 lycees, 6 technical and nautical schools and institutes (including a school of mines at Iglesias), and 9 other institutes for various branches of special education.
Between this and the "elliptical" kraal are the "Valley Ruins," consisting of smaller buildings which may have been the dwellings of those traders who bartered the gold brought in from distant mines.
Near the source of the Tigris, at Arghana-Ma'den, are copper mines.
The city throve on the freighting trade of the mines.
Here are the oldest and most celebrated copper mines in Europe.
The mines belong to the Kopparberg Mining Company (Stora Kopparbergs Bergslags Aktiebolag, formerly Kopparbergslagen).
The company also owns iron mines, limestone and quartz quarries, large iron-works at Domnarfvet and elsewhere, a great extent of forests and saw-mills, and besides the output of the copper mines it produces manufactured iron and steel, timber, wood-pulp, bricks and charcoal.
It was found in some abundance at the end of the 18th century in the copper mines of the St Day district in Cornwall, and has since been found at a few other localities, for example, at Konigsberg near Schemnitz in Hungary, and in the Tintic district in Utah.
The greatest development of quartz reefing is found in Victoria, some of the mines being of great depth.
There are eight mines in the Bendigo district over 3000 ft.
The leading silver mines are in New South Wales, the returns from the other states being comparatively insignificant.
At Broken Hill mines about 11,000 miners are employed.
The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast.
The association of this metal with silver in the Broken Hill mines of New South Wales adds very greatly to the value of the product.
The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements.
The first of these comprises chiefly the mines of the Hunter river districts; the second includes the Illawarra district, and, generally, the coastal regions to the south of Sydney, together with Berrima, on the tableland; and the third consists of the mountainous regions on the Great Western railway and extends as far as Dubbo.
The coal mines of New South Wales give employment to 14,000 persons, and the annual production is over 6,600,000 tons.
The finest opal known is obtained in the Upper Cretaceous formation at White Cliffs, near Wilcannia, New South Wales, and at these mines about 700 men find constant employment.
Victoria produced already more wool than New South Wales,the aggregate produce of Australia in 1852 being 45,000,000 lb; and South Australia, between 1842 and this date, had opened most valuable mines of copper.
The copper mines of South Australia were for the time deserted, while Tasmania and New Zealand lost many inhabitants, who emigrated to the more promising country.
The Chinese difficulty, so far as the mining population was concerned, was solved by the exhaustion of the extensive alluvial deposits; the miners' prejudice against the race, however, still exists, though they are no longer serious competitors, and the laws of some of the states forbid any Chinese to engage in mining without the express authority in writing of the minister of mines.
On the 6th of September the silver mines closed down, and a week later a conference of employers issued a manifesto which was met next day by a counter-manifesto of the Intercolonial Labour Conference, and almost immediately afterwards by the calling out of 40,000 men.
It has large coal mines, which form the south-western portion of the extensive Upper Silesian coal fields, the largest Austrian deposit.
It is noticed that labourers employed in deep mines worked by shafts suffer less from fever than do those who are engaged in stripping the alluvial deposits.
- The only ancient remains found in the peninsula are the stone implements, of which mention has already been made, and some remarkable ancient mines, which are situated in the Jelai valley in Pahang.
Belleville is in a rich agricultural region, and in the vicinity there are valuable coal mines, the first of which was sunk in 1852; from this dates the industrial development of the city.
The results of his work at Babylon appeared first in the Vienna serial Mines de l'orient, and in 1815 in England, under the title Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811.
The modern town in the immediate neighbourhood, still known as Fokia, was founded by the Genoese in 1421 on account of the rich alum mines in the neighbourhood.
In cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most satisfactory results.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
The mines near the city are very productive, and thousands of men and beasts are employed in transporting lead, iron, copper, zinc and sulphur to the coast.
Its silver and gold mines were the source of great wealth both to the Carthaginians and to the Romans.
The number of mines increased from 589 in 1881 to 1580 in 1902.
The bulk of the sulphur mines are in Sicily, while the majority of the lead and zinc mines are in Sardinia; much of the lead smelting is done at Pertusola, near Genoa, the company formed for this purpose having acquired many of the Sardinian mines.
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
Lincoln is situated in a productive grain region, and has valuable coal mines.
Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
The mines were visited some years ago by Dr Fritz Noetling, and the mineral has been described by Dr Otto Helm.
Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
The Eastern railway has works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal working is of small importance.
The gold and platinum mines of Choco were on some of its affluents, and the river sands are auriferous.
The chief mineral product is the asphalt of the mines of Seyssel on the eastern frontier, besides which potter's clay, building stone, hydraulic lime and cement are produced in the department.
These mines are the richest in Austria, and among the most remarkable in the world.
The length of the mines from E.
There are also two large chapels, containing altars, ornaments, &c., in rock-salt, a room called the dancing saloon (Tanzsaal), where the objects of interest found in the mines are kept; the Kronleuchtersaal, and the chamber Michatovice are also worth mention.
In the interior of the mines are sixteen ponds, of which the large lake of Przykos is 195 ft.
deep. The mines employ over loon workers, and yield about 60,000 tons annually.
The date of the discovery of the mines is unknown, but they were already worked in the 11th century.
The mines suffered greatly from inundations in 1868 and 1879, and the soil on which the town is built shows signs of subsidence.
"Mines and Quarries").
It is the distributing point for the gold mines of the district, and during the summer months steamboat communication is maintained on the lake.
Below the junction of the two arms the Euphrates flows south-west past the lead mines of Keban Maden, where it is 120 yds.
Bethune lies in the midst of the richest coal mines in France.
The principal manufactures are firearms, ironmongery, earthenware, woollen cloth, beer, stoneware, zinc goods, colours and salt; in the neighbourhood are iron and coal mines.
Gold-mining has been carried on in a primitive manner for more than two centuries, but the output has never been large and no very rich mines have been discovered.
Pop. (1906) 9749 It possesses iron mines and is the centre of the coal-fields of the Aveyron, which supply the ironworks established by the Duc Decazes, minister of Louis Xviii.
It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and sometimes occurs in large masses, as in Arizona and in South Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of which element it contains 55%.
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion.
In the article on " Railways " in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1824, it is said: "It will appear that this species of inland carriage [railways] is principally applicable where trade is considerable and the length of conveyance short; and is chiefly useful, therefore, in transporting the mineral produce of the kingdom from the mines to the nearest land or water communication, whether sea, river or canal.
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
The mines of this one district had produced, up to 1902, $371,248,288, of which $148,145,385 was in gold, $204,653,040 in silver, and the remainder in unclassified tailings.
In 1877 the maximum annual output for the mines was attained, being $3 6, 3 01, 537.
After this last year the output of the Comstock mines declined on account of the exhaustion of the ore supply, the increased expense of mining at great depths, and the decrease in the price of silver.
In 1859 the mines were worked only for their gold; the ignorant miners threw away the " black stuff " which was really valuable silver ore with an assay value four times as great as that of their ores of gold; and when this was discovered there came a period of unprecedented silver production.
In connexion with the operation of the Comstock mines was built (in 1869-1879) the Sutro Tunnel, named in honour of its engineer, Adolph Sutro (1830-1898), piercing the mountain horizontally far below the mouth of the mines, and at a distance of nearly 4 m.
striking the shafts of the Comstock Lode, securing ventilation and cool air for the miners, draining the mines above its level, and obviating much pumping and hoisting.'
Ore was first discovered here in 1864, but it was five years before the mines became productive.
In two years $7,000,000 worth of gold and silver had been taken from the Tonopah mines and it was asserted that they would prove as rich as the mines of the Comstock Lode.
Manufactures based on the products of mines and quarries (chemicals, glass, clay, stone and metal works) constituted about one-fifth of the whole product.
Until the completion of the trans-continental railway in 1869, wagon trains were the only means of transporting the products of the mines across the desert.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
At Virginia City is a school of mines, established by the state in 1903.
Mines and mining claims are exempt from taxation, but a quarterly tax is levied on the net proceeds of mines, and is not to be paid a second time so long as the products remain in the hands of the original producer.
The history of the state since its organization has been largely a history of its mines.
Shinn, The Story of the Mine as Illustrated by the Great Comstock Lode of Nevada, in The Story of the West " series (New York, 1896) The Silver Mines of Nevada (New York, 1864); M.
Near the town are iron mines and quarries of limestone, and on the neighbouring mountains are forests containing valuable hardwood timber.
One of the neighbouring mines, the Proprietary, is the richest in the world; gold is associated with the silver; large quantities of lead, good copper lodes, zinc and tin are also found.
It has a royal shell factory, calico-printing mills, lignite mines, stone quarries and pottery and tobacco factories.
In 1897 he went to Australia as mining engineer for an English syndicate and developed successful mines.
In 1899, when a Department of Mines was created by the Chinese Government, he was appointed Director-General of Mines.
At the beginning of the 20th century a great number of minerals were found in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions, but most of them in such small quantities as to be of little or no commercial value, and in 1902 the total value of the products of the mines and quarries was only $927,376; but in 1907 their value was $2,961,381, and in 1908, $2,145,947.
In 1870 North Carolina's mica mines were reopened, and they produce the best grade of sheet mica for glazing and a large percentage of the country's yield of this mineral.
In 1908 the product amounted to 48,522 long tons (all magnetite), and was valued at $76,877; almost the entire product is from the Cranberry mines, near Cranberry, Mitchell county.
The most valuable immediate product of the state's mines and quarries for nearly every year from 1890 to 1908 was building stones of granite and gneiss, which are found in all parts of the state west of the " Fall Line "; the best grades of granite are quarried chiefly in Gaston, Iredell, Rowan, Surry and Wilkes counties.
The population is chiefly occupied in connexion with the sulphur, copper, silver and other mines in the neighbourhood.
JEREMIAS BENJAMIN RICHTER (1762-1807), German chemist, was born at Hirschberg in Silesia on the 10th of March 1762, became a mining official at Breslau in 1794, and in 1800 was appointed assessor to the department of mines and chemist to the royal porcelain factory at Berlin, where he died on the 4th of April 1807.
In the vicinity of the towns are extensive lignite mines.
There were in 1908 five deep mines worked by English companies and one by a French company.
The mines became crown property, gold-mining was forbidden, and no one was permitted to enter the reservation without a licence.
The discovery of gold in1692-1695by bands of adventurers from the Sao Paulo settlements, led to every occupation and profession being abandoned in the mad rush for the new mines.
Other industries are brewing, printing and iron-founding, and there are ochre and iron mines in the neighbourhood.
It is also an important mining region, having a large number of silver mines in operation.
Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.
There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
The lead mines were worked by the Romans, and the Domesday Survey mentions lead mines at Wirksworth, Matlock, Bakewell, Ashford and Crich.
Iron has also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 14th century.
This with his other publications, A Journey to the Land of Eden and A Progress to the Mines, was published at Petersburg, Va., in 1841, and again (New York, 1901) as The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, edited by John S.
Its industries include the manufacture of tiles, pasteboard wares and gardening implements, while there are coal mines in the vicinity.
In the neighbourhood are lead, zinc and silver mines, and some 20 m.
There are copper mines, which have been worked since the 15th century, 1358 ft.
It is known as cawk in the Derbyshire lead mines.
Barytes is of common occurrence in metalliferous veins, especially those which yield ores of lead and silver; some of the largest and most perfect crystals of colourless barytes were obtained from the lead mines near Dufton in Westmorland.
It is found also in beds of iron ore, and the haematite mines of the Cleator Moor district in west Cumberland have yielded many extremely fine crystals, specimens of which may be seen in all mineral collections.
Barium chloride is present in some natural waters, and when this is the case the interaction of sulphates results in a deposition of barytes, as has occurred in the pipes and water-boxes of the Newcastle-on-Tyne coal mines.
Among other local sprites may be mentioned the kobolds or spirits of the mines.
The iron mines are among the oldest in the country; mining began probably as early as 1731.
The town of Kuttenberg owes its origin to the silver mines, the existence of which can be traced back to the first part of the 13th century.
By way of reprisals for the Hussite outrages in Prague, the miners of Kuttenberg seized on any Hussites they could find, and burned, beheaded or threw them alive into the shafts of disused mines.
Half-hearted attempts after the peace to repair the ruined mines failed; the town became impoverished, and in 1770 was devastated by fire.
The mines were abandoned at the end of the 18th century; one mine was again opened by the government in 1874, but the work was discontinued in 1903.
He may also grant either a lease of the surface of settled land, reserving the mines and minerals, or a lease of the minerals without the surface.
A grant or reservation of mines in general terms confers, or reserves, a right to work the mines, subject to the obligation of leaving a reasonable support to the surface as it exists at the time of the grant or reservation.
holograph or duly tested, do not exceed 31 years, or, except as regards leases of mines and minerals, and of lands held by burgage tenure, relate to an extent of land exceeding 50 acres, and contain provisions for renewal, they may be recorded for publication in the Register of Sasines, and such publication has the effect of possession (Registration of Leases [Scotland] Act 1857).
Gold mines are worked at several places in the northern part of Manchuria, of which the principal are on the Muho river, an affluent of the Amur, and near the Russian frontier.
Mines are also worked at Kwanyin-shan, opposite the Russian frontier town of Radevska, and at Chia-pi-kou, on an affluent of the upper Sungari.
A small proportion go to the Johannesburg gold mines, and others obtain employment on the railways.
Norton's Handbook of Florida (2nd edition, New York, 1892); the volumes of the Twelfth Census of the United States (for 1900) which treat of Agriculture and Manufactures, and the Special Report on Mines and Quarries for 1902.
He became Secretary of State and Minister of Mines in 1917, and the same year was made Minister of the Interior and Superintendent-General for Indian Affairs.
The principal industry of Villach consists in the fabrication of various lead wares, and is mostly dependent on the lead mines of Bleiberg, which is situated about 9 m.
The mines were already worked during the middle ages.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
There are coal mines about 25 m.
The chloride and chlorobromide have been found in several Cornish mines, but never in very large amounts.
It owes its importance to the iron mines in the mountain Malmberget 4 z m.
In 1864 the mines were acquired by an English company, but abandoned in 1867.
Two years later the mines passed into the hands of a Swedish company, and the railway was acquired by the Swedish Government.
The mines, chiefly the property of the state and of the corporation, yield silver, gold, lead, copper and arsenic. The town contains also flourishing potteries, where well-known tobacco pipes are manufactured.
Selmeczbanya is an old town whose mines existed in the 8th century.
of gold representing a value of 168,626 were obtained from the mines and alluvial washings.
Originally it owed its whole importance to the copper mines of the Parys (probably, Parry's) mountain, as, before ore was discovered in March 1768, it was a small hamlet of fishermen.
The mines once produced 3000 tons of metal annually, copper smelting being largely carried on, but have now almost ceased working.
This institution was taken over by the Government in 1853, becoming the Royal College of Chemistry, and incorporated with the Royal School of Mines; in 1881 the names were changed to the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines, and again in 1890 to the Royal College of Science.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
Philip's bimetallic system, which had attempted artificially to fix the value of silver in spite of the great depreciation of gold consequent upon the working of the Pangaean mines, was abandoned.
According to the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation of 1895, administrative responsibility is accepted by the British government on the left bank of the Irrawaddy for the country south of the Nmaikha, and on the right bank for the country south of a line drawn from the confluence of the Malikha and Nmaikha through the northern limit of the Laban district and including the jade mines.
In the Turin Museum are preserved two papyri with rough drawings of gold mines established by Sesostris in the Nubian Desert.'
In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.
Speculators either directly employed slaves as artisans or commercial and banking agents, or hired them out, sometimes for work in mines or factories, sometimes for service in private houses, as cooks, flute-players, &c., or for viler uses.
There were formidable revolts at the mines of Laurium, and more than once in Chios.
Certain offences reduced the guilty persons to slavery (servi poenae), and they were employed in public work in the quarries or the mines.
The lighter punish ments inflicted by masters were commonly personal chastisement or banishment from the town house to rural labour; the severer were employment in the mill (pistrinum) or relegation to the mines or quarries.
To the mines also speculators sent slaves; they worked half-naked, men and women, in chains, under the lash and guarded by soldiers.
In 1510 and the following years King Ferdinand ordered a number of Africans to be sent to that colony for the working of the mines.
The proprietors could transport without trial their unruly serfs to Siberia or send them to the mines for life, and those who presented complaints against their masters were punished with the knout and condemned to the mines.
Schefferite, or manganese pyroxene, is a brown mineral found in the manganese mines of Sweden.
He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways.
These mines divide with the Sicilian mines the control of the sulphur market of the world.
The value of the sulphur taken from the mines of Louisiana in 1907 was a little more than $5,000,000.
The Cobre copper mines near Santiago were once the greatest producers of the world.
After 1868 the mines were again abandoned and flooded, the mining property being ruined during the civil war.
Daiquiri, near Oriente, and mines near Nipe, on the north coast, are the chief centres of production.
The first exports from the Daiquiri district were made by an American company in 1884; the Nipe (Cagimaya) mines became prominent in promise in 1906.
There are small mines in Santa Clara and Camaguey provinces.
In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.
They promised to convey the ignorant savages in their ships to the "heavenly shores" where their departed friends now dwelt, and about 40,000 were transported to Hispaniola to perish miserably in the mines.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.
The silver, lead and copper mines are mainly worked by British capital.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
includes receipts from commercial and industrial undertakings belonging to the stateThese are the Hejaz railway, £T152,000; the Dolma-Bagtche gas-works, £T59,130; technical school, £T8536; the Tigris and Euphrates steamships, £T62,513; and mines (Heraclea coal and other), £T120,710; forming a combined total of £T402,889.
Thus it is explained in the preface to the budget that the revenues " proceeding from the deposed sultan " are not classed together under one heading, but that they have been apportioned to the various sections under which they should fall " whether taxes on house property or property not built upon, tithes, aghnam, forests, mines, cadastre, sport, military equipment, private domains of the state, various receipts, proceeds of sales, rents " - a truly comprehensive list which by no means set a limit to the private resources of Abd-ul-Hamid II., who looked upon the customs also as a convenient reserve on which he could, and did, draw when his privy purse was short of money.
Mines can only be exploited in virtue of an imperial irade.
For the discovery of mines, special permits of research, on which there is a fee of £T5 to £T 15, are necessary; full details of the requisite formalities are given in the law.
Discovered mines not registered by the government, or not worked for a period of 99 years before the promulgation of the law of the 26th of March 1906, are considered as nondiscovered.
on the gross products of mines of vein formation, and from Io% to 20% on those of mines of deposit formation; the percentages are calculated on the value of the mineral after deduction of freight, &c. to Europe and of treatment.
The proportional rents are fixed by the Mines Administration according to the wealth, area and facility of working of the mine, and are inserted in the imperial firman governing the mine, and must be paid before the minerals are exported.
Yearly returns, under a penalty of £T5 to £T25, of the results of working have to be rendered to the Mines Administration.
If payments due to the government are not made within two months of due date, the mines may be seized by the authorities and sold to the highest bidder.
Certain specified plans must be delivered annually, under penalty of £T5 to £T25, to the Mines Administration, and, under similar penalties, all information and facilities for visiting the mines in detail must be afforded to government inspectors.
The last distinctive epithet was derived from the little hamlet in the vicinity which furnished shelter, not only to the workmen, but to the monks of St Jerome who were afterwards to be in possession of the monastery; and the hamlet itself is generally but perhaps erroneously supposed to be indebted for its name to the scoriae or dross of certain old iron mines.
The discovery of iron ore in the Lake Superior region made Cleveland the natural meeting-point of the iron ore and the coal from the Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia mines; and it is from this that the city's great commercial importance dates.
Following the west coast northward, the trading centres are these: in the south inspectorate, Julianehaab, near which are remains of the early Norse settlements of Eric the Red and his companions (the Oster-Bygd); Frederikshaab, in which district are the cryolite mines of Ivigtut; Godthaab, the principal settlement of all, in the neighbourhood of which are also early Norse remains (the Vester-Bygd); Sukkertoppen, a most picturesque locality; and Holstenborg.
The trade of Greenland has on the whole much decreased in modern times, and trading and missions cost the Danish state a comparatively large sum (about £i i,000 every year), although this is partly covered by the income from the royalty of the cryolite mines at Ivigtut.
According to his views this nation, very numerous at that epoch - which preceded the Iron-Period civilization of the Turco-Tatars, - were pretty well acquainted with mining; the remains of their mines, sometimes 50 ft.
from quartz mines.
Serfs in the imperial mines were liberated and organized in Cossack regiments (the Transbaikal Cossacks); some of these were settled on the Amur, forming the Amur and Usuri Cossacks.
It is estimated that about one-half of the Russian agricultural population supplement their income by engaging in non-agricultural pursuits, but not more than 18 to 22% carry on domestic trades, the others finding occupation in the carrying trade - which is still important, even since the construction of the railway - in hunting (chiefly squirrel-hunting) and in work in the mines.
Since the mineral occurs in definite veins, a more satisfactory and economical method of working would be that adopted in metalliferous mines, with a vertical shaft, cross-cuts, and levels running along the strike of the vein: the mica could then be extracted by overhead stopping, and the waste material used for filling up the worked-out excavations.
of the Interior, Mines Branch, Ottawa 1905, 1 4 8 pp.).
The surrounding country has good farming land and large coal mines.
The principal English lead mines are in Derbyshire; but there are also mines at Allandale and other parts of western Northumberland, at Alston Moor and other parts of Cumberland, in the western parts of Durham, in Swaledale and Arkendale and other parts of Yorkshire, in Salop, in Cornwall, in the Mendip Hills in Somersetshire, and in the Isle of Man.
The Welsh mines are chiefly in Flint, Cardigan and Montgomery shires; the Scottish in Dumfries, Lanark and Argyll; and the Irish in Wicklow, Waterford and Down.
Of continental mines we may mention those in Saxony and in the Harz, Germany; those of Carinthia, Austria; and especially those of the southern provinces of Spain.
The Nevada mines are mostly grouped around the city of Eureka, where the ore occurs in "pockets" disseminated at random through limestone.
The Caldera & Copiapo railway (built 1848-1851 and one of the first in South America) extends beyond Copiapo to the Chanarcillo mines (50 m.) and other mining districts.
For many years the Famatina mines of Argentina received supplies from this point by way of the ComeCaballo pass.
where he took the first prize in mathematics and physics; at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he stood first at the exit examination in 1819; and at the Ecole des Mines (1819-1822), where he began to show a decided preference for the science with which his name is associated.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
In 1835 he was appointed professor of geology at the Ecole des Mines, in succession to Brochant de Villiers, whose assistant he had been in the duties of the chair since 1827.
He held the office of engineer-inchief of mines in France from 1833 until 1847, when he was appointed inspector-general; and in 1861 he became vicepresident of the Conseil-General des Mines and a grand officer of the Legion of Honour.
After his superannuation at the Ecole des Mines he continued to superintend the issue of the detailed maps almost until his death, which occurred at Canon on the 21st of September 1874.
des Mines, vol.
During his reign silver mines were opened in the Harz Mountains, towns were founded, roads were made, and the general condition of the country was improved.
Having attended at the Ecole des Mines in Paris, he assisted Elie de Beaumont in the chair of geology at the College de France from 1855 until he succeeded him in 1874.
The town is noted for its copper utensils, but the famous copper mines about 36 m.
Abandoned placer mines are to be found in every part of the unsettled interior, showing how thoroughly it had been explored by goldhunters in those early days.
Some good mines, like Morro Velho and the abandoned Gongo Soco, have been developed in Minas Geraes, but the great majority are small and not very productive.
The Ypanema mine and ironworks, near Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, which belong to the national government, have been in operation since 1810, and small charcoal forges were in operation in colonial times and supplied the mines with a considerable part of the iron needed by them.
The states are self-governed, and have exclusive control of the public lands, mines, industries, and all local affairs.
Higher, or superior, instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools - the medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of Sao Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school of mines of Ouro Preto.
They were rich in cattle, and had commenced the discovery of the mines.
Other bands penetrated into Minas and still farther north and westward, discovering mines there and in Goyaz and Cuyaba.
The town is, industrially, remarkable for its paper mills and mines of coal and other minerals.
The range of Taygetus is well watered and was in ancient times covered with forests which afforded excellent hunting to the Spartans, while it had also large iron mines and quarries of an inferior bluish marble, as well as of the famous rosso antico of Taenarum.
Besides the mines in the Newcastle and Dundee district there are extensive coal-fields at Hlobane in the Vryheid district and in Zululand (q.v.).
But the trade over berg largely developed on the dis covery of the Kimberley diamond mines, and the progress of the country was greatly promoted by the substitution of the railway for the ox wagon as a means of transport.
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
Hungary is the only country in Europe where the opal is found, namely at the famous mines of Vorosvagas in the county of Sáros, and at NagyMihaly in that of Zemplin.
Within a few miles are the thermal springs of Olanestzi and the salt mines of Ocnele Mari.
Small up to the beginning of the 19th century, Holywell has increasingly prospered, thanks to lime quarries, lead, copper and zinc mines, smelting works, a shot manufactory, copper, brass, iron and zinc works; brewing, tanning and mineral water, flannel and cement works.
The Arabian geographers of the 10th century speak of its mines of ruby and lapis lazuli, and give notices of the flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh and Khotl, regions which appear to have in part corresponded with Badakshan.
12 1920) Italy acquired a frontier considerably farther east than the Wilson Line, and including the quicksilver mines of Istria, the watershed of the Julian Alps as far as Snjeznik (Monte Nevoso), almost all Istria with Abbazia and Volosca, and a narrow strip of shore connecting it with Fiume.
When at last he was forced to flee from Constantinople, the bridge-keeper's son owned 320 houses in the city, and he had also acquired interests in banks and mines.
When sixteen years old he began to attend the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, and from 1837 to 1839 studied at the Ecole des Mines.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
Many east coast natives after working in the mines settle in the northern Transvaal.
In that year the government sanctioned the building of a " steam tramway " - a railway in all but name - from the Boksburg collieries to the Rand gold mines.
The total value of the gold extracted from mines in the Transvaal up to the end of 1909 was about £246,000,000.
deep. The yield of the Rand mines, in 1887 but 23,000 oz., rose in 1888 to 208,000 oz.
The war that followed prevented the proper working of the mines.
In 1905 when a full supply of labour was again available the output was 4,760,000 oz., in which year the sum distributed in dividends to shareholders in the Rand mines was over £4,800,000.
The total output from the Rand mines up to the end of 1908 was 56,477,240 oz.
The mines are, in general, situated on the slopes of the hills and are easily opened up by adits.
Farther north, in the Zoutpansberg and on its spurs are the little-worked mines generally known as the Low Country goldfields.
The mines are free from gas and fire damp and none is more than 500 ft.
Silver is found in many districts, and mines near Pretoria have yielded in one year ore worth £30,000.
There is a large factory for the supply of dynamite to the gold mines.
The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board.
In 1883, before the Rand gold mines had been found revenue and expenditure were about £150,000; in 1887, when the mines were beginning to be developed, the receipts were £668,000 and the expenditure £721,000; in 1889 the receipts had risen to £1,577,000 and the expenditure to £1,226,000.
A tax of 10% is levied on the annual net produce of all gold workings (proclamation of 1902) and the government takes 60% of the profits on diamond mines.
The principal heads of expenditure are on railways and other public works, including posts and telegraphs, justice, education, police, land settlement and agriculture generally, mines and native affairs.
Although to-day the great diamond mines are south of the Vaal River, the early discoveries of diamonds were made chiefly on the northern bank of the Vaal, near the site of the town now known as Barkly West.
From that time the gold industry made steady progress until the Rand gold mines proved the richest and most productive goldfield in the world.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
They induced Alfred Beit, who was an old personal friend of Rhodes, and also largely interested in the Rand gold mines, to lend his co-operation.
Phillips had been for three years in succession chairman of the chamber of mines, and he had persistently for several years tried to induce Kruger to take a reasonable view of the requirements of the industry.
The gold mines were now securely in the possession of the British, and on the 5th of June Lord Roberts's army occupied the capital of the Transvaal practically without resistance, setting free about 3000 British prisoners of war detained there.
Besides law, the important departments of finance and mines were organized, and steps taken to remedy the grievances of the commercial and mining classes.
Meantime Johannesburg had been given a town council, and some of the gold mines permitted to restart crushing (May 1901).
He also recognized the necessity, if agriculture was to be developed, of an extensive system of irrigation, and Sir William Willcocks, formerly of the Egyptian Irrigation Department, was engaged to draw up a comprehensive scheme, having in view also the needs of the gold mines.
Great Britain finally (in 1906) abandoning all her claims. The commercial depression was due to many causes; of these the most apparent was the shortage of labour at the Rand mines.
Nevertheless, the labour available continued to be very much below the needs of the mines.
Finally, to enable them to work their mines to their full capacity, the Rand houses asked for leave to import Chinese labourers.'
By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.
At the same time successful efforts were made by the ministry to increase the supply of Kaffir labour for the mines.
Apart from this movement the most notable events in the Transvaal at this period were the development of agriculture,' the gradual revival of trade (the output of the gold mines in 1909 totalled f 30,925,000, and at the end of the year 156,000 native labourers were employed), and the continued difficulty with regard to British Indians.
Leo Weinthal), The Bawenda of the Spelonken (1908); Report on the Census of 1904 (Pretoria, 1906); Reports of the South African Assoc.; Annual Reports of the Transvaal Chamber of Mines (Johannesburg); L.
Transvaal and its Mines (1907); W.
Mines of iron, manganese, and especially of mispickel, are worked, and there are stone-quarries and productive saltmarshes.
Outside the town stands the largest prison in Rumania; beyond this are the mines, worked, since 1870, by convicts, who receive a small wage.
The thickness of the salt is unknown; the mines yield about 11,000 tons annually.
The mines yield iron, coal, quicksilver and salt.
But it is noticeable that where women engage in occupations of a more than usually strenuous nature, they frequently don male costume while at their work; as, for instance, women who work in mines (Belgium) and who tend cattle (Switzerland, Tirol).
Silver, tin, lead, mercury and precious stones are listed among the mineral resources of the country, but no mines have been developed, and they are possibilities only.
of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.
These mines have produced as much as 181,040.2 Spanish oz.
There are 14 copper mines in the country, those at Aroa, 70 m.
The department of fomento is charged with the supervision of all matters relating to agriculture, stock-raising, mines, industries, commerce, statistics, immigration, public lands, posts, telegraphs and telephones.
The mineral resources include gold, silver, copper and petroleum, but no mines were in operation in 1906.
The mines are under the control of the Northern India Salt Department.
The development of rich gold and silver mines brought in more Spanish settlers, and then the record changes to one of partisan warfare, which continued down to the administration of President Porfirio Diaz.
The date of the discovery of diamonds,, upon which its wealth and importance chiefly depend, is uncertain,, but the official announcement was made in 1729, and in the following year the mines were declared crown property, with a crown reservation, known as the "forbidden district," 42 leagues.
de Senarmont (1808-1862), was appointed conservator of the mineralogical collections at the Ecole des Mines.
He built other foundries at Ringwood, New Jersey, and at Durham, Pennsylvania; bought iron mines in northern New Jersey, and carried the ore thence by railways to his mills.
The he Board of Education directly administers the following educational institutions - the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, with its branch at Bethnal Green, from both of which objects are lent to various institutions for educational purposes; the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, with which is incorporated the Royal School of Mines; the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street; the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; and the Royal College of Art, South Kensington.
Large numbers of natives sought employment in Natal and at the Rand gold mines, and Zululand enjoyed a period of prosperity hitherto unknown.
Meantime the coal mines near St Lucia Bay were opened up and connected with Durban by railway.
The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
In coal mines, entries and headings, bords and walls serve similar purposes.
In the early history of mining there was but little attempt at systematic development and working, and the mines were often irregular and tortuous.
In such mines the mineral was carried out on the backs of men, and the water was laboriously raised by a long line of suction-pumps, operated by hand, each lifting the water a few feet only.
In shallow mines the pillars are small and the saving of the mineral of minor importance.
In deep mines the pillars may furnish the bulk of the product, and the control of the fall of the roof, so as to permit the successful extraction of the mineral, demands a well-schemed plan of operation.
If rock-filling must be brought from the surface its use will generally be confined to mines in which it is difficult to support the roof in any other way.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
In the United States cars in the coal and iron mines hold from 2 to 4 tons.
In mines of copper, lead and the precious metals, in which the cars are moved by hand, the usual load is from 1200 to 3000 lb.
In metal mines, where, as a rule, mechanical haulage is inapplicable, the cars are moved by men (trammers).
Animal haulage is employed chiefly in collieries and large metal mines; sometimes for main haulage lines, but oftener for distributing empty cars and making up trains for mechanical haulage.
Locomotive haulage is applicable to large mines, where trains of cars are hauled long distances on flat or undulating roads of moderate gradients.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
Fixed drums are best for mines in which the hoisting is done chiefly from one level; independent drums when there are a number of different levels.
Allis and silver mines.
In shallow mines the men use the ladder-way in going to and from their work.
At mines with vertical shafts this is a simple operation.
Cages of the size generally used in metal mines will hold from ten to fifteen and occasionally twenty men.
These are common in Europe, and are sometimes employed in the United States and elsewhere in mines where the output is large and the shafts deep and of small cross section.
Nevertheless, in very deep and large mines the time consumed in handling the men may make serious inroads on the time available for hoisting ore.
At a few mines special man-cages are operated in separate compartments by their own engines for handling part of the men, and for tools, supplies, &c. For inclined shafts, where the mineral is hoisted in skips, the operation of raising and lowering men may not be so simple.
At a few mines (since safety catches cannot be successfully applied to man-cars) these conveyances are raised and lowered by separate engines and ropes.
Formerly, at many deep European mines, and at a few in the United States, men were raised by means of " man-engines."
In coal mining the market demand varies in different seasons, and surface storage is sometimes necessary to permit regular work at the mines.
Water may be raised from mines by buckets, tanks or pumps.
(3) For clearing flooded mines.
Cornish pumps are the oldest of the machines for draining mines; in fact, one of the earliest applications of the old Woolf and Newcomen engines in the 18th century was to pumps for deep mines.
For example, carbon dioxide occurs in some mines, and hydrogen sulphide, which is a poisonous gas, in others.
Very large volumes of air are necessary for this purpose, so that in such mines other sources of vitiation are adequately provided against and need not be considered.
In metal mines, however, artificial ventilation is rarely attempted, and natural ventilation often fails to furnish a sufficient quantity of air.
The examination of the air of metal mines has shown that in most cases it is much worse than the air of crowded theatres or other badly ventilated buildings.
The efficiency of such ventilating furnaces is low, and they cannot safely be used in mines producing fire-damp. They are sometimes the cause of underground fires, and they are always a source of danger when by any chance the ventilating current becomes reversed, in which case the products of combustion, containing large quantities of carbon dioxide, will be drawn into the mine to the serious danger of the men.
Positive blowers and exhausting apparatus of a great variety of forms have been used in mines for producing artificial ventilation.
19), Rateau, (From Mines and Minerals, March, 1905.) Fm.
deep. In Austria three shafts in the silver mines at Prizbram have reached the depth of over 1000 metres.
Observations in different parts of the world have shown that the increase of temperature in depth varies: in most localities the rise being at the rate of one degree for 50 to 100 feet of depth; while in the deep mines of Michigan and the Rand, an increase as low as one degree for each 200 ft.
In the Comstock mines at Virginia City, Nevada, it is possible to continue mining operations at rock temperatures of 130° F.
In these mines a constant supply of pure air, about oon cub.
In the Alpine tunnels, where the air was moist and probably not as pure as in the Comstock mines, great difficulty was experienced in prosecuting the work at temperatures of 90° F.
Deep mines, however, are generally dry, so that in most cases it will be possible to realize the more favourable conditions of the Comstock mines.
In many deep mines to-day " explosive rock " has been encountered.
A similar condition of strain has been observed in deep mines in different parts of the world - perhaps due to geological movements.
Similar swelling ground is not infrequently met with in metal mines, as, for example, in the Phoenix copper mine in Houghton county, Michigan, where the force developed was sufficient to crush the strongest timber that could be used.
In very deep mines this flowing of soft rock will doubtless add greatly to the difficulty of maintaining openings.
These simple business principles do not seem to be generally recognized by the investing public, and mines, whose earning capacity is accurately known, are frequently quoted on the stock markets at prices which cannot possibly yield enough to the purchaser to repay his investment during the probable life of the mine.
The valuation of mines then involves the following steps: (1) The sampling of the deposit so far as developed, and assaying of the samples taken; (2) The measurement of the developed ore; (3) estimates of the probable amount of ore in the undeveloped part of the property; (4) estimates of probable profits, life of the mine, and determination of the value of the property.
On the other hand in the case of uncertain and irregular deposits, the value of which varies between very wide limits, as, for example - in most metal mines and especially mines of gold and silver - a very large number of samples must be taken - sometimes not more than two or three feet apart - in order that the average value of the ore may be known within reasonable limits of error.
For the purpose of training such men special schools of mining engineering (ecoles des mines, Bergakademie) have been established in most mining countries.
20, which shows the number of men killed in the coal and metal mines of Great Britain for a series of years.
In dry and dusty mines the danger may be greatly lessened by sprinkling the working places and passages, and the removal of the accumulated dust and fine coal.
A fire underground speedily becomes formidable, not only in coal but also in metal mines, on account of the large quantity of timber used to support the excavations.
- Death-rate from various classes of accidents in and about all mines in the United Kingdom from 1873 to 1900.
Mines may become flooded by the inrush of surface waters in times of great rainfall or sudden floods, or by the undermining of surface waters.
The surface Mines.
That it is possible to work with safety beneath rivers, lakes and even the ocean has been proved in numerous instances; mines in different parts of the world having been extended long distances under the sea.
Accidents from the misuse and careless handling of explosives are unfortunately too frequent in mines.
In the metal mines of Cornwall and Devon special rules are now in force requiring the use of water in drilling, and other precautions, to lessen this danger from dust.
In some mines dust seems to have but little effect on the health of the miners; indeed it is even claimed by some that coal dust decreases the mortality from phthisis.
The climbing of ladders from deep mines not only lessens the efficiency of the men by reason of fatigue, but often tends to increase the mortality from diseases of the heart.
Ankylostomiasis is a disease which finds a congenial habitat in the warm damp atmosphere of mines, and has become a veritable scourge in some mining regions.
In many cases the state or the ruler has sought to obtain a share in the profits of mining, or even to work mines for the individual profit of the ruler or of the state.
The following works may also be consulted: Books - Bertolio, Coltivazione delle minere (Milan, 1902); Brown, The Organization of Gold Mining Business (Glasgow, 1897); Brough, Mine Surveying (12th ed., London, 1906); Bulman and Redmayne, Colliery Working and Management (London, 1896); Colomer, Exploitation des mines (Paris, 1899); Curle, The Gold Mines of the World (2nd ed., London, 1902); Demanet, Traite d'exploitation des mines de houille (2nd ed., Brussels, vols.
The defenders employed mines drifting down with the current with striking success on this occasion, and ` the damage caused by them contributed largely to bring about the defeat of the naval force.
on finding nearly all the ammunition for their heaviest ordnance in the Narrows to be used up, viewed the prospect of a possible fresh fleet attack with some apprehension, as they were under the impression that the assailants had been beaten off on the 18th by the guns and not by the mines.
There are lignite mines in the vicinity.
His account of the aluminous district of Tolfa and adjacent hills, published in 1786, gained for him the notice of the king of Naples, who invited him to inspect the mines and similar works in that kingdom, and appointed him professor of mineralogy to the royal artillery.
First, there is the highland tract including the hilly country at the sources of the Chindwin and the upper waters of the Irrawaddy, the Upper Chindwin, Katha, Bhamo, Myitkyina and Ruby Mines districts, with the Kachin hills and a great part of the Northern Shan states.
They then form part of a system of ranges which curve north of the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills of the Jade and Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river.
There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.
In the hilly district of Mogok (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°.
The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.'
The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods.
The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.
The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China.
The mines are situated beyond Kamaing, north of Mogaung in the Myitkyina district.
The old river mines produced the best quality.
The quarry mines on the top of the hill near Tawmaw produce enormous quantities, but the quality is not so good.
The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits.
There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month.
Tourmaline or rubellite is found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long.
Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan States.
The most striking development in the resources of the country from 1909 was the exploitation of the copper mines of Katanga.
Since Dec. 1909 the mines had had a direct outlet by railway to the E.
The gold mines at Kilo and Moto, worked since 1905, had an output in 1918 of some 90,000 ozs.
Taxes on imports and exports, not exceeding the equivalent of io% ad valorem, direct taxation of Europeans, and a poll tax on native adult males, a tax on ivory and the Government share in the exploitation of mines were the chief sources of revenue; the administrative services and interest on debt the largest items of expenditure.
With the development of commerce, and especially of the Katanga mines - in which the colony had a two-thirds interest - the prospects of balancing the budget became good.
In 1472 a quarrel having arisen with Volterra on account of a dispute concerning the alum mines, Lorenzo sent an expedition against the city, which was sacked and many of the inhabitants massacred.
Copper smelting has been carried on in or near the town since 1584 when the Mines Royal Society set up works at Neath Abbey; the industry attained huge proportions a century later under Sir Humphrey Mackworth, who from 16 9 5 carried on copper and lead smelting at Melincrythan.
In the neighbourhood of Millom there are blast furnaces and highly productive mines of red haematite ore.
The latter penalty was also attached to theft of sacred things by night, but stealing by day from a temple objects of little value brought only sentence to the mines.
Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, it is probable that it contained iron and silver mines.
des Mines, ser.
As ores of zinc are usually shipped before smelting from widely separated places - Sweden, Spain, Algiers, Italy, Greece, Australia and the Rocky Mountains region of North America - it is important that they be separated from their mixtures at the mines.
It lies in a valley between the hills of Birkenberg and Heiliger Berg, and in its neighbourhood are the lead and silver mines which belong to the Austrian government and are worked in nine shafts, two of which, the Adalbert shaft (3637 ft.) and the Maria shaft, (3575 ft.) are the deepest in the world.
The mines have been worked for several centuries, but their actual prosperity dates from 1770, when the sinking of the Adalbert shaft began.
- Coal has been discovered in the Khmir ("Kroumir") country, but the principal mines at present worked in Tunisia are those of copper, lead and zinc. Zinc is chiefly found in the form of calamine.
In 1907 the number of mines working was 32.
A branch from the Kef line runs to the phosphate mines of Kalaa-Jerda.
Another railway (completed by 1900) runs from Sfax, along the coast to Mahres, thence inland to Gafsa and the phosphate mines of Metalwi.
The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
Rich in corn, in herds, and in later times also in oil, and possessing valuable fisheries, mines and quarries, the province of Africa, of which Tunisia was the most important part, attained under the empire a prosperity to which Roman remains in all parts of the country still bear witness.
540 B.C.), partly from its copper mines (Ovid, Met.
It is in this sandstone that the rich mercury mines of Huancavelica are worked.
des mines, 5th series, vol.
Others had withdrawn into the mountains and forests, and in the native villages under Spanish administration the birth rate had dropped to a small part of what it had been because the great bulk of the male population had been segregated in the mines and on the estates of the conquerors.
of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906.
The most important export is sugar, the products of the mines ranking second.
Immediately following the Spanish invasion the Andean region was thoroughly explored, and with the assistance of Indian slaves thousands of mines were opened, many of them failures, some of them becoming famous.
The number of mines worked is small and there is not much foreign capital invested in them.
Peru has been known chiefly for its silver mines, some of which have been marvellously productive.
The Cerro de Pasco district, with its 342 mines, is credited with a production, in value, of £40,000,000 between 1784 and 1889, and is still productive, the output for 1906 being valued at £972,958..
Modern machinery is little used and many mines are practically unworkable for want of pumps.
The Junin district is the best known and includes the Cerro de Pasco, Yauli, Morococha and Huallay groups of mines, all finding an outlet to the coast over the Oroya railway.
These mines are of recent development, the.
Cerro de Pasco mines having been purchased by American capitalists.
The Cerro de Pasco mines are supposed by some authorities to be the largest copper deposit in the world.
In addition to the tribute, which was in accordance with native usage, there was the " mita," or forced labour in mines, farms and manufactories.
Higginson, Mines and Mining in Peru (ibid.
above sea-level (whence its name, from an Ojibway Indian word, said to mean "high up"), in the centre of the Marquette Range iron district, and has seven mines within its limits; the mining of iron ore is its principal industry.
The mineral resources include extensive deposits of copper, and some less important mines of gold and silver.
Mercury mines have begun to be worked; other minerals are known to exist.
Silver, tin and diamond mines are worked near the town.
There are mines of chrome, mercury, cinnabar, argentiferous lead and rock salt.
Their country was rich in figs, vines and olive trees; the silver mines in the mountain range of Dysorum brought in a talent a day to their conqueror Alexander.
Coal is also found and several salt mines are worked.
The chief wealth of the state is in its mines.
It is now a centre of the tunny fishery, and there are manganese mines also.
In 1716 he was introduced to Charles XII., who appointed him assessor-extraordinary on the Swedish board of mines.
The next years were devoted to the duties and studies connected with his office, which involved the visitation of the Swedish, Saxon, Bohemian and Austrian mines.
In the year 1 747, to the great regret of his colleagues, he resigned his post of assessor of the board of mines that he might devote himself to his higher vocation, requesting only to be allowed to receive as a pension the half of his salary.
Its extensive iron mines, mostly at Erzberg, which were worked during the Roman period, yield nearly half of the total production of iron in Austria.
Annales des mines belgiques appears quarterly, and L' Art moderne weekly at Brussels.
It dates from the completion of the railway to the coal mines of Naricual and Capiricual nearly 1 2 m.
The silver and copper mines of the province are numerous, some of them ranking among the most productive known, but the majority are worked with limited capital and on a small scale.
Oil wells in the vicinity also furnish an important product for export, and there are iron and salt mines near.
and is famous for its fine scenery, which has gained for it the title of the "Austrian Switzerland"; but it owes its name (literally "salt-exchequer property") and its economic importance to its valuable salt mines.
Slate quarries and copper and tin mines were formerly valuable.
The offices of the Witwatersrand chamber of mines face the market buildings.
South, east and west of the city are the gold mines, indicated by tall chimneys, battery houses and the compounds of the labourers.
The mines are worked on the most scientific lines.
of Johannesburg, is obtained much of the coal used in the Rand mines.
The mines within the municipal area produce nearly half the total gold output of the Transvaal.
- There is an ample supply of water to the town and mines, under a water board representing all the Rand municipalities and the mining companies.