Minerals sentence example

minerals
  • The other minerals found are silver, lead, copper, magnesium and lignite coal.
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  • As to other minerals little is definitely known.
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  • The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock.
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  • The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.
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  • A large number of minerals may occur as accessories, e.g.
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  • In minerals Manchuria is very rich: coal, gold, iron (as well as magnetic iron ore), and precious stones are found in large quantities.
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  • The tonnage of goods carried amounts to about 16,000,000 tons, or 4 tons per inhabitant, which must be considered fairly large, especially as no great proportion of the tonnage consists of minerals on which there is usually a low freightage.
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  • The gas also occurs in minute quantities in the common minerals of the earth's crust.
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  • Vitamins and minerals – zinc and vitamin C were high on the list, and some herbs.
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  • He may also grant either a lease of the surface of settled land, reserving the mines and minerals, or a lease of the minerals without the surface.
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  • The concessions are to be for 99 years with the exception of chrome, emery, boracite and other minerals found only in the form of deposits, which may be granted for not less than 40 years or more than 99 years.
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  • A few other minerals may be noticed, and some have been worked to a small extent - graphite is abundant, particularly near Upernivik; cryolite is found almost exclusively at Ivigtut; copper has been observed at several places, but only in nodules and laminae of limited extent; and coal of poor quality is found in the districts about Disco Bay and Umanak Fjord.
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  • Often this felsitic devitrified glass is so fine-grained that its constituents cannot be directly determined even with the aid of the microscope, but chemical analysis leaves little doubt as to the real nature cf the minerals which have been formed.
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  • The stone quarries and minerals are little worked.
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  • Of other lead minerals we may mention the basic sulphate lanarkite, PbO PbSO 4; leadhillite, PbSO 4.3PbCO 3; the basic chlorides matlockite, PbO PbC12j and mendipite, PbC1 2.2PbO; the chloro-phosphate pyromorphite, PbC12.3Pb3(P04)2, the chloro-arsenate mimetesite, PbC12.3Pb3(As04)2; the molybdate wulfenite, PbMoO 4; the chromate crocoite or crocoisite, PbCrO 4; the tungstate stolzite, PbW04.
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  • Ilmenite is isomorphous with geikielite, MgTiO 3, and pyrophanite, MnTiO 3; many of the "rare minerals" - aeschynite, euxenite, polycrase, &c. - contain titanates (and also niobates).
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  • The minerals are generally found together - a feature rarely met with in the case of polymorphs.
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  • Associated with the silver minerals are rich ores of cobalt and nickel, combined with arsenic, antimony and sulphur, which would be considered valuable if occurring alone, but are not paid for under present conditions, since they are difficult to separate and refine.
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  • Another third comes from the Dominion subsidy, granted in lieu of the power of indirect taxation, and the remainder from the sale or lease of crown lands, timber and minerals.
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  • Among the less important metals and minerals which are also mined, is corundum of especial purity.
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  • In addition to agriculture, which (with the exception of the Usuri Cossacks) is sufficient to supply their needs and usually to leave a certain surplus, they"carry on extensive cattle and horse breeding, vine culture in Caucasia, fishing on the Don, the Ural, and the Caspian, hunting, bee-culture, &c. The extraction of coal, gold and other minerals which are found on their territories is mostly rented to strangers, who also own most factories.
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  • Tasmania produces gold, tin, silver, copper and coal, and in 1905 the production of these minerals was valued at: gold, £312,380; silver and silver-lead, £465,094; copper, £672,010; tin, 346,092; and coal, £44,194.
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  • The state board of agriculture holds annual conventions for the discussion of agricultural problems. Minerals.
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  • A great number of rock-forming minerals, however, possess a good cleavage, so that when bruised they split into thin fragments;.
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  • Kaolin and muscovite are formed principally after felspar (and the felspars are the commonest minerals of all crystalline rocks); also from nepheline, leucite, scapolite and a variety of other rock-forming minerals.
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  • Near volcanoes they contain many volcanic minerals, and around coral islands they are often in large part calcareous.
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  • The minerals of most commercial importance are coal, iron ores, copper ores, marble and phosphate rock.
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  • In New South Wales the principal centre of this industry is Hillgrove, near Armidale, where Other the Eleanora Mine, one of the richest in the state, is minerals.
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  • It is usually found in association with tin and other minerals.
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  • The metallic glitter of avanturine or sun-stone (q.v.) is due to the enclosed scales of gothite and certain other minerals.
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  • It contains, besides a fine library, a collection of the presents he received during his long career; numerous autographs, and other historical relics, a collection of rare coins, armour, portraits and various minerals.
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  • Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
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  • After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.
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  • Borlase was well acquainted with most of the leading literary men of the time, particularly with Alexander Pope, with whom he kept up a long correspondence, and for whose grotto at Twickenham he furnished the greater part of the fossils and minerals.
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  • Owing to the volcanic nature of its soil, Crete is probably rich in minerals.
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  • Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
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  • In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
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  • Turning to the study of radioactivity, he noticed its association with the minerals which yield helium, and in support of the hypothesis that that gas is a disintegration-product of radium he proved in 1903 that it is continuously formed by the latter substance in quantities sufficiently great to be directly recognizable in the spectroscope.
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  • Arfvedson, a pupil of Berzelius, detected a new element, which he named lithium, in various minerals - notably petalite.
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  • In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
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  • Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
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  • Taking as a basis the nature of the source of compounds, he framed three classes: " mineral," comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vegetable," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c.; and " animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta.
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  • Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals.
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  • Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
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  • Important formations of chromite are found at Hagdale and the Heog Hills; steatite occurs at Kleber Geo, and many interesting minerals have been recorded from these islands.
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  • Blocks of these minerals lie scattered on the sides and ridges of the mountains and in the beds of the streams; and extensive turf moors occupy many of the mountain slopes and valleys.
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  • Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in sufficient quantity to be industrially important.
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  • The rocks of its lower half are mainly granite and gneiss; its upper half is composed of porphyritic greenstone, and a variety of minerals occur.
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  • Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome, manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent building stone.
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  • According to these statistics the most important articles of export are coal and turf, fruit, minerals, soda, iron and steel, and cattle.
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  • The empire is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, coal, mercury, borax, emery, zinc; and only capital is needed for successful exploitation.
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  • Minerals are worked according to the law of the 14th Sefer 1324 (March 26, 1906).
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  • The rare earth metals are found in the minerals gadolinite, samarskite, fergusonite, euxenite and cerite.
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  • They are separated from the minerals by converting them into oxalates, which by ignition give the corresponding oxides.
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  • Land masses are denuded and minerals containing silicates are carried down to the sea as sediments.
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  • Inclusions of other minerals are frequently to be observed in mica.
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  • These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
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  • Beyond the small fertile valley in which it stands is the barren desert, on which rain rarely falls and which has no economic value apart from its minerals (especially saline compounds).
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  • The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.
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  • From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
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  • Several other species of alumen are described by Pliny, but we are unable to make out to what minerals he alludes.
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  • Various minerals are employed in the manufacture of alum, the most important being alunite or alum-stone, alum schist, bauxite and cryolite.
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  • It is usually found associated with tantalum, the chief minerals containing these two elements being tantalite, columbite, fergusonite and yttrotantalite; it is also a constituent of pyrochlor, euxenite and samarskite.
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  • Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.
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  • The town is, industrially, remarkable for its paper mills and mines of coal and other minerals.
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  • The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.
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  • Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.
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  • The district of which Cobar is the centre abounds in minerals of all kinds, but copper and gold are those most extensively worked.
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  • The principal minerals are gold, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, asphalt and petroleum.
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  • In the former he was one of the leading workers, in collaboration from 1879 to 1887 with Emile Edmond Sarasin (1843-1890), at the formation of minerals by artificial means, particularly in the wet way with the aid of heat and pressure, and he succeeded in reproducing a large number of the natural compounds.
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  • Gold, iron, copper and other minerals have also been found, but the mineral wealth of the country is undeveloped.
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  • Mining may be subdivided into the operations of prospecting or search for minerals, exploration and development, work preparatory to active operations, and working.
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  • Special methods of mining are dealt with in the separate articles on Coal, Gold, and other minerals and metals.
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  • In the article on Mineral Deposits the distribution and mode of occurrence of the useful minerals and ores are fully discussed.
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  • The prospector is guided in his search by a knowledge of the geological conditions under which useful minerals occur.
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  • Sometimes the vegetation, shrubs, trees, &c., as characteristic of certain soils, may furnish evidence as to rock or minerals below.
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  • Search should be made in the beds of streams and on the hillsides for " float mineral " or " shoad stones," fragments of rocks and minerals known to be associated with and characteristic of the deposits.
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  • In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
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  • In the case of coal, salt, iron ore, pyrite and other homogeneous minerals, boring may give all the information required.
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  • While the width of the working-place is thus limited by the strength of the roof, its length is determined by other considerations - namely, the rapidity with which the mining work can be conducted and the length of time it is practicable to keep the working-place open, and also by the increased difficulty of handling the minerals sometimes experienced when the workings reach undue length.
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  • A student of mining must receive thorough instruction in geology; he must study mining as practised in different countries, and the metallurgical and mechanical treatment of minerals; and he should have an engineering education, especially on mechanical and electrical lines.
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  • In public or government land the minerals as well as surface belong to the state, and not infrequently these rights have been separated by law and granted or otherwise disposed of to different owners.
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  • The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.
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  • The refractive indices of all glasses at present available lie between 1.46 and 1 90, whereas transparent minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (calcium fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial production of large mineral crystals.
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  • Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbC03), malachite and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3), strontianite (strontium carbonate, SrC03), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO 3 MgCO 3), and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3.
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  • The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island.
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  • Other zinc minerals are willemite, Zn 2 SiO 4, hydrozincite or zinc bloom, ZnCO 3.2Zn(OH)2, zincite or red zinc ore, ZnO, and franklinite, 3(Fe,Zn)0 (Fe,Mn) 2 0 3 .
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  • In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
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  • The Wetherill system of magnetic concentration has been remarkably successful in separating the minerals contained in the well-known deposit in Sussex (disambiguation)|Sussex county, N.J.
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  • Of zinc phosphates we notice the minerals hopeite, Zn.
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  • He followed this professor to learn how to analyse certain minerals, but in the end he found that the teacher himself was ignorant of the process.
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  • Of the carbon dioxide and ammonia no exhaustion can take place, but of the mineral constitutents the supply is limited because the soil cannot afford an indefinite amount of them; hence the chief care of the farmer, and the function of manures, is to restore to the soil those minerals which each crop is found, by the analysis of its ashes, to take up in its growth.
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  • Damiri) is not zoological but legendary, and the works on minerals are practical and not scientific. See ARABIAN PHIaOSOPHY and historical sections of such scientific articles as ASTRONOMY, &c. (G.
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  • It is apparent that these minerals all result in nature from pneumatolytic action.
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  • The export of coal in that year was 74,000 tons, and copper ore 937 tons (vide supra, § Minerals).
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  • Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
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  • The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
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  • Mercury mines have begun to be worked; other minerals are known to exist.
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  • The principal exports are salt, minerals, opium, cotton, cereals, wool and live stock; and the imports cloth-goods, coffee, rice and petroleum.
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  • Copper is the most important of the minerals worked.
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  • The mountainous region is rich in minerals, and there is a valuable deposit of borax near the capital, Arequipa.
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  • Of the minerals containing gold the most important are sylvanite or graphic tellurium (Ag, Au) Tee, with 24 to 26%; calaverite, AuTe2, with 42%; nagyagite or foliate tellurium (Pb, Au)16 Sba(S, Te)24, with 5 to 9% of gold; petzite, (Ag, Au) 2 Te, and white tellurium.
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  • The minerals of the second class, usually spoken of as " auriferous," are comparatively numerous.
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  • In the alluvial deposits the associated minerals are chiefly those of great density and hardness, such as platinum, osmiridium and other metals of the platinum group, tinstone, chromic, magnetic and brown iron ores, diamond, ruby and sapphire, zircon, topaz, garnet, &c. which represent the more durable original constituents of the rocks whose distintegration has furnished the detritus.
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  • The larger stones having been removed by hand, gyratory motion is given to the pan by a combination of shaking and twisting movements so as to keep its contents suspended in the stream of water, which carries away the bulk of the lighter material, leaving the heavy minerals, together with any gold which may have been present.
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  • It is also stated that sodium prevents both the " sickening " and the " flouring " of the mercury which is produced by certain associated minerals.
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  • The extraction of gold from auriferous minerals by fusion, except as an incident in their treatment for other metals, is very rarely practised.
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  • The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by amalgamation.
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  • Although the state is supposed to have several of the minerals found in this part of Mexico (silver, cinnabar, iron, lead, gold, petroleum and coal), its mining industries continue undeveloped and neglected.
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  • There is a trade in wine, beer, wood and minerals.
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  • Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.
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  • Though he lived in an atmosphere of alchemy, he derided the notion of the alkahest or universal solvent, and denounced the deceptions of the adepts who pretended to effect the transmutation of metals; but he believed mercury to be a constituent of all metals and heavy minerals, though he held there was no proof of the presence of "sulphur comburens."
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  • A few minerals are found in the district, but in this department the saltworks of Hall, near Innsbruck, take the first place.
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  • Ekeberg discovered an element, tantalum, in some Swedish yttrium minerals.
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  • Coal and other minerals have been discovered.
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  • Isolated gritty fragments of minerals may be felt in the generally fine-grained homogeneous mass.
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  • In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
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  • In the United Kingdom the ownership of coal, like that of other minerals, is in the proprietor of the soil, and passes with it, except when specially reserved in the sale.
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  • The separation of caesium from the minerals which contain it is an exceedingly difficult and laborious process.
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  • Bundelkhand is full of minerals .The land is also fertile.
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  • Other minerals found in small quantities are copper, lead, zinc, iron ores, manganese ores and tin.
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  • Other species belonging to this isomorphous group of orthorhombic minerals are marcasite (FeS2), lollingite (FeAs 2), safflorite (CoAs2) and rammelsbergite (NiAs 2).
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  • In that year the total value of the minerals and mining products of the state was $5,9 2 5,949.
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  • The presence or absence of useful minerals, plants and animals rendered some congenial, others unfriendly; some areas were the patrons of virile occupations, others of feminine pursuits.
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  • The exports are chiefly phosphates and other minerals, cereals, olive oil, cattle, hides, sponges and wax.
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  • The minerals are unimportant, except amber, peat and clay.
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  • Coal, iron, silver and other minerals are found in the adjoining hills; and the city possesses a government tobacco factory, a brewery, cloth-mills, gunpowder-mills, a model farm and many corn-mills, worked by the two rapid rivers.
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  • Of other minerals gold has been found, but up to 1909 was not worked; iron ore exists near Kroonstad and Vredefort, but it also is not worked.
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  • Nor was the concentration of wealth the only danger of this policy; it led to the destruction of forests, the exhaustion of farming soils and the wasteful mining of coal and minerals, since the desire for quick profits, even when they entail risk to permanency of capital, is always a powerful human motive.
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  • The minerals of South Dakota, of which gold is the most important, are chiefly found in the Black Hills region.
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  • Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.
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  • The minerals of Siam include gold, silver, rubies, sapphires, tin, copper, iron, zinc and coal.
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  • Thus the sulphate constitutes the minerals anhydrite, alabaster, gypsum, and selenite; the carbonate occurs dissolved in most natural waters and as the minerals chalk, marble, calcite, aragonite; also in the double carbonates such as dolomite, bromlite, barytocalcite; the fluoride as fluorspar; the fluophosphate constitutes the mineral apatite; while all the more important mineral silicates contain a proportion of this element.
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  • Calcium carbonate, CaCO 3, is of exceptionally wide distribution in both the mineral and animal kingdoms. It constitutes the bulk of the chalk deposits and limestone rocks; it forms over one-half of the mineral dolomite and the rock magnesium limestone; it occurs also as the dimorphous minerals aragonite (q.v.) and calcite (q.v.).
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  • It also constitutes the minerals ornithite, Ca3(P04)2 2H20, osteolite and sombrerite.
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  • Calcium silicate is also present in the minerals: olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, epidote, felspars, zeolites, scapolites (qq.v.).
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  • The agricultural products of the province are very limited, and its chief wealth lies in its minerals.
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  • Cleavage is thus a superinduced structure, and its explanation is to be found in the rearrangement of the minerals, and the development of a certain degree of crystallization by pressure acting on the rock.
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  • Coarse rocks and rocks consisting of hard minerals are always imperfectly cleaved.
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  • The cleavage of slates must be distinguished from cleavage of minerals, the latter being due to different degrees of cohesion along definite crystallographic planes.
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  • This method of reasoning, however, does not carry us far, as the minerals of slates vary considerably in form.
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  • Micas and other platy minerals (such as chlorite), which naturally grow most rapidly on their edges, would show this tendency best, and such minerals usually form a large part of the best slates; but even Sketch (by Du Noyer) of a block of variegated slate from Devil's Glen, Co.
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  • Other minerals which occur in the rocks of this group are calcite, garnet, biotite, chloritoid, epidote, tourmaline and graphite or dark carbonaceous materials.
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  • The spots contain variety of minerals, sometimes mainly white mica or chlorite.
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  • Graphite is black and opaque, whilst diamond is colourless and transparent; it is one of the softest (H= I) of minerals, and diamond the hardest of all; it is a good conductor of electricity, whilst diamond is a bad conductor.
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  • It also enters (as carbonates) into the composition of many minerals, such as chalk, dolomite, calcite, witherite, calamine and spathic iron ore.
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  • It is a constituent of the minerals cerussite, malachite, azurite, spathic iron ore, calamine, strontianite, witherite, calcite aragonite, limestone, &c. It may be prepared by burning carbon in excess of air or oxygen, by the direct decomposition of many carbonates by heat, and by the decomposition of carbonates with mineral acids, M2C03+2HC1=2MCl-FH 2 O+CO 2.
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  • Algeria is rich in minerals, found chiefly in the department of Constantine, where iron, lead and zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines are worked.
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  • These deposits, in addition to common salt, include the following minerals: sylvine, KC1; carnallite, KC1 MgC12.6H20 (transparent, deliquescent crystals, often red with diffused oxide of iron); kainite, K 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 MgC1 2 6H 2 O (hard crystalline masses, permanent in the air); kieserite MgS04 H20 (only very slowly dissolved by water); besides polyhalite, MgSO 4 K 2 SO 4.2CaSO 4.2H20anhydrite, CaSO 4; salt, NaC1, and some minor components.
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  • These potassium minerals are not confined to Stassfurt; larger quantities of sylvine and kainite are met with in the salt mines of Kalusz in the eastern Carpathian Mountains.
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  • The Stassfurt minerals owe their industrial importance to their solubility in water and consequent ready amenability to chemical operations.
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  • It was obtained as a by-product in many chemical reactions, and subsequently used to be extracted from kainite, one of the Stassfurt minerals, but the process is now given up because the salt can be produced cheaply enough from the chloride by decomposing it with sulphuric acid and calcining the residue.
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  • Some of the original proposals, which were much criticized, were subsequently dropped, including the permanent diversion of the Old Sinking Fund to a National Development Fund (created by a separate bill), and a tax on "ungotten minerals," for which was substituted a tax on mineral rights.
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  • The working of slate is very important, especially in the neighbourhood of Fumay, and quarries producing freestone, lime-stone and other minerals are found in several places.
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  • According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.
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  • It is often associated with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products.
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  • The galena group includes several other cubic minerals, such as argentite (q.v.).
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  • After coal and iron the most valuable minerals are zinc, lead, pyrites and copper.
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  • The minerals include coal-beds in the Kidul hills and near Nangulan, marble and gold in the neighbourhood of Kalasan.
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  • The minerals discovered in Guatemala include gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, mercury, antimony, coal, salt and sulphur; but it is uncertain if many of these exist in quantities sufficient to repay exploitation.
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  • During the mechanical comminution of the till no vegetation was present to remove the minerals essential to plant growth, as is the case in the soils of normally weathered and dissected peneplains, such as the Appalachian piedmont, where the soils, though not exhausted by the primeval forest cover, are by no means ~so rich as the till sheets of the prairies.
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  • It held primacy, with a large margin, in the yield of coal, iron, lead and copper, the minerals most important in manufactures; in gold its output ini~usifrIcs was second only to that, of South Africa (though practically equalled by that of Australia); and in silver to that of Mexico.
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  • Mulhall (Industries and Wealth of Nations, edition of 1896, pp. 3435) that Great Britain then produced approximately one-third, the United States one-third, and all other countries collectively one-third of the minerals of the world in weight.
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  • Other minerals whose production may be found stated in detail in the annual volume on Mineral Resources of the United States Geological Survey are: natural pigments, felspar, white mica, graphite, fluorspar, arsenic, quartz, barytes, bromine.
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  • Of the two classes of iron minerals used as ores of that metal, namely, oxides and carbonates, the latter furnish to-day an insignificant proportion of the countrys product, although such ores were the basis of a considerable part of the early iron industry, and even so late as 1889 represented one-thirteenth of the total.
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  • Since then the increase of manufactures, and to a slight degree that of minerals, has lessened much the share of agricultural products, which in 1906 was 56.43%, that of manufactures beiIig 35.11% and of minerals 3.09%.
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  • Copper and asbestos are the principal mineral products of that part of Quebec included in the region now under description, although many other minerals are known and already worked to some extent.
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  • Coal and lignitic coal are the principal economic minerals met with in this central plain, though natural gas occurs and is put to use near Medicine Hat, and " tar sands " along the northeastern edge of the Cretaceous indicate the presence of petroleum.
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  • Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.
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  • Bounties on certain minerals and metals are also given by some of the provinces.
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  • Of the less important minerals, Canada is the world's chief producer of asbestos and corundum.
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  • The district is poor in minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig debouches on the plain.
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  • Sulphurous and other mineral springs, both hot and cold, exist in several districts, and deposits of silver, iron, copper, sulphur, coal and other minerals have been discovered; but the exploitation of these is retarded by lack of communications, and, apart from building materials, sulphur and salt, the actual output is insignificant.
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  • The asterism seems due to the presence of microscopic tubular cavities, or to enclosure of crystalline minerals, arranged in a definite system.
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  • The rolled crystals of sapphire occur, with garnet and other minerals, in glacial deposits, and have probably been derived from dykes of igneous rocks, like andesite and lamprophyre.
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  • Charcoal is valuable for its infusibility and low conductivity for heat (allowing substances to be strongly heated upon it), and for its powerful reducing properties; so that it is chiefly employed in testing the fusibility of minerals and in reduction.
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  • Llanidloes has a trade in Plinlimmon slates and minerals besides flannel and wool manufactures.
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  • There is abundance of minerals, including lead, copper, manganese and especially iron.
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  • Minerals occur in great variety and abundance.
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  • After the discovery of the radioactive properties of uranium by Henri Becquerel in 1896, it was noticed that some minerals of uranium, such as pitchblende, were more active than the element itself, and this circumstance suggested that such minerals contained small quantities of some unknown substance or substances possessing radioactive properties in a very high degree.
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  • Magnesium is found widely distributed in nature, chiefly in the forms of silicate, carbonate and chloride, and occurring in the minerals olivine, hornblende, talc, asbestos, meerschaum, augite, dolomite, magnesite, carnallite, kieserite and kainite.
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  • Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2, occurs native as the minerals brucite and nemalite, and is prepared by precipitating solutions of magnesium salts by means of caustic soda or potash.
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  • The chief wealth of Shan-tung consists in its minerals, the principal of which is coal.
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  • The free acid is found native in certain volcanic districts such as Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and Nevada, issuing mixed with steam from fissures in the ground; it is also found as a constituent of many minerals (borax, boracite, boronatrocalcite and colemanite).
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  • Other minerals were less notable.
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  • The great wealth of Silesia, however, lies underground, in the shape of large stores of coal and other minerals, which have been worked ever since the 12th century.
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  • The mountains are rich in minerals, however, and a number of gold mines have been opened.
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  • From 1745 onwards he seems to have travelled over the greater portion of Cornwall and Devon in search of these minerals, and he finally located them in the parish of St Stephen's near to St Austell.
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  • Minerals, like glauconite, which contain ferrous silicate, may in like manner yield limonite, on weathering.
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  • The eight principal basins or docks already existing in 1908 were (I) the Little or Bonaparte dock; (2) the Great dock, also constructed in Napoleon's time; (3) the Kattendijk, built in 1860 and enlarged in 1881; (4) the Wood dock; (5) the Campine dock, used especially for minerals; (6) the Asia dock, which is in direct communication with the Meuse by a canal as well as with the Scheldt; (7) the Lefebvre dock; and (8) the America dock, which was only opened in 1905.
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  • With regard to natural products the country has few worth mentioning; minerals are found in the Lebanon, but not in any quantity; traces of amber-digging have been discovered on the coast; and the purple shell (murex trunculus and brandaris) is still plentiful.
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  • Though the country is naturally poor in minerals,.
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  • Aluminium silicates are widely diffused in the mineral kingdom, being present in the commonest rock-forming minerals (felspars, &c.), and in the gem-stones, topaz, beryl, garnet, &c. It also constitutes with sodium silicate the mineral lapis-lazuli and the pigment ultramarine.
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  • Sometimes, however, the term pyrites is loosely applied to both species, and the cubic pyrites is then differentiated by the name "pyrite" - a form which brings the last syllable into harmony with the spelling of the names of most minerals.
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  • The presence of copper, nickel and arsenic is possibly due in many cases to traces of kindred minerals, like chalcopyrite, pentlandite and mispickel.
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  • The Dutch were chiefly a commercial and seafaring people, with interests in distant lands and colonial possessions; the Belgians were agriculturists, except where their abundance of minerals made them manufacturers.
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  • This is so fusible that it melted, and, running together into a single molten mass, freed itself mechanically from the gangue," as the foreign minerals with which the ore is mixed are called.
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  • Just as a granite is a conglomerate or mechanical mixture of distinct crystalline grains of three perfectly definite minerals, mica, quartz, and felspar, so iron and steel in their usual slowly cooled state consist of a mixture of microscopic particles of such definite quasiminerals, diametrically unlike.
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  • Impurities.-The properties of iron and steel, like those of most of the metals, are profoundly influenced by the presence of small and sometimes extremely small quantities of certain impurities, of which the most important are phosphorus and sulphur, the former derived chiefly from apatite (phosphate of lime) and other minerals which accompany the iron ore itself, the latter from the pyrite found not only in most iron ores but in nearly all coal and coke.
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  • Limonite and the related minerals, turgite, 2Fe20 3 +H 2 O, and gothite, Fe 2 0 3 +H20, are grouped together under the term " brown haematite."
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  • The Ores actually Impure.-As these five minerals actually exist in the earth's crust they are usually more or less impure chemically, and they are almost always mechanically mixed with xlv.
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  • In combination it is found as a constituent of water, of the gases from certain mineral springs, in many minerals, and in most animal and vegetable tissues.
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  • He saw all the mechanical difficulties that had to be overcome in mining; he learned the nature and succession of rocks, the physical properties of minerals, ores and metals; he got a notion of mineral waters; he was an eyewitness of the accidents which befel the miners, and studied the diseases which attacked them; he had proof that positive knowledge of nature was not to be got in schools and universities, but only by going to nature herself, and to those who were constantly engaged with her.
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  • Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
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  • Among minerals, iron ore, sulphur, copper, coal, tin, lead and diamonds are the most imported.
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  • Southern Poland possesses abundant minerals, especially in the Kielce mountains and the region adjacent to Prussian Silesia.
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  • Mining is insignificant, though a fair variety of minerals is represented in the district.
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  • The majority of minerals are found commonly in masses which can with difficulty be recognized as aggregates of crystalline grains, and occur comparatively seldom as distinct crystals; but the diamond is almost always found in single crystals, which show no signs of previous attachment to any matrix; the stones were, until the discovery of the South African mines, almost entirely derived from sands or gravels, but owing to the hardness of the mineral it is rarely, if ever, water-worn, and the crystals are often very perfect.
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  • The diamond is found under three conditions: (1) in the gravels of the present rivers, embedded in a ferruginous claycemented conglomerate known as cascalho; (2) in terraces (gupiarras) in a similar conglomerate occupying higher levels in the present valleys; (3) in plateau deposits in a coarse surface conglomerate known as gurgulho, the diamond and other heavy minerals being embedded in the red clay which cements the larger blocks.
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  • Under all these three conditions the diamond is associated with fragments of the rocks of the country and the minerals derived from them, 'especially quartz, hornstone, jasper, the polymorphous oxide of titanium (rutile, anatase and brookite), oxides and hydrates of iron (magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, limonite), oxide of tin, iron pyrites, tourmaline, garnet, xenotime, monazite, kyanite, diaspore, sphene, topaz, and several phosphates, and also gold.
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  • Since the heavy minerals of the cascalho in the river beds are more worn than those of the terraces, it is highly probable that they have been derived by the cutting down of the older river gravels represented by the terraces; and since in both deposits the heavy minerals are more abundant near the heads of the valleys in the plateau, it is also highly probable that both have really been derived from the plateau deposit.
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  • In the latter, especially at Sao Joao da Chapada, the minerals accompanying the diamond are scarcely worn at all; in the terraces and the river beds they are more worn and more abundant; the terraces, therefore, are to be regarded as a first concentration of the plateau material by the old rivers; and the cascalho as a second concentration by the modern rivers.
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  • The diamond here occurs in river gravels and sands associated with the same minerals as in Minas Geraes; since 1844 the richest mines have been worked in the Serra de Cincora, where the mountains are intersected by the river Paraguassu and its tributaries; it is said that there were as many as 20,000 miners working here in 1845, and it was estimated that 54,000 carats were produced in Bahia in 1858.
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  • These are shallow cylindrical troughs containing muddy water in which the diamonds and other heavy minerals (concentrates) are swept to the rim by revolving toothed arms, while the lighter stuff escapes near the centre of the pan.
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  • Until recently the final separation of the diamond from the concentrates was made by hand picking, but even this has now been replaced by machinery, owing to the remarkable discovery that a greased surface will hold a diamond while allowing the other heavy minerals to pass over it.
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  • The other minerals found in the concentrates are pebbles and fragments of pyrope, zircon, cyanite, chrome-diopside, enstatite, a green pyroxene, mica, ilmenite, magnetite, chromite, hornblende, olivine, barytes, calcite and pyrites.
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  • Considerable interest attaches to the diamonds found in Wisconsin, Michigan and Ohio near the Great Lakes, for they are here found in the terminal moraines of the great glacial sheet which is supposed to have spread southwards from the region of Hudson Bay; several of the drift minerals of the diamantiferous region of Indiana have been identified as probably of Canadian origin; no diamonds have however yet been found in the intervening country of Ontario.
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  • The minerals associated with it do not afford much clue to the original conditions; they are mostly heavy minerals derived from the neighbouring rocks, in which the diamond itself has not been observed.
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  • Among the commonest associates of the diamond are quartz, topaz, tourmaline, rutile, zircon, magnetite, garnet, spinel and other minerals which are common accessory constituents of granite, gneiss and the crystalline schists.
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  • Gold (also platinum) is a not infrequent associate, but this may only mean that the sands in which the diamond is found have been searched because they were known to be auriferous; also that both gold and diamond are among the most durable of minerals and may have survived from ancient rocks of which other traces have been lost.
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  • It has been suggested that these three minerals were originally formed in the quartz veins.
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  • There has been much contirversy concerning the nature and origin of the blue ground itself; and even granted that (as is generally believed) the blue ground is a much serpentinized volcanic breccia consisting originally of an olivine-bronzite-biotite rock (the so-called kimberlite), it contains so many rounded and angular fragments of various rocks and minerals that it is difficult to say which of them may have belonged to the original rock, and whether any were formed in situ, or were brought upfrom below as inclusions.
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  • Cohen, who regarded the pipes as of the nature of a mud volcano, and the blue ground as a kimberlite breccia altered by hydrothermal action, thought that the diamond and accompanying minerals had been brought up from deep-seated crystalline schists.
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  • Further, the ilmenite, which is the most characteristic associate of the diamond in blue ground, and other of the accompanying minerals, may have come from basic rocks of a different nature.
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  • Menier, the French chocolate manufacturer, who converted the island into a game preserve, and attempted to develop its resources of lumber, peat and minerals.
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  • Bordas, C. Doelter and others, that the rays induce important changes in the colours of many minerals.
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  • The felspathoid minerals, sodalite, haiiyne and nosean, which crystallize in isometric dodecahedra, are very frequent components of the phonolites; their crystals are often corroded or partly dissolved and their outlines may then be very irregular.
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  • They were not payable of the following, except by custom: things of the substance of the earth, such as coals, minerals, turf and the like; things ferae naturae, such as fish, deer and the like; things tame, such as fowls, hounds or fish kept for pleasure or curiosity; barren land, until it is converted into arable or meadow land, and has been so for seven years; forest land, if in the hands of the king or his lessee, unless disafforested; a park which is disparked; or glebe land in the hands of the parson or vicar, which was mutually exempted from payment by the one to the other, but not if in the hands of the vicar's lessee.
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  • The minerals found in the department include the coal of the basins of Aubin and Rodez as well as iron, zinc and lead.
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  • It is found in the minerals gadolinite, cerite, samarskite and fergusonite, and is usually obtained from cerite.
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  • The manufactures of less importance are tussore-silk, paper, blankets, brass utensils, firearms, carpets, coarse cutlery and hardware, leather, ornaments of gold and silver, &c. Of minerals - lead, silver and copper exist in the Bhagalpur division, but the mines are not worked.
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  • The plateau is bounded on the north by the Harz, an isolated group of mountains, rich in minerals, with its highest elevation in the bare summit of the Brocken (3747 ft-).
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  • Mines and Minerals.Germany abounds in minerals, and the extraordinary industrial development of the country since 1870 is largely due to its mineral wealth.
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  • Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.
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  • Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under such names as calcedonite,pseudocalcedonite,quartzine, lutecite and lussatite.
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  • Its museum, like the ethnological and natural history collection of the Essex Institute, was bought by the Peabody Academy of Science, whose museum now includes Essex county collections (natural history, mineralogy, botany, prehistoric relics, &c.), type collections of minerals and fossils; implements, dress, &c. of primitive peoples, especially rich in objects from Malaysia, Japan and the South Seas; and portraits and relics of famous Salem merchants, with models and pictures of Salem merchant vessels.
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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about minerals.
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  • Deep-sea fishing is carried on; but the staple trade consists in the export of china clay and minerals, coal being imported.
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  • In the last petroleum, natural gas, salt and gypsum are obtained, but elsewhere in southern Ontario no economic minerals except building materials are obtained.
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  • Minerals have not been found in paying quantities.
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  • Similarly the sole title to minerals (subject to the share of profits assigned to the Niger Company by the deed of transfer) was vested in the government, and the terms upon which licences to prospect or mine could be acquired, together with full regulations regarding mining, were enacted by law.
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  • The soil of the Delta is a dark grey fine sandy soil, becoming at times almost a stiff clay by reason of the fineness of its particles, which consist almost wholly of extremely small grains of quartz with a few other minerals, and often numerous flakes of mica.
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  • The salt is commonly associated with gypsum, often also with anhydrite, and occasionally with sylvite, carnallite and other minerals containing potassium and magnesium.
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  • His investigation (also in 1826) of the two crystalline modifications of sulphur threw much light on the fact that the two minerals calc-spar and aragonite have the same composition but different crystalline forms, a property which Mitscherlich called dimorphism.
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  • The silicates and aluminates of which Portland cement is composed are believed to exist not as individual units but as solid solutions of each other, these solid solutions taking the form of minerals recognizable as individuals.
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  • The two principal minerals are termed alite and celite; according to the best opinion, alite consists of a solid solution of tricalcium aluminate in tricalcium silicate, and celite of a solid solution of dicalcium aluminate in dicalcium silicate.
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  • In the Lowlands, on the other hand, rich stores of coal, iron, lime and other minerals have been found.
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  • Manganese is found widely distributed in nature, being generally found to a greater or less extent associated with the carbonates and silicates of iron, calcium and magnesium, and also as the minerals braunite, hausmannite, psilomelane, manganite, manganese spar and hauerite.
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  • In this development of manufactures, the mineral resources have been an important influence, nearly one-fourth (23.6%) of the manufactured product in 1900 depending upon minerals for raw material.
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  • The Federal government completed in October 1907 the construction of a 1 According to the report of the State Geological Survey, the value of the total mineral product in the state for 1907 was $152,122,648, the values of the different minerals being as follows: coal, $54,687,382; pig iron, about $52,228,000; petroleum, $ 16, 43 2, 947; clay and clay products, $13,351,362; zinc, $6,614,608; limestone, $4,333,651; Portland cement, $2,632,576; sand and gravel, $1,367,653; natural slag, $174,282; fluorspar, $141,971; mineral waters, $91,700; lead ore, $45,760; sandstone, $14,996; and pyrite, $5700.
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  • In spite of his scientific training in philology Lepsius left behind few translations of inscriptions or discussions of the meanings of words: by preference he attacked historical and archaeological problems connected with the ancient texts, the alphabet, the metrology, the names of metals and minerals, the chronology, the royal names.
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  • In minerals the province is poor.
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  • Coal and iron are occasionally met with, and traces of copper ore are to be found in places, but none of these minerals exists in sufficiently large deposits to make mining remunerative.
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  • No fresh discoveries of minerals likely to be of high economic value to Afghanistan have been made of late years.
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  • Few minerals are wrought in Afghanistan, though Abdur Rahman claims in his autobiography that the country is rich minerals.
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  • Other minerals which exist but have not yet been developed in paying quantities are copper ore, alum, gypsum and plumbago.
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  • The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, and deposits on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and in various places in the southern part of the province; iron at Ociras (on the Lucalla affluent of the Kwanza) and in Bailundo; petroleum and asphalt in Dande and Quinzao; gold in Lombije and Cassinga; and mineral salt in Quissama.
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  • The island has few minerals, although iron, lead and copper in very small quantities have in former times been obtained.
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  • Among other minerals are sulphur, lime, gypsum and phosphate.
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  • The name thoria (after the Scandinavian god Thor) was first given in 1815 by Berzelius to a supposed new earth which he had extracted from several rare Swedish minerals.
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  • The extraction of thorium salts from these minerals is a matter of much tedium.
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  • Oudh possesses no valuable minerals.
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  • Owing to the loamy nature of the soil, few minerals of any kind are found.
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  • It is found in the minerals lepidolite, petalite and in various specimens of mica and of carnallite, and in some mineral waters.
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  • Although Arkansas is rich in minerals and in forests, in 1900 only 2% of its population were engaged in manufacturing.
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  • It thus resembles magnetite in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considerable amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to 20% of manganese oxides).
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  • By the ancients copper-pyrites was included with other minerals under the term pyrites, though the copper-ore from Cyprus referred to by Aristotle as chalcites may possibly have been identical with this mineral.
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  • The exploitation of the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines.
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  • The exports are: - Cereals, cotton, cotton seed, dried fruits, drugs, fruit, gall nuts, gum tragacanth, liquorice root, maize, nuts, olive oil, opium, rice, sesame, sponges, storax, timber, tobacco, valonia, walnut wood, wine, yellow berries, carpets, cotton yarn, cocoons, hides, leather, mohair, silk, silk stuffs, rugs, wax, wool, leeches, live stock, minerals, &c. The imports are: - Coffee, cotton cloths, cotton goods, crockery, drysalteries, fezzes, glass-ware, haberdashery, hardware, henna, ironware, jute, linen goods, manufactured goods, matches, petroleum, salt, sugar, woollen goods, yarns, &c.
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  • Chlorine is never found in nature in the uncombined condition, but in combination with the alkali metals it occurs widely distributed in the form of rock-salt (sodium chloride); as sylvine and carnallite, at Stassfiirt; and to a smaller extent in various other minerals such as matlockite and horn-mercury.
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  • Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.
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  • The district is rich in minerals, and has large collieries, and a colliery company's institute; iron goods are manufactured.
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  • Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.
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  • Viewed broadly, the financial resources of the earlier Empire were obtained from (1) the public land alike of the state and the Princeps; (2) the monopolies, principally of minerals; (3) the land tax; (4) the customs; (5) the taxes on inheritances, on sales and on the purchase of slaves (vectigalia).
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  • The subject of pyro-electricity, or the power possessed by some minerals of becoming electrified when merely heated, and of exhibiting positive and negative electricity, now began to attract notice.
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  • He also found that the polarity which minerals receive from heat has a relation to the secondary forms of their crystals - the tourmaline, for example, having its resinous pole at the summit of the crystal which has three faces.
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  • C. P. Brard (1788-1838) discovered that pyro-electricity was a property of axinite; and it was afterwards detected in other minerals.
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  • The mountains have been little explored, but are believed to be rich in minerals, iron, lead, copper, traces of gold and many mineral springs are known to exist.
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  • The copper is also accompanied by epidote, calcite, prehnite, analcite and other zeolitic minerals.
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  • Other copper minerals are percylite (PbCuC1 2 (OH) 2), boleite (3PbCuC1 2 (OH) 2j AgCI), stromeyerite {(Cu, Ag) 2 S}, cubanite (CuS, Fe 2 S 3), stannite (Cu 2 S, FeSnS3), tennantite (3Cu 2 S, As2S3), emplectite (Cu 2 S, Bi 2 S 3), wolfsbergite (Cu 2 S, Sb2S3), famatinite (3Cu 2 S, Sb 2 S 5) and enargite (3Cu2S, As2S5).
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  • For other minerals, see Compounds of Copper below.
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  • Several basic salts are known, some of which occur as minerals; of these, we may mention brochantite, CuS04, 3Cu (OH 2), langite, CuSO 4, 3Cu(OH) 2, H 2 O, lyellite (or devilline), warringtonite; woodwardite and enysite are hydrated copperaluminium sulphates, connellite is a basic copper chlorosulphate, and spangolite is a basic copper aluminium chlorosulphate.
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  • Copper silicates occur in the mineral kingdom, many minerals owing their colour to the presence of a cupriferous element.
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  • The figures for the more important minerals are as follows: Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.
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  • The rock has a prevalent grey colour, and contains as characteristic minerals garnet and in some parts graphite.
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  • The iron deposits occur in more or less fine-grained gneiss or granulite (Gellivara, Grangesberg, Norberg, Striberg), or separated from the granulite by masses of augitic and amphibolous minerals (gronskarn), as in Persberg and Nordmark.
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  • Sometimes they are surrounded by halleflinta and limestone, as at Dannemora, Langban, Pajsberg, and then carry manganiferous minerals.
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  • The iron-mining industry is of high importance, the output of iron ore forming by far the largest item in the total output of ores and minerals.
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  • Among the non-metallic minerals are nitrate of soda, borate of lime, coal, salt and sulphur, together with various products derived from these minerals, such as iodine, sulphuric acid, &c. Guano is classed among the mineral products and still figures as an export, though the richest Chilean deposits were exhausted long before the war with Peru.
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  • Wolseley, in a despatch dated the 13th of November 1879 said: The Transvaal is rich in minerals; gold has already been found in quantities, and there can be little doubt that larger and still more valuable goldfields will sooner or later be discovered.
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  • Antimony, however, occurs chiefly as the sulphide, stibnite; to a much smaller extent it occurs in combination with other metallic sulphides in the minerals wolfsbergite, boulangerite, bournonite, pyrargyrite, &c. For the preparation of metallic antimony the crude stibnite is first liquated, to free it from earthy and siliceous matter, and is then roasted in order to convert it into oxide.
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  • Antimony trioxide occurs as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite, and can be artificially prepared by burning antimony in air; by heating the metal in steam to a bright red heat; by oxidizing melted antimony with litharge; by decomposing antimony trichloride with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, or by the action of dilute nitric acid on the metal.
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  • It is usually stated that Portugal is rich in minerals, especially copper, but that want of capital and, especially in the south, of transport and labour, has retarded their exploitation.
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  • The revenues are derived principally from duties and fees on imports, excise taxes on spirits, wines, tobacco and sugar, general, mining taxes and export duties on minerals (except silver), export duties on rubber and coca, taxes on the profits of stock companies, fees for licences and patents, stamp taxes, and postal and telegraph revenues.
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  • Minerals developed slightly, or not at all, are granite, valued at $1500 in 1905; surface salt, in the arid and semiarid regions; nickel and cobalt, in Lemhi county; tungsten, near Murray, Shoshone county; monazite and zircon, in certain sands; and some pumice.
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  • Other minerals found in various places of Bohemia are copper, sulphur, cobalt, alum, nickel, arsenic and various sorts of precious stone, like the Bohemian garnet (pyrope), and building stone.
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  • The glass industry was introduced from Venice in the 13th century and soon attained a vast importance; the factories are in the neighbourhood of the mountains, where minerals, and especially silica and fuel, are plentiful.
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  • To the College of Physicians he left his books, globes, instruments and minerals, but they were destroyed in the great fire of London.
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  • The total value of the lumber and timber products, the furniture products, and the planing-mill products amounted in 1900 to $80,999,685; the value of those manufactures based upon minerals mined or quarried amounted in the same year to $83,730,930.
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  • The territory is rich in minerals, among which are gold, silver, copper, lead, gypsum, coal and salt.
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  • Very thin laminae of haematite, blood-red by transmitted light, occur as microscopic enclosures in certain minerals, such as carnallite and sun-stone, to which they impart colour and lustre.
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  • Native silver is occasionally met with in metalliferous veins, where it has been formed by the alteration of silver-bearing minerals.
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  • Of these the more important are noticed under Metallurgy; here we may notice the rarer minerals.
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  • In association with antimonious and arsenious sulphides, silver sulphide forms many important minerals, which sometimes present dimorphous forms, reflecting the dimorphism of silver sulphide; moreover, the corresponding arsenious and antimonious compounds are frequently isomorphous.
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  • Other pairs of isomorphous argentiferous minerals are: the cubic polybasite, 9Ag2S Sb2S3, and pearceite, 9Ag2S As2S3; and the germanium minerals argyrodite, 4Ag 2 S GeS2, and canfieldite, 4Ag 2 S (Sn, Ge) S2.
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  • The leading silver minerals are native silver; argentite or silver glance, Ag 2 S, usually containing small amounts of lead, copper and tin; dyscrasite or antimonial silver, Ag 2 Sb to Ag,3Sb, an isomorphous mixture of silver and antimony; proustite or light red silver ore, Ag 3 AsS 3; pyrargyrite or dark red silver ore, Ag 3 SbS 3; stephanite, Ag 5 SbS 4; miargyrite, AgSbS2; stromeyerite, CuAgS; polybasite, 9(Cu 2 S,Ag 2 S) (Sb 2 S 3, As 2 S 3); cerargyrite or horn silver, AgCI; bromite or bromargyrite, AgBr; embolite, Ag(C1,Br); iodite or iodargyrite, AgI.
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  • Metalliferous products containing silver arise in many operations; the chief products which may yield silver economically are copper and lead mattes, burnt argentiferous pyrites and certain drosses and scums. Argentiferous ores consist of silver-bearing base-metal minerals and gangue.
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  • Complex silver minerals (sulph-arsenides and antimonides) which are difficult to amalgamate must be made amenable to quicksilver, and the simplest way of doing this is to convert the silver into chloride.
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  • The yield in silver is low unless the ores are exceptionally free-milling; the bullion produced is high-grade, as refractory silver minerals are hardly attacked.
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  • The ores may contain a larger proportion of sulphides and complex silver minerals than with the Patio process and still give a satisfactory extraction.
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  • The minerals embolite, megabromite and microbromite, occurring in Chile, are variable mixtures of the chloride and bromide.
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  • It occurs in the minerals naumannite, PbSe Ag 2 Se, and eukairite, Ag2Se.
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  • The Royal Cork Institution (1807), in addition to an extensive library and a rare collection of Oriental MSS., possesses a valuable collection of minerals, and the collections of casts from the antique presented by the pope to George IV.
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  • Other minerals, which are not found in commercial quantities, are lead in the form of galena, in Sussex county; graphite, in the crystalline schistose rocks of the Highlands; molybdenum, in the form of a sulphide, in Sussex county; and barytes in Mercer and Sussex counties.
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  • The neighbourhood is remarkable for the number of beautiful and rare minerals found there; one of these, a variety of epidote, was formerly called Arendalite.
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  • Liversidge, The Minerals of New South Wales (1888), and to him is due a valuable chemical study of the meteorites and gold nuggets.
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  • The following summary shows the value of the various minerals won in 1905.
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  • In this notable work Steno described various gems, minerals and petrif actions (fossils) enclosed within solid rocks.
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  • The region is entirely composed of Carboniferous rocks, the system which transcends all others in the value of its economic minerals.
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  • At a later period tin and lead were regarded as the English minerals of highest commercial value; whereas to-day both, but especially lead, have fallen far from this position.
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  • The chief minerals raised in England, as stated in the annual home office report on mines and quarries, appear in order of value, thus: coal, iron ore, clay and shale, sandstone, limestone, igneous rocks, salt, tin ore.
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  • Coal surpasses all the other minerals to such an extent that, taking the year 1903 as a type, when the total value of the mineral output was very nearly £70,000,000, that of coal is found to approach £61,000,000.
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  • The geographical distribution of the remaining more important English minerals may be passed in quicker review.
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  • Forests cover nearly half the total area of the state, which is believed to be rich in minerals, but lack of transport facilities has hindered the development of its resources.
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  • Various other minerals in addition to gold have been discovered, and several of them, notably copper and silver (the latter appearing with the gold deposits), may probably be profitably exploited.
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  • Almeria is rich in minerals, especially iron and lead; silver, copper, mercury, zinc and sulphur are also obtained.
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  • The exports are minerals, esparto, oil, grain, grapes and farm produce generally.
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  • Besides gold, silver, iron, coal and other minerals are found.
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  • In 1902 the state ranked fourteenth among the states in the value of its mineral products, $12,378,350, and took thirteenth rank in 1907, with a product of $38,099,756, but dropped to the fifteenth rank in 1908, when the total value of its product was $26,422,121.1 The value of products manufactured from minerals in 1902 was $9,123,228, or 43-1% of all the manufactures in the state.
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  • It is occasionally found in the native condition, but more frequently in combination with metals in the form of selenides, the more important seleniferous minerals being euchairite, crookesite, clausthalite, naumannite and zorgite.
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  • Iron and limestone are the chief minerals; a little amber is found on the coast.
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  • Lake Superior lies in a deep rift in rocks principally of Archean and Cambrian age, of the Laurentian, Huronian and Keweenaw formations, rich in minerals that have been extensively worked.
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  • It is only found in combination, and is a constituent of the minerals petalite, triphyline, spodumene and lepidolite or lithia mica.
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  • It is the commonest of minerals, and is met with in a great variety of forms and with very diverse modes of occurrence.
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  • The basal plane, so common on calcite and many other rhombohedral minerals, is of the greatest rarity in quartz, and when present only appears as a small rough face formed by the corrosion of the crystal.
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  • In its optical characters, quartz is also of interest, since it is one of the two minerals (cinnabar being the other) which are circularly polarizing.
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  • Enclosures of other minerals (rutile, chlorite, haematite, gothite, actinolite, asbestos and many others) are extremely frequent in crystals of quartz.
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  • Coal, lead, zinc, clays, building stones and iron are the most important minerals.
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  • Of the bulkier and less valuable minerals Colombia has copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc and mercury.
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  • These minerals, however, are of little value to the country because of their distance from the seaboards and the costs of transportation.
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  • The most valuable of the minerals is the diamond, found in Griqualand West and also at Hopetown, and other districts along the Orange river.
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  • Many other minerals exist but are not put to industrial purposes.
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  • Sometimes the object is to weigh many loads in succession, the loads being of varying weight, and to prevent the total weight at the end of a day's work; this is the case with machines for weighing coal and other minerals.
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  • By the ancients and the earlier naturalists of the Christian era they were regarded either as petrifactions or as plants, and many supposed that they occupied a position midway between minerals and plants.
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  • On the 3rd of October following the governor issued a proclamation providing further for the administration, and for the expropriation of the concessions other than those relating to land and minerals.
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  • It contains reminiscences of Frederick and of Voltaire, a few pictures by ancient masters, a theatre, and a large hall decorated with shells and minerals.
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  • Ferric oxide or iron sesquioxide, Fe203, constitutes the valuable ores red haematite and specular iron; the minerals brown haematite or limonite, and gothite and also iron rust are hydrated forms. It is obtained as a steel-grey crystalline powder by igniting the oxide or any ferric salt containing a volatile acid.
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  • By heating freshly prepared red ferric hydrate with water under 5000 atmospheres pressure Ruff (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 34 1 7) obtained definite hydrates corresponding to the minerals limonite (30°-42, 5°), gothite (4 2.5°-62, 5°), and hydrohaematite (above 62.5°).
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  • Iron disulphide, FeS2, constitutes the minerals pyrite and marcasite; copper pyrites is (Cu, Fe)S2.
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  • Arsenides, Arsenites, &c. - Several iron arsenides occur as minerals; lolingite, FeAs 2, forms silvery rhombic prisms; mispickel or arsenical pyrites, Fe2AsS2, is an important commercial source of arsenic. A basic ferric arsenite, 4Fe2O3 As2O3.5H 2 O, is obtained as a flocculent brown precipitate by adding an arsenite to ferric acetate, or by shaking freshly prepared ferric hydrate with a solution of arsenious oxide.
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  • Exports consist chiefly of timber, mine-props, minerals, wine, salt and resinous products.
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  • Coal, minerals, phosphates, grain and wool are leading imports.
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  • Towards the west they are rich in minerals and chemicals, which the Apennines proper do not produce.
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  • The range produces no minerals, but there are a considerable number of good mineral springs, some of which are thermal (such as Bagni di Lucca, Monte Catini, Monsummano, Porretta, Telese, &c.), while others are cool (such as Nocera, Sangemini, Cinciano, &c.), the water of which is both drunk on the spot and sold as table water elsewhere.
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  • East Turkestan contains several minerals, such as gold, mined to a very small extent in the Kuen-lun Mountains; lead found in the country west of Kashgar and once worked in the Kuruk-tagh, and copper and petroleum near Kashgar; coal exists in abundance in the Kulja valley and is found at Ak-su, Korla, Kara-shahr, Turfan and Hami on the northern verge of the deserts.
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  • To these must be added the palace of the prince-bishop of Gurk, the burg or castle, existing in its present form since 1777; and the Landhaus or house of assembly, dating from the end of the 14th century, and containing a museum of natural history, and collection of minerals, antiquities, seals, paintings and sculptures.
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  • Salt and iron are the only minerals of great industrial importance found in Wurttemberg.
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  • Other minerals: produced are granite, limestone, ironstone and fireclay.
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  • Apart from a few tracts of level country along the coast and near Igualada, Manresa, Sabadell and Vich, almost the whole surface consists of mountain ranges, often densely wooded, rich in minerals and intersected by deep ravines.
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  • The Louisville Public Library was established in 1902, and 04 acquired the library, the small museum (containing the Troost collection of minerals) and the art gallery of the Polytechnic Society of Louisville (1878), which for many years had maintained the only public library in the city.
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  • The value of other minerals produced in 1908 was as follows: Granite, $297,874; clay, $110,636; and monazite, $ 1 3,4 4.
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  • Minerals which were not mined commercially in 1902 include asbestos, which occurs in Spartanburg and Pickens counties; fullers'-earth; graphite in Spartanburg and Greenville counties; iron ores in the north and north-west portions of the state; iron pyrites in Spartanburg and York counties; talc, bismuth, ochre, pyrites, ' galena, brown coal, malachite, phosphate of lead and barytes.
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  • But this conception does not exclude the idea that many of the things in the world - minerals, plants, people, and what not - are fragments of the frame of an animal or non-natural magnified man, or are excretions from the body of a god.
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  • The exports, worth £6,460,000 in 1902, chiefly consisted of grain, flour, sugar, timber and horses; the imports, worth £3,678,000 in the same year, of coal, wine, rice, fruit, jute and various minerals, chemicals and oils.
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  • These substances were all known to the later alchemists, who used minerals containing arsenic in order to give a white colour to copper.
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  • Arsenic is a constituent of the minerals arsenical iron, arsenical pyrites or mispickel, tin-white cobalt or smaltite, arsenical nickel, realgar, orpiment, pharmacolite and cobalt bloom, whilst it is also met with in small quantities in nearly all specimens of iron pyrites.
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  • The greater part of the Maremma now affords pasture to large herds of horses and half-wild cattle, but on the drier parts corn is grown, the people coming down from the hills to sow and to reap. The hill country just inland, especially near Volterra, has poor soil, largely clayey, and subject to landslips, but is rich in minerals.
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  • But the real wealth of Tuscany lies in its minerals.
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  • In the same year the imports, consisting chiefly of machinery, iron, wood and food-stuffs, were valued at £660,889; while the exports, comprising zinc, copper, iron and other minerals, with fish, nuts and farm produce, were valued at £100,941.
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  • No European country produces so great a variety of minerals in large amount, and in the production of copper ore, lead ore and mercury Spain heads the list.
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  • Among the less important Spanish minerals are manganese (chiefly in Ciudad Real), antimony, gold, cobalt, sodic sulphate, sulphate of barium (barytes), phosphorite (found in Chceres), alum, sulphur, kaolin, lignite, asphalt, besides a variety of building and ornamental stones.
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  • The principal exports include metals and other minerals; wine, sugar, fruit and other alimentary substances, cotton and its manufactures; animals and their products, including wool and hair; timber and wrought wood.
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  • The principal imports include grain, dried fish and other food-stuffs; livestock and animal products; machinery, vehicles and ships; stone, minerals, glass and pottery; drugs and chemical products; textiles and raw cotton.
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  • It is the centre of a district very rich in minerals, obtained from a narrow stretch of crystalline schists underlying the Tertiary deposits.
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  • Coal and iron are the chief minerals; sandstone for building purposes is quarried near Bilaspur and Seorinarain.
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  • To reduce the aberrations Sir David Brewster proposed to employ in the place of glass transparent minerals of high refractive index and low dispersion.
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  • By using these glasses and employing minerals with special optical properties, it is possible to correct objectives so that three colours can be combined, leaving only a quite slight tertiary spectrum, and removing the spherical aberration for two colours.
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  • It is rich in minerals, including chrome, manganese, zinc, antimony, iron, argentiferous lead, arsenic and lignite, but some of these are unworked.
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  • In 1860 two expeditions were equipped by the government for a search for gold and other minerals, and although it was some years before there was any important result, the discoveries of these explorers directed attention to the mineral wealth of the island.
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  • Magnesia is never absent, though its amount may be less than i %; it is usually contained in minerals of the chlorite group, but partly also in dolomite.
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  • It consists of very fine scaly kaolin, larger, shining plates of white mica, grains of quartz and particles of semi-decomposed felspar, tourmaline, zircon and other minerals, which originally formed part of the granite.
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  • In addition to the reddish or brownish argillaceous matrix it contains fresh or decomposed crystals of volcanic minerals, such as felspar, augite, hornblende, olivine and pumiceous or palagonitic rocks.
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  • Among the other minerals found and mined to a limited extent are lead, manganese, barytes, fluorspar, slate, granite and petroleum.
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  • The total value of all minerals was $19,277,031 in 1908.
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  • In some processes of lead-smelting, where the minerals treated contain sand, the long calciner is provided with a melting bottom close to the fire-place, so that the desulphurized ore leaves the furnace as a glassy slag or silicate, which is subsequently reduced to the metallic state by fusion with fluxes in blast furnaces.
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  • Brunton's calciner, used in the "burning" of the pyritic minerals associated with tin ore, is a familiar example of this type.
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  • Nowadays the cargo was tourists and not precious minerals.
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  • Vitamins and minerals – zinc and vitamin C were high on the list, and some herbs.
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  • It contained the essential minerals, including the trace elements for the lambs.
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  • Within the Earth mantle, nominally anhydrous minerals contain small amounts of hydrogen as point defects within their crystal structure.
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  • The groundmass consists of optically anisotropic baked clay minerals and abundant dark brown nodules.
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  • A range of unusual minerals are present together with notable lava cooling features such as columnar basalts, chisel marks and blister surfaces.
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  • Bennett wired variety of minerals.
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  • But coral calcium contains high levels of alkaline minerals which help to promote a more alkaline state.
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  • K Kaolin group of pale colored clay minerals.
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  • Fresh Start rapidly removes these toxic chemicals and minerals and contains a natural colloid which coats the fish with a protective barrier.
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  • The minerals calcium and magnesium govern the working of nerves which regulate muscle contractions.
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  • It is freshly crushed to release over 78 minerals and trace elements to remineralise soil and compost heaps.
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  • Other minerals present include diopside, pargasite, spinel, phlogopite, apatite, graphite, pyrrhotite and zircon (Davidson 1943 ).
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  • Common minerals from different occurrences have been shown to have distinctive PCL spectra.
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  • We also sell rare crystals, minerals, and gems and gem elixirs and jewelry made from such stones.
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  • Minerals such as potassium feldspar can often be included in this group since the high concentration of potassium is diagnostic.
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  • As it exists today, the third era was enriched with minerals dominated by ferric oxides.
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  • Minerals within granite typically appear as small flecks throughout the stone, once creating a " salt and pepper " look.
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  • It will consider fluorine when the findings of a review of fluorine by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals are available.
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  • Minerals include galena, pyrite, calcite and quartz.
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  • These minerals are absorbed against the concentration gradient, from a dilute solution in the soil water into the concentration solution in the cells.
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  • Minerals formed in this way include gypsum, rock salt, and various nitrates and borates.
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  • NovaKur ChoThera contains collagen hydrolysate, amino acids, vitamins and minerals that are essential for healthy joints and healthy cartilage metabolism.
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  • A severely inflamed small intestine cannot absorb vitamins and minerals efficiently, which can result in a deficiency.
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  • Minerals Mineralization may occur around the small number of granitic intrusions of the area.
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  • June badash l. And sander admitted designed to demonstrate a book on his minerals had.
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  • One of the best sources of these minerals in the diet is curly kale.
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  • The effective diameter of the fiber is also reduced through leaching of minerals from the surface layer.
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  • These rocks contained many minerals, which crystallized forming mineral lodes.
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  • These minerals are now used to produce this creamy silky, non-greasy body lotion.
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  • The iron-rich minerals in the magma record the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at the time when the rising magma solidified.
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  • It's a rich source of the minerals magnesium, potassium and phosphorus.
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  • Is this practice of chelating minerals really to our benefit or a dangerous act of ignorance?
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  • Vinegar is the best menstruum for dissolving minerals out of plants.
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  • Some examples are vitamin E, vitamin C and trace minerals.
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  • Working or disposal of mines and minerals vested in the Ministry Power of Ministry to work mines and minerals vested in the Ministry Power of Ministry to work mines and minerals.
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  • A mineral compound, asbestos is the common name for a group of six naturally occurring fibrous minerals found in certain rock formations.
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  • The rocks of this period are characteristically red in color due to the oxidation of iron-rich minerals in the sediments under the arid conditions.
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