Vitamins and minerals – zinc and vitamin C were high on the list, and some herbs.
As to other minerals little is definitely known.
Pietro, forms a more or less protected basin, upon the shores of which are several small harbours (the most important being Carloforte), which are centres of the export of minerals and of the tunny fishery.
The most important minerals are lead and zinc, obtained in lodes in the forms of galena and calamine respectively.
Among the exports may be noticed minerals, wines and spirits, tobacco, hides, live animals; and among the imports, groceries, cotton and cereals.
Helium is relatively abundant in many minerals, all of which are radioactive, and contain uranium or thorium as important constituents.
The gas also occurs in minute quantities in the common minerals of the earth's crust.
A part of the helium contained in minerals can be extracted by heat or by grinding.
The gas is in all probability only mechanically retained in the minerals in which it is found.
animals, plants and minerals (ThierKrc caterand Bergbuch).
The mountains of Albania are said to be rich in minerals, but this source of wealth remains practically unexplored.
In 1582 Sir Archibald was appointed master of the mint in Scotland, with the sole charge of superintending the mines and minerals within the realm, and this office he held till his death in 1608.
In New South Wales the principal centre of this industry is Hillgrove, near Armidale, where Other the Eleanora Mine, one of the richest in the state, is minerals.
It is usually found in association with tin and other minerals.
It usually occurs in association with other minerals in veins.
The exports of breadstuffs - chiefly to the United Kingdom - exceed six millions per annum, butter two and a half millions, and minerals of all kinds, except gold, six millions.
The tonnage of goods carried amounts to about 16,000,000 tons, or 4 tons per inhabitant, which must be considered fairly large, especially as no great proportion of the tonnage consists of minerals on which there is usually a low freightage.
Minerals remained for the most part unworked, though the profitable coal fields and oil wells in Ferghana were used when disturbances in Trans-Caspia cut Turkestan off from the Baku oil, on which it relies entirely for its industrial life.
The metallic glitter of avanturine or sun-stone (q.v.) is due to the enclosed scales of gothite and certain other minerals.
1 The minerals produced are tin, gold, iron, galena and others, in insignificant quantities.
- For physical description and material on minerals see the Report on the Geology of Vermont: Descriptive, Theoretical, Economical and Scenographical (2 vols., Claremont, N.H., 1861); G.
It contains, besides a fine library, a collection of the presents he received during his long career; numerous autographs, and other historical relics, a collection of rare coins, armour, portraits and various minerals.
No minerals have been discovered.
The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock.
The principal exports are silk and cotton tissues, live stock, wines, spirits and oils; corn, flour, macaroni and similar products; and minerals, chiefly sulphur.
The astrological belief that plants, animals and minerals are under the influence of the planets is shown in the older names of some of the metals, e.g.
Molybdenum occurs in nature chiefly as the minerals molybdenite (MoS 2) and wulfenite (PbMo04), and more rarely as molybdic ochre (Moos) and ilsemannite; it also occurs in many iron ores.
Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
Minerals are known to exist in the northern section of the republic, and gold-mining is carried on to a small extent.
The other minerals found are silver, lead, copper, magnesium and lignite coal.
Wada, Minerals of Japan (Tokyo, 1904).
Notwithstanding the wealth of the country in minerals and metals of all kinds, and the endeavours made by government to encourage mining, including the imposition of protective Mining tariffs even against Finland (in 1885), this and the related and re- industries are still at a low stage of development.
The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones.
The principal business of the new railway was the conveyance of minerals and goods, but from the first passengers insisted upon being carried, and on the 10th of October 1825 the company began to run a daily coach, called the " Experiment," to carry six inside, and from fifteen to twenty outside, making the journey from Darlington to Stockton and back in two hours.
to one-fifth of a penny per ton per mile, and that of minerals from 7d.
The rolling stock is constructed either for farm produce or heavy minerals, the latter holding io to 27 cub.
There do not seem to be any minerals of value, and the rocks are not such as to indicate any probability of their discovery.
As these lakes shrank after the return of an arid climate, they left elevated beaches and deposits of various minerals, which mark their former extent.
After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.
Other minerals exist in great variety.
Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
Borlase was well acquainted with most of the leading literary men of the time, particularly with Alexander Pope, with whom he kept up a long correspondence, and for whose grotto at Twickenham he furnished the greater part of the fossils and minerals.
The Sila also contained minerals, which were worked out in very early times.
Owing to the volcanic nature of its soil, Crete is probably rich in minerals.
Throughout much of the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions the decomposition of felspar and of other aluminous minerals has resulted in a deep soil of clay with which more or less sand is mixed.
At the beginning of the 20th century a great number of minerals were found in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions, but most of them in such small quantities as to be of little or no commercial value, and in 1902 the total value of the products of the mines and quarries was only $927,376; but in 1907 their value was $2,961,381, and in 1908, $2,145,947.
There are four Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue, several schools, a natural science museum, containing a collection of Harz minerals, the Fenkner museum of antiquities and a number of small foundations.
The harbour of Cagliari (along the north side of which runs a promenade called the Via Romo) is a good one, and has a considerable trade, exporting chiefly lead, zinc and other minerals and salt, the total annual value of exports amounting to nearly 12 million sterling in value.
The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit.
In one case, indeed, the average produce by mixed minerals and nitrogenous manure was more than that by the annual application of farmyard manure; and in seven out of the ten cases in which such mixtures were used the average yield per acre was from over two to over eight bushels more than the average yield of the United Kingdom (assuming this to be about twenty-eight bushels of 60 lb per bushel) under ordinary rotation.
The platy minerals have also a perfect cleavage parallel to their flat surfaces, while the fibrous species often have two or more cleavages following their long axes; hence a schistose rock may split not only by separation of the mineral plates from one another but also by cleavage of the parallel minerals through their substance.
The difference between schists and gneisses is mainly that the latter have less highly developed foliation; they also, as a rule, are more coarse grained, and contain far more quartz and felspar, two minerals which rarely assume platy or acicular forms, and hence do not lead to the production of a fissile character in the rocks in which they are important constituents.
A large number of minerals may occur as accessories, e.g.
Occasionally serpentines become sheared without yielding talcose minerals; they are then known as serpentine-schist and antigoriteschist, the latter being tough leek-green rocks, more or less transparent.
Sulphur, salt and copper are the most important of the minerals.
Its specific gravity of 4.5 is about twice as great as that of salt and of many other colourless, transparent and glassy minerals not unlike barytes in general appearance.
Other valuable minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622,490) and sand suitable for making glass.
He may also grant either a lease of the surface of settled land, reserving the mines and minerals, or a lease of the minerals without the surface.
holograph or duly tested, do not exceed 31 years, or, except as regards leases of mines and minerals, and of lands held by burgage tenure, relate to an extent of land exceeding 50 acres, and contain provisions for renewal, they may be recorded for publication in the Register of Sasines, and such publication has the effect of possession (Registration of Leases [Scotland] Act 1857).
In minerals Manchuria is very rich: coal, gold, iron (as well as magnetic iron ore), and precious stones are found in large quantities.
The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.
Heulandite, with thomsonite, stilbite, scolecite, calcite and chalcedony, occur as infilling minerals.
Nearly every Basuto is an agriculturist; there are no manufactories, and the minerals, in accordance with the desire of the people, are not worked.
The principal minerals are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the " west coast " about 30 m.
Other minerals that have been discovered but have not been industrially developed are gypsum, lignite and cement rock.
They first invented and named the alembic for the purposes of distillation, analyzed the substances of the three kingdoms of nature, tried the distinction and affinities of alkalis and acids, and converted the poisonous minerals into soft and salutary remedies.
As a stratigraphical geologist he rendered much assistance on the Geological Survey of France, but in the course of time he gave his special attention to the study of volcanic phenomena and earthquakes, to minerals and rocks; and he was the first to introduce modern petrographical methods into France.
Other minerals found here are graphite, alum, potter's clay and roofing-slate, and, besides, famous silvermines were worked at Iglau during the middle ages.
It possesses a famous academy of mining and forestry, founded by Maria Theresa in 1760, to which are attached a remarkable collection of minerals, and a chemical laboratory.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
Turning to the study of radioactivity, he noticed its association with the minerals which yield helium, and in support of the hypothesis that that gas is a disintegration-product of radium he proved in 1903 that it is continuously formed by the latter substance in quantities sufficiently great to be directly recognizable in the spectroscope.
Arfvedson, a pupil of Berzelius, detected a new element, which he named lithium, in various minerals - notably petalite.
These elements occur in the minerals columbite and tantalite, and their compounds became known in the early part of the 19th century by the labours of C. Hatchett, A.
The substances occur, in very minute quantity, in a large number of sparingly-distributed and comparatively rare minerals - euxenite, samarksite, cerite, yttrotantalite, &c. Scandinavian specimens of these minerals were examined by J.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
Taking as a basis the nature of the source of compounds, he framed three classes: " mineral," comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vegetable," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c.; and " animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals.
Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
Important formations of chromite are found at Hagdale and the Heog Hills; steatite occurs at Kleber Geo, and many interesting minerals have been recorded from these islands.
Blocks of these minerals lie scattered on the sides and ridges of the mountains and in the beds of the streams; and extensive turf moors occupy many of the mountain slopes and valleys.
Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in sufficient quantity to be industrially important.
Chromium and a number of other rare minerals are known to exist, but probably not in commercially available quantities.
Geology and Minerals.
The rocks of its lower half are mainly granite and gneiss; its upper half is composed of porphyritic greenstone, and a variety of minerals occur.
Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome, manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent building stone.
According to these statistics the most important articles of export are coal and turf, fruit, minerals, soda, iron and steel, and cattle.
The empire is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, coal, mercury, borax, emery, zinc; and only capital is needed for successful exploitation.
Minerals are worked according to the law of the 14th Sefer 1324 (March 26, 1906).
The concessions are to be for 99 years with the exception of chrome, emery, boracite and other minerals found only in the form of deposits, which may be granted for not less than 40 years or more than 99 years.
The proportional rents are fixed by the Mines Administration according to the wealth, area and facility of working of the mine, and are inserted in the imperial firman governing the mine, and must be paid before the minerals are exported.
A few other minerals may be noticed, and some have been worked to a small extent - graphite is abundant, particularly near Upernivik; cryolite is found almost exclusively at Ivigtut; copper has been observed at several places, but only in nodules and laminae of limited extent; and coal of poor quality is found in the districts about Disco Bay and Umanak Fjord.
The first of the rare earth minerals was discovered in 1794 by Gadolin and was named gadolinite from its discoverer.
The rare earth metals are found in the minerals gadolinite, samarskite, fergusonite, euxenite and cerite.
They are separated from the minerals by converting them into oxalates, which by ignition give the corresponding oxides.
Land masses are denuded and minerals containing silicates are carried down to the sea as sediments.
Often this felsitic devitrified glass is so fine-grained that its constituents cannot be directly determined even with the aid of the microscope, but chemical analysis leaves little doubt as to the real nature cf the minerals which have been formed.
MICA, a group of widely distributed rock-forming minerals, some of which have important commercial applications.
Inclusions of other minerals are frequently to be observed in mica.
These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
P. Merrill, The Non-Metallic Minerals (New York, 1904), pp. 163180; "The Mining and Preparation of Mica for Commercial Purposes," Bulletin of the Imperial Institute (London, 1904), ii.
The stone quarries and minerals are little worked.
Of other lead minerals we may mention the basic sulphate lanarkite, PbO PbSO 4; leadhillite, PbSO 4.3PbCO 3; the basic chlorides matlockite, PbO PbC12j and mendipite, PbC1 2.2PbO; the chloro-phosphate pyromorphite, PbC12.3Pb3(P04)2, the chloro-arsenate mimetesite, PbC12.3Pb3(As04)2; the molybdate wulfenite, PbMoO 4; the chromate crocoite or crocoisite, PbCrO 4; the tungstate stolzite, PbW04.
Beyond the small fertile valley in which it stands is the barren desert, on which rain rarely falls and which has no economic value apart from its minerals (especially saline compounds).
The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.
Vauquel in that it was probably an ingredient likewise in many other minerals.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
Several other species of alumen are described by Pliny, but we are unable to make out to what minerals he alludes.
Various minerals are employed in the manufacture of alum, the most important being alunite or alum-stone, alum schist, bauxite and cryolite.
It is usually found associated with tantalum, the chief minerals containing these two elements being tantalite, columbite, fergusonite and yttrotantalite; it is also a constituent of pyrochlor, euxenite and samarskite.
Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.
The town is, industrially, remarkable for its paper mills and mines of coal and other minerals.
The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.
Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.
The district of which Cobar is the centre abounds in minerals of all kinds, but copper and gold are those most extensively worked.
The principal minerals are gold, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, asphalt and petroleum.
rich in minerals, principally gold and diamonds.
In the former he was one of the leading workers, in collaboration from 1879 to 1887 with Emile Edmond Sarasin (1843-1890), at the formation of minerals by artificial means, particularly in the wet way with the aid of heat and pressure, and he succeeded in reproducing a large number of the natural compounds.
Gold, iron, copper and other minerals have also been found, but the mineral wealth of the country is undeveloped.
Mining may be subdivided into the operations of prospecting or search for minerals, exploration and development, work preparatory to active operations, and working.
Special methods of mining are dealt with in the separate articles on Coal, Gold, and other minerals and metals.
In the article on Mineral Deposits the distribution and mode of occurrence of the useful minerals and ores are fully discussed.
The prospector is guided in his search by a knowledge of the geological conditions under which useful minerals occur.
Sometimes the vegetation, shrubs, trees, &c., as characteristic of certain soils, may furnish evidence as to rock or minerals below.
Search should be made in the beds of streams and on the hillsides for " float mineral " or " shoad stones," fragments of rocks and minerals known to be associated with and characteristic of the deposits.
In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
In the case of coal, salt, iron ore, pyrite and other homogeneous minerals, boring may give all the information required.
While the width of the working-place is thus limited by the strength of the roof, its length is determined by other considerations - namely, the rapidity with which the mining work can be conducted and the length of time it is practicable to keep the working-place open, and also by the increased difficulty of handling the minerals sometimes experienced when the workings reach undue length.
In Complete the case of cheap and abundant minerals and low- Extraction grade ore deposits it is sometimes necessary to of Mineral.
For coal, iron ore and other cheap minerals, mechanical handling by many different methods is used in loading and unloading railway wagons and vessels, and in forming the stock-piles and reloading the mineral therefrom.
19), Rateau, (From Mines and Minerals, March, 1905.) Fm.
A student of mining must receive thorough instruction in geology; he must study mining as practised in different countries, and the metallurgical and mechanical treatment of minerals; and he should have an engineering education, especially on mechanical and electrical lines.
In public or government land the minerals as well as surface belong to the state, and not infrequently these rights have been separated by law and granted or otherwise disposed of to different owners.
The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.
The refractive indices of all glasses at present available lie between 1.46 and 1 90, whereas transparent minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (calcium fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial production of large mineral crystals.
Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbC03), malachite and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3), strontianite (strontium carbonate, SrC03), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaC03), dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaCO 3 MgCO 3), and sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3.
The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island.
in diameter) of sand and other minerals derived from the decomposition of rocks, with a small amount of silicate of alumina.
P. Merrill, The Non-Metallic Minerals (New York, 1904).
Other zinc minerals are willemite, Zn 2 SiO 4, hydrozincite or zinc bloom, ZnCO 3.2Zn(OH)2, zincite or red zinc ore, ZnO, and franklinite, 3(Fe,Zn)0 (Fe,Mn) 2 0 3 .
In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
The Wetherill system of magnetic concentration has been remarkably successful in separating the minerals contained in the well-known deposit in Sussex (disambiguation)|Sussex county, N.J.
Of zinc phosphates we notice the minerals hopeite, Zn.
He followed this professor to learn how to analyse certain minerals, but in the end he found that the teacher himself was ignorant of the process.
Of the carbon dioxide and ammonia no exhaustion can take place, but of the mineral constitutents the supply is limited because the soil cannot afford an indefinite amount of them; hence the chief care of the farmer, and the function of manures, is to restore to the soil those minerals which each crop is found, by the analysis of its ashes, to take up in its growth.
Damiri) is not zoological but legendary, and the works on minerals are practical and not scientific. See ARABIAN PHIaOSOPHY and historical sections of such scientific articles as ASTRONOMY, &c. (G.
Ilmenite is isomorphous with geikielite, MgTiO 3, and pyrophanite, MnTiO 3; many of the "rare minerals" - aeschynite, euxenite, polycrase, &c. - contain titanates (and also niobates).
The minerals are generally found together - a feature rarely met with in the case of polymorphs.
It is apparent that these minerals all result in nature from pneumatolytic action.
Quaternary deposits cover much of the desert regions.'] Minerals.
The export of coal in that year was 74,000 tons, and copper ore 937 tons (vide supra, § Minerals).
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
STRONTIUM [[[Symbol]] Sr, atomic weight 87.62 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element belonging to the alkaline earth group. It is found in small quantities very widely distributed in various rocks and soils, and in mineral waters; its chief sources are the minerals strontianite, celestine and barytocelestine.
Mercury mines have begun to be worked; other minerals are known to exist.
The principal exports are salt, minerals, opium, cotton, cereals, wool and live stock; and the imports cloth-goods, coffee, rice and petroleum.
The chief wealth of Yun-nan consists, however, in its minerals.
Copper is the most important of the minerals worked.
The mountainous region is rich in minerals, and there is a valuable deposit of borax near the capital, Arequipa.
The exports include copper and silver and their ores, nitrate of soda, borax, guano and other minerals in small quantities.
Of the minerals containing gold the most important are sylvanite or graphic tellurium (Ag, Au) Tee, with 24 to 26%; calaverite, AuTe2, with 42%; nagyagite or foliate tellurium (Pb, Au)16 Sba(S, Te)24, with 5 to 9% of gold; petzite, (Ag, Au) 2 Te, and white tellurium.
The minerals of the second class, usually spoken of as " auriferous," are comparatively numerous.
In the alluvial deposits the associated minerals are chiefly those of great density and hardness, such as platinum, osmiridium and other metals of the platinum group, tinstone, chromic, magnetic and brown iron ores, diamond, ruby and sapphire, zircon, topaz, garnet, &c. which represent the more durable original constituents of the rocks whose distintegration has furnished the detritus.
The larger stones having been removed by hand, gyratory motion is given to the pan by a combination of shaking and twisting movements so as to keep its contents suspended in the stream of water, which carries away the bulk of the lighter material, leaving the heavy minerals, together with any gold which may have been present.
long, also lined with amalgamated copper plates, after the pyritic and other heavy minerals have been separated by depositing in catch pits and other similar contrivances.
It is also stated that sodium prevents both the " sickening " and the " flouring " of the mercury which is produced by certain associated minerals.
The extraction of gold from auriferous minerals by fusion, except as an incident in their treatment for other metals, is very rarely practised.
The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by amalgamation.
Although the state is supposed to have several of the minerals found in this part of Mexico (silver, cinnabar, iron, lead, gold, petroleum and coal), its mining industries continue undeveloped and neglected.
There is a trade in wine, beer, wood and minerals.
Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.
Though he lived in an atmosphere of alchemy, he derided the notion of the alkahest or universal solvent, and denounced the deceptions of the adepts who pretended to effect the transmutation of metals; but he believed mercury to be a constituent of all metals and heavy minerals, though he held there was no proof of the presence of "sulphur comburens."
A few minerals are found in the district, but in this department the saltworks of Hall, near Innsbruck, take the first place.
Minerals are found only in the N.
Ekeberg discovered an element, tantalum, in some Swedish yttrium minerals.
finding vegetable alkali in certain minerals, such as leucite, proposed to distinguish it as potash, and at the same time assigned to the mineral alkali the name natron, which survives in the symbol, Na, now used for sodium.
Coal and other minerals have been discovered.
Isolated gritty fragments of minerals may be felt in the generally fine-grained homogeneous mass.
In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.
In the United Kingdom the ownership of coal, like that of other minerals, is in the proprietor of the soil, and passes with it, except when specially reserved in the sale.
The separation of caesium from the minerals which contain it is an exceedingly difficult and laborious process.
Bundelkhand is full of minerals .The land is also fertile.
Other minerals found in small quantities are copper, lead, zinc, iron ores, manganese ores and tin.
Other species belonging to this isomorphous group of orthorhombic minerals are marcasite (FeS2), lollingite (FeAs 2), safflorite (CoAs2) and rammelsbergite (NiAs 2).
Other minerals are emery, limestone and quartz.
In that year the total value of the minerals and mining products of the state was $5,9 2 5,949.
On Minerals: U.S. Census, 1900, and U.S. Geological Survey, annual volume on Mineral Resources.
The presence or absence of useful minerals, plants and animals rendered some congenial, others unfriendly; some areas were the patrons of virile occupations, others of feminine pursuits.
The exports are chiefly phosphates and other minerals, cereals, olive oil, cattle, hides, sponges and wax.
46 (1888); Florida, South Carolina and Canadian Phosphates, by C. C. Hoyer Miller (London, 1892); and The Nonmetallic Minerals, by G.
IIe was distinguished for his researches on polarization and on the artificial formation of minerals.
The minerals are unimportant, except amber, peat and clay.
Coal, iron, silver and other minerals are found in the adjoining hills; and the city possesses a government tobacco factory, a brewery, cloth-mills, gunpowder-mills, a model farm and many corn-mills, worked by the two rapid rivers.
Of other minerals gold has been found, but up to 1909 was not worked; iron ore exists near Kroonstad and Vredefort, but it also is not worked.
Minerals and Mining.
Nor was the concentration of wealth the only danger of this policy; it led to the destruction of forests, the exhaustion of farming soils and the wasteful mining of coal and minerals, since the desire for quick profits, even when they entail risk to permanency of capital, is always a powerful human motive.
The minerals of South Dakota, of which gold is the most important, are chiefly found in the Black Hills region.
Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.
The minerals of Siam include gold, silver, rubies, sapphires, tin, copper, iron, zinc and coal.
Thus the sulphate constitutes the minerals anhydrite, alabaster, gypsum, and selenite; the carbonate occurs dissolved in most natural waters and as the minerals chalk, marble, calcite, aragonite; also in the double carbonates such as dolomite, bromlite, barytocalcite; the fluoride as fluorspar; the fluophosphate constitutes the mineral apatite; while all the more important mineral silicates contain a proportion of this element.
Calcium carbonate, CaCO 3, is of exceptionally wide distribution in both the mineral and animal kingdoms. It constitutes the bulk of the chalk deposits and limestone rocks; it forms over one-half of the mineral dolomite and the rock magnesium limestone; it occurs also as the dimorphous minerals aragonite (q.v.) and calcite (q.v.).
It also constitutes the minerals ornithite, Ca3(P04)2 2H20, osteolite and sombrerite.
Calcium silicate is also present in the minerals: olivine, pyroxenes, amphiboles, epidote, felspars, zeolites, scapolites (qq.v.).
The agricultural products of the province are very limited, and its chief wealth lies in its minerals.
Cleavage is thus a superinduced structure, and its explanation is to be found in the rearrangement of the minerals, and the development of a certain degree of crystallization by pressure acting on the rock.
Coarse rocks and rocks consisting of hard minerals are always imperfectly cleaved.
The cleavage of slates must be distinguished from cleavage of minerals, the latter being due to different degrees of cohesion along definite crystallographic planes.
This method of reasoning, however, does not carry us far, as the minerals of slates vary considerably in form.
Micas and other platy minerals (such as chlorite), which naturally grow most rapidly on their edges, would show this tendency best, and such minerals usually form a large part of the best slates; but even Sketch (by Du Noyer) of a block of variegated slate from Devil's Glen, Co.
Other minerals which occur in the rocks of this group are calcite, garnet, biotite, chloritoid, epidote, tourmaline and graphite or dark carbonaceous materials.
The spots contain variety of minerals, sometimes mainly white mica or chlorite.
the Teleki Codex), a collection of old Hungarian poems, and a manuscript of Tacitus, besides a collection of antiquities and another of minerals.
Graphite is black and opaque, whilst diamond is colourless and transparent; it is one of the softest (H= I) of minerals, and diamond the hardest of all; it is a good conductor of electricity, whilst diamond is a bad conductor.
It also enters (as carbonates) into the composition of many minerals, such as chalk, dolomite, calcite, witherite, calamine and spathic iron ore.
It is a constituent of the minerals cerussite, malachite, azurite, spathic iron ore, calamine, strontianite, witherite, calcite aragonite, limestone, &c. It may be prepared by burning carbon in excess of air or oxygen, by the direct decomposition of many carbonates by heat, and by the decomposition of carbonates with mineral acids, M2C03+2HC1=2MCl-FH 2 O+CO 2.
Algeria is rich in minerals, found chiefly in the department of Constantine, where iron, lead and zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines are worked.
These deposits, in addition to common salt, include the following minerals: sylvine, KC1; carnallite, KC1 MgC12.6H20 (transparent, deliquescent crystals, often red with diffused oxide of iron); kainite, K 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 MgC1 2 6H 2 O (hard crystalline masses, permanent in the air); kieserite MgS04 H20 (only very slowly dissolved by water); besides polyhalite, MgSO 4 K 2 SO 4.2CaSO 4.2H20anhydrite, CaSO 4; salt, NaC1, and some minor components.
These potassium minerals are not confined to Stassfurt; larger quantities of sylvine and kainite are met with in the salt mines of Kalusz in the eastern Carpathian Mountains.
The Stassfurt minerals owe their industrial importance to their solubility in water and consequent ready amenability to chemical operations.
It was obtained as a by-product in many chemical reactions, and subsequently used to be extracted from kainite, one of the Stassfurt minerals, but the process is now given up because the salt can be produced cheaply enough from the chloride by decomposing it with sulphuric acid and calcining the residue.
Some of the original proposals, which were much criticized, were subsequently dropped, including the permanent diversion of the Old Sinking Fund to a National Development Fund (created by a separate bill), and a tax on "ungotten minerals," for which was substituted a tax on mineral rights.
The working of slate is very important, especially in the neighbourhood of Fumay, and quarries producing freestone, lime-stone and other minerals are found in several places.
According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.
It is often associated with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products.
The galena group includes several other cubic minerals, such as argentite (q.v.).
After coal and iron the most valuable minerals are zinc, lead, pyrites and copper.
The minerals include coal-beds in the Kidul hills and near Nangulan, marble and gold in the neighbourhood of Kalasan.
The minerals discovered in Guatemala include gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, mercury, antimony, coal, salt and sulphur; but it is uncertain if many of these exist in quantities sufficient to repay exploitation.
During the mechanical comminution of the till no vegetation was present to remove the minerals essential to plant growth, as is the case in the soils of normally weathered and dissected peneplains, such as the Appalachian piedmont, where the soils, though not exhausted by the primeval forest cover, are by no means ~so rich as the till sheets of the prairies.
It held primacy, with a large margin, in the yield of coal, iron, lead and copper, the minerals most important in manufactures; in gold its output ini~usifrIcs was second only to that, of South Africa (though practically equalled by that of Australia); and in silver to that of Mexico.
Although the data are in general incomplete upon which might be based a comparison of the relative standing of different countries in the production of minerals of lesser importance than those just mentioned, it was estimated by M.
Mulhall (Industries and Wealth of Nations, edition of 1896, pp. 3435) that Great Britain then produced approximately one-third, the United States one-third, and all other countries collectively one-third of the minerals of the world in weight.
Other minerals whose production may be found stated in detail in the annual volume on Mineral Resources of the United States Geological Survey are: natural pigments, felspar, white mica, graphite, fluorspar, arsenic, quartz, barytes, bromine.
Of the two classes of iron minerals used as ores of that metal, namely, oxides and carbonates, the latter furnish to-day an insignificant proportion of the countrys product, although such ores were the basis of a considerable part of the early iron industry, and even so late as 1889 represented one-thirteenth of the total.
Since then the increase of manufactures, and to a slight degree that of minerals, has lessened much the share of agricultural products, which in 1906 was 56.43%, that of manufactures beiIig 35.11% and of minerals 3.09%.
Copper and asbestos are the principal mineral products of that part of Quebec included in the region now under description, although many other minerals are known and already worked to some extent.
Coal and lignitic coal are the principal economic minerals met with in this central plain, though natural gas occurs and is put to use near Medicine Hat, and " tar sands " along the northeastern edge of the Cretaceous indicate the presence of petroleum.
Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.
Bounties on certain minerals and metals are also given by some of the provinces.
Of the less important minerals, Canada is the world's chief producer of asbestos and corundum.
The district is poor in minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig debouches on the plain.
Sulphurous and other mineral springs, both hot and cold, exist in several districts, and deposits of silver, iron, copper, sulphur, coal and other minerals have been discovered; but the exploitation of these is retarded by lack of communications, and, apart from building materials, sulphur and salt, the actual output is insignificant.
The asterism seems due to the presence of microscopic tubular cavities, or to enclosure of crystalline minerals, arranged in a definite system.
The rolled crystals of sapphire occur, with garnet and other minerals, in glacial deposits, and have probably been derived from dykes of igneous rocks, like andesite and lamprophyre.
Charcoal is valuable for its infusibility and low conductivity for heat (allowing substances to be strongly heated upon it), and for its powerful reducing properties; so that it is chiefly employed in testing the fusibility of minerals and in reduction.
Llanidloes has a trade in Plinlimmon slates and minerals besides flannel and wool manufactures.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.