Mineral Sentence Examples
It is an attractively built city, and has good mineral springs.
The mineral wealth of the duchy is not inconsiderable.
It is readily soluble in warm dilute mineral acids forming cobaltous salts.
Mineral springs are very numerous, and of great variety.
The Australian states have been bountifully supplied with mineral fuel.Advertisement
The quantity of beer is about the same, the greater part of the beer drunk being imported from Germany, while the production of artificial mineral waters has somewhat decreased.
Scheelite, another mineral of tungsten, is also found in Queensland.
Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
There is a considerable trade (not very large for export, however) in natural mineral Waters, which are often excellent.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).Advertisement
Arrived in the river Plate in 1527, rumours reached Cabot of mineral wealth and a rich and civilized empire in the far interior, and he resolved to abandon surveying for exploration.
Behind the Royal Military Academy is a mineral well, the "Shooter's Hill waters" mentioned by Evelyn.
Mineral resources are few, but important.
In the then state of knowledge, it appeared that all the species of animals and plants could be arranged in one series, in such a manner that, by insensible gradations, the mineral passed into the plant, the plant into the polype, the polype into the worm, and so, through gradually higher forms of life, to man, at the summit of the animated world.
At the mineral baths of Ilidze near the city, where many Roman remains have been found, a hydropathic establishment was opened in 1899.Advertisement
The mineral springs are vested in the corporation.
The town has a mineral spring, which is used for bathing, being efficacious for rheumatism and other complaints.
It owes its origin to its mineral waters, which have long been known to the inhabitants of Caucasia.
The mineral had, however, been earlier known as a blue powdery substance, called "blue ironearth," met with in peat-bogs, in bog iron-ore, or with fossil bones and shells.
The mineral springs, which belong to the adjoining abbey of Tepl, are eight in number, and are used both for bathing and drinking, except the Marienquelle, which is used only for bathing.Advertisement
Besides the mineral water baths there are also moor or mud-baths, and the peat used for these baths is the richest in iron in the world.
Molybdenum trisulphide, MoS3, is obtained by saturating a solution of an alkaline molybdate with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding a mineral acid.
The titanates are well marked in the mineral kingdom.
The mineral waters of Mount Clemens are beneficial to patients suffering from rheumatism, blood diseases and nervous disorders.
Imports include woven goods, metals, ironware, machinery, tea, wines and spirits, mineral oils, opium, paper, and arms and powder.Advertisement
Much the best practical source of helium is thorianite, a mineral imported from Ceylon for the manufacture of thoria.
At Selinitza, near Avlona, there is a remarkable deposit of mineral pitch which was extensively worked in Roman times; mining operations are still carried on here, but in a somewhat primitive fashion.
Few attempts, however, have been made to prospect systematically for this valuable mineral.
It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral.
There are salt-works at Salzungen and Neusulza, the former the most important in Thuringia; and the mineral water of Friedrichshall is well known.
The principal mineral resource of Vermont is its building and monumental stone, including marble and granite and a small amount of limestone.
On the same side of the Gede is the health resort of Sindanglaya (founded 1850-1860), with a mineral spring containing salt, and close by is the country residence of Chipanas, belonging to the governor-general.
The mineral springs are important, including those at Wiesbaden, Homburg, Langenschwalbach, Nenndorf, Schlangenbad and Soden.
There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.
Petroleum ranks second to coal among the state's mineral resources.
The arrival of these first-fruits of the mineral wealth of the southern continent gained for the estuary of the Parana the name which it has since borne, that of Rio de la Plata, the silver river.
It is monobasic and yields salts which only crystallize with great difficulty; when liberated, from these salts by a mineral acid it forms a syrupy nonvolatile mass.
Pharmacosiderite is a mineral of secondary origin, the crystals occurring attached to gozzany quartz in the upper part of veins of copper ore.
Gold is found throughout Australia, and the present prosperity of the states is largely due to the discoveries of this metal, the development of other industries being, in a country of varied resources, a natural sequence to the acquisition of mineral treasure.
Deposits have also been found in the New England and southern districts, as well as at Broken Hill, showing that the mineral is widely distributed throughout the state.
The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.
It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift.
In the Ebers papyrus, 1550 B.C., mention is made of blisters, ointments, clysters, mineral and vegetable drugs.
The medicinal preparations which required the aid of a furnace, such as mineral earths, were undertaken by the chymists, who probably derived their name from the Alchymists, who flourished from the 14th to the 16th centuries.
The increasing development of the wood as the tree grows older is largely due to the demands for the conduction of water and mineral matters dissolved in it, which are made by the increased number of leaves which from year to year it bears, and which must each be put into communication with the central mass by the formation of new vascular bundles.
This serves a double purpose, bringing up from the soil continually a supply of the soluble mineral matters necessary for their metabolic processes, \vhich only enter the plant in solutions of extreme dilution, and at the same time keeping the plant cool by the process of evaporation.
If excess of a mineral acid be added to a solution of an alkaline thiogermanate a white precipitate of germanium disulphide, GeS2, is obtained.
Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or reddish, bituminous matter being often present in the massive varieties.
Sulphur is occasionally found crystallized in Carrara marble; and the mineral occurs also in Calabria.
Sulphur dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen are present in volcanic exhalations and in many mineral waters.
The hinterland of Liberia has been but slightly explored for mineral wealth.
The streak is blue, but lighter than the colour of the mineral in mass.
It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and sometimes occurs in large masses, as in Arizona and in South Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of which element it contains 55%.
Being less hydrated than malachite it is itself liable to alteration into this mineral, and pseudomorphs of malachite after azurite are not uncommon.
Clays and mineral waters are, however, widely distributed.
The refractive indices of all glasses at present available lie between 1.46 and 1 90, whereas transparent minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (calcium fluoride), is actually used by opticians in the construction of certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artificial production of large mineral crystals.
The mineral resources are as yet unknown.
It contains a valuable library with many incunabula and old manuscripts, amongst which is one of the Nibelungenlied, an astronomical observatory, a collection of antiquities, and a mineral collection.
The principal mine in New South Wales is situated at Kingsgate, in the New England district, where the mineral is generally associated with molybdenum and gold.
The mines were visited some years ago by Dr Fritz Noetling, and the mineral has been described by Dr Otto Helm.
Molybdenum disulphide, MoS 2, is found as the mineral molybdenite, and may be prepared by heating the trioxide with sulphur or sulphuretted hydrogen.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
The water content of the soil, its mineral content, its humus content, its temperature, and its physical characteristics, such as its depth and the size of its component particles are all edaphic factors.
Habitats rich in mineral salts, especially calcium carbonate, poor in acidic humous compounds, and characterized by ash woods, beech woods, and calcareous pasture.
Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
Trade makes it possible to work mineral resources in localities where food can only be grown with great pope a u.
In most cases, however, a very dense population can only be maintained in regions where mineral resources have fixed the site of great manufacturing industries.
In later times, towns have been more often founded in proximity to valuable mineral resources, and at critical points or nodes on lines of communication.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
The chief mineral product is the asphalt of the mines of Seyssel on the eastern frontier, besides which potter's clay, building stone, hydraulic lime and cement are produced in the department.
Ferric thiocyanate has been suggested, and sulphur is said to have been detected in the mineral.
Amethyst is a very widely distributed mineral, but fine clear specimens fit for cutting as ornamental stones are confined to comparatively few localities.
It was discovered in 1886 by C. Winkler in argyrodite, a mineral found at Freiberg in Saxony.
It may be obtained from argyrodite by heating the mineral in a current of hydrogen; or by heating the dioxide to redness with carbon.
Paper-making, milling, and the making of mineral waters are the chief manufactures, but the town is an important centre of the cattle trade with London, markets being held at frequent intervals.
With regard to the imports into Russia-they consist mainly of raw materials and machinery for the manufactures, and of provisions, the principal items being raw cotton, 17% of the aggregate; machinery and metal goods, 13%; tea, 5%; mineral ores, 5%; gums and resins, 4%; wool and woollen yarns, 32%; textiles, 3%; fish, 3%; with leather and hides, chemicals, silks, wine and spirits, colours, fruits, coffee, tobacco and rice.
Railways had their origin in the tramways (q.v.) or wagon-ways which at least as early as the middle of the 16th century were used in the mineral districts of England round Newcastle for the conveyance of coal from the pits to the river Tyne for shipment.
As embankments have to support the weight of heavy trains, they must be uniformly firm and well drained, and before the line is fully opened for traffic they must be allowed time to consolidate, a process which is helped by running construction or mineral trains over them.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
In the United States mineral and grain trains, running at perhaps 12 m.
But goods and mineral trains so fitted are rare, and the same is the case on the continent of Europe, where, however, such brakes are generally employed on passenger trains.
The leading industries comprise the making of agricultural implements and mineral waters, besides tanning.
The continual attacks of sickness which had retarded his progress induced his aunt, by medical advice, to take him to Bath; but the mineral waters had no effect.
Nevada, and thence past the Colorado river into Arizona, is one of the richest mineral belts in the world.
This discovery gave a new impetus to prospecting in south-western Nevada, and it was soon discovered that the district was not an isolated mining region but was in the heart of a great mineral belt.
This attempt to create a new state proved abortive, however, and it was not till the mineral wealth of the Washoe Country became generally known that Congress took any action.
A second period of decline followed the working out of this mine and lasted until 1900, when the discovery of a new mineral belt in southern Nevada brought renewed prosperity.
It seems to point to the supersession of a primitive local Cretan divinity by Demeter, and the adoption of agriculture by the inhabitants, bringing wealth in its train in the form of the fruits of the earth, both vegetable and mineral.
Both of these statements are correct when the powerful mineral acid and bases are considered, exceptions only arising when weak acids and bases are employed.
In the parish of Ludgvan were rich copper works, abounding with mineral and metallic fossils, of which he made a collection, and thus was led to study somewhat minutely the natural history of the county.
The rise of the mineral saltworks of Cheshire led to its decline in the 18th century, and later the renewed importance of Southampton completed its decay.
The mineral wealth of the state is limited.
Large quantities of mineral water, sulphur, chalybeate and lithia, bottled at Meridian, Raymond and elsewhere, are sold annually.
The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.
In 1870 North Carolina's mica mines were reopened, and they produce the best grade of sheet mica for glazing and a large percentage of the country's yield of this mineral.
Goslar is believed to have been founded by Henry the Fowler about 920, and when in the time of Otto the Great the mineral treasures in the neighbourhood were discovered it increased rapidly in prosperity.
Bilin is famous for its mineral springs, the Biliner Sauerbrunnen.
With the exception of the almost inexhaustible layers of peat, the mineral wealth of the province is insignificant.
It is an ironblack, opaque mineral, with metallic lustre; hardness about 6, sp. gr.
Magnetite is a mineral of wide distribution, occurring as grains in many massive and volcanic rocks, like granite, diorite and dolerite.
Mining attracts much attention in the sierras, and its mineral deposits are rich.
But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha).
Numerous mineral springs (chalybeate and sulphurous) exist both north and south of the Caucasus ranges, e.g.
The principal mineral is coal.
Mineral manures alone give very little increase, nitrogenous manures alone considerably more than mineral manures alone, but the mixture of the two considerably more than either separately.
Experiments upon the growth of barley for fifty years in succession on rather heavy ordinary arable soil resulted in showing that the produce by mineral manures alone is larger than that without manure; that nitrogenous manures alone give more produce than mineral manures alone; and that mixtures of mineral and nitrogenous manure give much more than either used alone - generally twice, or more than twice, as much as mineral manures alone.
Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.
But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.
Accordingly it is more susceptible to exhaustion of surface soil as to its nitrogenous, and especially as to its mineral supplies; and in the common practice of agriculture it is found to be more benefited by direct mineral manures, especially phosphatic manures, than is wheat when sown under equal soil conditions.
Moreover, the crops alternated with the cereals accumulate very much more of mineral constituents and of nitrogen in their produce than do the cereals themselves.
Reference may first be made to the important mineral constituents of different crops of the four-course rotation.
Cumberland has been called the "mineral pocket of New England."
The platy minerals have also a perfect cleavage parallel to their flat surfaces, while the fibrous species often have two or more cleavages following their long axes; hence a schistose rock may split not only by separation of the mineral plates from one another but also by cleavage of the parallel minerals through their substance.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
Strontium carbonate, SrCO 3, found in the mineral kingdom as strontianite, is formed when a solution of a carbonate is added to one of a strontium salt.
The green colour is due to a chloritic mineral; the red to haematite.
It is near the great mineral deposits of Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and packing houses.
An alkaline mineral spring, resembling the seltzer water of Germany, was discovered in 1830, and baths were then erected, which, however, were subsequently closed.
From one of the mineral springs comes a heavily charged water known in commerce as "Eau de Vals," and in great request in Smyrna.
The roasted mineral, slightly moistened, is introduced into a vat made of stoneware or pitched planks, and furnished with a double bottom.
The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides a great variety of useful mineral.
A great number of mineral springs and thermal waters are found in the Carpathians, many of which have become frequented watering-places.
Several firms are engaged in the manufacture of mineral waters, for which the water of the Cromac Springs is peculiarly adapted.
The city has a fine location, its natural attractiveness and mineral springs in the vicinity combining to make it a summer and health resort.
The principal source of bismuth is the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated and granular masses with a crystalline fracture.
When not tarnished, the mineral has a silver-white colour with a tinge of red, and the lustre is metallic. Hardness 2-21; specific gravity 9-70-9.83.
The mineral has been found in some Cornish mines and is fairly abundant in Bolivia (near Sorata, and at Tasna in Potosi).
Thus obtained it is a yellow powder, soluble in the mineral acids to form soluble salts, which are readily precipitated as basic salts when the solution is diluted.
Another basic carbonate, 3(BiO) 2 CO 3.2Bi(OH)3.3H20, constitutes the mineral bismutite.
Bismuth trisulphide, B12S3, constitutes the mineral bismuthite, and may be prepared by direct union of its constituents, or as a brown precipitate by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a bismuth salt.
The tritelluride constitutes the mineral tetradymite, B12Te3.
Hot mineral springs and ebullitions of steam still testify to the presence of volcanic activity.
There are also potteries, paper, soap and shoe factories, flour mills and breweries, and the many mineral springs.
Laurviks Bad is a favourite spa, with mineral and sulphur springs and mud-baths.
It is best obtained by decomposing metallic tellurides with mineral acids.
In 1906 the total mineral product was valued at $814,126, of which $237,768 represented clay products and $146,346 stone.
Berzelius, who prepared tantalic acid from the mineral tantalite in 1820, obtained an impure metal by heating potassium tantalofluoride with potassium.
But the two substances were generally confounded as "fixed alkali" (carbonate of ammonia being "volatile alkali"), till Duhamel du Monceau in 1736 established the fact that common salt and the ashes of seaplants contain the same base as is found in natural deposits of soda salts ("mineral alkali"), and that this body is different from the "vegetable alkali" obtained by incinerating land plants or wood (pot-ashes).
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
The floors of the Caribbean, Cayman and Mexican Basins in the Central American Sea are covered with a white calcareous ooze, which is clearly distinguished from the eupelagic pteropod and globigerina oozes by the presence of abundant large mineral particles and the remains of land plants.
When those deposits of organic origin are wanting or have been removed, the red clay composed of the mineral constituents is found alone.
These peculiarities, combined with the striking absence of mineral constituents, distinguish the eupelagic globigerina ooze from the hemipelagic calcareous mud.
Fol and Sarasin detected the last traces of sunlight in the western Mediterranean at a depth of 254 to 260 fathoms, and Luksch in the eastern Mediterranean at 328 fathoms and in the Red Sea at 273 fathoms. The chief cause of the different depths to which light penetrates in sea-water is the varying turbidity due to the presence of mineral particles in suspension or to plankton.
These have reference to the mode in which the mineral is obtained, and the manner in which it is transported to market.
In France and Belgium, however, a peculiar word, houille, is generally used to signify mineral coal.
The plural, coals, seems to have been used from a very early period to signify the broken fragments of the mineral as prepared for use.
Coal is an amorphous substance of variable composition, and therefore cannot be as strictly defined as a crystallized or definite mineral can.
They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash."
When coal is heated to redness out of contact with the air, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are in great part expelled, a portion of the carbon being also volatilized in the form of hydro carbons and carbonic oxide,-the greater part, however, remaining behind, together with all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of coke, or, as it is also called, " fixed carbon."
By the term " ash " is understood the mineral matter remaining unconsumed after the complete combustion of the carbonaceous portion of a coal.
Percy, the mineral matter being also changed by the removal of silica and alkalis and the substitution of substances analogous in composition to fire-clay.
The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is illustrated by fig.
There is much fine scenery in the neighbourhood, there are mineral springs near by, and the place has become known as a summer resort.
The principal mineral of Iowa, however, is bituminous coal; it ranked in 1908 eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union, its product being valued at $11,706,402.
The colour of the mineral is silver-white or steel-grey, with a metallic lustre, but it is often tarnished yellow; the streak is greyish-black.
North-west of Kilimanjaro is a sheet of water known as the Natron Lake from the mineral alkali it contains.
There are mineral waters in many places.
Mineral springs abound in the neighbourhood.
Besides St James and City Hall parks in the city, San Jose has Alum Rock Canyon Park, a tract of woo acres, with sixteen mineral springs, in Penitencia Canyon, 7 m.
There are many mineral springs in the state, more than half being in Essex and Middlesex counties.
The total amount of mineral waters sold in 1908 was valued at $227,907.
A mineral spring called the Drachenquelle is used both for drinking and bathing.
Mineral, vegetable and animal substances, by means of tools and apparatus of stone, wood and bone - tools for cutting, or edged tools; tools for abrading and smoothing the surfaces of substances, like planes, rasps and sandpaper; tools for striking, that is, pounding for the sake of pounding, or for crushing and fracturing violently; perforating tools; devices for grasping and holding firmly.
There are mechanical works, match factories and stockinet factories, and a mineral spring rich in iron, the water of which is bottled for export.
Klaproth in 1789 analysed the mineral zircon or hyacinth and found it to contain a new earth, which he called "zirconia."
Mineral acids generally attack the crystallized metal very little even in the heat; aqua regia, however, dissolves it readily, and so does hydrofluoric acid.
Then followed the discovery of " hard rockphosphate," a massive mineral, often having cavities lined with nearly pure phosphorite.
Many of the above include descriptions of mineral phosphates in other parts of the world.
There are more than forty mineral springs in New York whose waters are of commercial importance, and in 1908 the waters sold from them amounted to 8,007,092 gals., valued at $877,648; several of the springs, especially those in Saratoga county, attract a large number of summer visitors.
In compensation the coal and gold, which form the chief mineral wealth, are found in the broken and less practicable west and centre, and these portions also furnish the water-power which may in days to come make the island a manufacturing country.
Though Roebuck lost all his money in the coal-mines and salt works which he established at Bo'ness, the development of the mineral resources of the district may be regarded as due to him.
As the mineral thenardite or mirabilite, which crystallizes in the rhombic system, it occurs in many parts of the world, as in Spain, the western states of North America and the Russian Caucasus; in the last-named region, about 25 m.
The substance is the active principle of many mineral waters, e.g.
In combination with calcium sulphate, it constitutes the mineral glauberite or brongniartite, Na2S04 CaS041 which assumes forms belonging to the monoclinic system and occurs in Spain and Austria.
Montana has a few mineral springs, the best known being the Lissner Springs at Helena.
One mile south-east of the city are a sanitarium and the Eastman mineral springs; within the city also there are springs and bath-houses.
In its neighbourhood, surrounded by pine forests, are the baths of Bartfa, with twelve mineral springs - iodate, ferruginous and alkaline - used for bathing and drinking.
The total value of all mineral products in 1902 was $6,769,104, of which $6,464,258 were represented by gold and silver, $110,789 by sandstones and quartzites and $86,605 by limestones and dolomites; in 1908 the total value was $8,528,234, which was an i increase of more than $3,500,000 over the value in 1907.
The homestead of any family in the state is exempt from attachment, lien or forced sale, except for taxes or purchase money, provided it has been properly recorded; but it can embrace only one dwelling house, cannot include gold or silver mines, and is limited in value to $5000 to one acre if within a town plat, to 40 acres if it is in the country and was acquired under the laws of the United States relating to mineral lands, and to 160 acres of other land in the country.
With the exception of lignite, which underlies a large portion of the western half of the state, North Dakota has few mineral deposits of commercial value.
The total value of the mineral products (except stone) in 1909 was $738,818, of which $522,116 was the value of coal and $206,222 of clay products.
Closely related to magnetite is the rare volcanic mineral from Vesuvius, called magnoferrite, or magnesioferrite, with the formula MgFe 2 O 4; and with this may be mentioned a mineral from Jakobsberg, in Vermland, Sweden, called jakobsite, containing MnFe204.
The mineral has a very perfect cleavage parallel to the faces c and m, and the cleavage surfaces are perfectly smooth and bright.
Well developed crystals are extremely common, but the mineral occurs also in a granular, earthy, or stalactitic condition.
It is found also in beds of iron ore, and the haematite mines of the Cleator Moor district in west Cumberland have yielded many extremely fine crystals, specimens of which may be seen in all mineral collections.
In the neighbourhood of Nottingham, and other places in the Midlands, barytes forms a cementing material in the Triassic sandstones; amber-coloured crystals of the same mineral are found in the fuller's earth at Nutfield in Surrey; and the septarian nodules in London Clay contain crystals of barytes as well as of calcite.
The finely powdered and washed mineral is too crystalline and consequently of insufficient opacity to be used alone as a paint, and is therefore mixed with "white lead," of which material it is also used as an adulterant.
The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.
The total value of the state's mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499,335.
The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal.
The entire surface of the basin was scraped to bed rock, sand or mineral earth, this alone costing $3,000,000.
Thus, while the mineral may be formed in a stratum other than that in which it is found, though in many cases it is indigenous to it, for the formation of a natural reservoir of the fluid (whether liquid or gas) it is necessary that there should be a suitable porous rock to contain it.
Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
Berthelot was the first to suggest, in 1866, after conducting a series of experiments, that mineral oil was produced by purely chemical action, similar to that employed in the manufacture of acetylene.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
In the earlier stages of the development of the manufacture of mineral lubricating oils, the residues were distilled in cast-iron stills, and the lubricating properties of the products thus obtained were injured by overheating.
In the testing of mineral lubricating oils the viscosity, flash-point, cold-test," and specific gravity are the characters of chief importance.
The more viscous descriptions of mineral oils have also been found suitable for use in the Elmore process of ore-concentration by oil.
Silver Spring and Blue Spring in Marion county, Blue Spring and Orange City Mineral Spring in Volusia county, Chipola Spring near Marianna in Jackson county, Espiritu Santo Spring near Tampa in Hillsboro county, Magnolia Springs in Clay county, Suwanee Springs in Suwanee county, White Sulphur Springs in Hamilton county, the Wekiva Springs in Orange county, and Wakulla Spring, Newport Sulphur Spring and Panacea Mineral Spring in Wakulla county are the most noteworthy.
Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
Chloro-bromoiodide of silver has also been recognized as a mineral and called iodembolite.
Amongst the mineral springs worth mentioning are the sulphur springs at Ullersdorf, the saline ones at Luhatschowitz and the alkaline springs at TOplitz.
The mineral wealth of Moravia, consisting chiefly of coal and iron, is very considerable.
There are important mineral and thermal springs in various parts of the island.
Among the Arabian and later alchemists we find attempts made to collate compounds by specific properties, and it is to these writers that we are mainly indebted for such terms as "alkali," " sal," &c. The mineral acids, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, and also aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) were discovered, and the vitriols, alum, saltpetre, sal-ammoniac, ammonium carbonate, silver nitrate (lunar caustic) became better known.
In the same year as Klaproth detected uranium, he also isolated zirconia or zirconium oxide from the mineral variously known as zircon, hyacinth, jacynth and jargoon; but he failed to obtain the metal, this being first accomplished some years later by Berzelius, who decomposed the double potassium zirconium fluoride with potassium.
Within two years of the invention the authors announced the discovery of two metals, rubidium and caesium, closely allied to sodium, potassium and lithium in properties, in the mineral lepidolite and in the Diirkheim mineral water.
The first earth of this group to be isolated (although in an impure form) was yttria, obtained by Gadolin in 1194 from the mineral gadolinite, which was named after its discoverer and investigator.
Hisinger and Berzelius, was of ceria, the oxide of cerium, in the mineral cerite found at Ridderhytta, Westmannland, Sweden.
In 1841 Mosander, having in 1839 discovered a new element lanthanum in the mineral cerite, isolated this element and also a hitherto unrecognized substance, didymia, from crude yttria, and two years later he announced the determination of two fresh constituents of the same earth, naming them erbia and terbia.
In 1880 Marignac examined certain earths obtained from the mineral samarksite, which had already in 1878 received attention from Delafontaine and later from Lecoq de Boisbaudran.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
It is resinified by the action of concentrated mineral acids.
As the mineral only yields from 2 to 3% of the pigment, it is not surprising to learn that the pigment used to be weighed up with gold.
The mineral wealth of the Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement (pozzolana) from Santorin.
Hedenbergite, or calcium iron pyroxene, is a black mineral closely allied to diopside and, owing to the isomorphous replacement of iron by magnesium, there is no sharp line of division between them.
Schefferite, or manganese pyroxene, is a brown mineral found in the manganese mines of Sweden.
Pectolite is a secondary mineral occurring as white masses with a radially fibrous structure in the veins and cavities of basic igneous rocks.
The important mineral products are salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas.
It is in this band that the greater part of the mineral wealth of Cuba is situated.
Oriente province is distinctively the mineral province of the island.
Mineral waters, though not yet important in trade, are extremely abundant, and a score of places in Cuba and the Isle of Pines are already known as health resorts.
The copper output has not greatly increased since 1890, and is of slight importance in mineral exports.
Iron is now the most important mineral product.
The shipments from Santiago province from 1884 to 1901 aggregated 5, 0 53, 8 47 long tons, almost all going to the United States (which is true of other mineral products also).
The proportion of imports taken from the United States is greatest in foodstuffs, metals and metal manufactures, timber and furniture, mineral oils and lard.
They are hydrolysed by dilute mineral acids yielding hydroxylamine and the parent aldehyde or ketone.
It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
Mineral springs also abound, and those of Ilidze, near Serajevo, have been utilized since the days of the Romans; but the majority remained unexploited at the beginning of the 20th century.
Two permits are not granted for the same mineral within the same area, until the first has lapsed.
Should a different mineral from that specified in the imperial firman for a mining concession be discovered in a free state, a fresh firman is necessary to exploit it.
Cleveland thus was connected with the interior of the state, for whose mineral and agricultural products it became the lake outlet.
Under powers secured in 1884, the town obtains its chief water supply from a gathering ground near the sources of the Taff on the old red sandstone beyond the northern out-crop of the mineral basin and on the southern slopes of the Brecknock Beacons.
The mineral waters at Vichy, Neris, Theneuille, Cusset and Bourbon l'Archambault are in much repute.
The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.
More than three-fourths of the area of the state is arable, the small percentage of non-arable land lying principally in the north-eastern regions, which afford compensation in the form of rich mineral deposits.
It consists largely of a dark brown or black sandy loam, finely comminuted, the richness of which in organic matter and mineral salts induces rapidity of growth, and the strength and durability of which render it capable of a long succession of crops.
Typical plants are holophytic, that is, they obtain their food substances from purely mineral sources.
Now dead animal substance and the excreta of animals decompose in the long run into carbonic acid, water and mineral salts, and so there is a continual destruction of animal substance both on the land and in the sea.
Therefore all life in the sea (as on land) depends on the power which the holophytic organisms possess of synthesizing mineral substances into organized tissues.
Mineral nitrogenous compounds (nitrates, nitrites and ammonia) are much more rare.
If this is admitted the poverty of tropical sea-water in mineral nitrogen compounds is explained by the higher temperature, which accelerates the activity of denitrifying bacteria.
The dead bodies of organisms fall down from the surface and are slowly resolved into products of putrefaction, which gradually pass into the mineral forms, nitrates, carbonic acid and ash.
Boiling with dilute mineral acids, or baryta water, decomposes albumins into carbon dioxide, ammonia and fatty aminoand other acids.
In general they are white, loose powders, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in hot water; they are precipitated by mineral acids, but dissolve in an excess.
Gold is found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into economic prominence.
The principal manufactures of Georgetown are cotton and cotton-seed oil, and planing-mill products.* In Page Park are mineral springs, whose waters have medicinal qualities similar to the famous Karlsbad waters.
The larger ones polarize light, have angular outlines like those of crystals, and may even show twinning and definite optical properties by which they can be identified as belonging to felspar, augite or some other rock-forming mineral.
But when we pass to solutions of mineral salts and acids - to solutions of electrolytes in fact - we find that the observed values of the osmotic pressures and of the allied phenomena are greater than the normal values.
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
The best solvents for rubber are carbon bisulphide, benzol and mineral naphtha, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
It will thus be seen that for nearly all practical purposes, including tires, vulcanized rubber mixed with mineral matter is employed.
Such articles contain varying proportions of rubber (12-60%), about 1-2% of combined sulphur, and from 25-70% of mineral matter.
A kind of vulcanite which contains a large proportion of vermilion or other mineral pigment is used, under the name of dental rubber, for making artificial gums and supports for artificial teeth.
The principal mineral wealth of Upper Austria is salt, of which it extracts nearly 50% of the total Austrian production.
There are about thirty mineral springs, the best known being the salt baths of Ischl and the iodine waters at Hall.
The mineral wealth of Siberia is considerable.
The mineral was probably included with selenite under Pliny's term lapis specularis.
Spangles of mica are much used for decorative purposes of various kinds, and the mineral was formerly known as glacies Mariae (Ger., Frauenglas) because of its use for decorating statues of the Virgin.
The dehesas or moorlands abound in game, and fish are plentiful in all the streams. The mineral resources of the province, which are considerable, were known to some extent to the ancients.
Klaproth in the mineral honeystone, which is the aluminium salt of the acid, The acid may be prepared by warming honeystone with ammonium carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt and adding ammonia to the solution.
Of its mineral springs, the best known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of Voslau.
The monoxide, PbO, occurs in nature as the mineral lead ochre.
Lead dioxide, Pb0 2, also known as "puce oxide," occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite, and may be most conveniently prepared by heating mixed solutions of lead acetate and bleaching powder until the original precipitate blackens.
Lead chloride, PbC1 2, occurs in nature as the mineral cotunnite, which crystallizes in the rhombic system, and is found in the neighbourhood of volcanic craters.
Mendipite and matlockite are mineral oxychlorides.
Lead carbonate, PbCO 3, occurs in nature as the mineral cerussite (q.v.).
Lead sulphide, PbS, occurs in nature as the mineral galena (q.v.), and constitutes the most valuable ore of llead.
Lead sulphate, PbSO 4, occurs in nature as the mineral anglesite (q.v.), and may be prepared by the addition of sulphuric acid to solutions of lead salts, as a white precipitate almost insoluble in water (1 in 21,739), less soluble still in dilute sulphuric acid (1 in 36,504) and insoluble in alcohol.
The Mineral Industry, begun in 1892, annually records the progress made in lead smelting.
Its greatest tributary is the Cachapoal, in the valley of which, among the Andean foothills, are the popular thermal mineral baths of Cauquenes, 2306 ft.
The hydrazones are best prepared by mixing the aldehyde with phenylhydrazine in dilute acetic acid solution, in the absence of any free mineral acid.
It is divided into four sanjaks - Kastamuni, Boli, Changra and Sinope - is rich in mineral wealth, and has many mineral springs and extensive forests, the timber being used for charcoal and building and the bark for tanning.
It has extensive campos and large areas of exposed rock and stony steppes, but is richly provided with mineral deposits.
The mineral exports are surprisingly small.
From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country.
When heated with water and mineral acids, the nitrolic acids are completely decomposed, yielding fatty acids and nitrous oxide.
They discriminate between the red or erythro-salts, which are well crystallized, very explosive and unstable compounds, and which regenerate the colourless nitrolic acid on the addition of dilute mineral acids, and the leuco-salts, which are colourless salts obtained by warming the erythro-salts or by exposing them to direct sunlight.
Minerals.--Hungary is one of the richest countries in Europe as regards both the variety and the extent of its mineral wealth.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Cold mineral springs are at Bartfa, with alkaline ferruginous waters; Czigelka, with iodate waters; Parad, with ferruginous and sulphate springs; Koritnicza or Korytnica, with strong iron springs; and the mineral springs of Budapest.
Small up to the beginning of the 19th century, Holywell has increasingly prospered, thanks to lime quarries, lead, copper and zinc mines, smelting works, a shot manufactory, copper, brass, iron and zinc works; brewing, tanning and mineral water, flannel and cement works.
The mineral wealth of the state is very great, and the mining industries, largely operated with foreign capital, are important.
The mineral products include silver, lead, coal, copper, and iron.
The Transvaal, the principal gold producing country in the world, is noted for the abundance and variety of its mineral resources.
The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.
The department imports coal, lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other manufactured goods.
Rennes-les-Bains has mineral springs of repute.
It is a very weak base, salts being only formed with mineral acids, and these are dissociated by water.
The mineral, crushed small enough to pass a sieve with perforations iu in.
General statistical information, and improvements in the metallurgy, &c., are recorded annually in The Mineral Industry.
Dilute mineral acids have little or no action on guncotton.
Silver, tin, lead, mercury and precious stones are listed among the mineral resources of the country, but no mines have been developed, and they are possibilities only.
The mineral resources include gold, silver, copper and petroleum, but no mines were in operation in 1906.
Efforts were also made to develop the agricultural and mineral resources of the Beira district itself.
The mineral wealth is great, including copper, tin, lead, zinc, iron and especially coal.
Amongst its numerous mineral springs, the most important are those of Mehadia, with sulphurous waters, which were already known in the Roman period as the Thermae Herculis.
Maria Theresa also took a great interest in the Banat, colonized the land belonging to the crown with German peasants, founded many villages, encouraged the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, and generally developed the measures introduced by Mercy.
The mineral resources include silver, gold, copper, lead, tin, iron and coal, and mining is the chief industry.
The chief immediate result we can trace is the introduction of certain mineral remedies, especially antimony, the use of which became a kind of badge of the disciples of Paracelsus.
Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
There are hot mineral springs in the town.
Gold, iron, copper and other minerals have also been found, but the mineral wealth of the country is undeveloped.
The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
In the article on Mineral Deposits the distribution and mode of occurrence of the useful minerals and ores are fully discussed.
Search should be made in the beds of streams and on the hillsides for " float mineral " or " shoad stones," fragments of rocks and minerals known to be associated with and characteristic of the deposits.
Work undertaken to secure this information must be distinguished from prospecting, which is the search for mineral deposits and from development, work undertaken to prepare for actual mining operations.
It must be remembered that the line between a workable deposit and one that cannot be profitably worked is often very narrow and that the majority of mineral deposits are not workable.
Even when the outcrop is oxidized, and Surface the mineral character and richness of the deposit is Explora- altered thereby, it is possible to determine variations tion.
As the sinking of shafts or the driving of narrow entries or drifts is expensive, and as the mineral extracted rarely pays more than a small fraction of the cost, it is usual to plan this exploratory work so that the openings made shall serve some useful purpose later.
Large pillars of mineral should be left for the protection of the main openings, whether these be shafts or adits.
In metal mining, when the workable portions of the deposit are small and separated by unworkable areas, the levels serve also the purpose of exploration, and in such cases must not be so far apart as to risk missing valuable mineral.
When the development of a mine has advanced sufficiently the operation of working or extracting the mineral begins.
The method, of mining adopted must secure the extraction of the mineral at a minimum cost.
The principal item in mining cost is that of labour, which is expended chiefly in breaking down the mineral, either by the use of hand tools or with the aid of powder.
Labour is also expended in handling the mineral in the workingplaces and in bringing it to the mine-cars in which it is brought to the surface.
Economy in handling makes it desirable to bring the mine-cars as near as may be to the point where the mineral is broken.
In steeply inclined beds the working-place can be so arranged that the mineral will fall or slide from the place where it is broken down to the main haulage road.
The greatest difficulty is found where the inclination of the deposit is too great to permit the mine-cars to be brought into the working-place and yet not great enough to allow the mineral to fall or slide to a point where it can be loaded.
While it is always desirable to work the deposit so as to extract the mineral completely, it frequently happens that this can only be done at greatly increased cost.
As already noted large pillars must always be left to protect shafts, adits and the more important mine-passages necessary for drainage, ventilation and the haulage of mineral.
In such mines the mineral was carried out on the backs of men, and the water was laboriously raised by a long line of suction-pumps, operated by hand, each lifting the water a few feet only.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
In shallow mines the pillars are small and the saving of the mineral of minor importance.
In deep mines the pillars may furnish the bulk of the product, and the control of the fall of the roof, so as to permit the successful extraction of the mineral, demands a well-schemed plan of operation.
When the mineral does not stand well in the pillar it will be necessary to erect a line of timbers with lagging so as to sheathe the under-side of the pillar and prevent level '/?//?
This plan has the advantage of requiring little or no timbering when the mineral is strong enough to stand well in the pillars and when the hanging wall is good.
The method is then practicable and safe only with exceptionally strong mineral and roof.
By the use of rock-filling it is even possible to dispense with pillars of mineral; or, if pillars are left, the use of rock-filling greatly facilitates subsequent robbing operations.