Lignite is also mined at Bacu Abis, near Gonnesa, and Anthracite in small quantities near Seui.
The Flemish coal-basin, employing over 100,000 hands, produces 60% of the coal mined in France.
Copper and mispickel are mined only in small quantities.
Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and.
Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz.
Gothite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite, and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of iron.
Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
Iron is mainly mined in Elba.
Iron, zinc and lead are found in the vicinity, and some coal is mined.
As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.
Gold has been mined in the Urals since 1820; but since 1892 the output has fallen off very considerably.
Salt has been mined there since the 16th century.
A sub-bituminous lignite is mined in Esmeralda county (800 tons in 1906; 330 tons in 1907).
portion of the Mountain Region; and that mica was mined here before any European settlement of the country seems proved by numerous excavations and by huge heaps on which are large oak and chestnut trees, some fallen and decayed.
The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
Silver is not mined by itself, but is found in combination with gold.
Manganese ore is mined for export, and bismuth is reported to have been discovered.
inland from the open roadstead of Ochemchiri in Kutais, but it is not mined.
Florida is also the principal source in the United States for fuller's earth, a deposit of which, near Quincy, was first discovered in 1893 and clay (including kaolin) is also mined to some extent.
They are important ores of silver (the pure chloride contains 75.3% of silver), and have been extensively mined at several places in Chile, also in Mexico, and at Broken Hill in New South Wales.
When these first four galleries were full others were mined on the same level at right angles to them, thus gradually converting the whole area into a net-work of corridors.
The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.
Manganese is mined mainly near La Maya and El Cristo in Oriente.
Peary and Astrup, as already indicated, crossed in 1892 the northern part of the inland ice between 78° and 82° N., o reaching a height of about 8000 ft., and deter mined the northern termination of the icecovering.
The quality of ore in the two ranges differs somewhat, that mined from the Vermilion Range being a hard specular or red haematite, while that taken from the Mesabi Range, largely red haematite, is much softer and in many localities quite finely comminuted.
Copper is mined and extensive deposits of petroleum and asphalt are being exploited.
The mica mined in India is practically all muscovite.
Anglesite, or lead sulphate, PbSO 4, is poor in silver, and is only exceptionally mined by itself; it occurs in quantity in France, Spain, Sardinia and Australia.
Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.
Manganese is mined in Minas Geraes for export.
Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.
There are extensive copper and goldyielding areas, and in some districts these metals are mined.
It is the shipping place for the iron ore mined at Gellivara, 127 m.
Gold and silver are chiefly found in Transylvania, where their exploitation dates back to the Roman period, and are mined at Zalatna and Abrudbanya; rich deposits are also found in the Kremnitz-Schemnitz, and the Nagybanya districts.
Coal is extensively mined in the region of Budapest-Oravicza, Nagybanya, Zalatna, at Brennberg near Sopron, at Salgo-Tarjan, Pecs, in the counties of Krasso-Szoreny, and of Esztergom, and in the valley of the river Zsil.
Mieres is the chief town of a mountainous, fertile and well-wooded region in which coal, iron, and copper are extensively mined and sulphur and cinnabar are obtained in smaller quantities.
The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.
The Rand reefs, first mined in 1886, cover a large area.
Lode tin, as tinstone derived from primary deposits is often termed, is mined in the ordinary method, the very hard gangue in which it occurs necessitating a liberal use of explosives.
Sulphur is mined near Carupano, and salt in Zulia and on the peninsula of Araya.
Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.
It is not desirable to leave large areas standing upon pillars in the mine, and as soon as the work on any level is completed the pillar below should be mined out as far as is safe, and the abandoned portion of the mine allowed to cave in and lessen the weight on the pillars elsewhere.
In this case the advanced drift is run underneath the pillar, and the ground below is mined in descending steps.
This method has the advantage of permitting the ore to be sent to the surface as fast as it is mined instead of being left for some months in the stopes for the men to stand upon.
In this the stoping contracts run vertically, the roof in the working-places, and later to control the fall of the roof while the pillars are mined.
Rock-filling will be used whenever a large proportion of barren material must be mined with the ore.
The ore as mined is hand-picked and the barren material allowed to remain in the stope where it falls.
These separate areas are then mined in small rooms, each room being timbered as in mining under a weak roof rock.
The floor containing these old haulage roads now becomes the top slice of the one hundred-foot block of ground below and is mined out as described.
Several floors may be mined simultaneously, FIG.
backof ore above are then mined in retreating back towards the haulage road.
Several floors can be mined simultaneously, the work in the lower floors being kept well in advance.
Instead of mining in horizontal floors the filling method permits the ore to be mined in vertical chambers or slices which extend from one level to the next above and from one wall of the deposit to the other.
When a chamber has been excavated and completely filled the slice adjoining is mined out, or at times a block of ground may be left untouched between two filled chambers and then mined out.
The ore is mined in the ordinary way, by pick and shovel if soft, or by the aid of powder if necessary, and the funnel-shaped bottom of the pit is maintained at such an angle that little or no shovelling is required to bring the excavated material to the shaft.
For the special methods by which placer deposits are mined see Gold.
r000 tons; and as the mineral is mined the weight on the pillars left will be proportionately greater.
The material as mined will probably not average over 10 per cent.
The church of St John the Baptist, principally Perpendicular, - has in its tower three bells presented by Charles Both this town and the adjacent urban district of Radstock (pop. 3355) have a considerable trade in coal, which is mined in the vicinity.
Coal is mined in the neighbourhood.
Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establishments.
This was a conservative estimate, and was made before the full extent of the reefs was known; in 1904 Lionel Phillips stated that the main reef series had been proved for 61 m., and he estimated the gold remaining to be mined to be worth £2,500,000,000.
Grain and fruit are grown in large quantities, and much coal is mined in the vicinity of Kirksville.
But the earl of Lennox, Darnley's father, understood Moray to mean that as early as January 21-22, 1567, the house of Kirk o' Field, where Darnley was slain, had already been mined.
The town has trade in grain, iron, mined in the vicinity, and leather.
Lead and zinc are mined in much smaller quantities, alum and sulphur are also.
Those of economic value are kaolin, mined chiefly in the vicinity of Hockessin, New Castle county, the static kaolin product being exceeded in 1903 only by that of Pennsylvania among the states of the United States; granite, used for road-making and rough construction work, found near Wilmington; and brick and tile clays; but the value of their total product in 1902 was less than $500,000.
These are little mined at present, only 110 tons of lead ore and 516 tons of zinc ore being taken from the mines in 1908.
Mica is mined near Mrogoro.
Silver also was once mined.
It is abundant, for example, in the plastic clay of the Brown Coal formation at Littmitz, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, at which place it has been extensively mined for the manufacture of sulphur and ferrous sulphate.
Bituminous coal is extensively mined in the vicinity.
The first important coal-mining was near Bellingham Bay, in Whatcom county, where coal was discovered in 1852 and where 5374 tons were mined in 1860.
It contains the largest copper producing district in the world, and in 1907 mined more copper than any other state or territory except Arizona; this metal constituted nearly three-fourths in value of the state's mining products in 1907, the total value being $60,663,511 and that of copper $44, 8 5 2, 75 8.
Coal was discovered in Montana before 1880, when 224 tons were mined.
Silver was raised in the 12th century, and argentiferous lead is still the most valuable ore mined; tin, iron and cobalt rank next, and coal is one of the chief exports.
Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
Coal and ironstone are mined; there are iron-works, and bricks, hats, ribbons and tape and silk are made.
The opal was mined here Boo years ago, and the largest piece hitherto found, weighing 2940 carats and estimated to have a value of £175,000, is preserved in the Court Museum at Vienna.
For ten years after the Black Hills were thrown open little gold was mined because of the lack of railway facilities.
The total amount of gold mined in 1908 was 374,529 fine ounces, the greater part coming from the Homestake Mine In 1908, 197,300 oz.
The lignite in this region also warms the ranchman's cabin, being easily mined where a seam is exposed in the walls of a ravine or on the side of a hill.
Rubies and sapphires are mined in the Chantabun district in the south-east.
Coal, ironstone and clay are mined in close proximity, and every sort of iron and steel goods is produced.
thick is mined in the Trias near Carrickfergus.
The yield of iron ore is almost one million tons annually, while gold, silver, tin, graphite and salt are also mined.
Cryolite, a fluoride of aluminium and sodium, is extensively mined in Greenland and elsewhere for industrial purposes.
Bathurst is the centre of the chief wheat-growing district of New South Wales, while gold, copper and silver are extensively mined in its vicinity.
The material as mined usually does not contain more than 20 to 50% of graphite: the ore has therefore to be crushed and the graphite floated off in water from the heavier impurities.
The coal deposits, which form a part of the well-known Cumberland field, furnish by far the most important mineral product of the state; more than 98% of this, in 1901, was mined in Allegany county from a bed about 20 m.
The bituminous is of excellent quality for the manufacture of coke and gas, but up to 5902 had been mined only in small quantities.
Nearly all the high grade blacksmithing coal mined in the United States comes from Maryland.
Some of the coal mined in eastern Kentucky is an excellent steam producer, especially the Jellico coal of Whitley county, Kentucky, and of Campbell county, Tennessee.
But with the exception of that mined in Hopkins and Bell counties, very little is fit for making coke; in 1880 the product was 4250 tons of coke (value $12,250), in 1890, 12,343 tons ($22,191); in 1900, 95,532 tons ($235,505); in 1902, 126,879 tons ($3 1 7, 8 75), the maximum product up to 1906; and in 1907, 67,068 tons ($157,288).
Coal was first mined in Kentucky in Laurel or Pulaski county in 1827; between 1829 and 1835 the annual output was from 2000 to 6000 tons; in 1840 it was 23,527 tons and in 1860 it was 285,760 tons.
In 1902 it was mined only in Bath, Lyon and Trigg counties, of which the total product was 71,006 long tons, valued at only $86,169; in 1904 only 35,000 tons were mined, valued at the mines at $35,000.
Lead and zinc are mined in small quantities near Marion in Crittenden county and elsewhere in connexion with mining for fluorspar; in 1907 the output was 75 tons of lead valued at $7950 and 358 tons of zinc valued at $4 2, 2 44.
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
potatoes and hemp. Copper and lignite are mined, and turf is dug.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.