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minas

minas Sentence Examples

  • by Goyaz, Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo and Parana, S.

  • Minas 18.

  • Next come the mercantile castes, mostly belonging to the Jain sect; these are followed by the powerful cultivating tribes, such as the Jats and Gujars, and then come the so-called aboriginal tribes, chief of whom are the Minas, Bhils and Meos.

  • From caves of Minas Geraes in Brazil, O.

  • Besides the rivers mentioned, the chief streams are the Santa Lucia, which falls into the Plata a little west of Montevideo; the Queguay, in Paysandu; and the Cebollati, rising in the sierras in Minas and flowing into Lake Mirim.

  • Indigenous palms grow in the valleys of the Sierra Jose Ignacio, also to some extent in the departments of Minas, Maldonado and Paysandu.

  • The principal reptiles are a lizard, a tortoise, the vivora de la crux (a dangerous viper, so called from marks like a cross on its head) and the rattlesnake in Maldonado and the stony lands of Minas.

  • GOYAZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Para, on the W., Maranhao, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and Matto Grosso on the S.

  • The only outlet for the state has been by means of mule trains to the railway termini of Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, pending the extension of railways from both of those states, one entering Goyaz by way of Catalao, near the southern boundary, and the other at some point further N.

  • The surface of Minas Geraes is broken by mountain ranges and deeply eroded rivercourses, the latter forming fertile valleys shut in by partly barren uplands, or campos.

  • Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.

  • The hydrography of the campo region of Minas Geraes is extremely complicated.

  • It rises near the peak of Itatiaya, on the northern slopes of the Mantiqueira, and flows north-west and west across the Minas plateau, receiving several large tributaries from the south.

  • The climate of Minas Geraes is characterized by high sun temperatures and cool nights, the latter often dropping below the freezing point on the higher campos.

  • Minas Geraes is a mining state, though the mining industry has lost much of its importance through the decline in the output of gold and diamonds.

  • Minas Geraes is most widely known for its diamonds, which are found in widely separated parts of the state.

  • Another line from the port of Victoria, Espirito Santo, northward to Diamantina, Minas Geraes, was under construction in 1908.

  • The population of Minas Geraes is chiefly of Portuguese origin, which has been constantly strengthened by immigrants from the mother country.

  • Minas Geraes was first explored by Fernando Dias Paes Leme between 1664 and 1677, though he was not the first European to penetrate it.

  • Minas Geraes at first formed part of the capitania of Sao Paulo, but in 1720 it became a separate government and was brought more directly under the Portuguese crown.

  • In 1822 Minas became a province of the empire created by Dom Pedro I., though a revolutionary outbreak had occurred in Ouro Preto the year before.

  • In 1842 a long series of quarrels in Rio de Janeiro culminated in a revolution in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, which was suppressed at Santa Luzia, Minas Geraes, on the 10th of August of that year.

  • The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.

  • In India they were called Minas.

  • BELLO-HORIZONTE, or Minas, a city of Brazil, capital of the state of Minas Geraes since 1898, about 50 m.

  • OURO PRETO (" Black Gold"), a city of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 336 m.

  • In 1720 Villa Rica became the capital of the newly created captaincy of Minas Geraes, and in 1823 the capital of the province of the same name under the empire of Dom Pedro I.

  • When the empire was overthrown in 1889 and Minas Geraes was reorganized as a republican state, it was decided to remove the capital to a more favourable site and Bello Horizonte was chosen, but Ouro Preto remained the capital until 1898, when the new town (also called Cidade de Minas) became the seat of government.

  • Since that time, however, valuable maps have been published by an Oficina de mensura de tierras, by a seccion de geografia y minas connected with the department of public works, by the Oficina hidrografica, and more especially in connexion with surveys necessitated by the boundary disputes with Argentina, which were settled by arbitration in 1899 and 1902.

  • These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).

  • The eastern range of this central system, which crosses western Minas Geraes from the so-called Serra das Vertentes to the valley of the Paracatu, a western tributary of the Sao Francisco, is called the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde.

  • The most southern of these chapadoes, that of the Parana basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Parana and Sao Paulo, the southwestern corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz, and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso.

  • The Sao Francisco chapadao, which has a general elevation of about 2600 ft., covers the greater part of the states of Minas Geraes and Bahia, and a small part of western Pernambuco, and might also be considered continuous with those of the Parnahyba and Tocantins-Araguaya basins.

  • This region is well wooded along the river courses of Minas Geraes, the lower Atlantic slopes of Bahia, which are perhaps outside the plateau proper, and on the weather side of some of the elevated ridges where the rainfall is heavy and regular.

  • There remains only the elevated valley of the Parahyba do Sul, lying between the so-called Serra das Vertentes of southern Minas Geraes and the Serra do Mar, and extending from the Serra da Bocaina, near the city of Sao Paulo, eastward to Cape Frio and the coastal plain north of that point.

  • It includes a small part of eastern Sao Paulo, the greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas Geraes.

  • Of the Bahia group, the Jequitinhonha, sometimes called the Belmonte on its lower course, is the longest and most important, rising near Serro in the state of Minas Geraes and flowing in a curving north-east direction for a distance of about 500 m., 84 of which are navigable inland from the sea.

  • The Mucury and Doce also rise in Minas Geraes, and are much broken in their descent to the lower plains, the former having a navigable channel of 98 m.

  • Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.

  • South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.

  • Minas Geraes is forested along its water courses and along its southern border only; its sun temperature, therefore, is high and the rainfall in its northern districts is comparatively light.

  • In both of these states, however, the nights are cool, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 68° to 77°, the northern districts of Minas Geraes being much warmer than the southern.

  • In Sao Paulo and southern Minas Geraes there are sometimes frosts.

  • In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.

  • The rainfall throughout this region is abundant, except in northern Minas Geraes, where the climatic conditions are influenced to some extent by the arid eastern plateau.

  • The range of the sloth is from the Guianas south into Minas Geraes, the armadillo as far south as the Argentine pampas and the ant-eater from the Amazon south to Paraguay, though it is found in the Amazon region principally.

  • americanus, which is the larger and best known, and the anta chure, found in Minas Geraes, which is said to be identical with the T.

  • Of the great inland region, which includes the arid campos of the north, the partially-wooded plateaus of Minas Geraes, Goyaz and Matto Grosso, the temperate highlands of the south, and the tropical lowlands of the Paraguay basin, no adequate description can be given without taking each section in detail, which can be done to better advantage in describing the individual states.

  • These forests extend from Parana into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found in Minas Geraes.

  • The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.

  • The capital of Minas Geraes in 1890 was Ouro Preto; it has since been transferred to Bello Horizonte, or Cidade de Minas, which has an estimated population of 25,000.

  • This great railway runs from the city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of Sao Paulo and northward into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m.

  • The Mogyana carries the system entirely across the state of Sao Paulo into the western districts of Minas Geraes.

  • Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.

  • Tobacco is also widely cultivated, and the product of some states, such as Bahia, Minas Geraes and Goyaz, has a high local reputation for its excellence.

  • It was once cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul with some success, and it has been grown in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, but in no case have the returns been sufficient to give it a permanent standing among the productions of the country.

  • Cattle-raising is the principal industry in Rio Grande do Sul, and receives considerable attention in Minas Geraes, Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, Parana, Piauhy and Rio Grande do Norte.

  • Minas Geraes produces cheese, butter and milk, as well as beef cattle for neighbouring cities.

  • Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul.

  • The richer deposits of Minas Geraes were discovered about 1693, and those of Matto Grosso early in the following century.

  • Some good mines, like Morro Velho and the abandoned Gongo Soco, have been developed in Minas Geraes, but the great majority are small and not very productive.

  • Diamonds were discovered in Minas Geraes, near the town now called Diamantina, during the first half of the 18th century, the dates given ranging from 1725 to 1746, but the productiveness of the district has greatly decreased.

  • The copper deposits of Minas Geraes are said to be promising.

  • Manganese is mined in Minas Geraes for export.

  • Iron ores have been found in most of the states, and are especially abundant in Minas Geraes.

  • The result of these measures was a large addition to the public debt, which on 31st December 1906 was approximately as follows (apolices being the name given to bonds inscribed to the holder): - External debt: Loans of 1883, 1888 and 1889 Oestede Minas R.

  • Other bands penetrated into Minas and still farther north and westward, discovering mines there and in Goyaz and Cuyaba.

  • New colonies were thus formed round those districts in which gold had been found, and in the beginning of the 18th century five principal settlements in Minas Geraes had been elevated by royal charter to the privileges of towns.

  • A new source of wealth was now opened up; some adventurers from Villa do Principe in Minas, going north to the Seria Frio, made the discovery of diamonds about the year 1710, but it was not till 1730 that the discovery was for the first time announced to the government, which immediately declared them regalia.

  • The most important feature in the history of Brazil during the first thirty years following the retirement of Pombal was the conspiracy of Minas in 1789.

  • With great activity he set off to the central provinces of Minas and Sao Paulo to suppress disaffected movements and direct the revolution.

  • Alarmed at length at the ground gained by this idea in the provinces, the emperor set off to Minas to stir up the former enthusiasm in his favour from recollections of the independence, but was coldly received.

  • DIAMANTINA (formerly called Tejuco), a mining town of the: state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, in the N.E.

  • It was founded by the Minas and was still flourishing in A.D.

  • 1342 by the Hara chief Rao Dewa, or Deoraj, who captured the town from the Minas.

  • A railway connects the city with the interior - the old Cantagallo line, now a part of the Leopoldina system, a branch of which runs north-eastward to Macahe, on the coast, and another northward from Nova Friburgo to a junction with the railway lines of Minas Geraes.

  • The Mogyana railway starts from this point and extends north to Uberaba, Minas Geraes, while the Paulista lines extend northwest into new and very fertile regions.

  • by Minas Geraes.

  • The principal rivers of the state are the Mucury, which rises in Minas Geraes and forms the boundary line with Bahia, the Itaunas, Sao Domingos, Sao Matheus, Doce, Timbuhy, Santa Maria, Judi, Benevente, Itapemirim, and Itabapoana, the last forming the boundary line with Rio de Janeiro.

  • The Doce, Sao Matheus, and Itapemirim rise in Minas Geraes and flow entirely across the state.

  • There are three railway lines in operation in the state - one running from Victoria to Cachoeira do Itapemirim (50 m.), and thence, by another line, to Santo Eduardo in Rio de Janeiro (58 m.), where connexion is made with the Leopoldina system running into the national capital, and a third running northwesterly from Victoria to Diamantina, Minas Geraes, about 450m.

  • BARBACENA, an inland town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, 150 m.

  • Barbacena was formerly a principal distributing centre for the mining districts of Minas Geraes, but this distinction was lost when the railways were extended beyond that point.

  • The development of the Basque mining industry is fully described in Las Minas de hierro de la provincia de Vizcaya, progressos realizados en esta region derde 1870 hast y 1899 (Bilbao, 1900).

  • Dahlgreen, Minas historicas de la Republica Mexicana (tr.

  • by Espirito Santo and Minas Geraes, and W.

  • by Minas Geraes and Goyaz.

  • to the Sao Francisco, Cachoeira and Santo Amaro near the capital in the Reconcavo, Caravellas and Ilheos on the southern coast, with tolerably good harbours, the former being the port for the Bahia & Minas railway, Feira de Santa Anna on the border of the sertao and long celebrated for its cattle fairs, and Jacobina, an inland town N.W.

  • A range called the Sierra de Chama, which, however, changes its name frequently from place to place, strikes eastward towards British Honduras, and is connected by low hills with the Cockscomb Mountains; another similar range, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, continues east to Cape Cocoli between the Polochic and the Sarstoon; and a third, the Sierra de las Minas or, in its eastern portion, Sierra del Mico, stretches between the Polochic and the Motagua.

  • Rio de Janeiro is the seaport for a large area of the richest, most productive and most thickly settled parts of Brazil, including the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes and a small part of eastern Salo Paulo.

  • The discovery of gold in Minas Geraes at the end of the 17th century greatly increased the importance of the town.

  • Carbonado or " black diamond," found in Bahia (also recently in Minas Geraes), is a black material with a minutely crystalline structure somewhat porous, opaque, resembling charcoal in appearance, devoid of cleavage, rather harder than diamond, but of less specific gravity; it sometimes displays a rude cubic crystalline form.

  • The first blow to this industry was the discovery of the Brazilian mines in Minas Geraes and Bahia.

  • Diamonds were found about 1725 at Tejuco (now Diamantina) in Minas Geraes, and the mining became important about 1740.

  • The chief districts in Minas Geraes are (1) Bagagem on the W.

  • It is difficult to obtain an estimate of the actual production of the Minas Geraes mines, for no official returns have been published, but in recent years it has certainly been rivalled by the yield in Bahia.

  • The diamond here occurs in river gravels and sands associated with the same minerals as in Minas Geraes; since 1844 the richest mines have been worked in the Serra de Cincora, where the mountains are intersected by the river Paraguassu and its tributaries; it is said that there were as many as 20,000 miners working here in 1845, and it was estimated that 54,000 carats were produced in Bahia in 1858.

  • At Sao Joao da Chapada, in Minas Geraes, diamonds occur in a clay interstratified with the itacolumite, and are accompanied by sharp crystals of rutile and haematite in the neighbourhood of decomposed quartz veins which intersect the itacolumite.

  • Neither can we assume that the Huns and Minas are the same as the Hiung-nu of the Chinese.

  • The goldfields of Minas Geraes in Brazil, discovered about 1693, brought a vast revenue in royalties to the Crown, which was thus enabled to govern without summoning the cortes to vote supply.

  • Joao de Sousa, marquess das Minas, and at once invaded Spain.

  • More gold had been discovered in Matto Grosso, diamonds in Minas Geraes.

  • There is no evidence from Galen's own works that he did make this addition to the doctrines of syllogism, and the remarkable passage quoted by Minoides Minas from a Greek commentator on the Analytics, referring the fourth figure to Galen, clearly shows that the addition did not, as generally supposed, rest on a new principle, but was merely an amplification or alteration of the indirect moods of the first figure already noted by Theophrastus and the earlier Peripatetics.

  • In 1844 Minas published a work, avowedly from a MS. with the superscription Galenus, entitled FaXrlvo13 Eiaa'yw yi, &aX€Krucii.

  • Geologische Studien in der Republik Colombia (Berlin, 1893); Ernesto Restrepo, Ensayo etnografico y arqueologico de la provincia de los Quimbayas (Bogota, 1892), and Estudios sobre los aborigines de Colombia (Bogota, 1892); Vicente Restrepo, Estudio sobre las minas de oro y plata de Colombia (Bogota, 1888, translated by C. W.

  • Diogenes Laertius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas.

  • In the same way " the Minas, a non-Aryan tribe of Rajputana, used to worship the pig; when the Brahmans got a turn at them, the pig became an avatar of Vishnu " (Lyall, Asiatic Studies).

  • wide at the mouth, but gradually narrows towards the head, where it divides into Chignecto Bay to the north, which subdivides into Shepody Bay and Cumberland Basin (the French Beaubassin), and Minas Channel, leading into Minas Basin, to the east and south.

  • by Goyaz, Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo and Parana, S.

  • Minas 18.

  • Next come the mercantile castes, mostly belonging to the Jain sect; these are followed by the powerful cultivating tribes, such as the Jats and Gujars, and then come the so-called aboriginal tribes, chief of whom are the Minas, Bhils and Meos.

  • From caves of Minas Geraes in Brazil, O.

  • Besides the rivers mentioned, the chief streams are the Santa Lucia, which falls into the Plata a little west of Montevideo; the Queguay, in Paysandu; and the Cebollati, rising in the sierras in Minas and flowing into Lake Mirim.

  • Indigenous palms grow in the valleys of the Sierra Jose Ignacio, also to some extent in the departments of Minas, Maldonado and Paysandu.

  • The principal reptiles are a lizard, a tortoise, the vivora de la crux (a dangerous viper, so called from marks like a cross on its head) and the rattlesnake in Maldonado and the stony lands of Minas.

  • GOYAZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Para, on the W., Maranhao, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and Matto Grosso on the S.

  • The only outlet for the state has been by means of mule trains to the railway termini of Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, pending the extension of railways from both of those states, one entering Goyaz by way of Catalao, near the southern boundary, and the other at some point further N.

  • MINAS GERAES (i.e.

  • " general mines"), popularly Minas, an inland state of Brazil, bounded N.

  • The surface of Minas Geraes is broken by mountain ranges and deeply eroded rivercourses, the latter forming fertile valleys shut in by partly barren uplands, or campos.

  • Most of the wooded district south of the Mantiqueira belongs to the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but east of the Espinhago it belongs to Minas Geraes and extends eastward to the Serra das Aymores, on the frontier of Espirito Santo.

  • The hydrography of the campo region of Minas Geraes is extremely complicated.

  • It rises near the peak of Itatiaya, on the northern slopes of the Mantiqueira, and flows north-west and west across the Minas plateau, receiving several large tributaries from the south.

  • The climate of Minas Geraes is characterized by high sun temperatures and cool nights, the latter often dropping below the freezing point on the higher campos.

  • Minas Geraes is a mining state, though the mining industry has lost much of its importance through the decline in the output of gold and diamonds.

  • Minas Geraes is most widely known for its diamonds, which are found in widely separated parts of the state.

  • Railway communication with Minas Geraes includes the following lines: the Central do Brazil (formerly known as the Dom Pedro II.), which starts from Rio de Janeiro and penetrates nearly to Pirapora (its objective point), at the head of navigation of the Sao Francisco River, with branches into neighbouring districts; the Leopoldina, from Rio de Janeiro into the forested region of eastern Minas; the Minas and Rio, from Cruzeiro, on the Sao Paulo branch of the Central do Brazil, into southern Minas; the Mogyana, from Campinas, Sao Paulo, and runs to Uberaba in western Minas, and is intended to cross into Goyas; and the Bahia & Minas, from the port of Caravellas, in southern Bahia, which runs a short distance into Minas Geraes, and is planned to extend to Philadelphia and beyond.

  • Another line from the port of Victoria, Espirito Santo, northward to Diamantina, Minas Geraes, was under construction in 1908.

  • The population of Minas Geraes is chiefly of Portuguese origin, which has been constantly strengthened by immigrants from the mother country.

  • The capital is Bello Horizonte, or Cidade de Minas; other important cities and towns are: the former capital, Ouro Preto, Barbacena, Diamantina, Baependy (pop. 22,817 in 1890), on the head-waters of the Rio Verde, the centre of a rich tobacco-producing district; Curvello (8071), north of Sabara in the Rio das Velhas Valley, the centre of a cottongrowing district and cotton manufactures; Entre Rios (7681), in the coffee district of south-east Minas; Januaria (5888), a river port of the Sao Francisco in northern Minas; Juiz de Fora; Marianna (4751), an episcopal town east of Ouro Preto, Mar de Hespanha (18,712), the centre of a productive and populous agricultural municipality of south-east Minas; Paracatu (21,418), an important commercial centre of western Minas near the Goyaz frontier; Queluz (12,600), on the Central do Brazil railway; Congonhas do Campo (10,902), in the municipality of Queluz, celebrated for its miracle-working image, its great church and chapels, and the pilgrimages to its shrine; Sabara (4959), a railway junction on the Central do Brazil, and port on the Rio das Velhas; Congonhas de Sabath (14,066), in the municipality of Sabath, where the celebrated Morro Velho gold-mine is situated; Sao Joao d'El-Rei (15,820) an important commercial mining and pastoral centre, near the Rio das Mortes, connected with the Central do Brazil railway by a branch called the Oeste de Minas; and Uberaba (12,231), a commercial town of the western campos of Minas, connected with Sao Paulo by the Mogyana and Sao Paulo railways.

  • Minas Geraes was first explored by Fernando Dias Paes Leme between 1664 and 1677, though he was not the first European to penetrate it.

  • Minas Geraes at first formed part of the capitania of Sao Paulo, but in 1720 it became a separate government and was brought more directly under the Portuguese crown.

  • In 1822 Minas became a province of the empire created by Dom Pedro I., though a revolutionary outbreak had occurred in Ouro Preto the year before.

  • In 1842 a long series of quarrels in Rio de Janeiro culminated in a revolution in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, which was suppressed at Santa Luzia, Minas Geraes, on the 10th of August of that year.

  • The abolition of slavery in 1888 caused much discontent among the planters and in the following year Minas Geraes promptly adhered to the declaration of the republic in Rio de Janeiro.

  • In India they were called Minas.

  • BELLO-HORIZONTE, or Minas, a city of Brazil, capital of the state of Minas Geraes since 1898, about 50 m.

  • OURO PRETO (" Black Gold"), a city of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 336 m.

  • In 1720 Villa Rica became the capital of the newly created captaincy of Minas Geraes, and in 1823 the capital of the province of the same name under the empire of Dom Pedro I.

  • When the empire was overthrown in 1889 and Minas Geraes was reorganized as a republican state, it was decided to remove the capital to a more favourable site and Bello Horizonte was chosen, but Ouro Preto remained the capital until 1898, when the new town (also called Cidade de Minas) became the seat of government.

  • Since that time, however, valuable maps have been published by an Oficina de mensura de tierras, by a seccion de geografia y minas connected with the department of public works, by the Oficina hidrografica, and more especially in connexion with surveys necessitated by the boundary disputes with Argentina, which were settled by arbitration in 1899 and 1902.

  • These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).

  • The eastern range of this central system, which crosses western Minas Geraes from the so-called Serra das Vertentes to the valley of the Paracatu, a western tributary of the Sao Francisco, is called the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde.

  • The most southern of these chapadoes, that of the Parana basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Parana and Sao Paulo, the southwestern corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz, and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso.

  • The Sao Francisco chapadao, which has a general elevation of about 2600 ft., covers the greater part of the states of Minas Geraes and Bahia, and a small part of western Pernambuco, and might also be considered continuous with those of the Parnahyba and Tocantins-Araguaya basins.

  • This region is well wooded along the river courses of Minas Geraes, the lower Atlantic slopes of Bahia, which are perhaps outside the plateau proper, and on the weather side of some of the elevated ridges where the rainfall is heavy and regular.

  • There remains only the elevated valley of the Parahyba do Sul, lying between the so-called Serra das Vertentes of southern Minas Geraes and the Serra do Mar, and extending from the Serra da Bocaina, near the city of Sao Paulo, eastward to Cape Frio and the coastal plain north of that point.

  • It includes a small part of eastern Sao Paulo, the greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas Geraes.

  • Of the Bahia group, the Jequitinhonha, sometimes called the Belmonte on its lower course, is the longest and most important, rising near Serro in the state of Minas Geraes and flowing in a curving north-east direction for a distance of about 500 m., 84 of which are navigable inland from the sea.

  • The Mucury and Doce also rise in Minas Geraes, and are much broken in their descent to the lower plains, the former having a navigable channel of 98 m.

  • Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.

  • South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.

  • Minas Geraes is forested along its water courses and along its southern border only; its sun temperature, therefore, is high and the rainfall in its northern districts is comparatively light.

  • In both of these states, however, the nights are cool, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 68° to 77°, the northern districts of Minas Geraes being much warmer than the southern.

  • In Sao Paulo and southern Minas Geraes there are sometimes frosts.

  • In the Parahyba valley, which extends across the state of Rio de Janeiro, the mean temperature is somewhat higher than it is in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and the nights are warmer, but the higher valleys of the Serra do Mar enjoy a delightfully temperate climate.

  • The rainfall throughout this region is abundant, except in northern Minas Geraes, where the climatic conditions are influenced to some extent by the arid eastern plateau.

  • The range of the sloth is from the Guianas south into Minas Geraes, the armadillo as far south as the Argentine pampas and the ant-eater from the Amazon south to Paraguay, though it is found in the Amazon region principally.

  • americanus, which is the larger and best known, and the anta chure, found in Minas Geraes, which is said to be identical with the T.

  • Of the great inland region, which includes the arid campos of the north, the partially-wooded plateaus of Minas Geraes, Goyaz and Matto Grosso, the temperate highlands of the south, and the tropical lowlands of the Paraguay basin, no adequate description can be given without taking each section in detail, which can be done to better advantage in describing the individual states.

  • These forests extend from Parana into Rio Grande do Sul and smaller tracts are also found in Minas Geraes.

  • The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.

  • The capital of Minas Geraes in 1890 was Ouro Preto; it has since been transferred to Bello Horizonte, or Cidade de Minas, which has an estimated population of 25,000.

  • This great railway runs from the city of Rio de Janeiro westward to the city of Sao Paulo and northward into the interior of Minas Geraes, with a total length at the beginning of 1905 of 1002 m., and an extension of about 104 m.

  • The Mogyana carries the system entirely across the state of Sao Paulo into the western districts of Minas Geraes.

  • Before the middle of the 19th century coffee became one of the leading exports, and its cultivation in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes has been so increased since that time that it represents over four-fifths in value of the total export of agricultural produce.

  • Tobacco is also widely cultivated, and the product of some states, such as Bahia, Minas Geraes and Goyaz, has a high local reputation for its excellence.

  • It was once cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul with some success, and it has been grown in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, but in no case have the returns been sufficient to give it a permanent standing among the productions of the country.

  • Cattle-raising is the principal industry in Rio Grande do Sul, and receives considerable attention in Minas Geraes, Matto Grosso, Santa Catharina, Parana, Piauhy and Rio Grande do Norte.

  • Minas Geraes produces cheese, butter and milk, as well as beef cattle for neighbouring cities.

  • Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul, and domestic pork and lard are' slowly supplanting the heavily-taxed foreign products.

  • The richer deposits of Minas Geraes were discovered about 1693, and those of Matto Grosso early in the following century.

  • Some good mines, like Morro Velho and the abandoned Gongo Soco, have been developed in Minas Geraes, but the great majority are small and not very productive.

  • Diamonds were discovered in Minas Geraes, near the town now called Diamantina, during the first half of the 18th century, the dates given ranging from 1725 to 1746, but the productiveness of the district has greatly decreased.

  • The copper deposits of Minas Geraes are said to be promising.

  • Manganese is mined in Minas Geraes for export.

  • Iron ores have been found in most of the states, and are especially abundant in Minas Geraes.

  • The result of these measures was a large addition to the public debt, which on 31st December 1906 was approximately as follows (apolices being the name given to bonds inscribed to the holder): - External debt: Loans of 1883, 1888 and 1889 Oestede Minas R.

  • The governor retreated to a position out of it, and was only awaiting reinforcements from Minas to retake it; but, Duguay Trouin threatening to burn it, he was obliged on the 10th of October to sign a capitulation, and pay to the French admiral 610,000 crusados, Soo cases of sugar, and provisions for the return of the fleet to Europe.

  • Other bands penetrated into Minas and still farther north and westward, discovering mines there and in Goyaz and Cuyaba.

  • New colonies were thus formed round those districts in which gold had been found, and in the beginning of the 18th century five principal settlements in Minas Geraes had been elevated by royal charter to the privileges of towns.

  • A new source of wealth was now opened up; some adventurers from Villa do Principe in Minas, going north to the Seria Frio, made the discovery of diamonds about the year 1710, but it was not till 1730 that the discovery was for the first time announced to the government, which immediately declared them regalia.

  • The most important feature in the history of Brazil during the first thirty years following the retirement of Pombal was the conspiracy of Minas in 1789.

  • With great activity he set off to the central provinces of Minas and Sao Paulo to suppress disaffected movements and direct the revolution.

  • Alarmed at length at the ground gained by this idea in the provinces, the emperor set off to Minas to stir up the former enthusiasm in his favour from recollections of the independence, but was coldly received.

  • About the year 1437 two Hussite monks named Minas and Balint (i.e.

  • DIAMANTINA (formerly called Tejuco), a mining town of the: state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, in the N.E.

  • It was founded by the Minas and was still flourishing in A.D.

  • 1342 by the Hara chief Rao Dewa, or Deoraj, who captured the town from the Minas.

  • A railway connects the city with the interior - the old Cantagallo line, now a part of the Leopoldina system, a branch of which runs north-eastward to Macahe, on the coast, and another northward from Nova Friburgo to a junction with the railway lines of Minas Geraes.

  • The Mogyana railway starts from this point and extends north to Uberaba, Minas Geraes, while the Paulista lines extend northwest into new and very fertile regions.

  • by Minas Geraes.

  • The principal rivers of the state are the Mucury, which rises in Minas Geraes and forms the boundary line with Bahia, the Itaunas, Sao Domingos, Sao Matheus, Doce, Timbuhy, Santa Maria, Judi, Benevente, Itapemirim, and Itabapoana, the last forming the boundary line with Rio de Janeiro.

  • The Doce, Sao Matheus, and Itapemirim rise in Minas Geraes and flow entirely across the state.

  • There are three railway lines in operation in the state - one running from Victoria to Cachoeira do Itapemirim (50 m.), and thence, by another line, to Santo Eduardo in Rio de Janeiro (58 m.), where connexion is made with the Leopoldina system running into the national capital, and a third running northwesterly from Victoria to Diamantina, Minas Geraes, about 450m.

  • BARBACENA, an inland town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, 150 m.

  • Barbacena was formerly a principal distributing centre for the mining districts of Minas Geraes, but this distinction was lost when the railways were extended beyond that point.

  • The development of the Basque mining industry is fully described in Las Minas de hierro de la provincia de Vizcaya, progressos realizados en esta region derde 1870 hast y 1899 (Bilbao, 1900).

  • Dahlgreen, Minas historicas de la Republica Mexicana (tr.

  • by Espirito Santo and Minas Geraes, and W.

  • by Minas Geraes and Goyaz.

  • to the Sao Francisco, Cachoeira and Santo Amaro near the capital in the Reconcavo, Caravellas and Ilheos on the southern coast, with tolerably good harbours, the former being the port for the Bahia & Minas railway, Feira de Santa Anna on the border of the sertao and long celebrated for its cattle fairs, and Jacobina, an inland town N.W.

  • A range called the Sierra de Chama, which, however, changes its name frequently from place to place, strikes eastward towards British Honduras, and is connected by low hills with the Cockscomb Mountains; another similar range, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, continues east to Cape Cocoli between the Polochic and the Sarstoon; and a third, the Sierra de las Minas or, in its eastern portion, Sierra del Mico, stretches between the Polochic and the Motagua.

  • Rio de Janeiro is the seaport for a large area of the richest, most productive and most thickly settled parts of Brazil, including the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes and a small part of eastern Salo Paulo.

  • The discovery of gold in Minas Geraes at the end of the 17th century greatly increased the importance of the town.

  • Carbonado or " black diamond," found in Bahia (also recently in Minas Geraes), is a black material with a minutely crystalline structure somewhat porous, opaque, resembling charcoal in appearance, devoid of cleavage, rather harder than diamond, but of less specific gravity; it sometimes displays a rude cubic crystalline form.

  • The first blow to this industry was the discovery of the Brazilian mines in Minas Geraes and Bahia.

  • Diamonds were found about 1725 at Tejuco (now Diamantina) in Minas Geraes, and the mining became important about 1740.

  • The chief districts in Minas Geraes are (1) Bagagem on the W.

  • It is difficult to obtain an estimate of the actual production of the Minas Geraes mines, for no official returns have been published, but in recent years it has certainly been rivalled by the yield in Bahia.

  • The diamond here occurs in river gravels and sands associated with the same minerals as in Minas Geraes; since 1844 the richest mines have been worked in the Serra de Cincora, where the mountains are intersected by the river Paraguassu and its tributaries; it is said that there were as many as 20,000 miners working here in 1845, and it was estimated that 54,000 carats were produced in Bahia in 1858.

  • At Sao Joao da Chapada, in Minas Geraes, diamonds occur in a clay interstratified with the itacolumite, and are accompanied by sharp crystals of rutile and haematite in the neighbourhood of decomposed quartz veins which intersect the itacolumite.

  • Neither can we assume that the Huns and Minas are the same as the Hiung-nu of the Chinese.

  • The goldfields of Minas Geraes in Brazil, discovered about 1693, brought a vast revenue in royalties to the Crown, which was thus enabled to govern without summoning the cortes to vote supply.

  • Joao de Sousa, marquess das Minas, and at once invaded Spain.

  • More gold had been discovered in Matto Grosso, diamonds in Minas Geraes.

  • There is no evidence from Galen's own works that he did make this addition to the doctrines of syllogism, and the remarkable passage quoted by Minoides Minas from a Greek commentator on the Analytics, referring the fourth figure to Galen, clearly shows that the addition did not, as generally supposed, rest on a new principle, but was merely an amplification or alteration of the indirect moods of the first figure already noted by Theophrastus and the earlier Peripatetics.

  • In 1844 Minas published a work, avowedly from a MS. with the superscription Galenus, entitled FaXrlvo13 Eiaa'yw yi, &aX€Krucii.

  • Geologische Studien in der Republik Colombia (Berlin, 1893); Ernesto Restrepo, Ensayo etnografico y arqueologico de la provincia de los Quimbayas (Bogota, 1892), and Estudios sobre los aborigines de Colombia (Bogota, 1892); Vicente Restrepo, Estudio sobre las minas de oro y plata de Colombia (Bogota, 1888, translated by C. W.

  • Diogenes Laertius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas.

  • In the same way " the Minas, a non-Aryan tribe of Rajputana, used to worship the pig; when the Brahmans got a turn at them, the pig became an avatar of Vishnu " (Lyall, Asiatic Studies).

  • wide at the mouth, but gradually narrows towards the head, where it divides into Chignecto Bay to the north, which subdivides into Shepody Bay and Cumberland Basin (the French Beaubassin), and Minas Channel, leading into Minas Basin, to the east and south.

  • Sepultura is the Portuguese word for "grave." The band started out in 1984 in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  • Eventually, you'll get to the Minas Tirith Courtyard.

  • The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers of the title refer to Orcthanc and Minas Morgul, although a case could be made for any number of other important towers that play roles here.

  • Hobbit Pippin is with wizard Gandalf as they reach Minas Tirith, the capital city of Gondor, which leads the war against Mordor.

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