How to use Millions in a sentence
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
It.s the way things have been for millions of years!
There were millions, maybe even billions of the lost souls!
The respective shares of the leading customs in the tfade of the country is approximately shown in the following table, which gives the value of their exports and imports (general trade) in 1905 in millions sterling.
The following table shows the rapid growth of the state revenue of France during the period 1875-1905, the figures for the specified years representing millions of pounds.Advertisement
Of the rest of the sum assigned to the ministry of finance (593/4 millions in all) 81/2 millions went in the expense of collection of revenue.
There had to be millions of lost souls to create that vibrant of a glow.
They've been working for millions of years to get around this one; they're quite crafty at it.
Under the persecution, a large number were killed, and between four and five millions of Protestants left the country.
Lowe was a rather cut-anddry economist, who prided himself that during his four years of office he took twelve millions off taxation; but later opinion has hardly accepted his removal of the shilling registration duty on corn (1869) as good statesmanship, and his failures are remembered rather than his successes.Advertisement
The Egyptian government subscribed for eighty millions' worth of shares.
The gross revenue of all the states is estimated at 24 millions sterling.
That city, with a population of 6 millions, had nearly as many telephones as the whole of Sweden with about the same population, or as the whole of France, with a population of 39 millions.
The exports of breadstuffs - chiefly to the United Kingdom - exceed six millions per annum, butter two and a half millions, and minerals of all kinds, except gold, six millions.
Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.Advertisement
Negotiations were opened in London between the Brazilian and Portuguese plenipotentiaries, treating for the recognition of the independence of Brazil; and on the 25th of August 1825 a treaty was signed by which the Portuguese king, Dom John VI., assumed the title of emperor of Brazil, and immediately abdicated in favour of his son, acknowledging Brazil as an independent empire, but the treaty obliged Brazil to take upon herself the Portuguese debt, amounting to nearly two millions sterling.
But how did one misplace or lose millions?
Of the revenue in 1905 (1503/4 million pounds) the four direct taxes produced approximately 20 millions.
The consuming power of the population was greatly diminished, and in the year following the crisis the imports into Australia from abroad diminished by four and three-quarter millions.
With a population of 58 millions there are 10.2 telephones per loon of the population in that country compared with 10 15 in Great Britain and Ireland.Advertisement
The number has been reduced to less than half since 1897 by the suppression of smaller factories, while the production has increased from 47,690 millions to 59,741 millions.
Tobacco slightly diminished in weight at a little over I lb per head, while the gross receipts are considerably increasedby over 23/4 millions sterling since 1884-1885---showing that the quality consumed is much better.
The agitation ceased in June with the defeat of the strikers, but not until a vast amount of damage had been done to the crops and all had suffered heavy losses, including the government, whose expenses for the maintenance of public order ran into tens of millions of lire.
In October the rate of exchange was at par, the premium on gold had disappeared, and by the end of the year the budget showed a surplus of sixteen millions.
In such cases the immediate damage done may be slight; but the effects of prolonged action and the summation of numerous attacks at numerous points are often enormotis, certain of these leafdiseases costing millions sterling annually to some planting and agricultural communities.Advertisement
Altogether some 800,000 peasants are estimated to have settled in Siberia during the period 1886-96, but during the years1893-1905no less than four millions in all.
Thus more than 88 millions of the Russians are peasants.
The millions of roubles of redemption money received from the crown have been spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been affected.
Of the 55 million sheep kept in Russia only about 15 millions belong to the fine merino breed, and these are pastured chiefly on the Black Sea steppes.
Altogether raw silk and silk yarn to an annual value exceeding 1-1 millions sterling are exported from Russia.Advertisement
Those of Nizhniy-Novgorod, with a return of 20 millions sterling, of Irbit and Kharkov, of Menzelinsk in Ufa, and Omsk and Ishim in Siberia, have considerable importance both for trade and for home manufactures.
Along the Murman coast of the Arctic Ocean and in the White Sea, where many millions of herrings are caught annually by some 3000 persons, the yearly produce is estimated at the value of £140,000.
Her hatred of Germans showed itself likewise in her persistent struggle with Frederick the Great, which cost Russia 300,000 men and 30 millions of roubles - an enormous sum for those days - but in the choice of a successor she could not follow her natural inclinations, for among the few descendants of Michael Romanov there was no one, even in the female line, who could be called a genuine Russian.
This led to the second partition (1793), by which Russia obtained the eastern provinces with three millions of inhabitants.
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.Advertisement
In the latest years in which comparisons can be made, the passenger journeys in the United Kingdom amounted to 1500 millions (including season-ticket holders, estimated) and the train n iles to 428.3 millions, while the corresponding figures in the United States were 873.9 millions and 1171.9 millions.
In Germany, where they have met with greater favour, there were over 261 millions in use in 1905, 1 and they I ave been tried by some American railways.
That admiration for an empire of more than two hundred millions of men, where not one had the right to call himself free; that effeminate philosophy which has more praise for luxury and pleasures than for all the virtues; that style always elegant and never energetic, reveal at the most the elector of Hanover's slave."
The number in the blood in an acute attack is reckoned by Ross to be not less than 250 millions.
It was only when the impossibility of realizing the "Northern Accord" became patent that his influence began to wane, and Russia sacrificed millions of roubles fruitlessly in the endeavour to carry out his pet scheme.Advertisement
By draining the land, by planting millions of trees and by erecting numerous buildings, he greatly improved the condition of his Aberdeenshire estates, and studied continually the welfare of his dependants.
Notwithstanding the disadvantages of its open roadstead, the foreign trade has rapidly expanded, the annual value of the exports having increased from 62 millions sterling in 1899 to over ro millions sterling in 1904.
In 1901 the total number of speakers of Mahratti in all India exceeded 18 millions.
Many millions of sheep and oxen all over the world have thus been treated, and the rate of mortality reduced from io to less than %.
The spread of the modern industrial system has brought with it the modern state, with its millions of consumers, its vast area, its innumerable activities, its complicated code of industrial and commercial law.Advertisement
If the village is replaced by a large area, inhabited by millions, with modern facilities of communication, it is a matter of observation and experience that for the purposes of general reasoning the idiosyncrasies of individuals may be neglected.
You will be the sovereign of a generous nation of eleven millions of men and of important colonies."
Once more a supplementary estimate, largely due to aircraft development, added two millions and a half; and in 1914 Mr. Churchill introduced the highest estimates hitherto on record, £51,J50,000 - an increase on the total of 1913 of some two millions and threequarters.
As War Minister he had the gigantic task of demobilizing armies of between four and five millions who had been in the war, of providing armies of occupation and forces for immediate garrisoning of the Empire, of building up an after-war army, and of re-creating the territorial army.
The metropolitan water board - of whose expenditures Boston bears only a share - expended from 1895 to 1900 $20,693,870; and the system was planned to consume finally probably 40 millions at least.Advertisement
Humanity is the richer for the memory of those millions of men, who followed the pillar of cloud and fire in the sure and certain hope of an eternal reward.
The latter are estimated at some 22 millions sterling; the former at 4 millions.
During the three years 1899-1902 the total expenditure on famine relief amounted to about four millions sterling.
In Ventose and Germinal he published, under the nom de plume of "Lalande, soldat de la patrie," a new paper, the Eclaireur du peuple, ou le defenseur de vingi-cinq millions d'opprimes, which was hawked clandestinely from group to group in the streets of Paris.
A sum of 20 millions sterling was voted as compensation to the planters.
There were also serfs on the apanages affected to the use of the imperial family; these amounted to nearly three and a half millions.
Thus by the law of 1861 more than forty millions of serfs were emancipated.
In the later, developed system the daevas are the evil spirits in general, and their number has increased to millions.
So complete was their control that they are estimated to have derived from it more than 200 millions sterling while it lasted.
It was solemnly declared in the decree authorizing the issue that the maximum issue was never to exceed twelve hundred millions.
The state bureau of agriculture in 1903 estimated that of the total area 14.9 millions of acres were timber land, 5.7 millions pasture and marsh, and 5 o millions cultivated farm land.
The debt of the Republic in April 1908 was $48,146,585, including twenty-seven millions which were assumed in 1902 for the payment of the army of independence, four for agriculture, and four for the payment of revolutionary debts, and $2,196,585, representing obligations assumed by the revolution's representative in the United States during the War of Independence.
The mainstay of the Ottoman dynasty is the Asiatic portion of the empire, where the Mahommedan religion is absolutely predominant, and where the naturally vigorous and robust Turki race forms in Asia Minor a compact mass of many millions, far outnumbering any other single ethnical element and probably equalling all taken collectively.
Of the Semitic races the Arabs - over whom, however, the Turkish rule is little more than nominal - number scme 7 millions, and in addition to about 300,000 Jews there is a large number of Syrians.
About 21 millions of acres are under wood, of which over 3 millions are in European Turkey.
Thus the total value of the silk tithe in Turkey increased in the period named from about £T20,000 to £T276,500, and the total annual value of the crop from about £T200,000 to £T2,765,000, or by nearly 22 millions pounds sterling.
The outside cost of construction of the first section, which lies entirely in the plains of Konia, is estimated to have been £625,000; the company retained, therefore, a profit of at least I' 4 millions sterling on this first part of the enterprise.
In 1864 the Bute trustees unsuccessfully sought powers for constructing three additional docks to cost two millions sterling, but under the more limited powers granted in 1866, the Roath basin (12 acres) was opened in 1874, and (under a substituted act of 1882) the Roath dock (33 acres) was opened in 1887.
All these docks were constructed by the Bute family at a cost approaching three millions sterling.
To each person hitherto appanaged an annual income of one million lives was assigned, and two millions for the brothers of the king.
There is further an import trade amounting to between two and three-quarters and three millions sterling annually with Manchuria, to over one million sterling with the United States, and to a quarter to half a million sterling with Japan.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
From its duration and frequent battles and sieges this war involved an immense sacrifice of life to Brazil, the army in the field having been constantly maintained at between 20,000 and 30,000 men, and the expenditure in maintaining it was very great, having been calculated at upwards of fifty millions sterling.
Estimates, based on a census of the tax-paying peasantry in the years 1494 and 1495, give five millions of inhabitants, a very respectable number, which explains fully the predominant position of Hungary in the east of Europe at that epoch.
In 1715 and 1720, when the land was again free from Turkish hordes and peace was restored, the population did not exceed three millions.
But it was only after Darwin that the cell-theory of Schwann was extended to the embryology of the animal kingdom generally, and that the knowledge of the development of an animal became a knowledge of the way in which the millions of cells of which its body is composed take their origin by fission from a smaller number of cells, and these at last from the single egg-cell.
If the semi-angular aperture (w) be T 36, and tan 0' might be as great as four millions before the error of phase would reach 4X.
The cod spawns in February, and is exceedingly prolific, the roe of a single female having been known to contain upwards of eight millions of ova, and to form more than half the weight of the entire fish.
The steamboat traffic has especially encouraged the ihflux of tourists, and the number of passing travellers may now be reckoned as between one and two millions annually.
It was carried on more effectively by the Metropolitan Board of Works (1856-1888) which expended over six-and-a-half millions sterling on the work.
The length of sewers in the main system is about 288 m., and their construction has cost about eight millions.
This involved impounding the headwaters of the Wye, the Towey and the Usk, and the total cost was estimated to exceed fifteen millions sterling.
The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
The majority of the banks are members of the Clearing House, Post Office Court, where a daily exchange of drafts representing millions of pounds sterling is effected.
On the 3rd of February 1793 he had decreed the emission of Boo millions of assignats, for the expenses of the war.
A committee, chiefly promoted by the Wurttemberg government and the Stuttgart chamber of commerce, reported in 1901 that it was both desirable and practicable to dredge the river and to canalize it, from Esslingen down to Mannheim, and that the cost would probably be between 2 and 22 millions sterling.
Excellent water is supplied to the town from the Pokfolum and Tytam reservoirs, the former containing 68 million gallons, the latter 390 millions.
It is computed that twenty millions of meteors enter the atmosphere every day and would be visible to unassisted vision in the absence of sunlight, moonlight and clouds, while if telescopic meteors are included the number will be increased twentyfold.
Wet summers are followed by an acute outbreak of liver-rot amongst sheep and this, together with the effects of other diseases that accompany wet seasons, cause the death of vast numbers of sheep, the numbers from both sources being estimated in bad years at from 12 to 3 millions in England alone.
During the period from 1890 to 1901 twenty national banks retired from business, and the total capital stock was reduced from about twenty millions to about thirteen millions of dollars.
No amount of skill in the manipulation of figures, no ingenuity in shifting fiscal burdens, could prevent the addition of forty-one millions to the national debt, or could countervail the appalling mismanagement at the seat of war.
It is true that he was sometimes forced by conviction or fate or political necessity to be a revolutionist on a large scale; to destroy an established Church; to add two millions of voters to the electorate; to attack the parliamentary union of the kingdoms. But these changes were, in their inception, distasteful to their author.
The total loss, including cost of repairs, was estimated at nearly 3 millions sterling, which may be regarded as an annual average.
Millions of commercial articles in metal-work, wood and ivory flood the European markets, and may be bought in any street in Europe at a small price, but they offer a variety of design and an excellence of workmanship which place them almost beyond Western competition.
The gross earnings of all the lines during the fiscal year I 9051906 were 7 millions sterling, approximately, and the gross expenses (including the payment of interest on loans and debentures) were under 31/8 millions, so that there remained a net profit of 31/8 millions, being at the rate of a little over 81/8% on the invested capital.
It enacted that, within a period of 10 years from 1906 to 1915, the state should purchase the 17 principal private roads, which had a length of 2812 m., and whose cost of construction and equipment had been 231/8 millions sterling.
It was calculated that this redemption would be effected in a period of 32 years, after which the annual profit accruing to the state from the lines would be 51/8 millions sterling.
For when the state constituted itself virtually the sole owner of railways, it necessarily assumed responsibility for extending them so that they should suffice to meet the wants of a nation numbering some 50 millions.
Now the government was pledged by the diet in 1907 to an expenditure of 111/8 millions (spread over 8 years) for extending the old state system of roads, and an expenditure of 63/4 millions (spread over 12 years) for improving them.
Four millions worth of debentures were issued in London in 1907 and 4 millions in 1908.
Fifteen other companies with an aggregate capital of 3 millions had also obtained charters.
The last are worked by the state, and the sole public debt, amounting to about 22 millions sterling, is attributable to this head.
This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.
This does not mean that the population would have been twenty-six millions less if it had not been for immigration; for the rate of natural increase among the native-born might have maintained itself.
Social and Political Effects of Immigration.-The influx of millions of persons of different nationality, often of a foreign language and generally of the lower classes, would seem to be a danger to the homogeneity of a community.
The surrounding country is mostly deep swamp and the station is most unhealthy; mosquitoes are present in millions.
It has come to be fully accepted that when we use such a phrase as "the age of the world" we are dealing with a period that must be measured not in thousands but in millions of years; and that to the age of man must be allotted a period some hundreds of times as great as the five thousand and odd years allowed by the old chronologists.
This grew a little later into the recommendation that the revenues and possessions of the French Church should be appropriated by the government, which, after properly subsidizing the clergy, might hope, it was estimated, that a surplus of twenty-two millions of livres would accrue to the State.
Before the World War he was the possessor of a fortune which was vaguely estimated at several millions of pounds.
He was reported to have already expended the equivalent of about 250,000,000 on these aims and to be continuing to sink further millions in them.
By means of a well-organized chain of tabulating centres, the preliminary totals, by sexes, of the 294 millions enumerated in 1901 were given to the public within a fortnight of the census, and differed from the final results by no more than 94,000, or 03%.
Going outside Europe, an extreme instance of the results of combining a census with more definite administrative objects may be found in the census of China in 1711, when the population enumerated in connexion with a poll-tax and liability to military service, was returned as 28 millions; but forty years later, when the question was that of the measures for the relief of widespread distress, the corresponding total rose to 103 millions!
Apart from these, however, and some 150,000 communicants in its foreign missions, British and American " Congregationalism " reckons more than a million and a quarter church members; while, including those known as Baptists (q.v.), the total amounts to several millions more.
The college to which Hofmann devoted nearly twenty of the best years of his life was starved; the coaltar industry, which was really brought into existence by his work and that of his pupils under his direction at that college, and which with a little intelligent forethought might have been retained in England, was allowed to slip into the hands of Germany, where it is now worth millions of pounds annually; and Hofmann himself was compelled to return to his native land to find due appreciation as one of the foremost chemists of his time.
Hundreds of thousands were slaughtered; hundreds of thousands set marching for Syria and Mesopotamia perished on the way by hardship, disease, starvation; those who escaped became fugitives; from first to last at least three-quarters of a million Armenians perished in Asia Minor in a population of less than two millions.
At the end of 1885 about 22,000 work-people were being employed in 1946 workshops, and the aggregate output was valued at six millions and three-quarters.
Twenty years later the number of establishments was 4186; the number of hands 56,000; and the output twenty-three millions and a half.
In the fourteen years1893-1907about a million and a quarter acres were thus acquired at a cost of somewhat under five millions and a half.
In 1870 peace had not yet been quite won; industry was depressed; and the scattered and scanty colonists already owed seven millions sterling.
Yet it was at this moment that a political financier, Sir Julius Vogel, at that moment colonial treasurer in the ministry of Sir William Fox, audaciously proposed that the central government should borrow ten millions, make roads and railways, buy land from the natives and import British immigrants.
The House of Representatives, at first aghast, presently voted four millions as a beginning.
Fourteen millions of borrowed money, spent in ten years, were on the whole well laid out.
In thirteen years the board lent out over five millions and a half, and received repayment of nearly two millions of principal as well as over one million in interest at 5%.
In 1895 borrowing on a larger scale was begun, and in twelve years twice as many millions were added to the public debt.
Immense tracts were rendered desolate, and whole villages vanished from the map; in eight years the population sank from three to one and a half millions.
The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in 1912 was 144,000 to 4.5 millions, i.e.
It is remarkable that the difference between the State educational estimates in Austria and in Hungary was one of 9.3 millions in the former as opposed to 67.6 in the latter.
His programme was to be an honourable mediator in the German-Bohemian quarrel, to extend the railway system, and to satisfy the wishes of the Poles in the waterways question by an expenditure of 73.4 million kronen on canal construction in Galicia, to which Galicia was to contribute only 9.4 million kronen, the State finding the other 64, and by an expenditure of 125 millions on river improvements, 99 of which would be contributed by the State.
By the same law, besides other less important provisions, the amount of the bank's tax-free issue of notes was raised from 400 to 600 millions of kronen, and the conditions formerly attached to the issue of 10 and 20 kronen notes were sensibly relaxed, A 4% bank-rate had been uninterruptedly in force from May 8 1908 to Oct.
The Vienna Creditors' Association for the protection of claims in bankruptcies had in 1909- It fresh failures with liabilities of 45, 40 and 43 millions of kronen respectively.
In 1912 the value of fresh claims involved rose to 112 millions of kronen; in 1913 it still amounted to 73 millions.
In each of the five years, ending Dec. 31, from 1909 to 1913 the loans granted by the Austro-Hungarian Bank against securities amounted to 90, 149, 187, 355 and 311 millions of kronen successively.
Notwithstanding the fact that the banking law raised the tax-free note issue in 1911 from 400 to 600 millions of kronen, in 1913 the bank was unable to avoid incurring tax payments for notes issued in excess of the amount allowed free of tax, a state of affairs which had no parallel in the bank's history.
On July 23 1914 the gold reserve of the Austro-Hungarian Bank amounted to 1,238 millions of kronen, its silver to 291 millions.
In its portfolio were discounted bills to the amount of 768 millions of kronen.
It had loans on security outstanding to the amount of 186 millions, and the bank-notes in circulation amounted to 2,130 millions of kronen.
From the year 1902 to the financial year 1914-5 the State revenues doubled, rising from 1,730 millions of kronen to 3,460 millions of kronen, but this increase in revenue could only be achieved by placing an extraordinary strain on the taxable capacity of the country.
In the financial year 1913 the amount of estimated expenditure rose to 3,461 millions of kronen.
Of the estimated net revenue of 2,102 millions of kronen, 432 millions (20.5%) came under the head of receipts from direct taxation, 905 millions (43%) under the head of receipts from indirect taxation and taxes on commerce, while 294 millions (14%) were the proceeds of State property and State institutions.
Of the direct taxes the land tax produced 52 millions, the house taxes 127 millions, the taxes on industry 127 millions and the income tax 102 millions.
Of the taxes on consumption the spirit tax produced 95 millions, the beer duty 85 millions, and the sugar duty 176 millions.
The State debt amounted to 11,340 millions of kronen.
The debt of the Austrian State to the Austro-Hungarian Bank in direct loans made by the bank to the State amounted at the end of 1919 to 25,088 millions of kronen.
The total amount of such Treasury bills in circulation at the end of 1918 was roughly 7,400 millions of kronen.
At the end of June 1919 these advances still amounted to 2,605 millions of kronen.
In this way a State debt of 35,069 millions of kronen was accumulated.
Though at the time of the Arab conquest the Copts were reckoned at six millions, in 1820 the Coptic Christians numbered only about one hundred thousand, and it is improbable that their number can have been much greater at the close of the middle ages.
The coalmines of the country are capable of producing some 15 million tons of black coal and 24 millions of brown coal (lignite).
In 1919 the republic exported merchandise to the extent of 566 million tons and imported 183 millions.
In 1919 Czechoslovak exports to Great Britain (exclusive of colonies) amounted to a value of 238 million crowns, imports to 328 millions.
On the Danube the amount was 2 millions, but this total bids fair, under normal conditions, to be easily passed, inasmuch as the work of developing the port of Bratislava, the construction of docks, warehouses and shipbuilding yards, was already proceeding energetically.
In 161g the Polish government was obliged to prohibit absolutely the piratical raids of the Cossacks in the Black Sea, where they habitually destroyed Turkish property to the value of millions.
At least 40,000 men were necessary for the purpose, and these could have been obtained for 200,000 ducats; but a congress of magnates, whose collective fortunes amounted to hundreds of millions, having decided that it was impossible to raise this sum, there was nothing for it but to fight a few skirmishes and then take refuge abroad.
Poland was now reduced to one-third of her original dimensions, with a population of about three and a half millions.
Not only are millions of bulbs cultivated in Holland for export every year, but thousands are now also grown for the same purpose in the Channel Islands, more particularly in Guernsey.
This point of view suggested numerous projects, as chimerical as they were generous; two millions sterling (50 million francs) were expended with a view to installing Parisian unemployed workmen as colonists, but this attempt failed miserably.
Of Diaphanosoma modiglianii Richard says that at different points of Lake Toba in Sumatra millions of specimens were obtained, among which he had not met with a single male.
Evelyn put in a plea for afforestation, and besides producing a valuable work on arboriculture, he was able to assert in his preface to the king that he had really induced landowners to plant many millions of trees.
In'1905 the Basque Provinces produced 5,302,344 tons of iron, over five millions of which came from Biscay, out of a total of 9,395,314 tons for the whole of Spain.
The funded debt of the state amounted to four and one-half millions of dollars in 1850, when the new constitution limited the power of the legislature to contract further obligations or to decrease or misapply the sinking funds.
In 1902 the net bonded debt, exclusive of about two millions of dollars held for educational purposes, was $1,171,394, but this debt was paid in full in the years immediately following.
It is true that a great variety of evidence is afforded by the composition of the rocks, that glaciers have left their traces in glacial scratchings and transported boulders, also that proofs of arid or semiarid conditions are found in the reddish colour of rocks in certain portions of the Palaeozoic, Trias and Eocene; but fossils afford the most precise and conclusive evidence as to the past history of climate, because of the fact that adaptations to temperature have remained constant for millions of years.
The trade of Bradford, according to an official estimate, advanced between 1836 and 1884 from a total of five to at least thirty-five millions sterling, and from not more than six to at least fifty staple articles.
The annual turn-over in the staple trade is estimated at about one hundred millions sterling.
In 1899 he lowered the fixed charge for the National Debt from twenty-five to twenty-three millions - a reduction imperatively required, apart from other reasons, by the difficulties found in redeeming Consols at their then inflated price.
In each of four other industries the products exceeded in value five hundred millions of dollars, namely, those of foundry and machine shops, flour and grist mills, iron and steel, and lumber and timber.
In five years from the discovery of gold at Coloma on the American river, the yield from the auriferous belt of the Sierra Nevada had risen to an amount estimated at between sixty-five and seventy millions of dollars a year, or five times as much as the total production of this metal throughout the world at the beginning of the century.
Finally, of true lignite beds, or of lignite mix d with sub-bituminous qualities, the states of North Dakota, Montana, Texas and South Dakota are credited with deposits of 500,000; 279,500; 23,000; and 10,000 millions of tons respectively.
From 1859 to 1902 the total yield of this lode was $204,653,040 in silver and $148,145,385 in gold; the average annual yield from 1862 to 1868 was above eleven millions; the maximum yield $36,301,537 in 1877; and the total product to July 1880 was variously estimated at from $304,752,171.54 to $30618125125.
The results are stated below, for 1870 and 1902, in round millions of dollars.
The national government set out in 1790 with a revolutionary debt of about 75 millions of dollars.
This debt continued, slightly increased but without any very important change, until 18o6, when a reduction began, continuing until 1812, when the debt was about 45 millions.
The then ensuing war with England carried the debt up to 127 millions in f816.
This was reduced to 96 millions in 1819, to 84 millions in 1825 and to 24 millions in 1832, and in the three years following was extinguished.
The crisis of 1837, and the financial difficulties ensuing, created indebtedness, fluctuating in amount, which at the beginning of the war with Mexico was about 16 millions.
At the conclusion of peace the debt had risen to 63 millions, near which point it remained until about 1852, from which time successive reductions brought it down to 28 millions in 1857.
The financial crisis of that year caused an increase, which continued until the imminence of the Civil War, when it rose from 65 millions in 186o to 91 millions in 1861, to 514 in 1862, to 1120 in 1863, to 1816 in 1864, to 2681 in June, and its maximum (2846 millions) in August 1865.
The Atlin and White Horse regions in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon have attracted much attention, and the Klondike placers still farther north have furnished many millions of dollars' worth of gold.
This second rebellion carried on under his leadership had lasted about three months, had cost the country many valuable lives, and in money about five millions of dollars.
It is impermeable to water, and is therefore used in northern countries for roofing, for domestic utensils, for boxes and jars to contain both solid and liquid substances, and for a kind of bark shoes, of which it is estimated 25 millions of pairs are annually worn by the Russian peasantry.
The state endorsed railway bonds at the rate of $12,000 and $16,000 a mile until the state debt had increased from eight millions to seventeen millions of dollars, and similar corruption characterized local government.
Peck (6 Cranch 87) that such a rescindment as that in the new state constitution was illegal, on the ground that a state cannot pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts; and at an expense of more than four millions of dollars the Federal government ultimately extinguished all claims to the lands.
In 1906 the grain elevators had a capacity of between twenty and thirty millions of bushels, and annual receipts of more than 200,000,000 bushels.
Hundreds of millions are spent in acquiring terrible engines of destruction, which are regarded to-day as the latest inventions of science, but are destined to-morrow to be rendered obsolete by some new discovery.
Nine and a half millions said to have perished.
Every year in England a poor rate of some £22,000,000 is expended for a population of 40 millions; while it is only in an exceptional year in India that £10,000,000 are spent on a population of 300 millions.
In the great Bengal famine of 1769-1770, which occurred shortly after the foundation of British rule, but while the native officials were still in power, a third of the population, or ten millions out of thirty millions, perished.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
The revenue of the state is about one million sterling; and large reserves have been accumulated, from which two millions were lent to the government of India in 1887, and later on another million for the construction of the Gwalior-Agra and Indore-Neemuch railways.
The Chapel Committee, which has its headquarters in Manchester, has general oversight of 9070 trusts with property valued at about twenty-five millions.
The outlay on trust property in that period was more than fifteen millions.
The famines of the 'forties, with their subsequent political and economic difficulties, transferred to America millions of the Irish, whose genius for organization in politics has not fallen short of their zeal for religion.
The factories which have been erected in the north of Ireland, on the outskirts of London and elsewhere turn out millions of garments that would, under the old conditions, have been made at home.
The number of speakers of Tibetan dialects is probably not far short of eight millions.
Hence the force required to drive one gramme-molecule of sugar through water with a velocity of one centimetre per second may be calculated as some thousands of millions of kilogrammes weight.
Eight hundred houses were burnt down, and over two millions sterling of damage was wrought in the town on that occasion.
Antwerp had reached the lowest point of its fortunes in 1800, and its population had sunk under 40,000, when Napoleon, realizing its strategical importance, assigned two millions for the construction of two docks and a mole.
Professor Delitzsch estimated that i oo,000 Jews had embraced Christianity in the first three quarters of the i 9th century; and Dr Dalman of Leipzig says that " if all those who have entered the Church and their descendants had remained together, instead of losing themselves among the other peoples, there would now be a believing Israel to be counted by millions, and no one would have ventured to speak of the uselessness of preaching the Gospel to the Jews."
If, however, we are to take statistical returns for what they are worth, it is estimated that the Christians in heathen lands gathered by Protestant missions probably amount to five millions, and a similar total may be ascribed to Roman Catholic missions, making ten millions in all.
The total wealth of the kingdom is estimated at 900 millions sterling.
This may be judged from the fact that in the year named there were only 137,772 voters out of a population of 6z millions.
The total debt in English money may be put at 126 millions sterling, which requires for interest, sinking fund and service about 5-1 millions sterling annually.
Whereas in 1864 the annual production of all factories in Poland was valued at not more than 54 millions sterling, in 1875, when the workers numbered 27,000, the output was estimated at even less; but in 1905 the value of the industrial production reached 53 millions sterling.
The annual value of imports and exports exceeds seven and nine millions sterling respectively.
In consequence it is estimated that the number of lay Franciscan Tertiaries now exceeds two millions.
Vertical lines show the average monthly consumption in Great Britain and Ireland in millions of pounds.
The storage capacity of the reservoir is about 3,750,000 millions of cub.
This would increase the storage capacity 22 times, or to about 9,375,000 millions of cubic feet.
The total number of German-speaking people, within the boundaries wherein they constitute the compact mass of the population, may be estimated, if the Dutch and Walloons be included, at 65 millions.
The total amount produced in Germany is estimated at 1000 million gallons, of a value of 4,000,000; Alsace-Lorraine turning out 400 millions; Baden, 175; Bavaria, Wrttemberg and Hesse together, 300; while the remainder, which though small in quantity is in quality the best, is produced by Prussia.
Meanwhile, in spite of the matricular contributions, the calls on imperial finance had steadily increased, and up to 1908 were continually met to a large extent by loans, involving a continual growth of the imperial debt, which in 1907 amounted to 3643 millions of marks.
Before the war the population was nearly twenty millions; after it the number was probably about six millions.
The government had used all its resources; it had alienated millions of the people; it had raised up a compact party of nearly a hundred members in parliament.
The result was that the income from customs and excise rose from about 230 million marks in 1878-1879 to about 700 millions in 1898-1899, and Bismarcks object in removing a great burden from the states was attained.
It has been found that northern Ontario beyond the divide between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay possesses many millions of acres of arable land, clay deposits in a post-glacial lake, like those in the southern part of the province, running from east to west from Lake Abitibbi to a point north of Lake Nipigon.
In finance his administration was very successful, as notwithstanding the expenses of his wars he showed an annual surplus of two millions sterling.
The number of passengers carried in the same period ros from 121/8 to over 22 millions, and the weight of goods from slightly under 3,000,000 to nearly 6,750,000 tons.
In 1907 the Moslems numbered over ten millions, or 91.8% of the entire population.
When the expenditure during the same period was examined the extraordinary fact was disclosed that the sum raised by revenue was only three millions less than that spent on administration, tribute and public works, including a sum of 10,500,000, described as expenses of questionable utility or policy.
In 1883the first complete year after the British occupationthe revenue was slightly under 9 millions.
The revenue steadily rose until, in 1890, the figure of 10 millions was exceeded.
In 1897 a figure of over If millions was attained.
Continuing to rise with ever-increasing rapidity, a revenue of close on 12 millions was collected in 1901 and 1902, in spite of the fact that during the latter of these two years the Nile flood was one of the lowest on record.
For one early papyrus that survives, many millions must have perished.
In modern times the value of Danish commerce greatly increased, being doubled in the last twenty years of the 19th century, and exceeding a total of fifty millions sterling.
It was only after continued protests by the Newspaper Proprietors' Association that publicity was given to the gigantic achievements of the Ministry of Munitions, and the manufacturers and millions of workers associated with it.
In addition there were millions more born in those lands and using their languages, who had become citizens legally.
The value of the aggregate trade amounts to an average of seven to nine millions sterling annually.
He formed the bold design of combining the Irish Catholic millions, under the superintendence of the native priesthood, into a vast league against the existing order of things, and of wresting the concession of the Catholic claims from every opposing party in the state by an agitation, continually kept up, and embracing almost the whole of the people, but maintained within constitutional limits, though menacing and shaking the frame of society.
Hence, although for many centuries (up to Leblanc's invention) hardly any soda was available except from this source, and although we now know that millions of tons of it exist, especially in the west of the United States, there is as yet very little of it practically employed, and that only locally.
Though Arabic has to a considerable extent displaced the Berber language, the latter is still spoken by millions of people from Egypt to the Atlantic and from the Mediterranean to the Sudan.
Within the amir's dominions there are probably from four to five millions of people, and of these the vast majority are agriculturists.
The population more than doubles Gibbon's estimate of 120 millions for all the races and nations which obeyed imperial Rome.
About 167 millions of people now live on and around these river plains, in the provinces known as the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, Rajputana and other native states.
It had in 1901 an aggregate population of about loo millions.
In the primary schools, however, which provide vernacular teaching for the masses, there were only 4 million pupils to the 300 millions of India.
These figures show that less than 650o Englishmen are employed to rule over the 300 millions of India.
In1905-1906the export of rice from India was valued at 122 millions sterling.
Among pulses gram covers in ordinary years more than so millions of acres, chiefly in the United Provinces, the Punjab and Bengal.
The total value of oils and oil-seeds exported in1905-1906was over 72 millions sterling.
India's consumption of tea is computed to average 84 million pounds, of which 52 millions are Indian and the remainder Chinese.
In Rajputana more than half of its thirteen or fourteen millions of stock is said to have perished in 1900 alone.
The annual timber yield of the Indian forests is about fifty millions of cubic feet, excluding what is used for local purposes.
Prior to 1860 the exports of raw cotton from India used to average less than 3 millions sterling a year, mostly to China; but after that date they rose by leaps, until in 1866 they reached the enormous total of 37 millions.
Then came the crash, caused by the restoration of peace in the United States, and the exports fell, until they now average little more than 8 millions a year.
It was estimated in 1905 that the world's output of cotton was 19,000,000 bales, of which 134 millions were produced in the United States, 3 millions in India, and nearly millions in Egypt, Japan and China being India's best customers for the raw article.
At the same time the total number of spindles employed in working up the world's raw cotton was 116 millions, of which 48 millions were in the United Kingdom, 24 millions in the United States, and a little over 5 millions in India.
The crop was a record one, but the demand far exceeded the supply, the cultivators reaped profits of eight millions more than the previous year, and 2000 new looms were set up in Calcutta.
The only other important article of import is sugar, which came to about 5 millions in 1905-1906.
The total imports for1905-1906were valued at 822 millions sterling, including 14 millions of gold and silver, which are continually hoarded by the people of India.
The point most frequently criticized in the finances of India is the " home charges " which amount on an average to about 182 millions a year.
Of this total about 92 millions are for interest on railways and other public works, 5 millions for pensions and furlough pay for civil and military officers, 22 millions for stores and 12 millions miscellaneous.
These charges constitute the home expenditure on revenue account, but there are also other remittances from India on capital account which bring up the total disbursements in England to an annual average of about 214 millions.
The Irrigation Commission of 1901 advised an expenditure of 30 millions sterling, spread over a term of twenty years, and irrigating 62 million acres in addition to the 47 millions already irrigated at that time; but it was estimated that that programme would practically exhaust the irrigable land in India, and that some of the later works would be merely protective against the danger of famine, and would not be financially productive.
The total number of letters, &c., carried by the post exceeds 800 millions, and the service yields a small profit to the state.
Five hundred millions of men, or 35% of the inhabitants of the world, still follow the teaching of Buddha.
The total land revenue received by Akbar amounted to about 161 millions sterling.
Comparing the area of his empire with the corresponding area now under the British, it has been calculated that Akbar, three hundred years ago, obtained 152 millions where they obtain only 131 millions - an amount representing not more than one-half the purchasing power of Akbar's 151 millions.
The central authority never recovered from the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1 739, who carried off plunder variously estimated at from 8 to 30 millions sterling.
Mahommedan rule remodelled the revenue system, and has left behind fifty millions of Mussulmans in British India.
The total assessment amounted to sikka Rs.26,800,989, or about 24 millions sterling.
He agreed to yield one-half of his dominions to be divided among the allies, and to pay three millions sterling towards the cost of the war.
But the proudest boast of Lord Hastings and Sir John Malcolm was, not that they had advanced the pomoerium, but that they had conferred the blessings of peace and good government upon millions who had suffered unutterable things from Mahratta and Pindari tyranny.
This he effected by reductions in permanent expenditure, amounting in the aggregate to 12 millions sterling, as well as by augmenting the revenue from land that had escaped assessment, and from the opium of Malwa.
In 1856, the last year of his rule, he issued orders to General (afterwards Sir James) Outram, then resident at the court of Lucknow, to assume the direct administration of Oudh, on the ground that " the British government would be guilty in the sight of God and man, if it were any longer to aid in sustaining by its countenance an administration fraught with suffering to millions."
The suppression of the Mutiny increased the debt of India by about 40 millions sterling, and the military changes that ensued augmented the annual expenditure by about 10 millions.
Despite unparalleled importations of grain by sea and rail, despite the most strenuous exertions of the government, which incurred a total expenditure on this account of 11 millions sterling, the loss of life from actual starvation and its attendant train of diseases was lamentable.
The total strength of the army was raised by ro,000 British and 20,000 native troops, at an annual cost of about two millions sterling; and the frontier post of Quetta, in the neighbourhood of Kandahar, was connected with the Indian railway system by a line that involved very expensive tunnelling.
Hasan demanded, in exchange for the power which he resigned, the contents of the treasury at Kufa, which amounted to five millions of dirhems, together with the revenues of the Persian province of Darabjird (Darab).
Mansur discovered this in the same year in which he died, and threatened him with death unless he should pay to the treasury three millions of dirhems within three days.
Down to 1910 the sum expended by Japan on Korean reforms was estimated to approach fifteen millions sterling.
The value of products in 1900 ($79.6 millions) was 44% of the total farm values ($181.4 millions).
The modern orange industry practically began with the introduction into Southern California in 1873 of two seedless orange trees from Brazil; from their stock have been developed by budding millions of trees bearing a seedless fruit known as the " Washington navel," which now holds first rank in American markets; other varieties, mainly seedlings, are of great but secondary importance.
Hecker calculates that one-fourth of the population of Europe, or 25 millions of persons, died in the whole of the epidemics.
Plague-rats have rarely been found in ships sailing from infected ports; and though millions of these animals must have been carried backwards and forwards from quay to quay betweenHong-Kong, Bombay and the great European ports, they have not brought the disease ashore.
The total turnover of goods sold and "ordered" amounts to nearly 362 millions sterling annually.
The former category dropped, however, from 26 millions in 1881 to 14 millions in 1905.
The respect for anything in books, the dogma of journalistic inerrancy which still numbers its devotees by millions, the common acceptance of even scientific conceptions upon the dicta of a small group of investigators, these are but a few of the signs of the persistence of what is surely not a medieval but a universal trait.
The actual proportion of the total population of India (294 millions) included under the name of "Hindus" has been computed in the census report for 1901 at something like 70% (206 millions); the remaining 30% being made up partly of the followers of foreign creeds, such as Mahommedans, Parsees, Christians and Jews, partly of the votaries of indigenous forms of belief which have at various times separated from the main stock, and developed into independent systems, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism; and partly of isolated hill and jungle tribes, such as the Santals, Bhils (Bhilla) and Kols, whose crude animistic tendencies have hitherto kept them, either wholly or for the most part, outside the pale of the Brahmanical community.
Unfortunately, the return of age is amongst the less satisfactory results of a general enumeration, though its inaccuracy, when spread over millions of persons, is susceptible of correction mathematically, to an extent to make it serve its purpose in the directions above indicated.
Dr Sundbarg's returns give about 28 millions as the number which left Europe by sea during the 19th century, of whom all but 4 millions emigrated during the last' half of that period.
Between 1821 and 1904, about 22 millions landed from Europe in the United States; about 22 millions in Canada; 2 millions in Australia, besides a good number in Brazil, the Argentine and South Africa.
To ride rough-shod over individual bishops was nothing to Prussia; but to quarrel mortally with Rome was a serious matter for a sovereign reigning over millions of Catholic subjects.
Thus, owing to purely climatic vagaries, the quantity of wine produced in Germany in 1891 was only 16 million gallons, whereas in 1896 it amounted to tit millions.
Similarly the French production, which was 587 million gallons in 1895, amounted to no less than 1482 millions in 1900.
In the same way the Italian production has varied between 583 million gallons (1895) and 793 millions (1901), and the Spanish between 331 million gallons in 1896 and 656 millions in 1892.
For the period1906-1907the total number of bottles in stock amounted to over 121 millions, the bottles exported to over 23 millions, and the bottles required for internal commerce in France to something over 10 millions.
There is, thus, at the present a total annual consumption of rather over 30 millions of bottles.
It is probable that the English capital locked up in the port industry amounts to some 2 millions sterling.
At the present time there are about 280,000 acres under the vine in California, and the number of vines is about 90 millions.
Up to 1895 the gold output was below ten million dollars yearly; from 1898 to 1904 it ran from 21.6 to 28.7 millions.
The manufacturing industries (wood-products, metallurgy, machinery, textiles, paper and leather) are of modern development, but the aggregate production approaches one and a half millions sterling in value.
They have, for instance, attained a population of millions in such severe climates as Poland and Russia; in the towns of Algeria they have succeeded so conspicuously as to bring about an outburst of anti-semitism; and in Cochin-China and Aden they succeed in rearing children and forming permanent communities.
He had a keen sympathy with the difficulties experienced by the ordinary lay mind in trying to reconcile the conservative element in Catholicism with the principle of development and growth, and in The Faith of Millions, Hard Sayings and Nova et vetera he attempted to clear them away.
She also received an indemnity of two millions of thalers and a solemn undertaking of non-interference in her domestic affairs.
The new king devoted himself to the promotion of the material development of the country, the Gota canal absorbing the greater portion of the twenty- 1844 four millions of dalers voted for the purpose.
The cost in connexion with the new scheme was expected to amount to 22 millions of kronor.
With a population of over two millions, a rapidly increasing revenue, ruled by a government that was firm and progressive and that enjoyed the confidence of all classes, Chile was well equipped for the struggle with Peru that began in 1879.
As the rentf and royalties, excepting those on the turquoise mines, amount to about one-fifth of the net proceeds, it may be estimated that th value of the annual output does not exceed 50,000, while thi intrinsic value of the ores, particularly those of lead, iron, cohali and nickel, which have not yet been touched can be estimated al millions.
While the value of the trade between Great Britain and Persia in1906-1907was almost the same as in 1897, that of the trade with Russia had increased from 31/2 millions to 83/4 or i37%.
A new assessment of the maliat, based upon the present value of the produce of lands and actual profits of artisans and tradesmen, has frequently been spoken of, and government, aided by a strong minister of the interior and an able minister of finance, ought to have no difficulty in raising the maliat to its proper level and the total revenues of the country to about two millions sterling.
The authorized capital was four millions sterling, but the bank started with a capital of one million, and began its business in Persia in October 1889.
Despite competition from the Mersey tunnel, these ferries continue to transport millions of passengers annually, and have a considerable share in the heavy goods traffic.
More than sixteen millions of acres were ceded by the Indians to the United States in treaties which he negotiated.
More important, however, are the supplies to be derived from the control of flood water, millions of cubic feet of the best soil being annually washed into the sea.
Even the parched bush provides sufficient nourishment for millions of sheep and goats.
It has consequently been proposed that the small plaice should be transplanted in millions to the Bank by well vessels every spring.
In the case of sea-fishes it is becoming increasingly recognized that the millions of cod fry which are annually turned out of the American, Newfoundland and Norwegian hatcheries are but an insignificant fraction of the billions of fry which are naturally produced.
Yet the annual output of fry from each of these hatcheries rarely exceeds zoo millions, i.e.
But again the maximum output of fry from any one of these establishments has not exceeded 40 millions in any single year.
Yet in this area, according to the investigations of Mr Williamson (Report of the Scottish Fishery Board for 1898), nearly 500 millions of plaice eggs are naturally produced in one spawning season.
Four fjords were selected in the south coast of Norway in proximity to the hatchery, and the usual number of fry (10-30 millions) were planted in the spring in alternate fjords, leaving the intermediate fjords unsupplied.
Between December 1849 and June 1851 seven " great " fires, destroying in the aggregate property valued at twenty or twenty-five millions of dollars, swept the business district.
The statement, moreover, that some eight millions of Indians perished through forced labour in the mines is a gross exaggeration.
One bacterium might thus produce in twenty-four hours a number of segments amounting to many millions of millions.
Its length is 12 m., the total cost 34 millions sterling.
In 1860 the trade employed 3000 wagons and 7000 men, and amounted to millions of dollars in value.
The imports average between four and five millions sterling annually, and consist largely of agricultural machinery.
For fifty-eight days Nadir Shah remained in Delhi, and when he left he carried with him a treasure in money amounting, at the lowest computation, to eight or nine millions sterling, besides jewels of inestimable value, and other property to the amount of several millions more.
Wheat, barley, eggs, butter, oilcake, hides, tallow, leather, tobacco, rugs, feathers and other items add considerably to the total value of the exports, which increased from 14 million sterling in 1851-1860 to 8-14 millions sterling in 1901-1905.
Theodosia has gained much of the trade of Sevastopol since that town was made a military port in 1894, and the value of its exports (1z-22 millions sterling annually), principally grain and oil-seeds, is increasing year by year.
New docks were opened in 1892, which cost upwards of two millions sterling.
Its inland trade is carried on by country boat, inland steamer, rail and road, and amounted in 1904-1905 to about four and three-quarter millions sterling.
It was not finished till 1773, and is said to have cost two millions sterling.
Under these conditions it forms continuous masses of individuals closely packed together, sometimes extending over many acres of surface and numbering millions.
The unprotected condition of the principal British fortresses and arsenals had long attracted his attention, and he succeeded in inducing the House of Commons to vote nine millions for the fortification of those important points.
In 1377 the levying of a polltax provides partial figures from which a total of two to twoand-a-half millions has been deduced, but again divergent views have been expressed as to how far the number was still affected by the Black Death of 1348-1349.
From the later part of the 18th century a stronger tendency to increase set in, and at the taking of the first census, in 1801, it was ascertained that the population numbered 8,892,536, being-if the former estimates were approximately correct-an increase of very nearly 2.1 millions in little over fifty years.
The tonnage annually shipped ranges from about 42 millions of tons in the case of Newcastle to some half a million in the case of Liverpool; but the export trade of Cardiff in South Wales far surpasses that of any English port, being more than three times that of Newcastle in 1903.
Here the percentage is over 50, but the ore, though the richest found in the kingdom, is less plentiful, about 1.1 million tons being raised in 1903 as against more than 52 millions in Cleveland.
In 1815 the total quantity of raw cotton imported into the United Kingdom was not more than 99 millions of pounds, which amount had increased to 152 millions of pounds in 1820, and rose further to 229 millions in 1825, so that there was considerably more than a doubling of the imports in ten years.
Ironstone hills, estimated to contain millions of tons of ironstone of superior quality, have been reported in the south-eastern region.
The Mestizos, who form so large a fraction of the population of modern Mexico, numbering several millions, afford a convenient test in this respect, inasmuch as their intermediate complexion separates them from both their ancestral races, the Spaniard, and the chocolate-brown indigenous Aztec or other Mexican.