Like a frog in a mill pond.
She stared at him, but his attention was on the mill again.
It was a picture of a mill, near a beautiful brook.
But again of course Mill is not named.
We will find out when you come to the abandoned warehouse on Mill Street, won't we?
They spent the next fifteen minutes exploring the inside of the mill, and then they went out to the bridge.
Not far from the mill there was an old house, with many trees growing close to it.
He also dealt with the condemnation of Pope Honorius, carried on a controversial correspondence with John Stuart Mill, and took a leading part in the discussions of the Metaphysical Society, founded by Mr James Knowles, of which Tennyson, Huxley and Martineau were also prominent members.
south of Mill City.
Three stories tall, the old mill stood picturesquely at the edge of the river, an old metal one-lane bridge at one side beckoned travelers to visit the lush pastures on the other side.
It did not turn his mill, and it was no privilege to him to behold it.
She watched dark shapes mill and drop as the smoke cleared until they wised up and took refuge in the forest.
Soon a green river winked at them playfully between rocks and bushes, and roared impressively as they entered the clearing at the mill site.
The first mill was built in 1878, and the village was named from the French word claquet (sound of the mill).
His extreme sensitiveness and hatred of pain constrained Mill to hold that, if a good God exists, he cannot possess infinite power.
area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.
Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.
A cotton mill was erected in Lincoln county about 1813, and by 1840 about 25 small mills were in operation within the state.
A cotton mill was erected in Lincoln county about 1813, and by 1840 about 25 small mills were in operation within the state.
a bark mill, and perhaps a pottery; the women did embroidery,.
Mill calculated the position of mean sphere-level at about Io,000 ft.
A few colonists sent out by the Susque hanna Company settled at Mill Creek near the present site of 1 In place of De Forest Richards, deceased.
To Thackeray her diction recalled the sound of village bells falling sweetly and softly on the ear, and it sent a shiver through John Stuart Mill, like a symphony of Haydn or Mozart.
Mill and the Book of Fallacies by Bingham.
Mr Brougham; Sir Samuel Romilly; Mr Mill, author of the well-known work on India; M.
He soon, however, turned his attention to metaphysics and psychology, and for the North American Review and later for the National he wrote philosophical essays on the lines of Mill, Darwin and Spencer.
Mill boldly affirmed that there might be remote realms in space where 2+2 did not make 4 but some different total, even empiricists may hestitate to concur; and yet Mill's assertion is at least the most obvious empiricist reading of the situation.
He soon, however, became entirely engrossed with colonial affairs, and, having impressed John Stuart Mill, Colonel Torrens and other leading economists with the value of his ideas, became a leading though not a conspicuous manager of the South Australian Company, by which the colony of South Australia was ultimately founded.
Honiton (Honetona, Huneton) is situated on the British Icknield Street, and was probably the site of an early settlement, but it does not appear in history before the Domesday Survey, when it was a considerable manor, held by Drew (Drogo) under the count of Mortain, who had succeeded Elmer the Saxon, with a subject population of 33, a flock of 80 sheep, a mill and 2 salt-workers.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
It is a market for live-stock, and for dairy and farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
The first rolling mill west of the Alleghanies was probably one near Morgantown.
To the north of the village, which has extended greatly as a residential suburb of the metropolis, is Mill Hill, with a Roman Catholic Missionary College, opened in 1871, with branches at Rosendaal, Holland and Brixen, Austria, and a preparatory school at Freshfield near Liverpool; and a large grammar school founded by Nonconformists in 1807.
The first paper mill in the township was built in South Lee in 1806, and for a time more paper was made in Lee than in any other place in the United States; the Housatonic Mill in Lee was probably the first (1867) in the United States to manufacture paper from wood pulp.
The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
Mill, as he supposed, in 1823.
In the meantime the Six Nations (in 1768) had repudiated their sale of the region to the Susquehanna Company and had sold it to the Penns; the Penns had erected here the manors of Stoke and Sunbury, the government of Pennsylvania had commissioned Charles Stewart, Amos Ogden and others to lay out these manors, and they had arrived and taken possession of the block-house and huts at Mill Creek in January 1769.
Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Mill and Herbert Spencer are not systematic materialists, but show tendencies towards materialism.
In this instance it may happen that the work of intelligence has only been mimicked in nature by blind forces which have accidentally produced organic life; and Mill is disposed to hold that if the evolution of species should be clearly established as due to natural law - if there has been no creation by special interposition - the argument falls to the ground and theism (apparently) is lost.
That is what Kant contended that the Design argument pointed to, and Mill, proceeding on the Design argument, claims nothing more for his conclusion.
Mill in his Utility of Religion as almost equal in ethical elevation to the Sermon on the Mount.
Reaching Beaton's Mill he revealed his identity, and, according to the popular story, was killed on the 11 th of June 1488 by a soldier in the guise of a priest who had been called in to shrive him.
Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who, after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent (the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m.
JOHN MILL (c. 1645-1707), English theologian, was born about 1645 at Shap in Westmorland, entered Queen's College, Oxford, as a servitor in 166r, and took his master's degree in 1669 in which year he spoke the "Oratio Panegyrica" at the opening of the Sheldonian Theatre.
At South Manchester, an attractive industrial village, a silk mill was built in 1838; the silk mills of one firm (Cheney Brothers) here cover about 12 acres; the company has done much for its employees, whose homes are almost all detached cottages in attractive grounds.
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
Mill recognizes an ultimate difference in quality between higher and lower pleasures.
Mill in the tentative approach to theism found in his posthumous volume (Three Essays on Religion; 1874).
Mill directs his attention to the Design argument.
Mill directs his attention to the Design argument.
Mill complained, 4 " bringing back under the name of belief what they banished as knowledge."
The Ontological argument is omitted; but we have already observed that there is a discussion of divine ' Paul Janet's Final Causes seems to follow Mill in this (" the fact of Finality "), but without naming him.
There is a cotton spinning mill.
Lunch was at a rustic little seafood place in Rogers called Catfish John's, and afterward she directed him to the War Eagle Mill.
Alex slipped a protective arm around her waist and gazed at the mill.
And I never felt so special in my life as when you took my hand and held it at the old mill.
John Stuart Mill >>
Mill's Logic, and with fuller sympathy in W.
We reach similar conclusions when we recognize that the laws of nature are general or hypothetical; not in Mill's sense (" If you had such a non-existent thing as three perfectly straight lines united in a triangle "), but in a sense noted in F.
inductive proof requiring, according to Mill's Logic, the " Method of Difference."
If Mill's theism holds, what is it?
Yet the correspondence between Mill's conclusion and what Kant had alleged to be implied in the underlying metaphysical position is very striking indeed.
3 Intuitionalism in its turn may harden out of " natural " dualism into moral dualism; either a literally Manichaean scheme - a good God impeded by an evil personality or principle (Bayle) - or belief in a good God of limited powers (Mill).
Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc, blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873), English philosopher and economist, son of James Mill, was born on the 10th of May 1806 in his father's house in Pentonville, London.
A contemporary record of Mill's studies from eight to thirteen is published in Bain's sketch of his life.
Not unnaturally the training which the younger Mill received has aroused amazement and criticism; and it is reasonable to doubt whether the material knowledge which he retained in the result was as valuable to him as his father imagined.
It was an inevitable result of such an education that Mill acquired many of his father's speculative opinions, and his father's way of defending them.
Mill expressly says that his childhood was not unhappy.
Mill complains that his father often required more than could be expected of him, but his tasks were not so severe as to prevent him from growing up a healthy and high-spirited boy, though he was not constitutionally robust, and his pursuits were so different from those of other boys of the same age.
From May 1820 till July 1821 Mill was in France in the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham.
Mill's work at the India House, which was henceforth his livelihood, did, not come before the public; hence some have scouted his political writings as the work of an abstract philosopher, entirely unacquainted with affairs.
For twenty years, from 1836 (when his father died) to 1856, Mill had charge of the Company's relations with the native states, and in 1856 he became chief of the office with a salary of £2000.
About the time of his entering the India House Mill read Dumont's exposition of Bentham's doctrines in the Traite de Legislation, which made a lasting impression upon him.
His father was reserved, undemonstrative even to the pitch of chilling sternness, and among young Mill's comrades contempt of feeling was almost a watchword.
It is a proof of the dominating force of his father's character that it cost the younger Mill such an effort to shake off his stern creed about poetry and personal emotion.
Like Plato, the elder Mill would have put poets under ban as enemies of truth, and he subordinated private to public affections.
These doctrines the younger Mill now felt himself forced in reason to abandon.
The first sketch of Mill's political philosophy appeared in a series of contributions to the Examiner in the autumn of 1830 entitled "Prospects in France."
Their own Reform Bill came soon after and it is again characteristic of Mill - at once of his enthusiasm and of his steady determination to do work that nobody else seemed able or willing to do - that we find him in the heat of the struggle in 1831 writing: to the Examiner a series of letters on "The Spirit of the Age" which drew from Carlyle the singular exclamation "Here is a new mystic!"
How little this criticism was justified may be seen from the fact that Mill's inductive logic was the direct result of his aspirations after political stability as determined by the dominion of the wisest (Examiner letters).
Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
No mystic ever worked with warmer zeal than Mill.
Be this as it may, enthusiastic as he was for a new logic that might give certainty to moral and social conclusions, Mill was no less resolute that the new logic should stand in no antagonism to the old.
In his Westminster review of Whately's Logic in 1828 (invaluable to all students of the genesis of Mill's logic) he appears, curiously enough, as an ardent and brilliant champion of the syllogistic logic against highfliers such as the Scottish philosophers who talk of "superseding" it by "a supposed system of inductive logic."
Meantime, while recurring again and again, as was his custom, to this cardinal difficulty, Mill worked indefatigably in other directions where he saw his way clear.
In 1835 Sir William Molesworth founded the London Review with Mill as editor; it was amalgamated with the Wesminster (as the London and Westminster Review) in 1836, and Mill continued editor (latterly proprietor also) till 1840.
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
But the reprinted papers give no just idea of the immense range of Mill's energy at this time.
It was in 1837, on reading Whewell's Inductive Sciences and re-reading Herschel, that Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and joining on the new logic as a supplement to the old.
These essays were worked out and written many years before, and show Mill in his first stage as a political economist.
Though Mill appears here purely as the disciple of Ricardo, striving after more precise statement, and reaching forward to further consequences, we can well understand in reading these essays how about the time when he first sketched them he began to be conscious of power as an original and independent thinker.
While his great systematic works were in progress, Mill wrote very little on events or books of the day.
Mill could now feel that his main work was accomplished; he remained, however, on the alert for opportunities of useful influence, and pressed on with hardly diminished enthusiasm in his search for useful truth.
During the seven years of his married life Mill published less than in any other period of his career, but four of his most ' Mrs Taylor (Harriet Hardy) was the wife of John Taylor, a wholesale druggist in the city of London.
She was a confirmed invalid, and lived in the country, where Mill visited her regularly for twenty years, with the full consent of her husband, a man of limited mental powers, but of high character and unselfishness.
Mill's friendship with Mrs Taylor and their marriage in 1851 involved a break with his family (apparently due to his resentment at a fancied slight, not to any bitterness on their part), and his practical disappearance from society.
(On these points see Mary Taylor, Mrs Mill's grand-daughter, in Elliott's edition of the Letters.) closely reasoned and characteristic works, the Liberty, the Utilitarianism, the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and the Subjection of Women, besides his posthumously published essays on Nature and on the Utility of Religion, were thought out and partly written in collaboration with his wife.
Mill was earnestly opposed to the transfer, and the documents in which he substantiated the proud boast for the Company that "few governments, even under far more favourable circumstances, have attempted so much for the good of their subjects or carried so many of their attempts to a beneficial issue," and exposed the defects of the proposed new government, are models of trenchant and dignified pleading.
On the dissolution of the Company Mill was offered a seat in the new council, but declined, and retired with a pension of 1500.
The chief feature in this was an idea concerning which he and Mrs Mill often deliberated - the necessity of providing checks against uneducated democracy.
Soon after Mill supported in Fraser's, still with the same object, Hare's scheme for the representation of minorities.
While mainly occupied in those years with philosophical studies, Mill did not remit his interest in current politics.
It was characteristic of the closeness with which he watched current events, and of his zeal in the cause of "lucidity," that when the Reader, an organ of science and unpartisan opinion, fell into difficulties in 1865 Mill joined with some distinguished men of science and letters in an effort to keep it afloat.
The story of this remarkable election has been told by James Beal, one of the most active supporters of Mill's candidature.
As a speaker Mill was somewhat hesitating, pausing occasionally as if to recover the thread of his argument, but he showed great readiness in extemporaneous debate.
Mill's subscription to the election expenses of Bradlaugh, and his attitude towards Governor Eyre, are generally regarded as the main causes of his defeat in the general election of 1868.
Mill was an enthusiastic botanist all his life long, and a frequent contributor of notes and short papers to the Phytologist.
Mill died at Avignon on the 8th of May 1873.
The influence which Mill's works exercised upon contemporary English thought can scarcely be overestimated.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
Though he believed that the lower classes were not yet ripe for socialism, with the principles of which he (unlike James Mill and Bentham) was in general agreement, his whole life was devoted to the amelioration of the conditions of the working classes.
Reference to the articles on Logic, Metaphysics, &c., will show that subsequent criticism, however much it has owed by way of stimulus to Mill's strenuous rationalism, has been able to point to much that is inconsistent, inadequate and even superficial in his writings.
A similar fate has befallen Mill's economic theories.
And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.
Many of Mill's letters are published in Mrs Grote's life of her husband, in Duncan's Life of Herbert Spencer, in the Memories of Caroline Fox, and in Kingsley's letters.
By far the most illuminating collection is that of Hugh Elliott, Letters of John Stuart Mill (2 vols., 1910), which contains letters to John Sterling, Carlyle, E.
These letters are essential to an understanding of Mill's life and thought.
Bain, John Stuart Mill, a Personal Criticism (1882); Fox Bourne, Life of J.
Mill (1873); John (Viscount) Morley, Miscellanies (1877), ii.
Mill (1873), on economic theories; W.
Harrison, Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill (1899); John Watson, Comte, Mill and Spencer (1895); T.
Whittaker, Comte and Mill (1905); Charles Douglas, J.
Mill, a Study of his Philosophy (1895); J.
Taine, Positivisme anglais, etude sur Stuart Mill (Paris, 1864); F.
Comte et Stuart Mill (3rd ed., Paris, 1877); Cauret, Philosophic de Stuart Mill (Paris, 1885); Gomperz, John S.
Mill, ein Nachruf (Vienna, 1889); S.
Mill, sein Leben and Lebenswerk (Stuttgart, 1901); S.
Suppose, now, we ignore the writers who were inaugurating neit methods, investigating special problems or laboriously collecting facts, and concentrate attention on the dominant school, with its long series of writers from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill.
Mill's Principles of Political Economy as a text-book.
If we go to Mill to discover what it is, we find that " it is not pretended that the law of diminishing return was operative from the beginning of society; and though some political economists may have believed it to come into operation earlier than it does, it begins quite early enough to support the conclusions they founded on it."
Mill apparently is not content with the confusion between " law " and " agency " or " force," but opposes the one to the other.
Shield Nicholson's Principles of Political Economy (3 vols.) not only gives a survey of economic principles since Mill's time, but contains much suggestive and original work.
In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.
Flour and grist mill products rank third in the state; the value of the products decreased from $39,468,409 in 1890 to $37,39 0, 3 6 7 in 1900, and then increased to $40,855,566 in 1905.
Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.
East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleveland in women's clothing.
The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7.2 mills in township districts and 10.07 mills in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils.
A special tax is levied for the benefit of the sinking fund - one-tenth of a mill in 1909.
About one-half of the annual common school fund is derived from local taxes; the state levy for this fund in 1909 was one mill, and the total receipts were $2,382,353.
Mill may be taken as the chief representative.
He was by occupation a fuller, and tradition still points out the site of his mill.
In 1767 he was appointed to the charge of Mill Hill Chapel at Leeds, where he again changed his religious opinions from a loose Arianism to definite Socinianism and wrote many political tracts hostile to the attitude of the government towards the American colonies.
from Long Island Sound, at the head of New Haven Bay, into which empty three small streams, the Quinnipiac, the Mill and the West rivers.
The evolution of the distinct business of cotton broking is readily comprehensible when we remind ourselves that the requirements, as regards raw material, of all spinners are much alike generally, and that no spinner could afford to pay an expert to devote himself entirely to purchasing cotton for his mill.
Mill's definition of miracles: " to constitute a miracle, a phenomenon must take place without having been preceded by any antecedent phenomenal conditions sufficient again to reproduce it.
Mill states the position with due care.
The lumber industry is important: in 1905 the total factory product of lumber and timber was valued at $10,901,650, and lumber and planing mill products were valued at $1,690,455.
3, 4a): the keepers of the house (the arms and hands) tremble, the strong men (the legs and perhaps the backbone) are bent, the grinding women (the teeth) cease to work, those that look out of the windows (the eyes) are darkened, the street-doors are shut, the sound of the mill being low (apparently a summary statement of the preceding details: communication with the outer world through the senses is cut off, the performance of bodily functions being feeble); the rest of v.
Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
Mill, "Bathymetrical Survey of the English Lakes," Geographical Journal, vi.
Richard, king of the Romans (1260), extended the boundaries of the borough and granted permission for the erection of an additional mill.
Mill's Examination of Hamilton.
The displeasure of the master sometimes dismissed his domestics to the more oppressive labours of the mill or the mine.
The lighter punish ments inflicted by masters were commonly personal chastisement or banishment from the town house to rural labour; the severer were employment in the mill (pistrinum) or relegation to the mines or quarries.
Mill's Political Economy, book ii.
It was severely attacked in 1835 by James Mill in his Fragment on Mackintosh.
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
The municipal water supply comes from a reservoir at Crystal Springs at the foot of Mill Mountain near the city limits.
Two small rivers (Mill and Fort) flow through the township. Amherst is a quiet, pleasing, academic village of attractive homes.
Mill, The Realm of Nature (1913); J enkins, Oceanography (1921); J.
Six years elapsed before he again entered the House, and during that interval he had made the acquaintance and imbibed the doctrines of James Mill and the philosophical reformers of the school of Bentham.
Mill and Hume.
This tribunal realized an idea put forward by Jeremy Bentham towards the close of the 18th century, advocated by James Mill in the middle of the 19th century, and worked out later by Mr Dudley Field in America, by Dr Goldschmidt in Germany, and by Sir Edmund Hornby and Mr Leone Levi in England.
The principal business houses are on Mill Street; while Radcliffe Street extends along the river.
Among Bristol's manufacturing establishments are machine shops, rolling mills, a planing mill, yarn, hosiery and worsted mills, and factories for making carpets, wall paper and patent leather.
of marble for the markets; there are also locomotive works, planing mills, a canning factory, a knitting mill, &c. At Marietta there is a national cemetery, in which more than io,000 Federal soldiers are buried, and at Kenesaw Mountain (1809 ft.), about 22 m.
The Wood worsted mill here is said to be the largest single mill in the world.
Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at that time.
In the Paris Exhibition of 1900 a cane-crushing mill was shown with three rollers 32 in.
It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes for crushing in the mills, as above described, by passing them through a pair of preparing rolls which are grooved or indented in such manner as to draw in and flatten down the canes, no matter in which way they are thrown or heaped upon the canecarrier, and thus prepare them for feeding the first mill of the series; thus the work of crushing is carried on uninterruptedly and without constant stoppages from the mills choking, as is often the case when the feed is heavy and the canes are not prepared.
The megass coming from the first mill was saturated with steam and water, in weight equal to between 20% and 30% and up to 40% of the original weight of the uncrushed canes.
These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.
This is easily done in liming or measuring tanks of known capacity, into which the juice is run from the mill.
These results are brought about by adding to the cold juice as it comes from the mill the proper proportion of milk of lime set up at 8° B., and then delivering the limed juice in a constant steady stream as near the bottom of the defecator as possible; it is thus brought into immediate contact with the heating surface and heated once for all before it ascends, with the result of avoiding the disturbance caused in the ordinary defecator by pouring cold juice from above on to the surface of the heated juice, and so establishing down-currents of cold juice and up-currents of hot juice.
To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.
In some parts of Mexico and Central America this separation is still effected by running the sugar into conical moulds, and placing on the top a layer of moist clay or earth which has been kneaded in a mill into a stiff paste.
The bagasse so used is now commonly taken straight from the cane mill to furnaces specially designed for burning it, in its moist state and without previous drying, and delivering the hot gases from it to suitable boilers, such as those of the multitubular type or of the water-tube type.
The value of fresh bagasse, or as it is often called " green " bagasse, as fuel varies with the kind of canes from which it comes, with their treatment in the mill, and with the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that I lb of fresh bagasse will produce from I a lb to 24 lb of steam, according to the conditions.
The use of preparing rolls with corrugations, to crush and equalize the feed of canes to the mill, or to the first of a series of mills, has become general.
These rolls run at a speed about 30% greater than the speed of the first mill, to which they deliver the canes well crushed and flattened, forming a close mat of pieces of cane 5 to 6 in.
long, so that the subsequent grinding can be carried on without the stoppages occasioned by the mill choking with a heavy and irregular feed.
The crusher is preferably driven by an independent engine, but with suitable gearing it can be driven by the mill engine.
The slices so blown up, or elevated, are passed through a mill which expels the surplus water, and are then pressed into cakes and dried until they hold about 12% of water and 88% of beet fibre.
The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.
Here about 1632 was erected the first grist mill in the colony, and in 1662 one of the first woollen mills in America was built here.
Mill and Herbert Spencer to support their derivation of all our experience from sensation.
It is in Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy that the classical statement of the Relativity of Knowledge is to be found.
Arum italicum, Mill.
Gladiolus byzantinus, Mill.
Muscari comosum, Mill.
Mill, who had been greatly impressed by Comte's philosophic ideas; Mill admits that his own System of Logic owes many valuable J.
When Comte found himself straitened, he confided the entire circumstances to Mill.
Mill persuaded Grote, Molesworth, and Raikes Currie to advance the sum of £240.
Mill applied to them again, but with the exception of Grote, who sent a small sum, they gave Comte to understand that they expected him to earn his own living.
Mill had suggested to Comte that he should write articles for the English periodicals, and expressed his own willingness to translate any such articles from the French.
Comte at first fell in with the plan, but he speedily surprised and disconcerted Mill by boldly taking up the position of " high moral.
Mill was chilled by these pretensions; and the correspondence came to an end.
But Mill and the others were fully justified in not aiding the propagation of a doctrine in which they might not wholly concur.
It is worth noticing that Mill was one of the subscribers, and that Littre continued his assistance after he had been driven from Comte's society by his high pontifical airs.
Condillac, Joubert, Mill and other eminent men have shown what the intellectual ascendancy of a woman can be.
Mill insisted upon fixing between the earlier and the later work.
Mill, while admitting the objections as good, if Comte's arrangement pretended to be the only one possible, still holds the arrangement as tenable for the purpose with which it was devised.
As Mill puts it: " If a sociological theory, collected from historical evidence, contradicts the established general laws of human nature; if (to use M.
Mill, in La Critique philosophique (1877); correspondence with Mde.
Mill a Aug.
Mill, Auguste Comte and Positivism; J.
Bridges' reply to Mill, The Unity of Comte's Life and Doctrines (1866); Herbert Spencer's essay on the Genesis of Science and pamphlet on The Classification of the Sciences; Huxley's " Scientific Aspects of Positivism," in his Lay Sermons; R.
Watson, Comte, Mill and Spencer.
In 1777 the state offered a large premium for every pound of steel, similar to German steel, made within its boundaries; and in 1789 a rolling and slitting mill was built near Providence.
On it are a mill, a statue of Charlemagne and an iron crucifix surmounted by a gilded cock.
Mill's On Liberty and Sir John Seeley's Introduction to Political Science.
Its other mineral resources include graphite, copper, zinc, lead, salt, alum, potter's clay, marble and good mill and building stones.
When the Seven Days' battle began Porter's corps had to sustain alone the full weight of the Confederate attack, and though defeated in the desperately fought battle of Gaines's Mill (June 27, 1862) the steadiness of his defence was so conspicuous that he was immediately promoted major-general of volunteers and brevet origadiergeneral U.S.A. His corps, moreover, had the greatest share in the successful battles of Glendale and Malvern Hill.
Other important manufactures are food preparations (especially of oats) and flour and grist mill products.
Affiliated with the university is a school of music. The university's income is derived from the proceeds of invested funds and lands originally given by the United States, from permanent appropriations by the state and from the proceeds of a one-fifth mill tax to be used for buildings alone.
either (I) by the Mexican crusher or arrastra, in which the grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or trapiche, also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the floor, at the same time turning about a central upright - contrivances which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.
The stamp mill was first used in California, and its use has since spread over the whole world.
At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary, quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills, similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed through the so-called " Hungarian gold mill " or " quick-mill."
The stuff from the stamps is conveyed to the middle of the muller, and is distributed over the mercury, when the gold subsides, while the quartz and lighter materials are guided by the blades to the circumference and are discharged, usually into a second similar mill, and subsequently pass over blanket tables, i.e.
The action of this mill is really more nearly analogous to that of a centrifugal pump, as no grinding action takes place in it.
The Laszlo is an improved Hungarian mill, while the Piccard is of the same type.
o% over the value of the factory products in 1900; among its manufactures are tobacco, cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff (value in 1905, $2,879,217), patent medicines (value in 1905, $2,133,198), flour and grist mill products ($1,089,910), men's clothing ($ 8 33, 8 35), and, of less importance, commercial and computing scales and time recorders, chemicals, distilled liquor, beer, fire-alarm apparatus, overalls, agricultural implements, wagons, electrical apparatus, refined oil, sheet metal, paper bags and envelopes, tacks and nails, window glass, glass-ware, clocks, whips and furniture (especially Morris chairs).
He served in Virginia in 1861 and in the Peninsular campaign of 1862, and was wounded at Gaines' Mill.
The manufacture of paper and wood pulp showed an increased product in 1905 19.1% greater than in 190o; and flour and grist mill products were valued in 1905 43.6% higher than in 1900.
Mill has shown that in the North Sea off the Firth of Forth the average depth of visibility of a disk in the winter half-year was 4; fathoms and in the summer half-year 62 fathoms, and, although the greater frequency of rough weather in winter might tend to obscure the effect, individual observations made it plain that the angle of the sun was the main factor in increasing the depth to which the disk remained visible.
Mill in 1885 devised a self-locking arrangement by which the bottle once closed was automatically locked and rendered watertight; H.
For shallow water greater precision and certainty are obtained by using a lever actuated by a weight slipped down the line to cause the reversal, as in the patterns of Rung, Mill and others.
Mill in the Clyde Sea Area, and of O.
There are ship-yards, iron foundries and forges, machine shops, shirt factories, a pottery for the manufacture of sanitary earthenware, a woollen mill and canning factories.
Flour and grist mill products advanced in value from $ 11, 94 8, 55 6 in 1900 to $22,083,136 in 1905.
The school tax was derived in1905-1906from interest on the state's permanent school fund - amounting to 2.3% of the total tax, and distributed in proportion to the population of school age; from a I to 3 mill county tax, amounting to 5.2% of the whole; and from local or district taxation, 92.5% of the entire tax.
Other papers which had been left to Fox lay for years in barrels in a stable garret; they were finally cleared out, their owner, Mary Fox, intending to send them to a paper mill.
One barrel went to the mill.
This was the beginning of his connexion with John Stuart Mill, which led to a life-long friendship. In 1841 he became substitute for Dr Glennie, the professor of moral philosophy, who, through ill-health, was unable to discharge the active duties of the chair.
This post he occupied for three successive sessions, during which he continued writing for the Westminster, and also in 1842 helped Mill with the revision of the MS. of his System of Logic. In 1843 he contributed the first review of the book to the London and Westminster.
In 1848 he removed to London to fill a post in the board of health, under Edwin Chadwick, and became a prominent member of the brilliant circle which included George Grote and John Stuart Mill.
Accordingly, in 1882 appeared the Biography of James Mill, and accompanying it John Stuart Mill: a Criticism, with Personal Recollections.
Mill and Grote in editing James Mill's Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1869), and assisted in editing Grote's Aristotle and Minor Works; he also wrote a memoirrefixed to G.
In taking root in England idealism had to contend against the traditional empiricism represented by Mill on the one hand and the pseudo-Kantianism which was rendered current by Mansel and Hamilton on the other.
The first cotton mill had been established in Beverly in 1788, and the first real woollen factory at Byfield in 1794.
This suspension is then run through a conical mill in order td remove all grit, the cones of the mill fitting so tightly that water cannot pass through unless the mill is running; the speed of the mill when working is about 3000 revolutions per minute.
Near Tacubaya, on the north by west, were some massive stone buildings known as El Molino del Rey, or the King's Mill.
The collimateur, or sight proper, has a lateral movement of 9°, and is actuated by the drum on the right turned by the mill - headed screw.
The stem is turned by pressing down on the mill - headed screw.
Besides a silk mill, malthouses and engineering and agricultural implement works, there is a brisk trade in farm produce.
south, to supply the mill and Austin priory founded here late in the 13th century.
Mill said he was the best orator he had ever heard.
Amand, whilst Gerard attempted to storm Ligny; on the right Grouchy held Thielemann in play, and in the centre near Fleurus were the Guard and Milhaud in reserve, close to the emperor's headquarters on the mill.
Each colonist not only paid him a fixed rent, usually in kind, but had to share with him the increase of the stock and to have the grain ground at his mill.
He founded the town of Donora, Pa., and established a large steel mill there.
Cotton, grain and rice are produced in the vicinity, and there are some manufactories, including cotton mills, a cotton-seed oil mill and planing mills.
The manufacture of planing mill products, including sashes, doors and blinds, was an important industry, the products being valued in 1905 at $5,173,422.
Next in commercial importance to lumber and timber products are flour and grist mill products, valued in 1905 at $14,663,612.
Flour and grist mill products rose during that period from $937,462 to $2,003,136; and malt liquors increased in value from $1,267,331 to $1,731,691.
Cement deposits were discovered in the Black Hills region in 1876 and in the same year the first quartz mill was set up in Deadwood.
Freeman (London, 1895); Frederic Harrison, Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill and other Literary Estimates (London, 1899); James Bryce, "E.
In this "mill," as he calls it, Erasmus continued to grind incessantly for eight years.
It is only when we remember the extensive and mischievous influence on science which hypotheses about aethers used formerly to exercise, that we can appreciate the horror of aethers which sober-minded men had during the 18th century, and which, probably as a sort of hereditary prejudice, descended even to John Stuart Mill.
Masaryk, who, as a counterpoise to German speculation and the intellectualism of Herbart, emphasized the critical study of English philosophy, notably Hume, Spencer and Mill, and the French Comte; at the same time he fully appreciated the value of Kant in epistemology.
Foreseeing the extent to which the demand would grow in America for iron and steel, he started the Keystone Bridge works, built the Edgar Thomson steel-rail mill, bought out the rival Homestead steel works, and by 1888 had under his control an extensive plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a railway 4 25 m.
Mill in the 'Westminster Review (reprinted in Dissertations), and from Ferrier in Blackwood (reprinted in Lectures and Remains, ii).
Through the city flows Mill Creek, which empties into the Ohio.
side in the valley of Mill Creek, and occupies a total area of about 44 sq.
There are various suburbs, chiefly residential, in the Mill Creek valley, among them being Carthage, Hartwell, Wyoming, Lockland and Glendale.
In 1788 the first woollen mill in New England was opened in Hartford; and here, too, about 1846, the Rogers process of electro-silver plating was invented.
In 1788 there was established here the first cotton mill to be successfully operated in the United States.
Other manufactures are flour and grist mill products, bricks, planingmill products, &c. In 1905 the total value of the borough's factory products was $15,745,628; the capital invested in manufacturing increased from $6,266,068 in 1900 to $18,642,853 in 1905, or 197.5%.
The products of greatest value in 5905 were: custom-made men's clothing; fruits and vegetables and oysters, canned and preserved; iron and steel; foundry and machine-shop products, including stoves and furnaces; flour and grist mill products; tinware, coppersmithing and sheet iron working; fertilizers; slaughtering and meat-packing; cars and repairs by steam railways; shirts; cotton goods; malt liquors; and cigars and cigarettes.
Here Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, Fort Henry on the Tennessee and Columbus on the Mississippi guarded the left of the Southern line, Sidney Johnston himself maintaining a precarious advanced position at Bowling Green, with his lieutenants, Zollicoffer and Crittenden, farther east at Mill Springs, and a small force under General Marshall in the mountains of eastern Kentucky.
Thomas won his first victory at Mill Springs (Logan's Cross Roads).
The Seven Days' Battle (q.v.) opened with the combat of Mechanicsville on the 26th of June, and the battle of Gaines' Mill on the 27th.
A week later the Federals, again moving to their left, arrived upon the ground on which McClellan had fought two years before, and at Cold Harbor (Porter's battlefield of Gaines' Mill) the leading troops of the Army of the James joined the lieutenant-general.
In 1675 John Fell, dean of Christ Church, published the Elzevir text with an enlarged apparatus, but even more important was the help and advice which he gave to the next important editor - Mill.
John Mill, of Queen's College, Oxford, influenced by the advice, and supported by the purse of John Fell until the latter's death, published in 1707 a critical edition of the New Testament which has still a considerable value for the scholar.
The editions of Mill (1707) and of Wetstein (1751) proved once for all that variations in the text, many of them serious, had existed from the earliest times.
The Federal detachment retreated during the night to a stronger position in rear at Gaines's Mill near Cold Harbor, and on June 27 the Confederates again attacked Porter's corps.
The planing mill industry is increasing rapidly, as it is found cheaper to erect mills near the forests; between 1900 and 1905 the capital of planing mills in the state increased 117'2% and the value of products increased 142.8%.
Measured by the value of the product, flour and grist mill products rose from third in rank in 1900 to first in rank in 1905, from $13,017,043 to $18,007,786, or 38.3%; and chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff fell during the same period from first to third in rank, from $14,948,192 to $13,117,000, or 12.3%; in 1900 Kentucky was second, in 1905 third, among the states in the value of this product.
Other important manufactures, with their product values in 1900 and in 1905, are iron and steel ($5,004,572 in 1900; $6,167,542 in 1905); railway cars ($4,248,029 in 1900; $5,739,071 in 1905); packed meats ($5, 1 77, 16 7 in 1900; $5, 6 93,73 1 in 1905); foundry and machine shop products ($4,434,610 in 1900; $4, 6 99,559 in 1905); planing mill products, including sash, doors and blinds ($1,891,517 in 1900; $4,593, 2 5 1 in 1905-an increase already remarked); carriages and wagons ($2,849,713 in 1900; $4,059,438 in 1905); tanned and curried leather ($3,757,016 in 1900; $3,952,277 in 1905); and malt liquors ($3,186,627 in 1900; $3,673,678 in 1905).
Zollicoffer (1812-1862) had entered the south-east part of the state through Cumberland Gap in September, and later with a Confederate force of about 7000 men attempted the invasion of central Kentucky, but in October 1861 he met with a slight repulse at Wild Cat Mountain, near London, Laurel county, and on the 19th of January 1862, in an engagement near Mill Springs, Wayne county, with about an equal force under General George H.
The culture of silk, flax, grapes (for wine-making) and fruits and cereals in general, and the manufacture of flour and of woollen, flannel and cotton fabrics, were carried on under a rule requiring every adult to labour 12 or 14 hours each day in field or mill.
The chief manufactures are silk goods (21.6% of all in value) and other textiles, but large quantities of foundry and machine-shop products, malt liquors, flour, and planing mill products are also manufactured.
Scranton better grades of iron ore and of limestone were procured, and within a decade a rolling mill, a nail factory and a manufactory of steel rails were established, and adequate facilities for railway transportation were provided.
Mill justified protection - that, namely, in which an industry well adapted to a country is kept down by the acquired ascendancy of foreign producers - is referred to by Smith; but he is opposed to the admission of this exception for reasons which do not appear to be conclusive.
Foundry and machine shop products, hosiery and knit goods, wooden boxes, flour and grist mill products, and malt liquors are other important manufactures; the value of wooden boxes increased from $979,758 in 1900 to $2,565,612 in 1905, or 161.9%, and the value of hosiery and knit goods increased during the same period from $2,592,829 to $3,974,290, or 53.3%.
of Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, in that year gives several interesting facts about the manor; the earl had there a hall or manor-house, a fulling mill, a market every Sunday, and a fair on the feast of St Andrew.
From the mention of a fulling mill in 1311 it is possible that woollen manufacture had been begun at that time.
The first mill in Bradford was built in 1798; there were 20 mills in the town in 1820, 34 in 1833, and 70 in 1841; and at the present time there are over 300, of much greater magnitude than the earlier factories.
Practically speaking ancient hedonism advocated the happiness of the individual: the modern hedonism of Hume, Bentham and Mill is based on a wider conception of life.
mola, a mill, molere, to grind; from the same root, mol, is derived " meal;" the word appears in other Teutonic languages, cf.
" Mill " was first used of the building containing the apparatus, frequently with a word attached descriptive of the motive power, e.g.
A silk mill was erected here in 1770, and there was also an attempt to foster the cotton trade, but the lack of means of communication made the undertaking impossible.
Mill) equivalent to Intension, which is used to describe the sum of the qualities regarded as belonging to any given thing and involved in the name by which it is known; thus the term "elephant" connotes the having a trunk, a certain shape of body, texture of skin, and so on.
the greatest proportion (14%) of the total were of this size; but in F mill 1900 the model family was that of 3 persons by a more a es.
Deducting from the total value of manufactured products in 1905 the cost of partially manufactured materials, including mill supplies; a net or true value of $9,821,205,387 remains.
Deducting from this the cost of raw materials and adding the cost of mill supplies, the result$6,743,399,7f8
It should comprise a mill, a bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with accommodation for carrying on all necessary mechanical arts within the walls, so as to obviate the necessity of the monks going outside its limits.
The abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west.
The millpool may be distinctly traced, together with the gowt or mill stream.
Between 1800 and 1805 a dozen families settled here, and in the latter year a grist mill, the first manufacturing establishment, was built on Onondaga Creek.
Kensington Square, however, lying south of High Street in the vicinity of St Mary Abbots church, still preserves some of its picturesque houses, nearly all of which were formerly inhabited by those attached to the court; it numbered among its residents Addison, Talleyrand, John Stuart Mill, and Green the historian.
Trinidad has railway shops, foundry and machine shops, and coking ovens, ships large quantities of coal, has a woolscouring mill, and various manufactures.
At the general census of 1901 the number of flouring and grist mill establishments, each employing five persons and over, was returned at 400, the number of employes being 4251 and the value of products $31,835,873.
According to the constitution of 1901 the legislature is required to levy, in addition to the poll tax, an annual tax for education at the rate of 30 to 65 cents on the hundred dollars' worth of property, and practically every county in the state had made in 1906 an appropriation for its schools of a one mill tax on $loo.
Mill's Dissertations, vols.
It is a flourishing town, containing shipbuilding yards, and manufactories of mill machinery, agricultural implements, furniture and sewing-machines, flour-mills, saw-mills and large grain elevators.
The value of the principal products in 1900 was as follows: slaughtering and meat packing, $9,631,187 (in 1905 slaughtering and meat-packing $ 12, 2 16,433, and slaughtering, not including meat-packing, $3,9 1 9,94 0); foundry and machine shop products, $6,816,057 (1905, $11,402,855); linseed oil, $6,271,170; cars and shop construction, $4,513,333(1905, $3,609,471); malt liquors, $4,269,973 (1905, $5,187,216); soap and candles, $3,818,571 (in 1905, soap $4,79 2, 9 1 5); flour and grist mill products, $3,263,697 (1905, $9,807,906); lumber and planing mill products, $3,095,760 (1905, $4,186,668); clothing, $3, 2 4 6, 7 2 3 (1905, $4,231,126); iron and steel products, $2,624,547.
On his return, subsidized by the government, he built and worked, on the banks of the Derwent, the first English throwing mill.
A more serious defect was his practice of violently assailing philosophers, economists and men of science, of whom he knew almost nothing, and whom he perversely misunderstood: men such as Adam Smith, Comte, Mill, Spencer, Darwin and all who followed them.
along the coast to Kahuku about one-half the distance around Oahu; another line from Kahuku Mill, the most northerly point of the island, S.E.
We have here, in this sceptical idealism, the source of the characteristically English form of idealism still to be read in the writings of Mill and Spencer, and still the starting-point of more recent works, such as Pearson's Grammar of Science and James's Principles of Psychology.
Berkeley and Hume produced the English idealism of Mill and Spencer, with their successors, and occasioned the German idealism of Kant.
This phenomenalism was developed by James Mill (1773-1836) and J.
Mill (1806-1873), and has since been continued by A.
It was counteracted to some extent by the study at the universities of the deductive logic of Aristotle and the inductive logic of Bacon, by parts of Mill's own logic, and by the natural realism of Reid, Stewart, and Hamilton, which met Hume's scepticism by asserting a direct perception of the external world.
But natural realism, as finally interpreted by Hamilton, was too dogmatic, too unsystematic, and too confused with elements derived from Kantian idealism to withstand the brilliant criticism of Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy (1865), a work which for a time almost persuaded us that Nature as we know it from sensations is nothing but permanent possibilities of sensation, and oneself only a series of states of consciousness.
What Hume called repeated sequence Pearson calls " routine " of perceptions, and, like his master, holds that cause is an antecedent stage in a routine of perceptions; while he also acknowledges that his account of matter leads him very near to John Stuart Mill's definition of matter as " a permanent possibility of sensations."
Mill also protested " against adducing, as evidence of the truth of a fact in external nature, the disposition, however strong or however general, of the human mind to believe it."
Ward was a philosophical critic of Mill.
The mill was another element which tended to promote the same principle.
The mill proper, however, which was derived from the Romans, as its name (mylen, from Lat.
It is a trading and shipping centre of an extensive farming territory devoted to the raising of live-stock and to the growing of cotton, Indian corn, fruit, &c. It has large cotton gins and compresses, a large cotton mill, flour mills, canning and ice factories, railway repair shops, planing mills and carriage works.
We may notice also the introduction of the mill in place of the quern which hitherto had been in universal use.
Thus not only bleachers, carriers, chemical manufacturers, mill furnishers and accountants find their way there, but also tanners, timber merchants, stockbrokers and even wine merchants.
The employment of children under fourteen years of age in coal-mines is forbidden, as is also the employment of children under fourteen years of age in any cotton, woollen, silk, paper, bagging or flax factory, or in any laundry, or the employment of children under twelve years of age in any mill or factory whatever within the commonwealth.
To the east may be traced the site of the abbey mill, with its dam and mill-lead.
In 1732 a silk mill was erected, but the silk trade was superseded by the cotton trade early in the 19th century.
In flour and grist mill products (value in 1905, $3,676,290) Toledo is the most important city of the state.
Other important manufactures in 1905 were petroleum products ($2,006,484); lumber and planing mill products ($1,604,274); women's clothing ($1,477,648); children's carriages and sleds ($ 1, 4 6 5,599); car-shop construction and repairs, by steam railway companies ($1,366,506); carriages and wagons ($ 1, 22 5,387); structural iron work ($1,102,035); agricultural implements, bicycles, automobiles (a recent and growing industry), plate and cut-glass (made largely from a fine quality of sand found near the city), tobacco, spices and malted liquors.
In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $6,355,754, three-tenths of which was the value of lumber and planing mill products, including sashes, doors and blinds.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
Mill Hill Society (English, 1866).
The Roman Mission too has been very successful; for some years a French agency, the White Fathers of Algeria, carried it on, but they were afterwards joined by English helpers from St Joseph's Society at Mill Hill.
Browne, Off the Mill (1895); Mrs H.
Lord Kelvin also devised an influence machine, commonly called a" mouse mill,"for electrifying the ink in connexion with his siphon recorder.
The rapid advance in mechanical engineering in the latter part of this second period stimulated the iron industry greatly, giving it in 1728 Payn and Hanbury's rolling mill for rolling sheet iron, in 1760 John Smeaton's cylindrical cast-iron bellows in place of the wooden and leather ones previously used, in 1783 Cort's grooved rolls for rolling bars and rods of iron, and in 1838 James Nasmyth's steam hammer.
In fact, the molten iron is heated so far above its melting point that, instead of being run at once into pigs as is usual, it may, without solidifying, be carried even several miles in large clay-lined ladles to the mill where it is to be converted into steel.
part of which is used for raising steam for generating the blast itself and driving the rolling mill engines, &c., or directly in gas engines, and the rest for heating the blast.
In order to utilize this power, the converting mill, in which the pig iron is converted into steel, and the rolling mills must adjoin t h e blast - furnace.
Here each mould and each ingot was handled as a separate unit twice, instead of only once as in the car casting system; the ingots radiated away great quantities of heat in passing naked from the converting mill to the soaking furnaces, and the heat which they and the moulds radiated while in the converting mill was not only wasted, but made this mill, open-doored as it was, so intolerably hot, that the cost of labour there was materially increased.
The rolling mill in its simplest form is a pair of cylindrical rollers,.
- Two-high Rolling Mill.
- Threethree-high mill is that, because each of high Rolling Mill.
(See also Rolling Mill.) 130.
in the case of the " Lusitania," is so small that it would be wasteful to instal for their manufacture the great and costly rolling mill needed to reduce them from the gigantic ingots from which they must be made, with its succession of decreasing passes, and its mechanism for rotating the piece between passes and for transferring it from pass to pass.
Finally the quantity of armour plate needed is so enormous that it justifies the expense of installing a great rolling mill.
Krupp's armourplate mill, with rolls 4 ft.
Mill held with his System of Logic to Hartley and James Mill.
Mill in this second feature will not be overlooked.
Mill made in theory no advance beyond Hume.
In the logic of Mill, e.g., we find much of a special character that has no counterpart in Hume, much that is introduced ab extra, from general considerations of scientific procedure, but, so far as the groundwork is concerned, the System of Logic is a mere reproduction of Hume's doctrine of knowledge.
It is impossible for any reader of Mill's remarkable posthumous essay on theism to avoid the reflection that in substance the treatment is identical with that of the Dialogues on Natural Religion, while on the whole the superiority in critical force must be assigned to the earlier work.
The first silk mill was erected about 1755, and silk manufacture on a large scale was introduced about 1790.
Erie is the commercial centre of a large and rich grape-growing and agricultural district, has an extensive trade with the lake ports and by rail (chiefly in coal, iron ore, lumber and grain), and is an important manufacturing centre, among its products being iron, engines, boilers, brass castings, stoves, car heaters, flour, malt liquors, lumber, planing mill products, cooperage products, paper and wood pulp, cigars and other tobacco goods, gas meters, rubber goods, pipe organs, pianos and chemicals.
The city has various manufactures, including flour and grist mill products, silver ware, cotton and woollen goods, carriages, harnesses and leather belting, furniture, wooden ware, pianos and clothing; the Boston & Maine Railroad has a large repair shop in the city, and there are valuable granite quarries in the vicinity.
In politics the revulsion from his particuar conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted of his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme demonstration of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign power, wherever seated, in the state; and, when in a later age the foundations of a positive theory of legislation were laid in England, the school of Bentham - James Mill, Grote, Molesworth - brought again into general notice the writings of the great publicist of the 17th century, who, however he might, by the force of temperament, himself prefer the rule of one, based his whole political system upon a rational regard to the common weal.
Finally, the psychology of Hobbes, though too undeveloped to guide the thoughts or even perhaps arrest the attention of Locke, when essaying the scientific analysis of knowledge, came in course of time (chiefly through James Mill) to be connected with the theory of associationism developed from within the school of Locke, in different ways, by Hartley and Hume; nor is it surprising that the later associationists, finding their principle more distinctly formulated in the earlier thinker, should sometimes have been betrayed into affiliating themselves to Hobbes rather than to Locke.
Mansel wrote also The Philosophy of the Conditioned (1866) in reply to Mill's criticism of Hamilton; Letters, Lectures, and Reviews (ed.
JAMES MILL (1773-1836), historian and philosopher, was born on the 6th of April 1773, at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Forfarshire, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker.
He then took a house in Pentonville, where his eldest son, John Stuart Mill, was born in 1806.
From 1824 to 1826 Mill contributed to the Westminster Review, started as the organ of his party, a number of articles in which he attacked the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews and ecclesiastical establishments.
From 1831 to 1833 Mill was largely occupied in the defence of the East India Company, during the controversy attending the renewal of its charter, he being in virtue of his office the spokesman of the court of directors.
Mill had a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Latin literature, general history, political, mental and moral philosophy.
Mill played a great part also in English politics, and was, more than any other man, the founder of what was called "philosophic radicalism."
It followed up the views of Ricardo, with whom Mill was always on terms of intimacy.
By his Analysis of the Mind and' his Fragment on Mackintosh Mill acquired a position in the history of psychology and ethics.
Bain, James Mill (1882); G.
Bower, Hartley and James Mill (1881); James McCosh, Scottish Philosophy (1885); J.
Mill, Autobiography (1873); Th.
John Mill >>
In his sixteenth year he entered his father's mill, and in due time became a partner in the business.
George Eliot stayed for a considerable period at Shotter mill, a neighbouring village.
Among its manufactures are machine-shop and foundry products, window glass and pressed glass ware, and grist mill and planing-mill products.
The settlement of Trenton began in 1680 with the erection by Mahlon Stacy, a Quaker colonist of Burlington, of a mill at the junction of the Assanpink creek' with the Delaware river.
The method once exclusively used consists in mixing the raw materials with a large quantity of water in a wash mill, a machine having radial horizontal arms driven from a central vertical spindle and carrying harrows which stir up and intermix any soft material placed in the pit in which the apparatus revolves.
The raw materials in the correct proportion are fed into this mill together with a large quantity of water.
According to present practice the raw materials are mixed in a wash mill with so much water that the resulting slurry contains 40 to 50% of water.
The slurry, which is wet enough to flow, is ground between millstones so as to complete the process of comminution begun in the wash mill.
Grand Rapids manufactures carpet sweepers - a large proportion of the whole world's product, - flour and grist mill products, foundry and machine-shop products, planing-mill products, school seats, wood-working tools, fly paper, calcined plaster, barrels, kegs, carriages, wagons, agricultural implements and bricks and tile.
Two years later a trading post joined the mission, in 1833 a saw mill was built, and for the next few years the growth was rapid.
Mill had made Carlyle's acquaintance in the previous visit to London, and had corresponded with him.
Mill had introduced Ralph Waldo Emerson, who visited Craigenputtock in 1833.
Mill, though not an intellectual disciple, was a very warm admirer of his friend's genius.
Meanwhile Mill, who had collected many books upon the French Revolution, was eager to help Carlyle in the history which he was now beginning.
Mill induced Carlyle to accept in compensation £100, which was urgently needed.
It was reviewed by Mill in the Westminster and by Thackeray in The Times, and Carlyle, after a heroic struggle, was at last touching land.
So far he was in harmony with Mill and the " philosophical radicals."
A fundamental divergence of principle, however, existed and was soon indicated by his speedy separation from the party and alienation from Mill himself.
His aversion from the ordinary radicalism led to an article upon slavery in 1849, to which Mill replied, and which caused their final alienation.
The principal manufactures are machineshop products (the Delaware & Hudson has repair and machine shops at Oneonta), knit goods, silk goods, lumber and planing mill products, &c. The first settlement was made about 1780.
In fact, as his rebels put it, " he happinit to be slain " at Beaton's mill.
Mill (1492); and the Schort Memoriale of the Scottis Corniklis, an account of the reign of James II.
He was also with McClellan at the battle of Fair Oaks, and was personally engaged in the sanguinary battle at Gaines Mill on the 27th of June.
Of other manufactures dependent upon agriculture, flour and grist mill products declined between 1890 and 1900, but between 1900 and 1905 increased 39.6% to a value of $39,892,127.
Mill's Essay on Liberty with an argument for immortality, based on the yearning of the affections to regain communion with the beloved dead, - on the impossibility of standing up and living, if we believed the separation were final.
Stalybridge is one of the oldest seats of the cotton manufacture in this locality, the first cotton mill having been erected in 1776, and the first steam engine in 1795.
Other manufactures are railway cars, casks, cooperage, saw and planing mill products, furniture, wooden ware, windmills, gas-engines, and mattresses and wire beds.
The Bombay Presidency possessed 70% of the mills and much the same percentage of spindles and looms. The industry dates from 1851, when the first mill was started.
Among his pupils were Sir Walter Scott, Jeffrey, Cockburn, Francis Horner, Sydney Smith, Lord Brougham, Dr Thomas Brown, James Mill, Sir James Mackintosh and Sir Archibald Alison.
This was founded shortly after the Conquest and originated from the endowment which the monks of Lyre near Evreux held in Bowcombe, including the church, mill, houses, land and tithes of the manor.
In 1817 he came under the influence of David Ricardo, and through him of James Mill and Jeremy Bentham.
Mill's Utilitarian Society (1822-1823), he took a great interest in a society for reading and discussion, which met (from 1823) in a room at the bank before business hours twice a week.
Mill and Henry Brougham in the organization of the new "university" in Gower Street.
He was a member of the council which organized the faculties and the curriculum; but in 1830, owing to a difference with Mill as to an appointment to one of the philosophical chairs, he resigned his position.
Mill and Bentham, whose chief principles were representative government, vote by ballot, the abolition of a state church, frequent elections.
Mill paid a tribute to him in the preface to the third edition of his Examination of Sir Wm.
Mill in his Logic pointed out this defect, and without departing from Baconian principles remedied it by quoting scientific examples, in which deduction, starting from inductive principles, applies more general to less general universals, e.g.
Mill's logic has the great merit of copiously exemplifying the principles of the variety of method according to subject-matter.
The consilience of empirical and deductive processes was an Aristotelian discovery, elaborated by Mill against Bacon.
On the whole, however, Aristotle, Bacon and Mill, purged from their errors, form one empirical school, gradually growing by adapting itself to the advance of science; a school in which Aristotle was most influenced by Greek deductive Mathematics, Bacon by the rise of empirical physics at the Renaissance, and Mill by the Newtonian combination of empirical facts and mathematical principles in the Principia.
We believe many things that we cannot conceive; as Mill said, the inconceivable is not the incredible; and the point of science is not what we can conceive but what we should believe on evidence.
It requires an idea, because every object is conceived as well as recognized or denied; but it is itself an assertion of actual fact, every perception counts for a judgment, and every categorical is changeable into an existential judgment without change of sense (Brentano, who derives his theory from Mill except that he denies the necessity of a combination of ideas, and reduces a categorical to an existential judgment).
These theories are of varying value in proportion to their proximity to Aristotle's point that predication is about things, and to Mill's point that judgments and propositions are about things, not about ideas.
Neither Mill, however, nor any of the later logicians whose theories we have quoted, has been able quite to detach judgment from conception; they all suppose that an idea, or ideas, is a condition of all judgment.
Lastly, all the authors of the above-quoted theories err in supposing that all judgment requires conception; for even Mill thinks a combination of ideas necessary, and Brentano, who comes still nearer to the nature of sensory judgment when he says, " Every perception counts for a judgment," yet thinks that an idea is necessary at the same time in order to understand the thing judged.
Yet memory is not mere conception, as Aristotle, and Mill after him, have perceived.
Without realizing their debt to tradition, Herbart, Mill and recently Sigwart, have repeated Aristotle's separation of the copula from the verb of existence, as if it were a modern discovery that " is " is not the same as " exists."
the judgment, " not-being is thinkable," cited by Aristotle; the judgment, " A square circle is impossible," cited by Herbart; the judgment, " A centaur is a fiction of the poets," cited by Mill.
As Mill pointed out, it cannot be implied that a centaur exists, since the very thing asserted is that the thing has no real existence.
In a correspondence with Mill, Brentano rejoined that the centaur exists in imagination; Bradley says, " inside our heads."
Mill thereupon supposed a still more general premise, an assumption of the uniformity of nature.
Since Mill's time, however, the logic of induction tends to revert towards syllogisms more like that of Aristotle.
Mill confused Newton's analytical deduction with hypothetical deduction; and thereupon Jevons confused induction with both.
Lastly, the theory of Mill, though frequently adopted, e.g.
It is not syllogism in the form of Aristotle's or Wundt's inductive syllogism, because, though starting only from some particulars, it concludes with a universal; it is not syllogism in the form called inverse deduction by Jevons, reduction by Sigwart, inductive method by Wundt, because it often uses particular facts of causation to infer universal laws of causation; it is not syllogism in the form of Mill's syllogism from a belief in uniformity of nature, because few men have believed in uniformity, but all have induced from particulars to universals.
This pococurantism might easily be interpreted as an insight into the limitations of inverse method as such or as a belief in the plurality of causes in Mill's sense of the phrase.
Could Mill say more?
His influence on his successors has rather lain in the general stimulus of his enthusiasm for experience, or in the success with which he represents the cause of nominalism and in certain special devices of method handed down till, through Hume or Herschel, they affected the thought of Mill.
Finally Mill took from him his definition of cause as sum of conditions,9 which played no small part in the applied logic of the 19th century.
The distance from Locke to Stuart Mill along this line of thought is obviously but small.
We have Mill's inductive methods in the germ, though with an emphasis quite older than Mill's.
Stuart Mill's System of Logic marked a fresh stage in the history of empiricism, for the reason that it made the effort to hold an even balance between the two moments in the thought of the school.
Mill aspired after a doctrine of method such as should satisfy the needs of the natural sciences, notably experimental physics and chemistry as understood in the first half of the 19th century and, mutatis mutandis, of the moral sciences naturalistically construed.
the formal logic of Hamilton and Mansel, whose Aristotelian and scholastic learning did but accentuate their traditionalism, and whose acquiescence in consistency constituted in Mill's view a discouragement of research, such as men now incline to attribute at the least equally to Hume's idealism, Mill is only negatively justified.
In the field covered by scholastic logic Mill is frankly associationist.
Mill holds even the ideas of mathematics to be hypothetical, and in theory knows nothing of a non-enumerative or non-associative universal.
Mill's view of ratiocinative process clearly stands and falls with the presumed impossibility of establishing the necessity for universals of another type than his, for what may be called principles of construction.
In Mill's inductive logic, the nominalistic convention has, through his tendency to think in relatively watertight compartment,s, 2 faded somewhat into the background.
Equally, too, the deductive character, apparently in intention as well as in actual fact, of Mill's experimental methods fails to recall the point of theory that the process is essentially one from particular to particular.
Yet Mill's view of the function of " universal " propositions had been historically suggested by a theory - Dugald Stewart's - of the use of axioms!'
Once more, it would be possible to forget that Mill's ultimate laws or axioms are not in his view intuitions, nor forms constitutive of the rational order, nor postulates of all rational construction, were it not that he has made the endeavour to establish them on associationist lines.
It is because of the failure of this endeavour to bring the technique of induction within the setting of his Humian psychology of belief that the separation of his contribution to the applied logic of science from his sensationism became necessary, as it happily 1 Mill, Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, cap. 17.
Mill, Autobiography, p. 159.
Mill's device rested special inductions of causation upon the laws that every event has a cause, and every cause has always the same effect.
But that truth is not what Mill expounds, nor is it capable of development within the limits imposed by the associationist formula.
It is deservedly, nevertheless, that Mill's applied logic has retained its pride of place amid what has been handed on, if in modified shape, by writers, e.g., Sigwart, and Professor Bosanquet, whose theory of knowledge is quite alien from his.
Mill was content to codify.
The difference between Bacon and Mill lies chiefly in this, and it is because of this difference that Mill's contribution, spite of its debt to the Baconian tradition, remains both characteristic and valuable.
The critic has the right of it when he points out, for example, that the practical difficulty in the Method of Agreement is not due to plurality of causes, as Mill states, but rather to intermixture of effects, while, if the canon could be satisfied exactly, the result would not be rendered uncertain in the manner or to the extent which he supposes.
It is the oscillation which Mill manifests between the conception of his formula as it is actually applicable to concrete problems in practice, and the conception of it as an expression of a theoretical limit to practical procedure.
Mill seems most often to think of the former, while tending to formulate in terms of the latter.
Finally, it is on the whole in keeping with Mill's presuppositions to admit even in the case of the method of difference that in practice it is approximative and instructive, while the theoretical formula, to which it aims at approaching asymptotically as limit, if exact, is in some sense sterile.
Mill may well have himself conceived his methods as practically fruitful and normally convincing with the limiting formula in each case more cogent in form but therewith merely the skeleton of the process that but now pulsed with life.
Enough has been said to show why the advance beyond the letter of Mill was inevitable while much in the spirit of Mill must necessarily affect deeply all later experientialism.
After Mill experientialism takes essentially new forms. In part because of what Mill had done.
After Mill means after Kant and Hegel and Herbart, and it means after the emergence of evolutionary naturalism.
Mill, then, marks the final stage in the achievement of a great school of thought.
Stuart Mill, despite of his relation of antagonism to Hamilton and Mansel, who held themselves to be Kantian in spirit, is still wholly pre-Kantian in his outlook.
2 It is characteristic of Sigwart's point of view that he acknowledges obligation to Mill as well as to Ueberweg.
The transmutation of Mill's induction of inductions into a postulate is an advance of which the psychological school of logicians have not been slow to make use.
About two-thirds of the increase between 1890 and 1900 was in the lumber industry, which was of slight importance before the former year; it represented more than half the total value of the manufactures of the state in 1905 (output, 1905, $28,065,171 and of mill products $3,786, 7 72 additional); in the value of lumber and timber products the state ranked sixth among the states of the United States in 1900, and seventh in 1905.
Sutter's mill, on the south fork of the American river near Coloma, by a workman, James W.
z The 1905 census of manufactures deals only with establishments under the factory system; its figures for 1905 and the figures for 1900 reduced to the same limits are as follows: - total value of products, 1905, $367,218,494; 1900, $ 2 57,3 8 5,5 21, an increase of 4 2.7%; leading industries, with value of product in millions of dollars - canning and preserving, first in 1905 with 23.8 millions, third in 1900 with 13.4 millions; slaughtering and meat-packing, second in 1905 with 21.79 millions, first in 1900 with 15.71 millions; flour and grist mill products, third in 1905 with 20.2 millions, fourth in 1900 with 13.04 millions; lumber and timber, fourth in 1905 with 18.27 millions, second in 1900 with 13.71 millions; printing and publishing, fifth in 1905 with 17.4 millions, sixth in 1900 with 9.6 millions; foundry and machine shop products, sixth in 1905 with 15.7 millions, fifth in 1900 with 12.04 millions; planing mill products, seventh in 1905 with 13.9 millions, twelfth in 1900 with 4.8 millions; bread and other bakery products, eighth in 1905 with 10.6 millions, eleventh in 1900 with 4.87 millions.
Thomas at Mill Springs (January 9, 1862), he was censured and gave up his command.
The values of the products of the principal industries of the state in 1905 were: car and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $1,640,361; lumber and timber products, $426,433 flour and grist mill products, $283,653; butter, $114,354.
It is maintained with the proceeds from funds derived principally from lands and with a university tax amounting in 1909 to one-half mill on a dollar.
Up to 1840 the mill hands, with the exception of English dyers and calico printers, were New England girls.
This invention having been brought to a fairly advanced stage, he removed to Nottingham in 1768, accompanied by Kay and John Smalley of Preston, and there erected his first spinning mill, which was worked by horses.
The elementary schools are maintained from the proceeds of the state school funds, consisting of interest on the literary fund, a portion of the state poll tax, a property tax not less than one mill nor more than five mills on the dollar, and special appropriations; county funds, consisting principally of a property tax; and district funds, consisting principally of a property tax and a dog tax.
St Joseph's Foreign Missionary College, Mill Hill Park, London, was opened in 1869.
It was his most cherished ambition to see before he died an adequate Roman Catholic cathedral in Westminster, and he laboured untiringly to secure subscriptions, with the result that its foundation stone was laid in 1895, and that when he died, on the r9th of June 1903, the building was so far complete that a Requiem Mass was said there over his body before it was removed to its resting-place at Mill Hill Park.
John Stuart Mill (Essay on Religion) preferred to disbelieve in the omnipotence of God rather than forgo the belief in His goodness.
and Nevada City were all founded in 1859; Breckenridge, Empire, Gold Hill, Georgetown and Mill City date from 1860 and 1861.
In the industrial suburb of Schoolfield, which in 1908 had a population of about 3000, there is a large textile mill.
The leading industries in 1905 were the construction of cars and general railway shop and repair work by steam railway companies (value of product, $2,509,845), the manufacture of lumber and timber products (value $1,315,364) and of flour and grist mill products (value $388,124), and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals (value $279,858).
Mill, who noticed it in a novel of Galt; but it was first suggested by Bentham.
From Bentham the leadership in utilitarianism passed to James Mill, who made no characteristic addition to its doctrine, and from him to John Stuart Mill.
John Mill wrote no elaborate treatise on the subject.
Though in its abstract statement John Mill's doctrine may not differ very greatly from that of his predecessors, actually there is a vast change.
Mill belonged to a generation in which the most remarkable feature was the growth of sympathy.
Such passages in Mill have their full significance only when we take them in connexion with that rising tide of humanitarian sentiment which made itself felt in all the literature and in all the practical activity of his time.
The other notable feature of John Mill's doctrine is his distinction of value between pleasures: some pleasures, those of the mind, are higher and more valuable than others, those of the body.
It is commonly said that in making this distinction Mill has practically given up utilitarianism, because he has applied to pleasure (alleged to be the supreme criterion) a further criterion which is not pleasure.
So also Mill is justified in preferring a scene of Shakespeare or an hour's conversation with a friend to a great mass of lower pleasure.
The last writer who, though not a political utilitarian, may be regarded as belonging to the school of Mill is Henry Sidgwick, whose elaborate Methods of Ethics (1874) may be regarded as closing this line of thought.
His theory is a sort of reconciliation of utilitarianism with intuitionism, a position which he reached by studying Mill in combination with Kant and Butler.
Fischer, Bacon, pp. 499-502.) Mill, Logic, ii.
In the time of Edward the Confessor the town seems to have consisted of the mill and a fortification or earthwork which was probably thrown up by Alfred as a defence against the Danes; but it had increased in importance before the Conquest, and appears in Domesday as a thriving borough and port.
At this point advantage is taken of fine dry weather to gather up the flax, which is now ready for scutching, but the fibre is improved by stooking and stacking it for some time before it is taken to the scutching mill.
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