How to use Middle-ages in a sentence
Several of the beefy men living in the house were in the grassy, well-lit courtyard, sparring with swords, knives, and other weaponry that looked like it came straight out of the Middle Ages.
Vico held God to be the ruler of the world of nations, but ruling, not as the providence of the middle ages by means of continued miracles, but as He rules nature, by means of natural laws.
Vico undoubtedly considered the poetic wisdom of the Middle Ages to be different from that of the Greeks and Romans, and Christianity to be very superior to the pagan religion.
Between them they rendered into Hebrew all the chief Jewish writings of the middle ages.
Aguilar "of the Frontier" was so named in the middle ages from its position on the border of the Moorish territories, which were defended by the castle of Anzur, now a ruin; but the spacious squares and modern houses of the existing town retain few vestiges of Moorish dominion.Advertisement
Zimbabwe was probably the distributing centre for the gold traffic carried on in the middle ages between subjects of the Monomotapa and the Mahommedans of the coast.
This is the reassertion of a principle which the middle ages had lost sight of - that knowledge, if it is to have any value, must be intelligence, and not erudition.
The Roman emperors recognized it as a free state, and in the middle ages it was called Stampalia, and belonged to the noble Venetian family of Quirini.
In the middle ages Ostia regained something of its importance, owing to the silting up of the right arm of the Tiber.
But the most remarkable memorial of the middle ages that exists in all this district is the monastery of Sumelas, which is situated about 25 m.Advertisement
As a child she had already believed herself to have visions; these now became more frequent, and her records of these "revelations," which were tanslated into Latin by Matthias, canon of Linkoping, and by her confessor, Peter, prior of Alvastra, obtained a great vogue during the middle ages.
Gold mines were worked in antiquity in the Drin valley, and silver mines in the Mirdite region were known to the Venetians in the middle ages.
Lake Chad is supposed to have been known by report to Ptolemy, and is identified by some writers with the Kura lake of the middle ages.
Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of Normandy.
During the whole of the middle ages Tournai was styled the "seigneurie de Tournaisis," and possessed a charter and special privileges of its own.Advertisement
It was a popular opinion in the middle ages that extreme unction extinguishes all ties and links with this world, so that he who has received it must, if he recovers, renounce the eating of flesh and matrimonial relations.
It is situated on the canal from Bruges to Sluys (Ecluse), but in the middle ages a navigable channel or river called the Zwyn gave ships access to it from the North Sea.
In the middle ages Plautus was little regarded, and twelve of his plays (Bacchides - Truculentus) disappeared from view until they were discovered (in the MS. called D) by Nicholas of Troves in the year 1429.
The county of Lingen, of which this town was the capital, was united in the middle ages with the county of Tecklenburg.
In the middle ages it was the seat of a large trade in linen.Advertisement
In the middle ages Teignmouth was a flourishing port, able to furnish 7 ships and 120 mariners to the Calais expedition of 1347, and depending chiefly on the fishing and salt industries.
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
The space thus included was known in ancient times as Venetia, a name applied in the middle ages to the well-known city; the eastern portion of it became known in the middle ages as the Frioul or Friuli.
Throughout the middle ages the sancta civitas Trevirorum abounded in religious foundations and was a great seat of monastic learning.
In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.Advertisement
Isolated examples in the early middle ages of metropolitans dealing with their suffragan bishops by imprisonment in chains were extra-canonical abuses, connected with the perversion of Church law which treated the metropolitan (who originally was merely convener of the provincial synod and its representative during the intervals of sessions) as the feudal " lord " of his comprovincials.
Exempt jurisdictions began with the monasteries and were matter of vehement discussion in the later middle ages.
The recursus ad principem, in some form or other of appeal or application to the sovereign or his lay judges, was at the end of the middle ages well known over western Europe.
In the later middle ages these courts had jurisdiction over most questions, except indeed the then most important ones, those relating to real property.
The " ordinary " ecclesiastical tribunals of the later middle ages still subsist in England, at least as regards the laity.Advertisement
In the middle ages the nocturnal vigilia were, except in the monasteries, gradually discontinued, matins and vespers on the preceding day, with fasting, taking their place.
The few records during the middle ages are borne out by what is known of famines and pestilence.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
By the "fathers," then, we understand the whole of extant Christian literature from the time of the apostles to the rise of scholasticism or the beginning of the middle ages.
In the Byzantine and early Romanesque periods it was an essential part of church furniture; but during the middle ages it was gradually superseded in the Western Church by the pulpit and lectern.Advertisement
The fame of Boetius increased after his death, and his influence during the middle ages was exceedingly powerful.
These works formed to a large extent the source from which the middle ages derived their knowledge of Aristotle.
Whether he meant it so or not, the saint's argument became a programme and an apologia for the imperializing of the Western Church under the leadership of Rome during the middle ages.
Moslems and Jews were applying Aristotelian philosophy to rigorously monotheistic faiths; Christianity had been encouraged by Platonism in teaching a trinity of divine persons, and Platonism of a certain order long dominated the middle ages as part of the Augustinian tradition.
The tendency of the later middle ages is to add to the number of the doctrines with which philosophy cannot deal.Advertisement
Even in the middle ages there were not wanting those - the St Victors, Bonaventura - who sought to vindicate mystical if not moral redemption as the central thought of Christianity.
An English translation of the embassy to Constantinople is in Ernest Henderson's Select Documents of the Middle Ages (Bohn series, 1896).
Gibbon's verdict on the history of the middle ages is contained in the famous sentence, " I have described the triumph of barbarism and religion."
But though this defensive zeal led to active persecution, still in theory Judaism was a tolerated religion wherever the Church had sway, and many papal bulls of a friendly character were issued throughout the middle ages (Scherer, p. 32 seq.).
In the early middle ages the title prelate was applied to secular persons in high positions and thence it passed to persons having ecclesiastical authority.Advertisement
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the early Middle Ages.
Clerical immunities, of course, differed largely at different times and in different countries, the extent of them having been gradually curtailed from a period a little earlier than the close of the middle ages.
In particular, the Roman "North Road" which ran from York through Corbridge and over Cheviot to Newstead near Melrose, and thence to the Wall of Pius, and which has largely been in use ever since Roman times, is now not unfrequently called Watling Street, though there is no old authority for it and throughout the middle ages the section of the road between the Tyne and the Forth was called Dere Street.
During the middle ages the Friday market and fair in Whit week, granted by the first charter, were centres for the sale of yarn and cloth called "Dunsters," made in the town.
He was not only one of the most learned, but also one of the most statesmanlike sovereigns of the earlier middle ages.Advertisement
This " intensive " culture in a more or less developed form was practised by the great nations of antiquity, and little decided advance was made till after the middle ages.
During the middle ages cattle and sheep were the chief farm animals, but the intermixture of stock consequent on the common-field system was a barrier to improvement in the breed and conduced to the propagation of disease.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
In the middle ages this differentiation of the industrial, municipal and political life had not taken place, and in order to understand the working of at first sight purely economic regulations it is necessary to make a close study of the functions of local government.
Thus the study of the economic life of the middle ages is one of the most complicated subjects which can engage the attention of man.
From the close of the middle ages until the middle of the 18th century thousands of pamphlets and other works on economic questions were published, but the vast majority of the writers have little or no scientific importance.
It is not unlike the procedure of the canonists and casuists of the middle ages with regard to the doctrine of usury, by which the doctrine was to all appearances preserved intact while in reality it was stripped of all its original meaning by innumerable distinctions " over-curious and precise."
He died, probably in the year 254 (consequently under Valerian), at Tyre, where his grave was still shown in the middle ages.
Towards the 6th century the legend of the woman with the issue of blood became merged in the legend of Pilate, as is shown in the writings known in the middle ages as Cura sanitatis Tiberii and Vindicta Salvatoris.
The burlesque ritual which characterized the Feast of Fools throughout the middle ages was now at its height.
This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
This naive temper of the middle ages is nowhere more conspicuously displayed than in the Feast of the Ass, which under various forms was celebrated in a large number of churches throughout the West.
Various efforts were made during the middle ages to abolish the Feast of Fools.
During the middle ages the walls of Venetian buildings were constructed invariably of brick.
The incubus and succubus of the middle ages are sometimes regarded as spiritual beings; but they were held to give very real proof of their bodily existence.
But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.
In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortifications on the rock above the town were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in 1796.
Arab geographers and travellers of the middle ages speak in high terms of the gardens of Nisibis, and the magnificent returns obtained by the agriculturist.
They protected Europe from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages developed.
The creative thought of the middle ages is clerical thought.
We can only say that we have the text of Ibelin which was used in Cyprus in the later middle ages.
The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.
All those who in the middle ages denied the substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist were commonly designated Berengarians.
In the middle ages it was divided into upper, or black, Quercy, and lower, or white, Quercy, the capital of the former being Cahors and of the latter Montauban.
The mines were already worked during the middle ages.
During the middle ages it was an important centre of commerce between Germany and Italy.
But " alchemy " was something more than a particularly vain and deluded manifestation of the thirst for gold, as it is sometimes represented; in its wider and truer significance it stands for the chemistry of the middle ages.
His organizing genius, even more than his missionary zeal, left its mark upon the German church throughout all the middle ages.
Other minerals found here are graphite, alum, potter's clay and roofing-slate, and, besides, famous silvermines were worked at Iglau during the middle ages.
The notices of Athens during the earlier middle ages are scanty in the extreme.
The Parthenon, the Erechtheum, the " Theseum " and other temples were converted into Christian churches and were thus preserved throughout the middle ages.
These, said to have been unearthed, for the most part, near the Kirk Geuz spring above the modern town, are now in Constantinople and America, and include an inscribed lion, once built into the wall of the citadel known in the middle ages as al-Marwani, and several stelae.
What perhaps is its greatest interest as we first see it is its expression of the popular mind about the close of the middle ages.
In the middle ages Zutphen was the seat of a line of counts, which became extinct in the 12th century.
The markets of Hartlepool were important throughout the middle ages.
It is the seat of a court of justice and of an archbishop. During the middle ages it was for a time a fief of the Villehardouins.
In the middle ages Narni was under the papal power.
At various periods in the history of the middle ages we encounter sudden outbreaks of millennarianism, sometimes as the tenet of a small sect, sometimes as a far-reaching movement.
He may be reckoned the most illustrious pope since Benedict XIV., and under him the papacy acquired a prestige unknown since the middle ages.
As soon as the march of conquest had reached its natural limit, slavery began to be modified; and when the empire was divided into the several states which had grown up under it, and the system of defence characteristic of the middle ages was substituted for the aggressive system of antiquity, slavery gradually disappeared, and was replaced by serfdom.
During the middle ages it was the chief town of the district of Beauce, and gave its name to a countship which was held by the counts of Blois and Champagne and afterwards by the house of Chatillon, a member of which in 1286 sold it to the crown.
The later middle ages are represented by several monasteries, and many castles, such as those of Dervent, Doboj, Maglaj, Zepee and Vranduk, on the Bosna; Bihac, on Owing to the scarcity of authoritative documents, it is impossible to describe in detail the events of the next three centuries.
In the middle ages the population was about io,000.
In the middle ages Romford was rather a meetingplace for merchants than an industrial centre.
In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.
It should be noted that this name occurs again in the middle ages in Burgundy, not far from Dijon; in all probability a detachment of this people had settled in that spot in the 5th or 6th century.
The chasuble and the rest, whatever their origin, had become associated during the middle ages with certain doctrines the rejection of which at the Reformation was symbolized by their disuse.
Towards the close of the middle ages it appears several times at the head of leagues of the Swabian towns.
They then reigned over the two dioceses of Lescar and Oloron; but their capital was Morlaas, where they had a mint which was famous throughout the middle ages.
In Germany, the great preachers of the middle ages were Franciscans, such as Brother Bertold of Regensburg (1220-1272), or Dominicans, such as Johann Tauler (1290-1361), who preached in Latin.
It was on this spot, on the Appian way, that was built the basilica of St Sebastian, which was a popular place of pilgrimage in the middle ages.
In the middle ages it fell into the hands of the Venetians, who fortified it so strongly that in 1477 it successfully resisted a four months' siege by a Turkish army thirty thousand strong; in 1499, however, it was taken by Bayezid II.
In the middle ages they were cited to justify the claim of the papacy to be the supreme court of appeal.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").
The fact that the channels of thought during the middle ages were determined in this way is usually expressed by saying that reason in the middle age is subject to authority.
It was the excitement caused by their attempt, and the heterodox conclusions which were its first result, that lifted these Scholastic disputations into the central position which they henceforth occupied in the life of the middle ages.
They brought from their native Italy a thorough knowledge of the science of government as the middle ages understood it, and the decimation of the Hungarian magnates during the civil wars enabled them to re-create the noble hierarchy on a feudal basis, in which full allowance was made for Magyar idiosyncracies.
It continued to be a place of some importance, the situation being favourable and the region fertile, and does not seem to have been wholly abandoned till the middle ages.
Its manufactures include cardboard, glue, oils, colours, fertilizers, chemical products, perfumery, &c. During the middle ages and till modern times Aubervilliers was the resort of numerous pilgrims, who came to pay honour to Notre Dame des Vertus.
The motive was avowedly the same which in the Middle Ages led a medixval garrison to drive the civil population of a town into the camp of its would-be deliverers.
The real dawn of zoology after the legendary period of the middle ages is connected with the name of an Englishman, Edward Wotton, born at Oxford in 1492, who practised Wotton.
In many respects Wotton was simply an exponent of Aristotle, whose teaching, with various fanciful additions, constituted the real basis of zoological knowledge throughout the middle ages.
Again, the Scythic style is interesting as being one element in the art of the barbarians who conquered the Roman Empire and the zoomorphic decoration of the early middle ages.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
Ranking as a papal cathedral, this became a much-favoured place of assembly for ecclesiastical councils both in antiquity (313, 487) and more especially during the middle ages.
It lived and flourished far beyond this time, when transplanted to Rome, not less than in its native Alexandria, and appears to be recognizable even up to the beginning of the middle ages.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
Certain writings of Joannitius, translated into Latin, were popular in the middle ages in Europe, and were printed in the 16th century.
A continuous thread of learning and practice must have connected the last period of Roman medicine already mentioned with the dawn of science in the middle ages.
A conspicuous example of the incalculable evil wrought by lack of integration is well seen in the radical divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the most mischievous legacies of the middle ages - one whose mischief is scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deeply rooted in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to be hard to obliterate.
During the early middle ages the bank of the Rhine formed the most cultured part of Germany, basing its civilization on its Roman past.
Quicherat, he developed a strong inclination to the study of the middle ages.
Cyprus was for centuries famous for their manufacture, and they were still known in the middle ages by the names of pastils or osselets of Cyprus.
In the middle ages there was a constant succession of pageants, processions and tournaments.
Some of the Roman artificers in glass no doubt migrated to Constantinople, and it is certain that the art was practised there to a very great extent during the middle ages.
This left the Tour Burbant as its sole relic of the middle ages.
The Apocalyptic literature of Judaism and Christianity embraces a considerable period, from the centuries following the exile down to the close of the middle ages.
In the middle ages it was always plain.
The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle ages into Egypt, Sicily and the south of Spain where it flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused its cultivation to be abandoned.
In the middle ages Venice was the great European centre of the sugar trade, and towards the end of the 15th century a Venetian citizen received a reward of ioo,000 crowns for the invention of the art of making loaf sugar.
It was for some time during the middle ages an independent republic, but was subdued by the Venetians in 1405.
It became the capital of the pagus Constantinus (Cotentin), and in the middle ages was the seat of a viscount.
They are important because they played a prominent role in the social life of England, especially as eleemosynary institutions, down to the time of their suppression in 1547 Religious gilds, closely resembling those of England, also flourished on the continent during the middle ages.
Much evidence has been produced to show that gild and borough, gildsmen and burgesses, were originally distinct conceptions, and that they continued to be discriminated in most towns throughout the middle ages.
In the middle ages Ivrea was the capital of a Lombard duchy, and later of a marquisate; both Berengar II.
For several centuries Vienna filled an important role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character.
In 1003 we find records of a war between Pisa and Lucca, which, according to Muratori, was the first waged between Italian cities in the middle ages.
Another explanation, which appears first in Jewish authors of the middle ages and has found wide acceptance in recent times, derives the name from the causative of the verb; He (who) causes things to be, gives them being; or calls events into existence, brings them to pass; with many individual modifications of interpretation - creator, lifegiver, fulfiller of promises.
In the later middle ages he is represented as fighting with giants, dragons and dwarfs, and finally disappears on a black horse.
Of these the most important are Alexander of Macedon and Charlemagne, while alongside of them Priam and other heroes of the Trojan war appear during the middle ages in strangely altered guise.
This book was one of the most significant and influential Jewish works of the middle ages.
During the later middle ages it was the seat of several diets, that of 1184 being of unusual size and splendour.
The Archbishopric Of Mainz, one of the seven electorates of the Holy Roman Empire, became a powerful state during the middle ages and retained some of its importance until the dissolution of the empire in 1806.
When religion has be come positive, and society industrial, then the influence of the church upon the state becomes really freeandindependent,which was not the case in the middle ages.
In the middle ages Verona gradually grew in size and importance.
Founded in the 10th century as Lowenwold, Uelzen became in the middle ages an active member of the Hanseatic League.
During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.
During the middle ages the fortunes of Dijon followed those of Burgundy, the dukes of which acquired it early in the 11 th century.
It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies.
It is not necessary in illustration of the second type of heresy - that which arises when the contents of the Christian faith are being defined - to refer to the doctrinal controversies of the middle ages.
On the one hand there were during the middle ages sects, like the Catharists and Albigenses, whose "opposition as a rule developed itself from dualistic or pantheistic premises (surviving effects of old Gnostic or Manichaean views)" and who "stood outside of ordinary Christendom, and while no doubt affecting many individual members within it, had no influence on church doctrine."
A far more probable explanation of their name "Chretiens" is to be found in the fact that in medieval times all lepers were known as pauperes Christi, and that, Goths or not, these Cagots were affected in the middle ages with a particular form of leprosy or a condition resembling it.
These armed men formed the exercitus romanae militiae, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the middle ages.
In the Roman Catholic Church the powers of the archbishop are considerably less extensive than they were in the middle ages.
Since there is no example of the archbishop of York exercising or being reputed to have such disciplinary jurisdiction over his suffragans,' and this right could, according to the canon law cited above, in the middle ages only be exercised normally in concert with the provincial synod, it would seem to be a survival of the special jurisdiction enjoyed by the pre-Reformation archbishop as legatus natus of the pope.
The chief sources of the European supply during the middle ages were the mines of Saxony and Austria, while Spain also contributed.
Similar questions arose as the river formed fresh deposits during the middle ages and during the 15th and 16th centuries.
During most of the middle ages and up till 1860 Terni was subject to the popes.
Of his separate publications, the most important are his lives of Cromwell (1888), William the Silent, (1897), Ruskin (1902), and Chatham (1905); his Meaning of History (1862; enlarged 1894) and Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages (1900); and his essays on Early Victorian Literature (1896) and The Choice of Books (1886) are remarkable alike for generous admiration and good sense.
In the middle ages they were known to Ratherius of Verona (loth century), who quotes a passage from i.
It was probably unknown to the Greeks and Romans, but during the middle ages it became quite familiar, notwithstanding its frequent confusion with other metals.
An acquaintance with these various methods is indispensable to the student of the charters, chronicles and legal instruments of the middle ages.
In the chronicles of the middle ages much uncertainty frequently arises respecting dates on account of the different epochs assumed for the beginning of the Christian year.
A volume of supplemental notes to his Middle Ages was published in 1848.
The Middle Ages is described by Hallam himself as a series of historical dissertations, a comprehensive survey of the chief circumstances that can interest a philosophical inquirer during the period from the 5th to the 15th century.
The last chapter sketches the general state of society, the growth of commerce, manners, and literature in the middle ages.
Like the Constitutional History, the Introduction to the Literature of Europe continues one of the branches of inquiry which had been opened in the View of the Middle Ages.
This was built by the Capuchins, who in the middle ages chose Syra as the headquarters of a mission in the East.
Avallon (Aballo) was in the middle ages the seat of a viscounty dependent on the duchy of Burgundy, and on the death of Charles the Bold passed under the royal authority.
In appearance the town is quaint and romantic, presenting almost as faithful a picture of a town of the early middle ages as Nuremberg does of the later.
In the middle ages Aire belonged to the counts of Flanders, from whom in 1188 it received a charter, which is still extant.
The Stoics divided XoytK17 (logic) into rhetoric and dialectic, and from their time till the end of the middle ages dialectic was either synonymous with, or a part of, logic.
Its chief interest lies in the fact that (together with Dares Phrygius's De excidio Trojae) it was the source from which the Homeric legends were introduced into the romantic literature of the middle ages.
The work was a complete encyclopaedia of the liberal culture of the time, and was in high repute during the middle ages.
This site, which in the middle ages appears to have been lost - Gilgal being shown farther north - was in 1865 recovered by a German traveller (Hermann Zschokke), and fixed by the English survey party, though not beyond dispute.
In the middle ages Phaedrus exercised a considerable influence through the prose versions of his fables which were current, though his own works and even his name were forgotten.
In the middle ages it went through various vicissitudes; it fell under the dominion of Venice in 1511, and remained Venetian until 1797.
Oschersleben is first mentioned in 803, and belonged in the later middle ages to the bishops of Halberstadt.
It should always be remembered that the law of the Church was regarded by all lawyers in the later middle ages as the law common to all Europe (jus commune).
It was not until 1789 that the French Church of the middle ages lost its vast possessions and was subjected to a fundamental reconstruction by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1791).
This was possible in any complete sense only after the introspective movement represented by the middle ages had done its work, and the thought of the individual mind and will as possessed of relative independence had worked itself out into some degree of clearness.
Apart from one or two of the greatest minds, notably Dante, what appealed to the thinkers of the middle ages was not the idea of reality as a progressive self-revelation of an inner principle working through nature and human life, but the formal principles of classification which it seemed to offer for a material of thought and action given from another source.
Throughout the middle ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes.
Douai, the site of which was occupied by a castle (Castrum Duacense) as early as the 7th century, belonged in the middle ages to the counts of Flanders, passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, and so in 1477 with the rest of the Netherlands to Spain.
The counts of Armagnac possessed a castle in the city, which was the capital of Armagnac in the middle ages.
This weapon embodied all the essential features which distinguish the ordnance of to-day from the cannon of the middle ages - it was built up of rings of metal shrunk upon an inner steel barrel; it was loaded at the breech; it was rifled; and it threw, not a round ball, but an elongated projectile with ogival head.
The chief external works achieved for western Europe by the Benedictines during the early middle ages may be summed up under the following heads.
This side of Benedictine life is most typically represented by the Venerable Bede, the gentle and learned scholar of the early middle ages.
In other lands things did not on the whole go so well, and many causes at work during the later middle ages tended to bring about relaxation in the Benedictine houses; above all the vicious system of commendatory abbots, rife everywhere except in England.
In Austria, Hungary and Switzerland there are some thirty great abbeys, most of which have had a continued existence since the middle ages.
In the middle ages it had six churches and four monastic establishments, the oldest a Benedictine nunnery (1170).
Aschaffenburg, called in the middle ages Aschafaburg and also Askenburg, was originally a Roman settlement.
According to the German Freiherr von Herberstein (1486-1566), in his Moscovia, of which an Italian translation was published at Venice in 1550, the aurochs survived in Poland (and probably also in Hungary) during the latter middle ages.
North-west and south-west the city is commanded by hills, on which are forts, that on Sidi bel Hassan to the south dating from the middle ages.
The history of the sects of the middle ages is obscure, because the earliest accounts of them come from those who were concerned in their suppression, and were therefore eager to lay upon each of them the worst enormities which could be attributed to any.
Most of these sects were stamped out before the period of the middle ages came to a close.
Of modern books may be mentioned Schmidt, Histoire des Cathares; Hahn, Geschichte der neumanichaischen Ketzer; Dieckhoff, Die Waldenser im Mittelalter; Preger, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Waldensier; Cantu, Gli Eretici in Italia; Comba, Storia della Riforma in Italia, and Histoire des Vaudois d'Italie; Tocco, L'Eresia nel medio evo; Montet, Histoire litteraire des Vaudois; Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages.
His chapel (which still existed in Leland's time) was a place of pilgrimage in the middle ages.
He had already made himself known by critical studies on the history of the middle ages, of which the most important was his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (Dusseldorf, 1841; new ed., Leipzig, 1881), a work which, besides its merit as a valuable piece of historical investigation, according to the critical methods which he had learnt from Ranke, was also of some significance as a protest against the vaguely enthusiastic attitude towards the middle ages encouraged by the Romantic school.
Religious thought about the angels during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchy set forth in the De Hierarchia Celesti, written in the 5th century in the name of Dionysius the Areopagite and passing for his.
During the later middle ages the houses of these various congregations of canons regular spread all over Europe and became extraordinarily numerous.
In the late middle ages the stole was usually of uniform breadth; but from the 16th century onwards the ends again began to be widened, until in the 18th century we have the hideous form with large shovelshaped ends.
Fringes, tassels, little bells and the like were used as decorations of the ends of stoles at least as early as the 9th century; but crosses in the middle and at the ends were rarely added during the middle ages.
But considerable as is the prosperity of modern Courtrai it is but a shadow of what it was in the middle ages during the halcyon period of the Flemish communes.
Gierke, in his book Johannes Althusius and die Entwickelung der naturrechtlichen Staatstheorie, shows (p. 76) that the conception of a treaty or agreement as the basis of the state was in the middle ages a dogma which passed almost unchallenged, and that this theory was maintained up to a late period.
In the middle ages the question was often mooted whether states subject to feudal superiors, or the states forming the empire, were sovereign.
The introduction of the drug into medicine is supposed to have been due to the Arabian physicians in the middle ages.
It was in Bohemia that they championed the principle most openly, where they were striving for national separation and protection against the Czechs of the territories which they had inhabited since the Middle Ages.
It is chiefly memorable for having included the story of the "Martyrs of Cordova," one of the most remarkable passages in the religious history of the middle ages.
These institutions were managed by the clergy, and throughout the dark and middle ages the hospital and nursing systems were connected with religious bodies.
In the middle ages Arezzo was generally on the Ghibelline side; it succumbed to Florence in 1289 at the battle of Campaldino, but at the end of the century recovered its strength under the Tarlati family.
The original name was Buonaparte, which was borne in the early middle ages by several distinct families in Italy.
In the middle ages the order fell into abeyance in both divisions of the Church, the abbess taking the place of the deaconess.
It was used in unguents and against the bites of snakes, &c. In the middle ages the flower continued to be common and was taken as the symbol of heavenly purity.
It was to sustain Augustine's thesis that Orosius produced in 417 his Historiarum libri septem, which remained the standard text-book on world history during the middle ages.
The work was known as the Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita, and constituted during the middle ages the principal text-book of church history in the West.
The union between Church and State thus constituted continued unbroken in the East throughout the middle ages.
This decision was confirmed by Pope Boniface II., and became the accepted doctrine in the Western Church of the middle ages.
Augustine's theory was ultimately accepted everywhere in the West, and thus the Church of the middle ages was regarded not only as the sole ark of salvation, but also as the ultimate authority, moral, intellectual and political.
The middle ages came into being at the time when the political structure of the world, based upon the conquests of Alexander the Great and the achievements of Julius Caesar, began to disintegrate.
There is no doubt that in the beginning of the middle ages both general and theological education stood higher among the Greeks than in more western countries.
He is the first of a series of theological mystics which continued through every century of the middle ages.
It is this striving after religious experience that gives to the Oriental monachism of the middle ages its peculiar character.
Constantinople and Mount Athos gained proportionately in importance during the middle ages.
Political conditions at the beginning of the middle ages favoured the Nestorian church, and the fact that the Arabs had conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt, made it possible for her to exert an influence on the Christians in these countries.
The middle ages were far more disastrous for the Monophysites than for the Nestorians; in their case there was no alternation of rise and decline, and we have only a long period of gradual exhaustion to chronicle.
Though at the time of the Arab conquest the Copts were reckoned at six millions, in 1820 the Coptic Christians numbered only about one hundred thousand, and it is improbable that their number can have been much greater at the close of the middle ages.
This is the great fact which stands out at the beginning of the history of the Church in the middle ages.
When the first century of the middle ages came to an end the Church had not only reoccupied the former territory of the Empire, she had already begun to overstep its limits.
Under the Empire the ecumenical council had been looked upon as the highest representative organ of the Catholic Church; but the earlier centuries of the middle ages witnessed the convocation of no ecumenical councils.
The bishopric of the middle ages bears the same name as that of the ancient Church; but in many respects it has greatness that is new.
In the middle ages the civilizing task of the Church was first approached in England.
The tendencies which they represented had been present when the middle ages were yet at their height; but the papacy, while at the zenith of its power, had succeeded in crushing the attacks made upon the creed of the Church by its most dangerous foes, the dualistic Cathari.
The Reformation which thus began brought the disintegrating process of the middle ages to an end, and at the same time divided Western Catholicism in two.
Doullens, the ancient Dulincum, was seat of a viscountship and an important stronghold in the middle ages.
Aix, which during the middle ages was the capital of the county of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning.
Its position at the entrance to the valley of the Magra (anc. Macra), the boundary between Etruria and Liguria in Roman times, gave it military importance in the middle ages.
It was not till - towards the close of the middle ages that a sense of conflict between reason and revelation became "truth' widely prevalent and took shape in the essentially sceptical theory of the twofold nature of truth.
In the middle ages the possession of Jerba was contested by the Normans of Sicily, the Spaniards and the Turks, the Turks proving victorious.
Proceeding to the earlier history of Poland, Lelewel's Poland in the Middle Ages (4 vols., Posen, 1846-1851) is still a standard work, though the greatest authority on Polish antiquities is now Tadeusz Wojciechowski, who unites astounding learning with a perfect style.
Such remission was popularly called a pardon in the middle ages - a term which still survives, e.g.
These examples show the close relations of the two churches in the Middle Ages.
Etaples has a small fishing and commercial port which enjoyed a certain importance during the middle ages.
Jiiterbog belonged in the later middle ages to the archbishopric of Magdeburg, passing to electoral Saxony in 1648, and to Prussia in 1815.
The influence of Varro's last work on the nine disciplinae, or branches of study, long survived in the seven " liberal arts " recognized by St Augustine and Martianus Capella, and in the trivium and quadrivium of the middle ages.
About the middle of the same century grammar had a far abler exponent at Rome in the person of Aelius Donatus, the preceptor of St Jerome, as well as the author of a text-book that remained in use throughout the middle ages.
He is a link between the ancient world and the middle ages, having been the last of the learned Romans who understood the language and studied the literature of Greece, and the first to interpret to the middle ages the logical treatises of Aristotle.
During the middle ages Latin prose never dies out.
This was partly due to the recovery of some of the lost works of ancient literature, and the transition from the middle ages to the revival of learning was attended by a general widening of the range of classical studies and by a renewed interest in Plato.
The classical learning of the middle ages was largely secondhand.
He is, in a limited sense, a precursor of the Renaissance, but he is far more truly to be regarded as the crowning representative of the spirit of the middle ages.
In the early middle ages it was commonly applied to secular officials and magistrates, and it remained all though the middle ages as the title of certain officials in the Italian city states.
The term prior was applied also in the middle ages in a very general manner.
The picture of Apostolical Christianity found in the New Testament offered indeed a glaring g g contrast to the papal system of the later middle ages.
During the early middle ages this region was also known as Ma wara '1 Nahr or Ma-vera-un-nahr, the meaning of which is given in the alternative classical title of Transoxiana.
Except in a few cases, we shall not here consider any units of the middle ages.
They not only formed one of the bridges by which the medieval thinkers got back to Plato and Aristotle; they determined the scientific method of thirty generations, and they partly created and partly nourished the Christian mysticism of the middle ages.
This book, with the Cathemerinon liber and the Psychomachia, was among the most widely read books of the middle ages.
In the middle ages the story of Caesar did not undergo such extraordinary transformations as befell the history of Alexander the Great and the Theban legend.
During the middle ages it was a considerable centre of commerce and shipping, and under the Hohenstaufen emperors was raised to the rank of a free imperial city.
The chief town, Gondar, by which name the province is also known, was the residence of the negus negusti, or emperor, of Abyssinia from the middle ages up to 1854.
The castle from which Chateauroux takes its name was founded about the middle of the 10th century by Raoul, prince of Deols, and during the middle ages was the seat of a seigniory, which was raised to the rank of countship in 1497, and in 1616, when it was held by Henry II., prince of Conde, to that of duchy.
Woodvinegar was discovered in the middle ages.
With the exception of his description of the French Revolution, which was chiefly a political manifesto, all his early works refer to the middle ages - De La feodalite, des institutions de Saint Louis et de l'influence de la legislation de ce prince (1822); La Germanic au vin e et au ix' siecle, sa conversion au christianisme, et son introduction dans la societe civilisee de l'Europe occidentale (1834); Essai sur la formation territoriale et politique de la France depuis la fin du xi e siècle jusqu'et la fin du xv e (1836); all of these are rough sketches showing only the outlines of the subject.
And the self-governing communities of the middle ages were a restoration, rather than a development, of the flourishing and independent municipalities of the age of Augustus and his immediate successors.
Fairies naturally won their way into the poetry of the middle ages.
The town is a coal-mining centre and has cold mineral springs, known in the middle ages.
But it still continued to exist elsewhere, both in the Byzantine Empire and in the West, and in the earlier part of the middle ages it gave an impulse to the formation of new sects, which remained related to it.'
In the middle ages Barfleur was one of the chief ports of embarkation for England.
In the middle ages it became a bishopric, but was destroyed in 1276.
The use of the fleur-de-lis in heraldry dates from the 12th century, soon after which period it became a very common charge in France, England and Germany, where every gentleman of coat-armour desired to adorn his shield Middle Ages.
The forest of Soignies extended in the middle ages over the southern part of Brabant up to the walls of Brussels, and is immortalized in Byron's Childe Harold.
In spite, however, of Gibbon's characteristic scepticism on this point, it is certain that the Constitutum was regarded as genuine both by the friends and the enemies of the papal pretensions throughout the middle ages.
In the middle ages Malmesbury possessed a considerable cloth manufacture, and at the Dissolution the abbey was bought by a rich clothier and fitted with looms for weaving.
Thus, to take an example, he will not print a critical text of Plautus with two letters (Y and Z) which were no part of the Latin alphabet in the age of that comedian; still less will he introduce into Latin texts distinctions, such as i,j and u, v, which were not used till long after the middle ages.
It was a military position of some importance in the middle ages.
The teaching of George Waitz definitely directed his studies towards the history of the middle ages.
He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the stamp of Filipo Maria Visconti.
Of his numerous works the most important are the Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (Paris, 1678), and the Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis (Lyons, 1688), which are indispensable aids to the student of the history and literature of the middle ages.
The industries of Pistoia include iron and steel works, especially manufactures of glass, silk, macaroni, woollens, olive oil, ropes, paper, vehicles and fire-arms. The word "pistol" is derived (apparently through pistolese, a dagger - dagger and pistol being both small arms) from Pistoia, where that weapon was largely manufactured in the middle ages.
As to fables, one of the most popular collections in the middle ages was that written by Marie de France, which she claimed to have translated from King Alfred.
In the middle ages the Teutonic Order established a frontier belt on the side of Lithuania.
Under the denomination of the " old learning," the sentiment of the middle ages and the idea of Church authority was.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
Churches now became, in form and decoration, epitomes of the Christian scheme of salvation as the middle ages understood it.
The substitution of the Bible for the Mass destroyed the raison d'être of churches as the middle ages had made them.
The number of relics increased to a fabulous extent during the middle ages.
But these figures are trifling compared with those at the end of the middle ages.
It was unknown to the ancients, and must have come into Europe through Russia in the middle ages or later.
On an isolated hill close by stand the extensive ruins of the castle of Starkenburg, built by the abbot, Ulrich von Lorsch, about 1064 and destroyed during the Seven Years' War, and another hill, the Landberg, was a place of assembly in the middle ages.
In this it resembled the middle ages rather than the Roman empire or the present day, and it resembled them all the more in that its love of beauty, like theirs, was mixed with a feeling for the fantastic and the grotesque.
The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly descended.
But in the middle ages the altars were placed against the east wall of the churches, or else against a reredos erected at the east side of the altar, so as to prevent all access to the table from that side; the celebrant was thus brought round to the west side and caused to stand between the people and the altar.
In English documents also we find eponymous national ancestors grouped together in genealogical trees, and there is reason to believe that the common origin of the various Teutonic peoples was remembered to a certain extent until comparatively late in the middle ages.
Further, since the grantees as a rule naturally sent their sons into the service of their own lords, such grants tended to become hereditary, and in them we have the origin of the baronage of the middle ages.
On the other hand, in Scandinavian countries it continued in use through the greater part of the middle ages - in Gotland till the 16th century; indeed, the knowledge of it seems never to have wholly died out.
This work has little value, although it was very popular during the middle ages.
Never throughout the middle ages was pope more energetic, impetuous or uncompromising.
Not only was the result of the crusade extremely favourable to the extension of the Roman power, but throughout the middle ages the papacy never ceased to derive almost incalculable political and financial advantages from the agitation produced by the preachers and the crusading expeditions.
For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
Die Trennung der beiden Mdchte and das Problem ihrer Wiedervereinigung bis zum Untergange des byzantinischen Reichs (Berlin, 1903), which contains an account of the question of the East in its relations with the papal policy, from the rise of the schism down to the end of the middle ages.
The greater part of the district belonged in the middle ages to the lords of Bage, from whom it passed in 1272 to the house of Savoy.
The name Castile is commonly said to be derived from the numerous frontier forts (castillos) erected in the middle ages as a defence against the Moors.
The primary sense in the middle ages is "knights" or "fully armed and mounted fighting men."
During the middle ages it was at first independent.
Antwerp, famous in the middle ages and at the present time for its commercial enterprise, enjoyed in the 17th century a celebrity not less distinct or glorious in art for its school of painting, which included Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens, the two Teniers and many others.
The country inland belonged in the middle ages to the Beja, but the trading places seem to have been always in the hands of foreigners since Ptolemais Theron was established by Ptolemy Philadelphus for intercourse with the elephant hunters.
St Canute's shrine was a great resort of pilgrims throughout the middle ages.
But in its second aspect it touched divination and astrology, of which Galen' says that the physiognomical part is the greater, and this aspect of the subject ' bulked largely in the fanciful literature of the middle ages.
During the middle ages the centre of Greek monachism shifted from Constantinople to Mount Athos.
Pliny's work was held in high esteem in the middle ages.
It also includes the later forms of the same language as used by Jewish writers after the close of the Canon throughout the middle ages (Rabbinical Hebrew) and to the present day (New Hebrew).
In the middle ages some knowledge of Hebrew was preserved in the Church by converted Jews and even by non-Jewish scholars, of whom the most notable were the Dominican controversialist Raymundus Martini (in his Pugio fidei) and the Franciscan Nicolaus of Lyra, on whom Luther drew largely in his interpretation of Scripture.
The term survived throughout the middle ages wherever the Roman law gained a foothold.
In a tertiary sense the word appears to have been occasionally employed as equivalent to the Latin miles - usually translated by thegn - which in the earlier middle ages was used as the designation of the domestic as well as of the martial officers or retainers of sovereigns and princes or great personages.
In the middle ages it was a common practice for sovereigns and princes to dub each other knights much as they were afterwards, and are now, in the habit of exchanging the stars and ribbons of their orders.
Even in the way of pageantry and martial exercise it did not long survive the middle ages.
Indeed, the most important of these precepts did not even attain to their highest development in the middle ages.
In the middle ages there was an extravagance of speculation on this subject, which may be seen in the last division of Aquinas' Summa Theologiae.
In the middle ages the abbey was famous for its library.
Then turning to a wider theme Prutz contributed to Oncken's university history the two volumes on the political history of Europe during the middle ages (Staatengeschichte des Abendlandes im Mittelalter, Berlin, 1885-1887).
Similar practices were prevalent, to an extent hardly realized, among the Christians up to the middle ages and even later.
In fact the central portion of the Alps was by far the least Romanised and least known till the early middle ages.
In the middle ages Unna formed part of the electorate of Cologne.
On the eve of the Revolution the intellectual and social condition of Bavaria remained that of the middle ages.
His greatest work, an interlinear gloss on the Scriptures, was one of the great authorities of the middle ages.
In the middle ages Baeza was a flourishing Moorish city, said to contain 50,000 inhabitants; but it was sacked in 1239 by Ferdinand III.
The 17th and 18th centuries, however, mark the worst period of depopulation in the more malarious parts of the Campagna, which seems to have begun in the 15th century, though we hear of malaria throughout the middle ages.
These are, indeed, expressly prohibited in the later charter of Bishop Johann Kvag (1294); and the distinctive character of the constitution of Copenhagen during the middle ages consisted in the absence of the free gild system, and the right of any burgher to pursue a craft under license from the Vogt (advocates) of the overlord and the city authorities.
As the middle ages advanced the procession became more and more popular and increasingly a dramatic representation of the triumphal progress of Christ, the bishop riding on an ass or horse, as in the East.
The disposition adopted was one which is found recurring in many sea-fights of the middle ages where a fleet had to fight on the defensive.
During the whole of the middle ages it was subject to the papacy.
During the middle ages the Scandinavians were the first to revive geographical science and to practise pelagic navigation.
In spite of the frequent pillage and destruction of monasteries by Northmen, Saracens, Arabs and other invaders; in spite of the existence of even widespread local abuses, St Benedict's institute went on progressing and consolidating; and on the whole it may be said