bend of Lake Michigan, was definitely fixed in 1837, when Michigan came into the Union.
shore of Lake Michigan, 75 m.
Bay City is served by the Michigan Central, the Pere Marquette, the Grand Trunk and the Detroit & Mackinac railways, and by lake steamers.
The shores of Lake Michigan are generally low and sandy, and the land slopes gradually to the water.
Lake Michigan is connected at its north-east extremity with lake Huron by the strait of Mackinac, 48 m.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways.
In 1907 Louisiana ranked sixth among the salt-producing states of the country (after New York, Michigan, Ohio, Kansas and California), its output being valued at $226,892, only a few hundred dollars more than that of Texas.
Green Bay and Lake Michigan are connected by a canal extending from the lake to the head of Sturgeon Bay.
shore of Lake Michigan, 35 m.
Large ore-bodies of granular and compact magnetite occur as beds and lenticular masses in Archean gneiss and crystalline schists, in various parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Urals; as also in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan, as well as in Canada.
Michigan is a large state, with many lakes, rivers, and farms.
For example, Michigan, in 1837, in the first session of its state legislature, made plans for the construction of 557 miles of railway under the direct control of the state, and the governor was authorized to issue bonds for the purpose.
Fairlie, "The Municipal Crisis in Ohio," in the Michigan Law Review for February 1903; and Thomas L.
BIG RAPIDS, a city and the county-seat of Mecosta county, Michigan, U.S.A., on both sides of the Muskegon river, 56 m.
All the states in the deep south and a few up north; Michigan, Pennsylvania and Indiana.
IONIA, a city and the county-seat of Ionia county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Grand river, about 34 m.
The second decision grew out of the attempt of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers to prevent other roads from accepting freight from the Toledo, Ann Arbor & North Michigan railroad, against which a "legal" strike had been declared.
of London on Bear Creek, an affluent of Sydenham River, and on the Grand Trunk and Michigan Central railways.
Pop. (1900) 10,588, of whom 1804 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 9535 It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways, by interurban electric railways, and by the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
With the exception of Green and Traverse bays, Lake Michigan has few indentations of the coast line, and except at the north end it is free from islands.
University Of Michigan >>
It is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway, and by the Cleveland & South-Western (electric) railway, which furnishes connexions directly with Cleveland and Elyria, and at the village of Wellington (about io m.
For a short time he worked for his father in the hardware business; in1852-1856he worked as a surveyor in preparing maps of Ulster, Albany and Delaware counties in New York, of Lake and Geauga counties in Ohio, and of Oakland county in Michigan, and of a projected railway line between Newburgh and Syracuse, N.Y.
CHARLEVOIX, a village and the county-seat of Charlevoix county, Michigan, U.S.A., 16 m.
of Petoskey, on Lake Michigan and Pine Lake, which are connected by Pine river and Round Lake.
The city is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern; the New York, Chicago & St Louis; the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis; the Pennsylvania; the Erie; the Baltimore & Ohio; and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways; by steamboat lines to the principal ports on the Great Lakes; and by an extensive system of inter-urban electric lines.
The Michigan school for the deaf, established in 1854, and the Oak Grove hospital (private) for the treatment of mental and nervous diseases, are here.
Observations in different parts of the world have shown that the increase of temperature in depth varies: in most localities the rise being at the rate of one degree for 50 to 100 feet of depth; while in the deep mines of Michigan and the Rand, an increase as low as one degree for each 200 ft.
Among the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft.
The Congressional Enabling Act of the 30th of April 1802 followed that alternative of the North-West Ordinance which provided for five states in determining the boundaries, and in consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached.
The river is tapped here by the feeder of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, so that there is direct water communication with Chicago and St Louis.
LAKE MICHIGAN, the only one of the great lakes of North America wholly within the boundaries of the United States, and the second largest body of fresh water in the world.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway, by interurban electric lines connecting with Chicago and Milwaukee, and by freight and passenger steamship lines on Lake Michigan.
Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a railway was completed from that city to Adrian, Michigan.
Wilcox, Municipal Government in Michigan and Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, v.
No notable rivers flow into Lake Michigan, the largest being the Big Manistee and Muskegon on the east shore, and on the west shore the Menominee and the Fox, both of which empty into Green Bay, the most important arm of the lake.
HOLLAND, a city of Ottawa county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Macatawa Bay (formerly called Black Lake), near Lake Michigan, and 25 M.
Monroe, Michigan >>
A Treatise on Metamorphism (1903) and several works with other authors on the different iron regions of Michigan.
In 1819 Michigan Territory was extended westward to the Mississippi river, and in 1820 General Lewis Cass, its governor, conducted an exploring expedition in search of the source of the Mississippi, which he was satisfied was in the body of water named Lake Cass in his honour.
PONTIAC, a city and the county-seat of Oakland county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Clinton river, about 26 m.
In Pontiac is the Eastern Michigan Asylum for the insane (1878), with grounds covering more than Soo acres..
FLINT, a city and the county-seat of Genesee county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Flint river, 68 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Kalamazoo Lake Shore & Chicago, and the Chicago Kalamazoo & Saginaw railways, and by interurban electric lines.
3 shaft of the Tamarack mine in Houghton county, Michigan, which has reached a vertical depth of about 5200 ft.
Similar swelling ground is not infrequently met with in metal mines, as, for example, in the Phoenix copper mine in Houghton county, Michigan, where the force developed was sufficient to crush the strongest timber that could be used.
ISHPEMING, a city of Marquette county, Michigan, U.S.A., about 15 m.
Thus the three colleges which formed the nucleus of the Imperial University of Tokyo were presided over by a graduate of Michigan College (Professor Toyama), a member of the English bar (Professor HOzumi) and a graduate of Cambridge (Baron Kikuchi).
LOCKPORT, a city of Will county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the Des Plaines river and the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and the terminus of the Chicago Sanitary District Drainage Canal, about 33 m.
A settlement was made here about 1827; in 1837 the site was chosen as headquarters for the Illinois & Michigan Canal and a village was laid out; it was incorporated in 1853, and was chartered as a city in 1904.
JACKSON, a city and the county-seat of Jackson county, Michigan, U.S.A., on both sides of the Grand River, 76 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Trunk and the Cincinnati Northern railways, and by inter-urban electric lines.
Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establishments.
Saint Joseph, Michigan >>
It is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways, and by interurban electric lines.
For instance, New York has made large contributions to the population of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and so on.
At the time of the Red Bird rising in 1827, Governor Lewis Cass of Michigan 'Territory made Prairie du Chien his temporary headquarters.
He began practice at Cleveland, Ohio, but early in 1860 he removed to Michigan, where he abandoned his profession and engaged in the lumber business.
Enlisting in a Michigan cavalry regiment in September 1861, he rose from captain to colonel, distinguished himself in the Gettysburg campaign and under Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and in 1864 and 1865 respectively received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers.
After the war he invested extensively in pine lands in Michigan, and accumulated a large fortune in the lumber business.
In 1884 he was elected governor of Michigan on the Republican ticket, serving from 1885 to 1887.
In 1902 he was appointed by the governor of Michigan, and in 1903 was elected by the state legislature, as United States senator to complete the unexpired term of James McMillan (1838-1902).
HENRY JACKSON HUNT (1819-1889), American soldier, was born in Detroit, Michigan, on the 14th of September 1819, and graduated at the U.S. military academy in 1839.
Iowa, as a part of the whole Mississippi Valley, was taken into the formal possession of France in 1682; in 1762 as a part of the western half of that valley it was ceded to Spain; in 1800 it was retroceded to France; in 1803 was ceded to the United States; from 1804 to 1805, as a part of the District of Louisiana, it was under the government of Indiana Territory; from 1805 to 1812 it was a part of Louisiana Territory; from 1812 to 1821 a part of Missouri Territory; from 1821 to 1834 a part of the unorganized territory of the United States; from 1834 to 1836 a part of Michigan Territory; from 1836 to 1838 a part of Wisconsin Territory.
Early in the next century the Sauk and Foxes, vanquished by the French in Michigan, retreated westward, and in their turn largely supplanted the Iowas.
Albion, Michigan >>
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
border of the state in Erie county is a narrow belt containing large deposits of gypsum, and in 1908 the value of the state's output ($760,759) was greater than that of any other state, although Michigan produced a larger quantity.
New York and Michigan are the two principal salt-producing states in the Union.
In 1908 the total production of the state, 9,076,743 barrels valued at $2,136,738, was exceeded in quantity and (for the first time) in value by that of Michigan.
Fremont is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Lake Shore Electric, the Lake Erie & Western, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways.
ESCANABA, a city and the county-seat of Delta county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Little Bay de Noquette, an inlet of Green Bay, about 60 m.
BENTON HARBOR, a city of Berrien county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Saint Joseph river, about 1 m.
from Lake Michigan (with which it is connected by a ship canal), near the S.W.
It is served by the Pere Marquette, the Michigan Central, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, by electric railways to St Joseph and Niles, Mich., and South Bend, Indiana, and for a part of the year by steamboat lines to Chicago and Milwaukee.
The eastern section was successively a part of the territories of Michigan 1834-1836, Wisconsin 1836 - 1838, Iowa1838-1849and Minnesota 1849-1858, and the western section a part of the territory of Nebraska 1854 - 1861.
shore of Lake Michigan, about 85 M.
Milwaukee Bay, into which their combined waters empty, is an inlet of Lake Michigan, about 6 m.
The water is obtained from Lake Michigan through an intake far out in the lake.
The proximity of Lake Michigan cools the atmosphere in summer and tempers the cold in winter.
The last-named connects with the main line at Ludington, Michigan, by means of a railway ferry across Lake Michigan; the Grand Trunk has a railway ferry from Milwaukee to Grand Haven.
The first Europeans known to have visited the site of Milwaukee were Father Jacques Marquette, the Jesuit missionary, and his companion, Louis Joliet, who on their return in the autumn of 1673 to the mission of St Francis Xavier at De Pere from their trip down the Mississippi, skirted the west shore of Lake Michigan in their canoes from Chicago northward.
NEGAUNEE, a city of Marquette county, Michigan, U.S.A., about 12 m.
of the Missouri river was included in the newly organized Territory of Michigan, and became successively a part of Wisconsin Territory in 1836, of Iowa Territory in 1838, and of Minnesota Territory in 1849.
The city is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Wabash, the Erie, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore and the Michigan Central railways, and by the International Electric railway and the Niagara, St Catharines & Toronto (electric) railway.
farther down the river are two railway bridges, the Michigan Central's cantilever bridge, completed in 1883, and the (lower) single steel arch bridge (completed in 1897, on the site of John A.
and was exceeded only by the crop of Ohio and by that of Michigan.
SAINT JOSEPH, a city and the county-seat of Berrien county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Saint Joseph river, near the S.W.
It is served by the Michigan Central and the Pere Marquette railways, by electric interurban railway to South Bend, Indiana, and by a steamboat line to Chicago.
The general offices and the hospital (1902) of the Michigan Children's Home Society are here.
Marcy of New York, secretary of state; Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, secretary of war; James Guthrie (1792-1869) of Kentucky, secretary of the treasury; James C. Dobbin (1814-1857) of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Robert McClelland (1807-1880) of Michigan, secretary of the interior; James Campbell (1813-1893) of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general; and Caleb Cushing of Massachusetts, attorney-general.
shore of Lake Michigan, about 36 m.
The cuesta begins where its determining limcstone begins, in west-central New York; there it separates the lowlands that contain the basins of lakes Ontario and Erie; thence it curves to the north-west through the province of Ontario to the belt of islands that divide1 Georgian Bay from Lake Huron; then westward throtigh the land-arm between lakes Superior and Michigan, and south-westward into the narrow points that divide Green Bay from Lake Michigan, and at last westward to fade away again with the thinning out of the limestone; it is hardly traceable across the Mississippi river.
The arrangement of the Great Lakes is thus seen to he closely synipathetic with the course of the lowlands worn on the two belts of weaker strata on either side of the Niagara cuesta; Ontario, Georgian Bay and Green Bay occupy depressions in the lowland on the inner side of the cuesta; Erie, Huron and Michigan lie in depressions in the lowland on the outer side.
The three lakes of the middle group stand at practically the same level: Michigan and Huron are connected by the Strait of Mackinac (pronounced Mackinaw); Huron and Erie by the St Clair and Detroit rivers, with the small Lake St Clair between them.
The present site of Chicago was determined by an Indian portage or carry across the low divide between Lake Michigan and the headwaters of the Illinois river; and this divide lies on the floor of the former outlet channel of the glacial Lake Michigan.
The reason for this exemption from glaciation is the converse of that for the southward convexity of the morainic loops; for while they mark the paths of greatest glacial advance along lowland troughs (lake basins), the driftless area is a district protected from ice invasion by reason of the obstruction which the highlands of northern Wisconsin and Michigan (part of the Superior oldland~ offered to glacial advance.
Iron ore occurs in the sedimentary part of the Huronian, especially in Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin and parts of Canada.
in southern Michigan; (4) the eastern interior field in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, with an area of about 58,000 sq.
The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.
New York and Pennsylvania, the north-east corner of Ohio, most of the lower peninsula of Michigan, nearly all of Wisconsin, more than half of Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, north-eastern South Dakota, and the greater part of the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia.
The Caiolinian area extends from southern Michigan to northern Georgia and from the Atlantic coast to Western Kansas, comprising Delaware, all of Maryland except the mountainous Western portion, all of Ohio except the north-east corner, nearly the whole of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, south-eastern South Dakota, western central Oklahoma, northern Arkansas, middle and eastern Kentucky, middle Tennessee and the Tennessee valley in eastern Tennessee, middle Virginia and North Carolina, western \Vest Virginia, north-eastern Alabama.
northern Georgia, western South Carolina, the Connecticut Valley in Connecticut, the lower Hudson Valley and the Erie basin in New York, and narrow belts along the southern and Western borders of the lower peninsula of Michigan.
The grizzly bear, cougar, coyote, prairie dog and antelope are still found in several of the Western states, and the grey wolf is common in the West and in northern Minnesota, \Visconsin and Michigan.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, West Virginia, California, Colorado, Montana, Michigan, New York and Missouri were the ten states of greatest absolute production in 1907.
in 1902 were Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia; $500 to $1000, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Vermont and Massachusetts.
21,600; Michigan, 12,000; ~Iaryland, 8,044; Texas, 8,000; Kansas, 7,022; and Montana, 5,000; with lesser deposits in other states.
The iron-producing area of the country may be divided, with regard to natural geographic, historic and trade considerations, into four districts: (1) the Lake Superior district, embracing the states of Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin; (2) the southern district, embracing the triangle tipped by Texas, Maryland and Georgia; (3) the northern district, embracing the triangle tipped by Ohio, New Jersey and Massachusetts, plus the states of Iowa and Missouri; (4) the western district, which includes the states of the Rocky Mountain region and Pacific coast.
Michigan held first place in output until 1901.
The three leading producing states or Territories of the Union are, and since the early eighties have been, Arizona, Montana and Michigan.
In another group Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, the two Dakotasthe town meeting reappears, though in a less primitive and less perfect form.
In most states county administration belongs to a small board of three commissioners elected for the county at large, but in New York, Michigan, lllinois and Wisconsin there is a larger board of supervisors elected by townships and cities within each county.
Michigan, however, in the election of 1892 reverted to the district system, thereby dividing its electoral vote.
Greene (1904), of Maine by William MacDonald (1902), of Michigan by W.
The development of the Michigan salt deposits and (after 1880) of the deposits in Wyoming, Genesee and Livingston counties in New York caused a rapid decline in the Onondaga product.
It is served by the Kanawha & Michigan (Ohio Central Lines) and the Hocking Valley railways, and (at Gallipolis Ferry, West Virginia, across the Ohio) by the Baltimore & Ohio railway.
Her missionaries and leaders were already at Sault Ste Marie commanding the approach to Lake Superior, and at Michilimackinac commanding that to Lake Michigan.
By the terms of this treaty the " Alabama " claims and the San Juan boundary were referred to arbitration; the free navigation of the St Lawrence was granted to the United States in return for the free use of Lake Michigan and certain Alaskan rivers; and it was settled that a further commission should decide the excess of value of the Canadian fisheries thrown open to the United States over and above the reciprocal concessions made to Canada.
It is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis and the Baltimore & Ohio railways, and by electric lines to Cleveland, Fairport and Ashtabula.
When she was a small child her parents moved to Massachusetts, and soon afterwards to Michigan, where her father cleared a farm, 40 m.
The city is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Illinois Central railways, and by the Illinois and Michigan Canal, of which La Salle is the western terminus.
The site of Ripon was purchased in 1838 by John Scott Horner (1802-1883), of Virginia, secretary and acting-governor of Michigan Territory in 1835, and the first secretary of Wisconsin Territory in 1836-37, who named the village when it was established in 1849 from the seat of his ancestors in Yorkshire.
Toledo is served by the Ann Arbor, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Detroit, Toledo & Milwaukee, the Detroit & Toledo Shore Line, the Hocking Valley, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Michigan Central, the Pennsylvania, the Pere Marquette, the Toledo, St Louis & Western, the Wabash, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways, by a "belt line" (30 m.
Toledo is the port of entry for the Miami customs district and is an important shipping point for the iron and copper ores and lumber from the Lake Superior and Michigan regions, for petroleum, coal, fruit, and grain and clover-seed.
The "Toledo War" was a dispute over the boundary between Ohio and Michigan.
When Ohio Territory was organized in 1800 its northern boundary was described as a line drawn from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan due east to the Pennsylvania line, and the official map of the time placed the southern end of Lake Michigan at 42° 20' N.
The state constitution adopted in 1802 followed the enabling act in accepting this line, but made the proviso that if it should not intersect Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then the northern boundary should be a line from the southern end of Lake Michigan to the most northern cape of Maumee Bay and thence to the Territorial line, and to the Pennsylvania line.
In 1805 the Territory of Michigan was organized with a southern.
boundary in accordance with the line extending due east from the southern end of Lake Michigan; and therefore there was in dispute a strip of land, about 5 m.
Mason of Michigan ordered out a division of Michigan militia, which near the end of March entered and took possession of Toledo.
were arrested by Michigan militia.
In June 1836 Congress decided the dispute in favour of Ohio, and in 1837 Michigan was admitted to the Union as a state upon condition of relinquishing all claim to the disputed territory, but received what is now known as the Upper Peninsula (the land between Lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan).
Here, on the 3rd of August 1795, General Wayne, the year after his victory over the Indians at Fallen Timbers, concluded with them the treaty of Greenville, the Indians agreeing to a cessation of hostilities and ceding to the United States a considerable portion of Ohio and a number of small tracts in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan (including the sites of Sandusky, Toledo, Defiance, Fort Wayne, Detroit, Mackinac, Peoria and Chicago), and the United States agreeing to pay to the Indians $20,000 worth of goods immediately and an annuity of goods, valued at $9500, for ever.
Preaching in Dutch had nearly ceased in 1820, but about 1846 a new Dutch immigration began, especially in Michigan, and fifty years later Dutch preaching was common in nearly one-third of the churches of the country, only to disappear almost entirely in the next decade.
The colleges and institutions of learning connected with the Church are: Rutgers, already mentioned; Union College (1795), the outgrowth of Schenectady Academy, founded in 1785 by Dirck Romeyn, a Dutch minister; Hope College (1866; coeducational) at Holland, Michigan, originally a parochial school (1850) and then (1855) Holland Academy; the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick (q.v.); and the Western Theological Seminary (1869) at Holland, Michigan.
More than onehalf of this total membership (63,350) was in New York state, the principal home of the first great Dutch immigration; more than one-quarter (32,290 was in New Jersey; and the other states were: Michigan (11,260), Illinois (4962), Iowa (4835), Wisconsin (2312), and Pennsylvania (1979).
of which more than one-half (14.,779) was in Michigan, where many of the immigrants who came after 1835 belonged to the secession church in Holland.
TRAVERSE CITY, the county-seat of Grand Traverse county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Boardman river, between Boardman Lake and the west arm of Grand Traverse Bay, in the N.W.
The city has a public library and a library owned by the Ladies' Library Association, and is the seat of the Northern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1885).
The occurrence of red deposits in western Australia, Scotland, the Ural mountains, in Michigan, Montana and Nova Scotia, &c., associated in some instances with the formation of gypsum and salt, clearly points to the existence of areas of excessive evaporation, such as are found in land-locked waters in regions where something like desert conditions prevail.
Here he worked at Sault Ste Marie, St Esprit (near the western extremity of Lake Superior) and St Ignace (near Michilimackinac or Mackinaw, on the strait between Huron and Michigan).
The route taken lay up the north-west side of Lake Michigan, up Green Bay and Fox river, across Lake Winnebago, over the portage to the Wisconsin river, and down the latter into the Mississippi, which was descended to within 700 m.
Entering the Mississippi on the 17th of May, Joliet and his companion turned back on the 17th of July, and returned to Green Bay and Michigan (by way of the Illinois river) at the end of September 1673.
He died on his way home to St Ignace on the banks of a small stream (the lesser and older Marquette River) which enters the east side of Lake Michigan in Marquette Bay (May 18, 1675).
Pop. (1890) 40,634; (1900) 5 2, 733, of whom 11,957 were foreign-born, including 5226 from Germany and 1468 from Ireland, and 26,797 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 13,316 of German parentage and 4203 of Irish parentage; (1906, estimate) 59993 Erie is served by the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Erie & Pittsburg (Pennsylvania Company), the Philadelphia & Erie (Pennsylvania railway), and the Bessemer & Lake Erie railways, and by steamboat lines to many important lake ports.
Other states in which the Church had communicants were: Maryland (13,442), Wisconsin (8386), Indiana (8289), New York (5700), North Carolina (4718), Iowa (3692), Illinois (2652), Virginia (2288), Kentucky (2101), Michigan (1666), Nebraska (1616), and (less than 1500 in each of the following arranged in rank) S.
Considerable interest attaches to the diamonds found in Wisconsin, Michigan and Ohio near the Great Lakes, for they are here found in the terminal moraines of the great glacial sheet which is supposed to have spread southwards from the region of Hudson Bay; several of the drift minerals of the diamantiferous region of Indiana have been identified as probably of Canadian origin; no diamonds have however yet been found in the intervening country of Ontario.
ALPENA, a city and the county seat of Alpena county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Thunder Bay, a small arm of Lake Huron, at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, in the N.E.
His father, Thomas (1778-1851), was born in Rockingham (then Augusta) county, Virginia; he was hospitable, shiftless, restless and unsuccessful, working now as a carpenter and now as a farmer, and could not read or write before his marriage, in Washington county, Kentucky, on the 12th of June 1806, to Nancy Hanks (1783-1818), who was a native of Virginia, who is said to have been the illegitimate daughter of one Lucy Hanks, and who seems to have been, in 1 Lincoln's birthday is a legal holiday in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.
ALBION, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Kalamazoo river, 21 m.
Albion is served by the Michigan Central and the Jackson division of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railways, and by an inter-urban electric line.
GRAND HAVEN, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Ottawa county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Grand river, 30 m.
Grand Haven is the port of entry for the Customs District of Michigan, and has a small export and import trade.
It is on the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific, Pere Marquette and Michigan Central railways, which connect at this point with the railways of the United States by means of large and powerful car-ferries.
ONTARIO, a province of Canada, having the province of Quebec to the E., the states of New York, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota to the S., Manitoba to the W., and the district of Keewatin with James Bay to the N.
Iron ores have been discovered in many places in connexion with the "iron formation" of the Keewatin, but nowhere in amounts comparable with those of the same formation in Michigan and Minnesota.
In New York it occurs in the Salina beds of the Onondaga series, of Silurian age; and Silurian salt is found also in parts of Michigan and in Ontario, Canada.
Some of the salt of Michigan is regarded as Carboniferous.
PETOSKEY, a city and the county-seat of Emmet county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Little Traverse Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Bear Creek, in the north-west part of the lower peninsula.
After the massacre of Christian Indians at Gnadenhiitten in 1782 the Indians removed to Michigan and in 1791 to Fairfield, Ontario; in 1798 some of them returned to Tuscarawas county and settled Goshen, where Zeisberger is buried.
GRAND RAPIDS, a city and the county-eat of Kent county, Michigan, U.S.A., at the head of navigation on the Grand river, about 30 m.
from Lake Michigan and 145 m.
Grand Rapids is served by the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Trunk, the Pere Marquette and the Grand Rapids & Indiana railways, and by electric interurban railways.
Among the important buildings are the United States Government building (Grand Rapids is the seat of the southern division of the Federal judicial district of western Michigan), the County Court house, the city hall, the public library (presented by Martin A.
Ryerson of Chicago), the Manufacturer's building, the Evening Press building, the Michigan Trust building and several handsome churches.
Blodgett Memorial Children's Home, and the Michigan Masonic Home.
of the city, overlooking the river, is the Michigan Soldiers' Home, with accommodation for 500.
The city is served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, and the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburg railways, by the electric line of the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., and by several lines of freight and passenger steamships.
BATTLE CREEK, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., at the confluence of the Kalamazoo river with Battle Creek, about 48 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central and the Grand Trunk railways, and by interurban electric lines.
ANN' 'ARBOR, a city and the county-seat of Washtenaw county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Huron river, about 38 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central and the Ann Arbor railways, and by an electric line running from Detroit to Jackson and connecting with various other lines.
Ann Arbor is best known as the seat of the university of Michigan, opened in 1837.
by Lake Michigan and Indiana, S.E.
The Enabling Act of Congress, which provided for the organization of Illinois Territory into a state, extended its jurisdiction to the middle of Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river; consequently the total area of the state is 58,329 sq.
branches, naturally flowed into Lake Michigan, but by the construction of the Chicago Drainage Canal its waters were turned in 1900 so that they ultimately flow into the Mississippi.
half of the state, except along the shore of Lake Michigan, where they vary from N.E.
The first transportation problem was to connect Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river; this was accomplished by building the Illinois & Michigan canal to La Salle, at the head of the navigation on the Illinois river, a work which was begun in 1836 and completed in 1848 under the auspices of the state.
In 1890 the Sanitary District of Chicago undertook the construction of a canal from Chicago to Joliet, where the new canal joins the Illinois & Michigan canal; this canal is 24 ft.
This canal provides, with the Illinois & Michigan canal and the Illinois river, an improved waterway from Chicago to the Mississippi river, and greatly increases the commercial and industrial importance of the "twin cities" of Sterling and Rock Falls, where the Rock river is dammed by a dam nearly 1500 ft.
In 1672 Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit father, after having established a mission to the Indians at Mackinaw (Michigan) in the preceding year, explored the country around Chicago.
On their return journey they ascended the Illinois river as far as Lake Peoria; they then crossed the portage to Lake Michigan, and in 1675 Marquette founded a mission at the Indian town of Kaskaskia, near the present Utica, Ill.
part of the Green Bay peninsula, a considerable part of Michigan, and all of Minnesota E.
bend of Lake Michigan.
The reason given for this change was that if the Mississippi and Ohio rivers were the only outlets of Illinois trade, the interests of the state would become identified with those of the southern states; but if an outlet by Lake Michigan were provided, closer relations would be established with the northern and middle states, and so "additional security for the perpetuity of the Union" would be afforded.
Hurd, in the Publications of the Michigan Political Science Association (1901).
The publications of the Chicago Historical Society, of the "Fergus Historical" series, of the State Historical Library, of the Wisconsin Historical Society, also the Michigan Pioneer Collections, contain valuable documents and essays.
YPSILANTI, a city of Washtenaw county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Huron river, 30 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways, and is the seat of the Michigan State Normal College (1849).
The " accrediting " system in the United States was started by the university of Michigan in 1871.
Two hundred and fifty schools are accredited by the university of Michigan.
Laurium, Michigan >>
Brownson died in Detroit, Michigan, on the 17th of April 1876.
The best sugar product was in 1905 exceeded only by that of Colorado and that of Michigan.
Engelhart, The Franciscans in California (Harbor Springs, Michigan, 1899), written entirely from a Franciscan standpoint; C. F.
It is thus the largest sheet of fresh water between Lake Michigan and Lake Titicaca on the borders of Bolivia and Peru.
Early in 1862 he was commissioned colonel of the 2nd Michigan cavalry, with which he served in Halleck's army on the Tennessee.
In 1813 he was appointed governor of the territory of Michigan, the area of which was much larger than that of the present state.
In December 1860 he retired from the cabinet when the president refused to take a firmer attitude against secession by reinforcing Fort Sumter, and he remained in retirement until his death at Detroit, Michigan, on the 17th of June 1866.
The largest known deposits are those in the Lake Superior region, near Keweenaw Point, Michigan, where masses upwards of 400 tons in weight have been discovered.
Mason, governor of Michigan, and James Duane Doty, then U.S. district judge, who had visited the region as early as 1829, recorded a tract of land, including most of the present site of Madison.
in Michigan, Tennessee, Indiana and Virginia.
Bloomington derives its name from Blooming Grove, a small forest which was crossed by the trails leading from the Galena lead mines to Southern Illinois, from Lake Michigan to St Louis, and from the Eastern to the far Western states.
From 1828 to 1831 Schoolcraft was an active member of the Michigan legislature.
MICHIGAN, a north central state of the United States, situated between latitudes 41° 44' and 47° 30' N.'
by lakes Superior, George, Huron, and Michigan, and by St Mary's River, which separates it from the Province of Ontario, Canada; S.
by lakes Huron and Michigan and the Straits of Mackinac, which separate it from the lower peninsula; and S.
by lakes Michigan and Huron and the Straits of Mackinac, E.
by Lake Michigan.
In size Michigan ranks eighteenth among the states of the Union, its total area being 57,9 80 sq.
Lake Huron on the east and Lake Michigan on the west of the lower peninsula are each 5811 ft.
West of the divide and south of the depression, south-west Michigan is occupied by the valleys of the St Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand rivers, by the gently rolling uplands that form the parting divides between them, and by sand dunes, which here and there rise to a height of from loo to zoo ft.
or more along the shore of Lake Michigan, and are formed on this side (but not on the Wisconsin side) of the lake by the prevailing west winds.
above Lake Michigan; to the south of this plateau the land slopes gently down to the depression and to the low shores of Lake Michigan and Saginaw Bay.
The surface of the upper 1 This is the northernmost point of the mainland; the most northerly of the islands north-east of Isle Royal and belonging to Michigan is more than 40' further north.
z In addition, within the boundaries of Michigan, are approximately 16,653 sq.
of Lake Michigan, 9925 sq.
The north portion of these ranges, together with Isle Royale some distance farther north, which is itself traversed by several less elevated parallel ridges, contains the Michigan copperbearing rocks; while to the south, along the Wisconsin border, is another iron district, the Gogebic. The rivers of the entire state consist of numerous small streams of clear water.
Islands in lakes Superior, Michigan and Huron are scarcely less numerous.
- Michigan, especially the north portion, still abounds in game.
Before it was settled by the whites the area now included in Michigan was a forest, except in the south-west, where there were a few small prairies, possibly cleared by the Indians.
The soil of south-west and south-east Michigan is for the most part a dark clay loam or muck; in the north central part of the lower peninsula it is a light sandy loam, along the Huron shore it is heavy with blue clay, in the mining districts of the north-west the rocks are usually either barren or very thinly covered; and elsewhere in the state the soil is generally rich in a variety of mineral elements, and varies chiefly in the proportions of vegetable loam, sand or gravel, and clay.
Of livestock, sheep are the most numerous (2,130,000 in 1907), and Michigan's wool clip in 1907 was 14,080,500 lb.
Michigan produces the bulk of the peppermint crop of the United States, and it is in the front rank as a fruit-producing state.
The fresh-water fish caught in the Great Lakes by residents in Michigan exceed in value those caught by residents of other states, and in 1907 the catch was valued at $1,806,767.
Nearly one-half both in quantity and value are taken from Lake Michigan, and, although as many as twenty kinds are caught in considerable quantities, more than 90% of the value of the catch consists of trout, herring, white fish and perch.
The annual product steadily increased from 3000 long tons in 1854 to 11,830,342 in 1907; from 1890 to 1901 Michigan ranked first in the union as an ironproducing state, but after 1901 its product was exceeded by that of Minnesota.
From 1847 to 1887 the product of Michigan exceeded that of any other state; from 1847 to 1883 its copper product was more than one-half that of all the states, but after 1887 (except in 1891) more of that mineral was mined in Montana than in Michigan, and in 1906 and in 1907 the yield in both Arizona and Montana was greater than in Michigan.
For a number of years prior to 1893 Michigan was the leading salt-producing state, and, though her output was subsequently (except in 1901) exceeded by that of New York, it continued to increase up to 1905, when it was 9,492,173 barrels; in 1907, the product was 10,786,630 barrels.
In 1900 the value of the manufactured products of Michigan amounted to $356,944,082, which was an increase of 28.4% over that of 1890, and by 1904 there was a further increase of 20.19%.
1 During the same period, however, the value of the products of the lumber and timber industry, which in 1870, 1880 and 1890 was greater than that of any other state, and in 1900 was still more than twice as great as that of the products of any other manufacturing industry in the state and was exceeded only by that of the product of Wisconsin, decreased from $83,121,969 in 1890 to $53,9 1 5, 6 47 (35.1%) in 1900, and to $40,569,335 in 1904, this decrease being due to the fact that the large quantities of raw material (both hard wood and pine) formerly found in the forests of Michigan had become so far exhausted that much of it had to be brought in from other states and from Canada.
The value of the products of the furniture factories and of the planing mills, nevertheless, has steadily increased; that of the furniture factories (of which Grand Rapids is the leading centre not only in Michigan but in the United States) rising from $10,767,038 in 1890 to $14,614,506 in 1900 and $18,421,735 in 1904, and that of the planing mills from $10,007,603 in 1890 to $12,469,532 in 1900 and $14,375,467 in 1904.
Among other manufactures in which the state ranks high and in which there was a large increase in value during the same period 1 The 1904 census, taken by the Federal Bureau of the Census in co-operation with the secretary of state of Michigan, covered the year ending on the 30th of June 1904, and is thus not strictly comparable with the "1905" census of manufactures for other states, which were for the year ending on the 31st of December 1904.
In 1904 Michigan manufactured automobiles valued at $6,876,708.
The building of railways in Michigan began in 1830, but little progress had been made in 1837 when the state began the construction of three railways and two canals across the south half of the lower peninsula.
The Michigan Central was completed from Detroit to Ypsilanti in January 1838, a portion of the Michigan Southern was in operation in November 1840, and considerable work was done on the proposed Michigan Northern and the two canals.
completed, and from then until 1880 the mileage increased to 3938; but the great period of railway building in Michigan was in the decade from 1880 to 1890, when the mileage was increased to 7108.48.
The principal lines are the Michigan Central, the Pere Marquette, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Ann Arbor, the Grand Trunk, the Chicago & North-Western, the Duluth South Shore & Atlantic, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste.
Besides railway communication Michigan has a coast line of about 1600 m., along which vessels of 2000 tons can sail and find several good harbours, the water communication having been extended and improved by several canals, among which are the Sault Ste.
The population of Michigan in 1880 was 1,636,937; in 1890 it was 2,093,889, an increase of 27.9% within the decade; in 1900 it was 2,420,982, a further increase of 15.6% and in 1910, according to the preliminary returns of the U.S. census, it was 2,810,173.
The constitution under which Michigan is now governed was first adopted in 1850, when it was felt that the powers which the first one, that of 1835, conferred upon the executive and the legislature were too unrestricted.
A wife in Michigan has the same right to her property acquired either before or after marriage as she would have if single, except that she cannot under ordinary circumstances give, grant or sell it to another without her husband's consent.
Grounds for a divorce are adultery, physical incapacity at the time of marriage, sentence to imprisonment for three years or more, desertion for two years, habitual drunkenness, extreme cruelty, or, in case of the wife, refusal of the husband to provide for her maintenance when sufficiently able to do so; but in case the parties were married outside of Michigan the party seeking the divorce must reside within the state at least one year before petitioning for the same.
The state supports the Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1859), at Kalamazoo; the Eastern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1878), at Pontiac; the Northern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1885), at Traverse City; the Michigan Asylum for the Dangerous and Criminal Insane (established 1885), at Ionia; the Upper Peninsula Hospital for the Insane, at Newberry; a Psychopathic Hospital (established 1907), at Ann Arbor; a State Sanatorium (established 1905), at Howell; the Michigan State Prison (established 1839), at Jackson; the Michigan Reformatory (established 1887), at Ionia; the State House of Correction and Branch Prison (established 1885), at Marquette; the Industrial School for Boys, at Lansing; the Industrial Home for Girls (established 1879), near Adrian; the State Public School (opened 1874), at Coldwater, a temporary home for dependent children until homes in families can be found for them; the School for the Deaf (established 1854), at Flint; the School for the Blind, at Lansing; an Employment Institution for the Blind (established 1903), at Saginaw; the Home for the Feeble Minded and Epileptic (established 1893), at Lapeer; and the Michigan Soldiers' Home (established 1885), at Grand Rapids.
Michigan was a pioneer state in creating the American educational system; she began the organization of it at the time of her admission into the Union in 1837, and has since been noted for the high standard of her schools.
The state normal schools are: the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti (organized in 1849); the Central Michigan Normal School at Mount Pleasant (established in 1895); the Northern State Normal School at Marquette (established in 1899); and the Western State Normal School at Kalamazoo (established in 1904).
From 1613 until 1760 the territory now within the borders of Michigan formed a part of New France, and the first Europeans to found missions and settlements within those borders were Frenchmen.
Even Detroit was so expensive to the government of the mother country that there was occasional talk of abandoning it; and so during the last fifty-nine years that Michigan was a part of new France there were no new settlements, and little if any growth in those already established.
During the last war between the English and the French in America the Michigan settlements passed into the possession of the English, Detroit in 1760 and the others in 1761, but the time had not yet come for much improvement.
By the Treaty of Paris, in 1783, which concluded the American War of Independence, the title to what is now Michigan passed to the United States, and in 1787 this region became a part of the North-West Territory; but it was not until 1796 that Detroit and Mackinac (Michilimackinac), in accordance with Jay's Treaty of 1794, were surrendered by Great Britain.
In 1800, on the division of the North-West Territory, the west portion of Michigan became a part of the newly-established Indiana Territory, into which the entire area of the present state was embodied in 1802, when Ohio was admitted to the Union; and finally, in 1805, Michigan Territory was organized, its south boundary being then described as a line drawn east from the south extremity of Lake Michigan until it intersected Lake Erie, and its west boundary a line drawn from the same starting point through the middle of Lake Michigan to its north extremity and then due north to the north boundary of the United States.
In 1812, during the second war between Great Britain and the United States, General William Hull, first governor of the Territory, although not greatly outnumbered, surrendered Detroit to the British without a struggle; in the same year also Mackinac was taken and Michigan again passed under British rule.
Perry's victory on Lake Erie, in September of the next year, Detroit and the rest of Michigan except Mackinac, which was not recaptured until July 1815, were again taken into the possession of the United States.
But during the efficient administration of Lewis Cass, governor of the Territory from 1813 to 1831, the interference of the British was checked and many of the Indians were removed to the west of the Mississippi; printing presses, established during the same period at Detroit, Ann Arbor, Monroe and Pontiac, became largely instrumental in making the country better known; the first steamboat, the "Walk-in-the-Water," appeared at Detroit in 1818; the Erie canal was opened in 1825; by 1830 a daily boat line was running between Detroit and Buffalo, and the population of Michigan, which was only 4762 in 1810 and 8896 in 1820, increased to 31,639 in 1830 and 212,267 in 1840.
Although the ordinance creating the North-West Territory fixed the boundary line as claimed by Michigan, yet that line was found to be farther south than was at the time expected and when the constitution of Ohio was adopted it was accompanied with a proviso designed to secure to that state a north boundary that was north of the mouth of the Maumee River.
The territory between the two proposed lines was unquestionably of greater economic importance to Ohio than to Michigan, and, besides, at this particular time there were forcible political reasons for not offending the older state.
The consequence was that after the bloodless "war" between the two states for the possession of Toledo, Congress settled the dispute in Ohio's favour and gave to Michigan the territory since known as the upper peninsula.
The boundaries as fixed by Congress were rejected by a convention which met on the 4th of September at Ann Arbor, but they were accepted by the convention of the Jackson party, which met, also at Ann Arbor, on the 6th of December; the action of this latter convention was considered authoritative by Congress, which admitted Michigan into the Union as a state on the 26th of January 1837.
From the beginning of its government under its first state constitution in 1835 until 1855 Michigan had a Democratic administration with the exception of the years 1840-1842, when opposition to the financial measures of the Democrats placed the Whigs in power.
But it was in Michigan that the Republican party received its first official recognition, at a state convention held at Jackson on the 6th of July 1857, and from the beginning of the following year the administration has been Republican with the exception of two terms from 1883 to 1885, and from 1891 to 1893, when it was again Democratic.
Governors Of Michigan William Hull Territorial.1805-1813Lewis Cass.1813-1831Stevens Thompson Mason (acting) 1831 George Bryan Porter1831-1834Stevens Thompson Mason (acting)1834-1835John Scott Horner (acting).
Publications of the Michigan Geological Survey (Detroit, Lansing and New York, 1838 seq.) deal largely with the mining districts of the upper peninsula.
Alexander Winchell, Michigan: Being Condensed Popular Sketches of the Topography, Climate and Geology of the State (1873), is in large measure restricted to the south half of the state.
Wheeler, Michigan Flora (Lansing, 1892), contains the results of an extensive study of the subject.
C. McLaughlin, History of Higher Education in Michigan, in Circulars of Information of the United States Bureau of Education (Washington, 1891), being an account of the origin of the public school system and an individual account of each higher institution of learning; T.
Cooley, Michigan: a History of Government (Boston, 1885), a critical but popular narrative by an eminent jurist; J.
Campbell, Outlines of the Political History of Michigan (Detroit, 1876), also by a jurist of the state; Henry M.
Cutcheon, Michigan as a Province, Territory and State (4 vols., New York, 1906); Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, Historical Collections: Collections and Researches (Lansing, 1877 seq.); and Publications of the Michigan Political Science Association (Ann Arbor, 1893).
Lake Michigan >>
Ypsilanti, Michigan >>
In the Marquette district of Michigan (Lake Superior) schistose specular ore occurs in important deposits, associated with a jasper rock, in which the ore alternates with bands of red quartzite.
MONROE, a city and the county-seat of Monroe county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Raisin river, 2 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Pere Marquette, and the Detroit & Toledo Shore Line railways, and by electric lines to Detroit and Toledo.
by the state of Michigan, and N.
Mary river, is on the same level as Lake Michigan, which connects with its north-west extremity through the Strait of Mackinac, and is nearly 9 ft.
Practically all the United States traffic is confined to vessels passing through the main lake between Lakes Superior and Michigan and Lake Erie, but on the Canadian side are several railway termini which receive grain mostly from Lake Superior, and deliver mixed freight to ports on that lake.
draught at a cost estimated at £20,Ooo,000 saving some 340 miles in the distance from Lake Superior or Lake Michigan to the sea.
MISHAWAKA, a city of St Joseph county, Indiana, U.S.A., on the St Joseph river of Michigan, about 80 m.
It is served by the Grand Trunk and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways, and by inter-urban electric lines.
MUSKEGON, a city and the county-seat of Muskegon county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Muskegon lake, an expansion of Muskegon river near its mouth, about 4 m.
from Lake Michigan and 38 m.
The channel from Muskegon lake to Lake Michigan has been improved to a depth of 20 ft.
by Wisconsin and Michigan.
above that of lakes Michigan and Huron, to which it is joined at its eastern extremity through the river St Mary.
EAST CHICAGO, a city of Lake county, Indiana, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan, about 19 m.
It is served by several railways, including the Pennsylvania, the Wabash, the Chicago Terminal Transfer (whose shops are here), the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Chicago, Indiana & Southern, and the Indiana Harbor railways.
Ashtabula is served by the Pennsylvania, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the New York, Chicago &.
Holland, Michigan >>
Its chief commercial sources are the salt deposits at Stassfurt in Prussian Saxony, in which magnesium bromide is found associated with various chlorides, and the brines of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, U.S.A.; small quantities are obtained from the mother liquors of Chile saltpetre and kelp. In combination with silver it is found as the mineral bromargyrite (bromite).
The chief centres of the bromine industry are Stassfurt and the central district of Michigan.
of La Salle, a terminus of the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
SAGINAW, a city and the county-seat of Saginaw county, Michigan, U.S.A., situated on both banks of the Saginaw river, about 16 m.
Saginaw is served by the Grand Trunk, seven divisions of the Pere Marquette (which has repair shops here) and four divisions of the Michigan Central railways, by interurban electric railways to Detroit and Bay City, and by steamboat lines to several of the lake ports.
"Bible chairs" were established in state universities and elsewhere by the Disciples, - at the University of Michigan (1893), at the University of Virginia (1899), at the University of Calcutta (1900) and at the University of Kansas (1901).
by the state of Michigan, S.
Fort Clark was erected on the site in 1850 to protect settlers against the Indians; in 1851 the name was changed by order of the secretary of war to Fort Dodge in honour of Colonel Henry Dodge (1782-1867), who was a lieutenant-colonel of Missouri Volunteers in the War of 181 2, served with distinction as a colonel of Michigan Mounted Volunteers in the Black Hawk War, resigned from the military service in March 1833, was governor of Wisconsin Territory from 1836 to 1841 and from 1846 to 1848, and was a delegate from Wisconsin Territory to Congress from 1841 to 1845, and a United States senator from Wisconsin in 1848-1857.
by Michigan and Lake Michigan, on the E.
Other portions of the state are drained by the Kankakee, a tributary of the Illinois, the St Joseph and its principal branch, the Elkhart, which flow north through the south-west corner of Michigan and empty into Lake Michigan; the St Mary's and another St Joseph, whose confluence forms the Maumee, which empties into Lake Erie; and the White Water, which drains a considerable portion of the south-west part of the state into the Ohio.
The most fertile part of the state is the Wabash valley; the least fertile the sandy region, of small extent, immediately south of Lake Michigan.
The most important manufacturing centres are Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Evansville, South Bend, Fort Wayne, Anderson, Hammond, Richmond, Muncie, Michigan City and Elwood, each having a gross annual product of more than $6,000,000.
There are five state penal and correctional institutions: the Indiana Boys' School (1868-1883, the House of Refuge; 1883-1903, the Reform School for Boys), at Plainfield; the Indiana Girls' School, established at Indianapolis (1873), and removed to Clermont in 1907; a woman's prison (the first in the United States, authorized in 1869 and opened in 1873 at Indianapolis), which is entirely under the control of women (as is also the Indiana Girls' School) and has a correctional department (1908), in reality a state workhouse for women, formed with a view to removing as far as possible sentenced women from the county jails; a reformatory (1897), at Jeffersonville, conducted upon a modification of the " Elmira plan," formerly the State Prison (1822), later (1860) the State Prison South, so called to distinguish it from the State Prison North (1860) at Michigan City; and the prison at Michigan City, which became the Indiana State Prison in 1897.
Apparently a French trading post was in existence on the St Joseph river of Michigan about 1672, but it was in no sense a permanent settlement and seems soon to have been abandoned.
In 1800 it was divided, and from its western part (including the present states of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, the north-east part of Minnesota, and a large part - from 1803 to 1805 all - of the present state of Michigan) Indiana Territory was erected, with General William Henry Harrison - who had been secretary of the North-West Territory since 1798 - as its first governor, and with Vincennes as the seat of government.
In January 1805 Michigan Territory was erected from the northern part of Indiana Territory, and in July following the first General Assembly of Indiana Territory met at Vincennes.
In 1823 his parents took him to Ohio, and about ten years afterwards to Michigan.
In 1838-1841 he studied in one of the "branches" of the university of Michigan, and in 1846 graduated at the Harvard law school.
In 1833 he removed to Detroit, Michigan, where he became a prosperous dry-goods merchant.
He was one of the organizers in Michigan of the Republican party, and in 1857 succeeded Lewis Cass in the United States Senate, serving until 1875, and at once taking his stand with the most radical opponents of slavery extension.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Michigan.
by Lake Michigan, on the N.
by the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Lake Superior, on the W.
and E., separating it from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
Included in Wisconsin are the Apostle Islands in Lake Superior, and Washington Island and a group of smaller islands at the entrance to Green Bay on the Lake Michigan side.
The surface is generally rolling and undulating, comprising, with the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, a swelling elevation of land between the three depressions represented by Lakes Michigan and Superior and the Mississippi and the St Croix rivers.
The eastern elevation is a ridge or cuesta formed by an outcropping hard layer of the ancient coastal plain; and it separates the Wisconsin river basin from the Fox River Valley and the streams flowing into Lake Michigan.
back from Lake Michigan extends from the Door county peninsula, E.
of Lake Michigan and 2378 sq.
The Wisconsin river rises on the Upper Michigan border and flows S.
into Green Bay, and is the longest and most important stream draining into Lake Michigan.
Besides the Fox several smaller streams drain into the Lake Michigan basin.
Among these are the Menominee and Oconto, which flow into Green Bay; an arm of Lake Michigan, and the Sheboygan and Milwaukee rivers emptying directly into the lake.
Along the shore of Lake Michigan, and extending inland a quarter of the distance across the state and northward through the Fox River Valley, there was a heavy belt of oak, maple, birch, ash, hickory, elm and some pine.
The crop of oats was 79,800,000 bushels (raised on 2,280,000 acres and valued at $31,122,000) in 1909; of Indian corn, 50,589,000 bushels (raised on 1,533,000 acres and valued at $3 0, 353, 000); of barley, 24,248,000 bushels (raised on 866,000 acres and valued at $13,579,000 - a crop exceeded only by that of California and that of Minnesota), of wheat, 3,484,000 bushels (raised on 179,000 acres and valued at $3,345, 000); of rye,4,727,000bushels (raised on290,000acresandvalued at $3,214,000 - a crop exceeded only by that of Pennsylvania and that of Michigan); and of buckwheat,221,000 bushels (grown on 18,000 acres and valued at $172,000).
The potato crop is large, 26,724,000 bushels being raised in 1909 on 262,000 acres, a crop exceeded only in New York, Michigan and Maine.
The production of iron ore in the Gogebic and Menominee ranges on the upper Michigan border is important.
There are large deposits of stratified clay along the shores of Lake Michigan, from which is made a cream-coloured brick, so largely used in Milwaukee that that city has been called the "cream city"; the total value of clay products in 1907 was $1,127,819 and in 1908 $95 8, 395.
This line was the forerunner of the great Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system, which now crosses the southern half of the state with two trunk lines and with one line parallels the shore of Lake Michigan.
The Green Bay & Western railway between Winona and Kewaunee has ferry connexion across Lake Michigan.
To connect the upper Mississippi river and the Great Lakes, between 1840 and 1850 a canal was begun between the Fox, flowing into Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan and the Wisconsin river, flowing into the Mississippi,' and improvement of navigation on these rivers was undertaken by the state with the assistance of the Federal government; in 1853 the work came into the hands of a private corporation which in 1856 opened the canal.
Green Bay has communication with Lake Michigan, not only by way of its natural entrance, but by a government ship canal (built1872-1881by a private company; taken over by the Federal government in 1893 maximum draft in 1909, 20 ft.; projected channel depth, 21 ft.) at Sturgeon Bay, an arm of Green Bay, which cuts across the Door county peninsula.
To prevent such extravagant expenditures for internal improvements as had brought disaster to Michigan and other states, the framers of the constitution of Wisconsin inserted a clause limiting its aggregate indebtedness to $100,000 for all purposes other than to repel an invasion, to suppress an insurrection or for defence in time of war, and the state is free from debt with the exception of that contracted on account of the Civil War.
Twenty years later Pierre Esprit, Sieur de Radisson, and Medard Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers, started (16J4) from Quebec, crossed Lakes Huron and Michigan, wintered in Wisconsin, ascended the Fox, crossed to the Wisconsin and possibly reached the Mississippi river eighteen years before Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet.
After descending the Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas they returned by way of the Des Plaines portage, paddled along the western shore of Lake Michigan, and arrived at De Pere.
In 1774 was passed the Quebec Act for the government of the Province of Quebec into which the Wisconsin region was incorporated by this act, but it had little effect on the French settlements west of Lake Michigan, which remained throughout the entire British period a group of detached and periodically self-governing communities.
In 1818 Illinois was admitted to the Union and Wisconsin was incorporated in Michigan Territory, and at that time American civil government in the Wisconsin region was first established on an orderly and permanent basis.
The new growth started a movement for a separate Territorial organization for that part of Michigan lying west of Lake Michigan, but this was not finally accomplished until 1836, when Michigan entered the Union.
As originally planned, Wisconsin would have included that part of Illinois west of a line running across the southern end of Lake Michigan; and the inhabitants of this tract actually voted to join Wisconsin, but Congress paid no attention to their demands, and this strip of land, including Chicago, became a part of Illinois.
He renewed his attack in the following year (1832), but after several minor engagements, in most of which he was successful, he was defeated (21st of July) at Wisconsin Heights on the Wisconsin river, opposite Prairie du Sac, by Michigan volunteers under Colonels Henry Dodge and James D.
In states like New York and Pennsylvania, which are much broken up by hills and mountains, and have already a large population, it is probable that the land available for wheat cultivation is now nearly all taken up, although they still have 30% of unimproved land in farms. In the great states of Michigan, Missouri, Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Dakotas there is still 40 to 50% of unimproved land in farms. There are few mountains and hills in these States, and there is still room in them for a large population.
Twelve states, in this vast cereal-growing region - Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North and South Dakota - still have from 20 to 40% of unimproved land in farms. The total area of these states is nearly four times that of France.
He died on the 3rd of June 1861 at Chicago, where he was buried on the shore of Lake Michigan; the site was afterwards bought by the state, and an imposing monument with a statue by Leonard Volk now stands over his grave.
Bingham of Farwell, Michigan, U.S.A., is the one most used in America and in the United Kingdom.
Goshen is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railways, and is connected by electric railway with Warsaw and South Bend.
DETROIT, the largest city of Michigan, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Wayne county, on the Detroit river opposite Windsor, Canada, about 4 m.
Detroit is served by the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Wabash, the Grand Trunk, the Pere Marquette, the Detroit & Toledo Shore Line, the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton and the Canadian Pacific railways.
The educational institutions, in addition to those of the general public school system, include several parochial schools, schools of art and of music, and commercial colleges; Detroit College (Catholic), opened in 1877; the Detroit College of Medicine, opened in 1885; the Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery, opened in 1888; the Detroit College of law, founded in 1891, and a city normal school.
General William Hull (1753-1825), a veteran of the War of American Independence, governor of Michigan territory in 1805-1812, as commander of the north-western army in 1812 occupied the city.
Detroit was the capital of Michigan from 1805 to 1847.
Silas Farmer, The History of Detroit and Michigan (Detroit, 1884 and 1889), and "Detroit, the Queen City," in L.
Wilcox, "Municipal Government in Michigan and Ohio," in Columbia University Studies (New York, 1896); C. M.
Ionia, Michigan >>
In the automobile industry the state in 1905 ranked second (to Michigan) in capital invested; and was sixth in value of product, but first in the average value per car, which was $2354 ($2917 for gasoline; $2343 for electric; $673 for steam cars).
shore of Lake Michigan, about io m.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Pennsylvania, the Chicago, Indiana & Southern and (for freight only) the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern, the Chicago Terminal Transfer, and the Indiana Harbour Belt railways; and is connected with Chicago and with the surrounding XXVIII.
A further problem occurred when a Michigan case against a pedophile was tossed out of court.
Merrill Cooms went on to tell of the capture of the guilty Michigan pedophile who had earlier beaten the wrap.
Auto insurance jackson michigan aftermarket is needed the use of the program should.
The service discount car insurance uk yet Michigan ann arbor.
Anna mae a. Take the time home insurance michigan owner quote are some goods.
The service discount car insurance uk yet michigan ann arbor.
auto in insurance Michigan by alienating.
center insurance Michigan a variety of.
Their luckin colorado in michigan city the sunshine state based on gaming themes.
Cards made with in her th or Michigan's David.
DDD approach health insurance in michigan to.
Dear Dr. Hackenbush, I am a graduate student at the University of Michigan interested in geographic mortality differentials in Scotland.
fault insurance Michigan no orlando the pepsi theater a concept known.
Them to twin size futon cover bring michigan auto insurance rate suit about a reopen the claims.
To find links to official government gazettes, see the comprehensive list hosted by the University of Michigan's Documents Center.
Born in Michigan in 1948 the one-time Vincent Furnier is thought of by many to be the true godfather of rock.
graduated with honors from the Michigan School for the Blind thus enabling him to now spend more time developing his music.
Illinois indiana Michigan lowest average calculated take years says.
Conference on Nonparametric inference and Probability with Applications to Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan (September 2005 ).
democratic lawmakers like Michigan Sen. Carl Levin caution that the United States " must not prejudge the outcome " of the inspections.
offshore virtual monte in michigan city ind to earth's albeit with some.
peer-reviewed bimonthly periodical published by the Michigan Virtual University.
rooster auto insurance law michigan auto in blocking the.
Michigan Modification Articles and information regarding piercing, tattooing, scarification, as well as surgical and nonsurgical modifications.
scoliosis research at the University of Michigan.
Would have no seatbelt usage auto free insurance michigan quote we customer's positive experience.
MOUNT CLEMENS, a city and the county seat of Macomb county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Clinton river, about 5 m.
BAY CITY, a city and the county seat of Bay county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Saginaw river, about 2 m.
Ohio was the pioneer state of the old North-West Territory, which embraced also what are now the states of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the N.E.
The severity of this measure led to gross abuses and defeated its purpose; the number of abolitionists increased, the operations of the Underground Railroad became more efficient, and new Personal Liberty Laws were enacted in Vermont (1850), Connecticut (1854), Rhode Island (1854), Massachusetts (1855), Michigan (1855), Maine (1855 and 1857), Kansas (1858) and Wisconsin (1858).
At the same time there were 124,561 natives of New Hampshire numbered among the inhabitants of other states, principally Massachusetts, Vermont, Maine, New York, Illinois, California, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, Kansas and Nebraska, and to induce these to return for a holiday season to their native state the " Old Home Week" festival, now held throughout New England, was planned in 1899 by Frank West Rollins (b.
When Ohio Territory was organized in 1800 its northern boundary was described as a line drawn from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan due east to the Pennsylvania line, and the official map of the time placed the southern end of Lake Michigan at 42Ã‚° 20' N.
President Jackson now urged Michigan to discontinue interfering with the re-marking of the Harris line, and requested Ohio to postpone putting into effect the Act of February 1835; but as petty outbreaks continued throughout the summer and an Ohio judge and court officers at Toledo were arrested in September, he peremptorily removed Governor Mason from office.
MICHIGAN, a north central state of the United States, situated between latitudes 41Ã‚° 44' and 47Ã‚° 30' N.'
See also the Twelfth Census of the United States (Washington, 1901-1902); Silas Farmer, Michigan Book: a State Cyclopaedia with Sectional County Maps (Detroit, 1901); Bela Hubbard, Memorials of a Half-Century (New York, 1887), a well written account of observations, chiefly upon scenery, fauna, flora and climate; Webster Cook, Michigan: its History and Government (New York, 1905), written primarily for use in schools and containing a reference bibliography; A.
The southern shores, skirting the peninsula of Michigan, are flat.
After the Toledo War (see Toledo, Omo), to recompense Michigan for her losses to Ohio the northern peninsula, geographically a part of the Wisconsin region, was given to Michigan.
At each of the four corners in each of three sections rising one above the other are bronze eagles and figures representing the United States Infantry, Marine, Cavalry and Artillery, also Victory, Union, Emancipation and History; the figure by which the monument is surmounted was designed to symbolize Michigan.
Red rooster auto insurance law michigan auto in blocking the.
Review of scoliosis research at the University of Michigan.
Michigan for instance station wagon models such innovation accidents there are.
Keith near Detroit, Michigan, USA Hi Keith The drawer currently does n't know about swordfish things.
Would have no seatbelt usage auto free insurance michigan quote we customer 's positive experience.
They include Virginia, Arkansas, Nebraska, Connecticut, Minnesota, Florida, Kansas, Michigan, Illinois and Louisiana.
Located in Michigan, the Birch Run outlet mall contains over 140 stores that give you savings on various types of merchandise.
For online merchants in Michigan there are several options from which to choose.
This is merely a brief listing of options available within Michigan and outside of the state.
A good place to look for this information is through the Michigan Better Business Bureau.
If you are looking for well made, high quality furniture that is crafted by hand, Amish furniture in Michigan retail outlets, country stores and online may be just the kind you want for your decorating needs.
Most woodworkers in the Amish country of Michigan learn the skills of their craft by working in family woodworking shops located on their family's farm.
Michigan's Amish, like the Amish from other areas of the country, do not have electricity in their woodworking shops or their homes.
Located throughout the Amish country of Michigan are retailers offering beautiful pieces of Amish-made furniture.
The following Michigan retailers are a small sampling of the many businesses offering beautiful, high quality furniture made by Amish craftsmen in the area.
In addition to their online sales, Amish Direct Furniture operates a 4,200 square foot showroom just outside of Detroit in Shelby Township, Michigan.
Furniture must be picked up at their location in Clare, Michigan.
Located in Midland, Michigan, Amish Reflections offers finely crafted furniture with customization options that include size, design and choice of wood.
Cedar Stuff, located in Lewiston, Michigan, makes gorgeous handcrafted log entertainment centers.
The ELPC develops campaigns to protect and develop environmental resources by advocating various renewable energy sources in Midwest states, including Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin.
Learn how to identify wild berries in Michigan and forage for natural sources of fruits.
Many easily recognizable berries, such as cranberries and blueberries, grow in Michigan, along with a few other varieties.
The easiest way to identify wild berries in Michigan is to begin with fruit that is familiar.
Lake Superior Photo offers photos on their site to help you identify wild berries in Michigan.
Northern Michigan is home to an astonishing amount of wild growing blueberries.
In 1923, construction began on a half million square foot plant in Sturgis, Michigan.
The Michigan Secretary of State office renews license plates online while Florida Power and Light offers online payment options.
The Michigan State University College of Education offers a Master of Arts in Education degree online with concentrations in special education, technology, school leadership, literacy, and science and mathematics education.
For the most part, the Northern Michigan ski resorts are family friendly and easily accessible.
The Northern Michigan area benefits from lake effect snow, which gives it some of the most favorable ski conditions in the country.
While the runs are significantly shorter than what you might find out west, the managers of many Northern Michigan ski resorts claim that this allows them to pay more attention to details, such as grooming and safety conditions.
Most of the Northern Michigan ski resorts are frequented by people who either live in Michigan or in the neighboring states.
As such, unlike the ski resorts in Canada, California, Colorado, Utah and New England, the ski resorts of Northern Michigan are not considered destination resorts.
Visitors to the Boyne area of Northern Michigan have a choice between two ski resorts; Boyne Mountain and Boyne Highlands.
For many, Nub's Nob is synonymous with North Michigan skiing.
With a base elevation of 911 feet and a summit elevation of 1,338 feet, Nub's Nob is somewhat higher than some of the other Northern Michigan resorts.