To the same period belong the book of Micah, the earlier parts of the books of Samuel, of Isaiah and of Proverbs, and perhaps some Psalms. In 722 B.C. Samaria was taken and the Northern kingdom ceased to exist.
This man Micah took into his household as priest.
2 The narrative is of some value as it shows that while it was possible to appoint any one as a priest, since Micah, like David, appointed one of his own sons (xvii.
This same narrative dwells upon the graven images, ephod and teraphim, as forming the apparatus of religious ceremonial in Micah's household.
In Micah iii.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
Unlike Amos and Micah, Isaiah was not only the prophet of denunciation but also the prophet of hope.
Another and more drastic reform than that which had been previously initiated (probably at the instigation of Isaiah and Micah) now became necessary to save the state.
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
3), had entered into a reciprocal covenant with a people who, as Micah's writings would indicate, had suffered grievous oppression and misery.'
Barclay (not the " Apologist "); the best account is given in a pamphlet entitled Micah's Mother by John S.
Presumably therefore his social rank was far above that of Amos and Micah; certainly the high degree of rhetorical skill displayed in his discourses implies a long course of literary discipline, not improbably in the school of some older prophet (Amos vii.
i is (like those of the Psalms) the work of one or more of the Sopherim (or students and editors of Scripture) in post-exilic times, apparently the same writer (or company of writers) who prefixed the headings of Hosea and Micah, and perhaps of some of the other books.
MICAH (r n: ? ?), in the Bible, the name prefixed to the sixth in order of the books of the minor prophets.'
The editorial title of the book of Micah declares that Micah prophesied "in the days of Jotham (739-734), Ahaz (733-721) and Hezekiah (720-693), kings of Judah."
This prophetic activity of Micah under Hezekiah is confirmed by the direct statement of Jer.
- iii., from which chapters only any certain conclusions as to the prophetic message of the historic Micah can be drawn; the remaining sections of the present book (iv.
28 of a citation from Micah i.
The word Morashtite (Morashti) was therefore obscure to them; but this only gives greater weight to the traditional pronunciation with o in the first syllable, which is as old as the LXX., and goes against the view, taken by the Targum both on Micah and on Jeremiah, and followed by some moderns (including Cheyne, E.B., 3198), that Micah came from Mareshah.
Paulae (Ep. cviii.), speaking as an eye-witness, distinguishes Morashtim, with the church of Micah's sepulchre, from Maresa.
This indeed was after the pretended miraculous discovery of the relics of Micah in A.D.
The internal disorders of the realm depicted by Micah are also prominent in Isaiah's prophecies; they were closely connected, not only with the foreign complications due to the approach of the Assyrians, but with the break-up of the old agrarian system within Israel, and with the rapid and uncompensated aggrandisement of the nobles during those prosperous years when the conquest of Edom by Amaziah and the occupation of the port of Elath by his son (2 Kings xiv.
On the other hand the democratic tone which distinguishes Micah from Isaiah, and his announcement of the impending fall of the capital (the deliverance of which from the Assyrian appears to Isaiah as the necessary condition for the preservation of the seed of a new and better kingdom), are explained by the fact that, while Isaiah lived in the centre of affairs, Micah, a provincial prophet, sees the capital and the aristocracy entirely from the side of a man of the oppressed people, and foretells the utter ruin of both.
Our only evidence as to the reception of Micah's message by his contemporaries is that afforded by Jer.
As the last of the four great prophets of the 8th century he undoubtedly contributed to that religious and ethical reformation whose literary monument is the Book of Deuteronomy.2 The remainder of the book bearing the name of Micah falls into two main divisions, viz.
It is improbable that much, if any, of these chapters can be ascribed to Micah himself, 4 not only because their contents are so different from his undoubted work (i.-iii.), for which he was subsequently remembered (Jer.
is older than the prophecy of Micah, while on the other hand Mic. iv.
30-34 may possibly belong to Micah; Wellhausen recognizes the same possibility, which he extends, however, to vi.
Bib.) finds nothing by Micah in iv.-vii., thinks these chapters have crystallized round two central passages, viz.
Smith, the former suggesting, however, that "the existing Book of Micah consists only of a collection of excerpts, in some cases fragmentary excerpts, from the entire series of the prophet's discourses" (L.
judgment to be also a prophet of comfort; but the internal evidence of composite and (in whole or part) later authorship must outweigh the traditional attachment of these passages to a MS. containing the work of Micah.
Such a thought can hardly be Micah's, even if we resort to the violent harmonistic process of imagining that two quite distinct sieges, separated by a renewal of the theocracy, are spoken of in consecutive verses.
Micah unquestionably looked for the destruction of Jerusalem as well as of Samaria in the near future and by the Assyrians (i.
A new David, like him whose exploits in the district of Micah's home were still in the mouths of the common people (?
The sixth chapter of Micah presents a very different situation from that of chs.
Micah may very well have lived into Manasseh's reign, but the title in i.
In English, reference may be made to Cheyne ("Micah," in the Cambridge Bible, 1882; 2nd ed., 1895), and to G.
i., in The Expositor's Bible, 1896); also to the articles on "Micah" by Nowack in Hastings's Did.
P. Smith discusses "The Strophic Structure of the Book of Micah" in a volume of Old Test.
R.*) Micah, in the Bible, a man of the hill-country of Ephraim whose history enters into that of the foundation of the Israelite sanctuary at Dan (Judges xvii.
When the tribe of Dan subsequently sought new territory and sent men to search for a suitable district they passed by Micah's house, recognized the Levite and requested an oracle from him.
29), was neither required nor tolerated (cp. Micah vi.
Ahaz's sacrifice of his son (which indeed rests on a somewhat late authority) was apparently an isolated act of despair, since human sacrifices are not among the corruptions of the popular religion spoken of by Isaiah and Micah.
So too it is the idea of sacrificing the firstborn to Yahweh that is discussed and rejected in Micah vi.
xviii., Micah vi.
11; Micah vi.
But the earliest forms of Hebrew priesthocd are not Canaanite in character; the priest, as he appears in the older records of the time of the Judges, Eli at Shiloh, Jonathan in the private temple of Micah and at Dan, is much liker the sadin than the kahin.
3; images in Micah's temple, Judges xvii.
The priest of Shiloh is a much greater person than Micah's priest Jonathan; at the great This appears even in the words used as synonyms for " priest" rnvn, p ion 'Dr, which exactly corresponds to sadin and hajib.
Indeed, though priesthood was not yet tied to one family, so that Micah's son, or Eleazar of Kirjath-jearim (I Sam.
All this necessarily tended to make the ritual ministry of the priests more important than it had been in old times; but it was in the reign of Manasseh, when the sense of divine wrath lay heavy on the people, when the old ways of seeking Jehovah's favour had failed and new and more powerful means of atonement were eagerly sought for (Micah vi.
The dates of the other Minor Prophets (in some cases approximate) are: Micah, c. 725 - c. 680 B.C. (some passages perhaps later); Zephaniah, c. 625; Nahum, shortly before the destruction of Nineveh by the Manda in 607; Habakkuk (on the rise and destiny of the Chaldaean empire) 605-600; Obadiah, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586; Haggai, 520; Zechariah, i.
Like the teraphim it was part of the common stock of Hebrew cult; it is borne (rather than worn) by persons acting in a priestly character (Samuel at Shiloh, priests of Nob, David), it is part of the worship of individuals (Gideon at Ophrah), and is found in a private shrine with a lay attendant (Micah; Judg.
Again, in the story of Micah's shrine and the removal of the sacred objects and the Levite priest by the Danites, parallel narratives have been used: the graven and molten images of Judg.
Since the absorption of the aborigines in Israel Canaanite ideas had exercised great influence over the sanctuaries - so much so that the reforming prophets of the 8th century regarded the national religion as having become wholly heathenish; and this influence the ordinary prophets, whom a man like Micah regards as mere diviners, had certainly not escaped.
The prophetic teaching had indeed produced a profound effect; to the party of reaction, as the persecution under Manasseh shows, it seemed to threaten to subvert all society; and we can still measure the range and depth of its influence in the literary remains of the period from Isaiah to the captivity, which include Micah vi.
I seq.; Micah v.).
especially its contact with Micah vi.
Hezekiah's time may have been selected by the author of the title (or by the tradition which he represents) as being the next great literary period in Judah after Solomon, the time of Micah and Isaiah, or the selection may have been suggested by the military glory of the period (the repulse of the Assyrian army) and by the fame of Hezekiah as a pious monarch and a vigorous reformer of the national religion.
and possibly of v.3 The first narrative, that of Micah and the Danites, is of the highest interest both as a record of the state of religion and for the picture it gives of the way in which one clan passed from the condition of an invading band into settled possession of land and city.
seq.) lies in the foundation of the Ephraimite sanctuary by Micah as also in that of Dan.
17-19 (which suggests that Micah had a greater influence than Isaiah) throws another light upon the conditions during his reign.
Micah of Mareshah and Obadiah of Bethhaccerem, see Cheyne, Ency.
He and his officials also missed one of the most blatent handballs ever from Micah Richards.
Then said Micah, Now know I that the LORD will do me good, seeing I have a Levite to my priest " .
And Micah consecrated the Levite; and the young man became his priest, and was in the house of Micah.
The meaning of Micah's denunciation (i.
5), yet a special priest-tribe or order also existed, and Micah considered that the acquisition of one of its members was for his household a very exceptional advantage: " Now I know that Yahweh will befriend me because I have the Levite as priest."
xxxv.), when the Judaean fields could produce a Micah or a Zephaniah, and when Israel no doubt had men who inherited the spirit of a Hosea, the nature of the underlying conditions can be more justly appreciated.
Micah resembles Amos, both in his country origin, and in his general character, which expresses itself in strong emphasis on the ethical side of religion.
If these words, therefore, belong to the original context, they mark it as not from Micah's hand; though they might be a later gloss.
Indeed, as Marti points out (p. 259) the triple division of the book of Micah (i.-iii.; iv., v.; vi., vii.) corresponds with that of the book of Isaiah (i.-xxxix.; xl.-lv.; lvi.-lxvi.) in the character of the three divisions (judgment; coming restoration; prayer for help in adversity) respectively, and in the fact that the first alone gives us pre-exilic writing in the actual words of the prophet to whom the whole book is ascribed.
He does not delight in prayers and praise, but he demands truth in the soul and bids man to walk humbly and deal righteously and mercifully with his brother (Micah vi.6-8; Isa.
Micah 's preaching brought about a reformation of religion in the reign of King Hezekiah.
Matt Ritter (Micah Alberti) is the heir apparent to Raintree despite his best efforts to avoid the family business.
He left and returned a few times, playing Micah DeAngelis on Santa Barbara during one of his departures.
Kamal and his two brothers, Ahmad and Micah, are involved in a rap group called Stallionaires.
That Micah lived in the Shephelah or Judaean lowland near the Philistine country is clear from the local colouring of i.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.