Mexico Sentence Examples
In Mexico the national government is carrying out a consistent policy of developing its railway lines.
She was an author, she explained with a puff of her ample bosom, and had just returned from Roswell, New Mexico, Mecca of the strange and alien.
In old days New Mexico was the home of a breed of hairless cats, said to have been kept by the ancient Aztecs, but now well-nigh if not completely extinct.
New Mexico and Arizona are no better.
The only ones west of the Mississippi are Kansas and Oklahoma, and Arizona and New Mexico in the west.Advertisement
When this chain formed the Atlantic mountainborder of the continent excepting this north-eastern corner, Mississippi had not emerged from the waters of the ancient Gulf of Mexico.
Although during the composition of the Ferdinand and Isabella it had been of very intermittent service to him, it had so far improved that he could read with a certain amount of regularity during the writing of the Conquest of Mexico, and also, though in a less degree, during the years devoted to the Conquest of Peru.
Borlaug also promoted the process (which proved wildly successful) of having two wheat-growing seasons in Mexico, one in the highlands, then another in the valley regions.
A fluorescent amber is said, however, to occur in some abundance in Southern Mexico.
Hernan Cortes overran and conquered Mexico from 1518 to 1521, and the discovery and conquest of Guatemala by Alvarado, the invasion of Florida by De Soto, and of Nueva Granada by Quesada, followed in rapid succession.Advertisement
About 40% of the total catch of the state is made by the inhabitants of Harrison county on the Gulf of Mexico.
The Indians were probably miles away, headed for Mexico.
They were in the middle of the desert in New Mexico.
The hesitant visitor was Gladys Turnbull's "publisher" from New Mexico.
While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers.Advertisement
In September 1844 Calhoun, then secretary of state, sent Green to Texas ostensibly as consul at Galveston, but actually, it appears, to report to the administration, then considering the question of the annexation of Texas, concerning the political situation in Texas and Mexico.
After the close of the war with Mexico Green was sent to that country in 1849 by President Taylor to negotiate concerning the moneys which, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States had agreed to pay; and he saved his country a considerable sum by arranging for payment in exchange instead of in specie.
The country was flooded with Jesuits and friars, whose arguments were reinforced by quartering troops, veterans of the Indian wars in Mexico, on the refractory inhabitants.
How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
Sickness and discontent led to a mutiny on De Quiros' vessel, and the crew, overpowering their officers during the night, forced the captain to navigate his ship to Mexico.Advertisement
The territorial limits were extended on the north to the state of Tennessee in 1804 by the acquisition of the west cessions of South Carolina and Georgia, and on the south to the Gulf of Mexico by the seizure of West Florida in 1810-1813, 1 but were restricted on the east by the formation of the Territory of Alabama in 1817.
The relation to Asia of the pre-European civilizations of America is another of those questions which admit of no definite answer at present, though many facts support the theory that the semi-civilized inhabitants of Mexico and Central America crossed from Asia by Bering Straits and descended the west coast.
At the beginning of the quarrel of the North and the South over the organization of the territory acquired from Mexico, Calhoun contended that the Constitution of the United States extended over this territory and carried slavery with it, but Webster denied this on the ground that the territory was the property of, not part of, the United States, and Webster's view prevailed.
In southern Mexico in 1902 and 1904 Hans Gadow collected specimens of 44 different kinds of snakes, which he estimated to be only about 45% of the species in the states visited.
The coasts of Mexico, together with their accessible lagoons and rivers, afford innumerable breeding-places for turtles, which include the large green and tortoise-shell species.Advertisement
Mexico is credited with a great variety of song-birds, but these are to be found chiefly in the partly-forested country of the tierras templadas and tierras frias.
It should be added that many of the migrating birds of North America pass the winter in Mexico.
The insect fauna of Mexico covers a very wide range of genera and species which, like the other forms of animal life, is largely made up of migratory types.
Bees find a highly congenial habitat in Mexico, and some honey is exported.
The pulque industry is located on the plateau surrounding the city of Mexico, the most productive district being the high, sandy, arid plain of Apam, in the state of Hidalgo, where the " maguey " (A gave americana) finds favourable conditions for its growth - a dry calcareous surface with moisture sufficiently near to be reached by its roots.
Its cultivation is the chief industry of the states of Mexico, Hidalgo, Puebla and Tlaxcala.
This per-person threshold actually exceeds the average income of three-quarters of the countries on the planet, including Mexico, Russia, and Brazil, and is about 20 percent higher than the average income of the entire planet.
This people must cease to hold slaves, and to make war on Mexico, though it cost them their existence as a people.
In 1832 the Registro Trimestre, a literary and scientific journal printed at Mexico, contained a communication by Dr. Pablo de la Llave, describing this species (with which he first became acquainted before 1810, from examining more than a dozen specimens obtained by the natural-history expedition to New Spain and kept in the palace of the Retiro near Madrid) under the name by which it is now known, Pharomacrus mocino.3 Quezal, male and female.
Though the plateau region was settled soon after the arrival of the Spaniards in Mexico, there are large districts on the southern and Pacific slopes that still belong almost exclusively to the Indians.
I 1519 a third expedition, under Hernando Cortes, the conque or of Mexico, came into collision with the natives of the isla d of Cozumel.
The Rio Grande de Lerma, or Santiago, is the principal river, whose sources are to be found on the high plateau in the state of Mexico.
He was denounced as a traitor to his party because of his support of annexation, but he later became the leader of the Whig opposition to the war with Mexico.
On his return in 1847, he exchanged the naval for the military service, and was sent to join the U.S. army in Mexico, where he had some extraordinary adventures, and where he was again stricken with fever.
Attention was drawn to it in 1862, when it caused the abandonment of cotton cultivation about Monclova in Mexico.
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
Mexico.-Cotton is extensively grown in Mexico, and large quantities are used for home consumption.
Caloosahatchee river, flowing into the Gulf of Mexico near Charlotte Harbour, is its principal outlet.
Florida that have been examined, 187 are common to the West Indies, Mexico and South America.
Only four of his men, including Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, succeeded after eight years' of Indian captivity and of long and weary wanderings, in finding their way to Spanish settlements in Mexico.
Then, jealous of the French explorations along the Gulf of Mexico, they turned their attention to the west coast, and in 1696 founded Pensacola.
The westward expansion of the United States made necessary American ports on the Gulf of Mexico; consequently the acquisition of West Florida as well as of New Orleans was one of the aims of the negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
He was a member of the lower house of the Ohio legislature in 1821, 1822 and 1829, and of the national House of Representatives from 1831 to 1840; was governor of Ohio in 1840-1842; served in the United States Senate from 1845 to 1850; was secretary of the treasury in the cabinet of President Fillmore in 1850-1853; was again a member of the national House of Representatives from 1859 to 1861; and from 1861 to 1864 was minister of the United States to Mexico - a position of peculiar difficulty at that time.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
Among the principal buildings are the U.S. Government Building, the City Hall and the County Court House; and the city's institutions include the Laredo Seminary (1882) for boys and girls, the Mercy Hospital, the National Railroad of Mexico Hospital and an Ursuline Convent.
Laredo is a jobbing centre for trade between the United States and Mexico, and is a sub-port of entry in the Corpus Christi Customs District.
Laredo was named from the seaport in Spain, and was founded in 1767 as a Mexican town; it originally included what is now Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, and was long the only Mexican town on the left bank of the river.
They are important ores of silver (the pure chloride contains 75.3% of silver), and have been extensively mined at several places in Chile, also in Mexico, and at Broken Hill in New South Wales.
These railway communications, and the situation of the city (on the Piedmont Plateau) on the water-parting between the streams flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and those flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, have given Atlanta its popular name, the "Gate City of the South."
In the second place it was necessary to form a territorial government for the remainder of the territory acquired from Mexico, including that now occupied by Nevada and Utah, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.
New Mexico (then including the present Arizona) and Utah were organized without any prohibition of slavery (each being left free to decide for or against, on admission to statehood), and a rigid fugitive slave law was enacted; these were concessions to the South.
In the third place, the rejection of the Wilmot Proviso and the acceptance (as regards New Mexico and Utah) of "Squatter Sovereignty" meant the adoption of a new principle in dealing with slavery in the territories, which, although it did not apply to the same territory, was antagonistic to the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, New 4 The great majority of the maps in this work are made by this process.
Of great value for cartographical work is a careful survey, carried out by American engineers (1897-1898), for a continental railway running along the west coast from Mexico to Chile.
In the autumn of 1863 Banks organized a number of expeditions to Texas, chiefly for the purpose of preventing the French in Mexico from aiding the Confederates, and secured possession of the region near the mouths of the Nueces and the Rio Grande.
Afterward going westward from Lake Athabasca and through the Peace river, he reached the Pacific Ocean, being the first white man to cross the North American continent, north of Mexico.
Pop. (1895) 9 0, 97 8; (1900) 62,623, Leon ranking fourth in the latter year among the cities of Mexico.
The country about Leon is considered to be one of the richest cereal-producing districts of Mexico.
These flood plains form collectively what is known as the alluvial region, which extends in a broad belt down the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico, and up the Ouachita and its branches and the Red river to and beyond the limits of the state.
It divides the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico into two passages of nearly equal width, - the Strait of Florida, about I io m.
The trade of the United States with the island was as great in 1900-1907 as with Mexico and all the other West Indies combined; as great as its trade with Spain, Portugal and Italy combined; and almost as great as its trade with China and Japan.
The captaincy-general of Cuba was not originally, however, by any means so broad in powers as the viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru; and by the creation in 1765 of the office of intendant - the delegate of the national treasury - his faculties were very greatly curtailed.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
From Cuba went the expeditions that discovered Yucatan (1517), and explored the shores of Mexico, Hernando Cortes's expedition for the invasion of Mexico, and de Soto's for the exploration of Florida.
Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
Spain, the United States, England, France, Colombia and Mexico were all involved in it, the first four continually.
This lake drained southward into the Gulf of Mexico via the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, until the ice sheet which had prevented its natural drainage to the north had melted sufficiently to allow it to be drained off into Hudson Bay by way of the Nelson River.
Honolulu is served by the Oahu railway, by electric lines to the principal suburbs, and by steamship lines to San Francisco, Seattle, Vancouver, Manila, Salina Cruz (Mexico), Victoria, Sydney, and Chinese and Japanese ports.
It was introduced into the new world by early Spanish missionaries, and is now cultivated in the dry districts of the south-western United States and in Mexico.
Very fine obsidians are also obtained in Mexico, at the Yellowstone Park, in New Zealand, Ascension and in the Caucasus.
America and in Mexico for incising the trees and obtaining the rubber are exceedingly primitive, but survive with little modification at the present day.
America its natural occurrence appears to be limited to west of the Andes, but the tree is abundant in Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua.
The native methods in vogue in Brazil and Mexico are primitive and often injurious to the tree.
In 1837 he resigned from the army to become his father's private secretary, but in 1846, at the outbreak of the war with Mexico, he was reappointed with the rank of major and paymaster.
It is widely distributed in the United States, and occurs in Mexico and Brazil; it is found in Tunisia and Algeria, in the Altai Mountains and India, and in New South Wales, Queensland, and in Tasmania.
Germany, Austria, Hungary, France, Russia and the United States began to rank as producers during the second and third decades; Belgium entered in about 1840; Italy in the 'sixties; Mexico, Canada, Japan and Greece in the 'eighties; while Australia assumed importance in 1888 with a production of about 18,000 tons, although it had contributed small and varying amounts for many preceding decades.
Mexico increased its production from 18,000 tons in 1883 to 83,000 tons in 1900 and about 88,000 tons in 1905.
Mexico was laid out as "New Mexico" in 1836, and became the county-seat under its present name in 1837.
A fund bearing this name was formed in the 18th century for the purpose The sous of converting to the Catholic faith the native Indians of fu d of Upper and Lower California, both of which then belonged to Mexico, and of maintaining a Catholic priesthood there.
By a decree of 1842 this fund was transferred to the public treasury of Mexico, the Mexican government undertaking to pay interest thereon in perpetuity in furtherance of the design of the original donors.
The question of liability was then referred to commissioners appointed by each state, and, on their failing to agree, to Sir Edward Thornton, British minister at Washington, who by his award, in 1875, found there was due from Mexico to Upper California, or rather to the bishops there as administrators of the fund, an arrear of interest amounting to nearly $100,000, which was directed to be paid in gold.
Claim was thereupon made on Mexico by the United States on behalf of the bishops, but without success.
In October 1902, the court decided both questions in the affirmative, awarding the payment by Mexico of the annual sum claimed, not in gold, but en monnaie ayant cours legal au Mexique.
During his first session, war with Mexico was declared, and he resigned his seat in June 1846 to take command of the first regiment raised in his state - the Mississippi Rifles.
Several members of the order are used medicinally for the strong purging properties of the milky juice (latex) which they contain; scammony is the dried latex from the underground stem of Convolvulus Scarnmonia, a native of the Levant, while jalap is the product of the tubercles of Exogonium Purga, a native of Mexico.
He was the son of Alfred Conkling (1789-1874), who was a representative in Congress from New York in 1821-1823, a Federal district judge in 1825-1852, and U.S. minister to Mexico in 1852-1853.
Stock-raising was for a time the principal industry, but agriculture has been largely developed in several localities, among the chief products of which are cotton - Coahuila is the principal cotton-producing state in Mexico - Indian corn, wheat, beans, sugar and grapes.
The Sierra Madre crosses the southern part of the state parallel with the coast, separating the low, humid, forested districts on the frontier of Tabasco from the hot, drier, coastal plain on the Pacific. The mountain region includes a plateau of great fertility and temperate climate, which is one of the best parts of Mexico and contains the larger part of the population of the state.
Dom Enrique, Infante of Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti early in the 16th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon.
Very similar kinds of sugar are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in Mexico, under the names of " Panela " and " Chancaca," but in those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most approved machinery.
In some parts of Mexico and Central America this separation is still effected by running the sugar into conical moulds, and placing on the top a layer of moist clay or earth which has been kneaded in a mill into a stiff paste.
The tobacco plant itself was first brought to Europe in 1558 by Francisco Fernandes, a physician who had been sent by Philip II of Spain to investigate the products of Mexico.
It is a native of Mexico, and now widely cultivated in southern Germany, Hungary and the East Indies.
Mexico is an important tobacco-producing country, and Mexican leaf is largely used in Europe for cigar wrappers and other purposes.
Coxe of Philadelphia published a description and coloured figure taken from living plants sent him two years previously from Mexico.
The roots are dug up in Mexico throughout the year, and are suspended to dry in a net over the hearth of the Indians' huts, and hence acquire a smoky odour.
It grows in Mexico along the mountain range of the Sierra Gorda in the neighbourhood of San Luis de la Paz, from which district it is carried down to Tampico, whence it is exported.
New and direct services were started to East Africa, Central America and Mexico; the service to India and the Far East, as well as that to the Mediterranean ports, was much improved; and lastly, Trieste was made the centre of the large emigration from Austria to America by the inauguration (June 1904) of a direct emigrant service to New York.
Queretaro has one of the oldest and largest cotton factories in Mexico, employing about 2000 operatives, and maintaining a small private military force for protection.
During the Mexican war he was twice severely wounded in a reconnaissance at Cerro Gordo, 1847, was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, the battles of Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey, the storming of Chapultepec, and the assault on the city of Mexico, and received three brevets for gallant and meritorious service.
The state is well served with railways, the capital, Monterrey, being one of the most important railway centres in northern Mexico.
In 1798 he published a long and worthless so-called epic on the conquest of Mexico.
The pythons (q.v.) are restricted to the palaeotropical and Australian regions, with the sole exception of Loxocemus bicolor in southern Mexico.
The moccasin-snake ranges fromMassachusetts and Kansas to Florida and Texas and into Mexico, preferring swampy localities or meadows with high grass, where it hunts for small mammals and birds.
America, extending into Mexico and the Lower Antilles.
When the war with Mexico began in 1846 he asked for field duty, and was ordered to join an expedition going to California by sea.
The supplies from Mexico and Brazil were important during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Mexico, from a gold production of £200,000 in 1891, advanced to about £1,881,800 in 1900 and to about £3,221,000 in 1905.
In Mexico and South America, instead of the pan, a wooden dish or trough, known as " batea," is used.
Notwithstanding its mountainous character, Morelos is one of the most flourishing agricultural states of Mexico, producing sugar, rice, Indian corn, coffee, wheat, fruit and vegetables.
Although the state is supposed to have several of the minerals found in this part of Mexico (silver, cinnabar, iron, lead, gold, petroleum and coal), its mining industries continue undeveloped and neglected.
Maximilian had a villa there, and many of the public men of Mexico, natives of the lowlands, have made their homes there rather than in the national capital.
Some of the largest and most modern sugar-mills of Mexico are in the Cuautla district.
The colonial policy proper was broken down by the revolt of the North American colonies from Great Britain, and later of Mexico and Central and South America from Spain.
For Mexico the price of this alliance was to be the American States of New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
This proposal, which was sent through the medium of the German minister to Mexico, von Eckhardt, was intercepted in America, and President Wilson was in a position to publish it on March I 1917.
The German Liberals and the governmental Socialists had withdrawn their support from Bethmann Hollweg's Government at the time of the so-called " Peace Resolution " (July 19 1917), largely on the ground that it was inconceivable that the Allies and America should ever negotiate with politicians like Zimmermann and Bethmann, who had been guilty of the note to Mexico and other treacherous proceedings.
C. giganieus, the largest and most striking species of the genus, is a native of hot, arid, desert regions of New Mexico, growing there in rocky valleys and on mountain sides, where the tall stems with their erect branches have the appearance of telegraph poles.
The native country of the insect is Mexico, and it is there more or less cultivated; but the greater part of our supply comes from New Granada and the Canary Islands.
He took part in the later movements under Winfield Scott against the city of Mexico, and was breveted first lieutenant for "gallant and meritorious conduct."
The Central American Sea communicates with the Atlantic through the channels between the Antilles, none of which is quite 1000 fathoms deep, and it sinks to a depth of 2843 fathoms in the Caribbean Basin, 3428 fathoms in the Cayman Trench and 2080 fathoms in the Gulf of Mexico.
Coal is known at several points in Alaska, and there are rich but little worked deposits in Mexico.
Mimus polyglottus, the northern mocking-bird, inhabits the southern part of the United States, being in the north only a summer visitant; it breeds rarely in New England, is seldom found north of the 38th parallel, and migrates to the south in winter, passing that season in the Gulf States and Mexico.
The mountains of the Basin Range region, known in Texas as the Trans-Pecos Province, rise in Guadalupe Peak near the border of New Mexico, to nearly 9000 ft.
The Rio Grande and its principal tributary, the Pecos, drain narrow basins in the S.W.; these two rivers and the Canadian river rise in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and New Mexico, but all the other rivers by which the state is drained rise within its borders.
Louisiana bears (Ursus luteolus) still inhabit the inaccessible canebrakes near the coast, and occasionally one is found farther west; and in the western mountains black (and cinnamon) bears, including the New Mexico black bear (Ursus Americanus amblyceps) still are found.
Administration.-Texas as a part of Mexico was governed under the constitution (1827) of the "Free State of Coahuila and Texas"; a separate constitution adopted in 1835 was never recognized by the Mexican government and never went into effect.
Finance.-The heavy debt incurred in the struggle with Mexico was paid out of the $10,000,000 received from the United States government under the Compromise of 1850.
So far as Spain was concerned this was only a form, inasmuch as Mexico, of which Texas formed a part, was just completing its long struggle for independence (1810-21).
Most of the settlers came from the southern section of the Union and of course brought their slaves with them, but there is no evidence to show that their object was the territorial extension of slavery, or that the revolt against Mexico was the result of dissatisfaction with that country's anti-slavery policy.
The western boundary claimed by the republic was the Rio Grande to its source and the meridian of longitude from that point to the forty-second parallel, although as a political division of Mexico its limits never extended farther west than the Nueces and the Medina.
Wooten (ed.), A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685-1897 (2 vols., Dallas, 1898), contains a reprint of Yoakum with notes and several chapters by various writers on Anglo-American colonization, the revolution against Mexico, the land system, the educational system, &c. A series of monographs dealing mostly with the period before 1845 will be found in The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association (Austin, 1897 sqq.).
In 1847, while again a representative in the state legislature, he introduced a bill appropriating money for the equipment of a regiment to serve in the Mexican War; although the bill was defeated, he raised the necessary funds privately, and served in Mexico first as colonel and afterwards as brigadier-general of volunteers.
In Los Angeles also are the collections of the Southwest Society (1904; for southern California, Arizona and New Mexico) of the Archaeological Institute of America.
The city stands on a small plain occupying the south-western part of a large lacustrine depression known as the Valley of Mexico (El Valle de Mexico), about 3 m.
As the name of a street changes with almost every block, according to the old Spanish custom, a list of street names is sometimes mistakenly accepted as the number of continuous thoroughfares in the city, so that it has been said that Mexico has 600 to 900 streets and alleys.
It has three entrances on the Plaza, and over its main gateway hangs the " liberty bell " of Mexico, first rung by the humble parish priest Hidalgo, on the night of the 16th of September 1810, to call the people of Dolores to arms, and now rung at midnight on each recurring anniversary by the president himself.
Mexico was formerly one of the worst drained large cities of the New World, its subsoil being permanently saturated and its artificial drainage being through open ditches into the San Lazaro Canal which nominally discharged into Lake Texcoco.
Considerable attention has always been given to education in Mexico, but in colonial times it was limited in scope, and to the dominant classes.
The old university of Mexico, with its faculties of theology, law and medicine (founded 1551 and inaugurated 1553), ceased to exist in 1865 and was succeeded by schools of engineering, law and medicine, which have been signally successful.
To these should be added the foundries and iron-working shops which add so much to the prosperity of modern Mexico.
A southern extension of the Mexican Central, via Cuernavaca, has reached the Balsas river and will be extended to Acapulco, once the chief Pacific port of Mexico and the depot for the rich Philippine trade.
In former times Mexico was overrun with mendicants (pordioseros), vagrants and criminals (rateros), and the " Portales de las Flores " on the east of the Plaza Mayor was a favourite " hunting-ground " for them because of its proximity to the cathedral; but modern conditions have largely reduced this evil.
The City of Mexico dates, traditionally, from the year 1325 or 1327, when the Aztecs settled on an island in Lake Texcoco.
In the war between Mexico and the United States the most decisive campaign was that of General Winfield Scott directed .against the Mexican capital.
Three days later General Scott agreed to an armistice, but Mexico rejected the terms of peace, and hostilities were resumed on the 7th of September.
On the following day the City of Mexico surrendered.
Maximilian, archduke of Austria, was crowned emperor of Mexico in the cathedral in June 1864, and held possession of the capital until the 21st of June 1867, when it was captured by General Porfirio Diaz.
In that and the following year the coasts of Yucatan and of the Gulf of Mexico were explored successively by Francisco Hernandez Cordova and Juan de Grijalva, who both sailed from Cuba.
From Cuba it was that Hernan Cortes sailed on the 10th (or 18th) of February 1519 for the conquest of Mexico.
In Mexico they found "pueblo" or town Indians who possessed an organized government and had made some progress in civilization.
The hegemony of the Aztecs, who dominated the other tribes from the central valley of Mexico, was oppressive.
What the Spaniards had then overrun from Mexico to Chile is still Spanish America.
The organization of the French colonies, though industrially ruinous, gave them Illustrations representative of the primitive cultures of Central America, Mexico and Peru (q.q.v.) selected and arranged by Dr Walter Lehmann of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, Norwich.
For these reasons there was not, outside of southern Mexico, northern Central America and Peru, a dense population.
The materials for studying the American man biologically are abundant in the United States National Museum in Washington; the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, Massachusetts; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the Academy of Sciences and the Free Museum of Arts and Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Field Museum in Chicago; the National Museum, city of Mexico, and the Museum of La Plata.
The Athapascans of New Mexico are of middle stature, the Pueblo peoples are short.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.
In Arizona, Mexico and Peru, reservoirs and aqueducts prove that hydrotechny was understood.
In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.
A deal of study has been devoted to the cunning Tubal Cains, the surprising productions of whose handiwork have been recovered in the art provinces of Mexico and the Cordilleras, especially in Chiriqui, between Costa Rica and Colombia.
The efflorescence of aboriginal pottery is to be found in the Pueblo region of south-westernUnited States, in Mexico, Central America,Caribbean Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and restricted areas of eastern Brazil.
This art reached down to the borders of Mexico.
In northern Mexico net-work, rude lace-work in twine, are followed farther south, where finer material existed, by figured weaving of most intricate type and pattern; warps were crossed and wrapped, wefts were omitted and texture changed, so as to produce marvellous effects upon the surface.
In Mexico, and in Peru especially, the human back was utilized to its utmost extent, and in most parts of America harness adapted for carrying was made and frequently decorated with the best art.
Poor dugouts and rafts, made by tying reeds together, constituted the water-craft of California and Mexico until Central America is reached.
Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.
The same objection to over-massiveness might not apply here as in Mexico, owing to volcanic activity.
The American Museum in New York has prepared a series of monographs on the tribes of the North Pacific coast, of northern Mexico, and of the Cordilleras of South America.
In Mexico the former labours of Pimentel and Orozco y Berra are supplemented by those of Bandelier, Penafiel, Herrera and Alfredo Chavero.
The pompous ceremonials of the civilized tribes of Mexico and the Cordilleras in South America, when analysed, reveal only a higher grade of the prevailing idea.
A list of the ruins, printed in the handbook on Mexico published by the Department of State in Washington, covers several pages.
The fact remains, however, that the curious metal-craft of the narrow strip along the Pacific from Mexico to Titicaca is the greatest of archaeological enigmas.
In the Carib province there are no mural remains, but the pottery, with its excessive onlaying, recalls Mexico and the jewellers of Chiriqui.
The former is found in Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; the latter in Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
His idol was a huge block of basalt (still thought to be preserved in Mexico), on one side of which he is sculptured in hideous form, adorned with the feathers of the humming-bird.
About 1530 he appears to have revisited the Spanish court, but on what precise errand is not known; the confusion concerning this period of his life extends to the time when, after visits to Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Guatemala, he undertook an expedition in 1537 into Tuzulutlan, the inhabitants of which were, chiefly through his tact, peaceably converted to Christianity, mass being celebrated for the first time amongst them in the newly founded town of Rabinal in 1538.
In Mexico 11 mints formerly existed, but one only, in the city of Mexico, remained open in 1907.
A small part of the state, in the W., drains to the Ohio, and thence, by way of the Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico; and a much larger area drains into the Susquehanna, entering the head of Chesapeake Bay.
The main range of the Rocky Mountains separates that part which is drained west into the'Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean from that which is drained east into the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and the Gulf of Mexico, and from a very small part which is drained north-east into Hudson Bay; the water-parting which in Montana separates the drainage into Hudson Bay from the drainage into the Gulf of Mexico crosses only the north-west region of Teton county.
The rainfall is sufficient for good grazing, but except in the Flathead valley cultivation was long considered to be dependent on irrigation; and consequently farming was only incidental to stock raising and mining until after 1870, and as late as 1900 the ratio of improved farm land to the total land area was less than in any other state or territory except New Mexico, Wyoming, Arizona and Hawaii.
The main watershed follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of New river in Virginia; south of this the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by southeasterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the water-parting lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south.
The northern portion of this ridge forms the water-parting between the streams that empty into Hudson Bay and those that flow into the Gulf of Mexico.
In the latter half of the 18th century it served as a kind of bastille for political prisoners, and is now used as a museum in which a rather nondescript collection of articles, some from Mexico, has been allowed to accumulate.
During the Civil War it was occupied, late in February 1862, by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-1886), who soon afterwards advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico.
He was gone over two years, visiting all the principal ports and pushing inland from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico.
In the New World, according to Prescott, King Nezahualcoyotl had zoological gardens at Tezcuco in Mexico in the middle of the 15th century, whilst in the next century Cortes found aviaries and fishponds at Iztapalapan.
Synetheres, or Coendu, contains some eight or ten species, known as tree-porcupines, found throughout tropical South America, with one extending into Mexico.
Sodium carbonates are also widely dispersed in nature, forming constituents of many mineral waters, and occurring as principal saline components in natron or trona lakes, as efflorescences in Lower Egypt, Persia and China, and as urao in Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.
In that year Mexico fell away from the mother country.
In 1829 he defeated a foolish attempt of the Spaniards to reassert their authority in Mexico.
For the rest of his life Santa-Anna was hanging on the outskirts of Mexico, endeavouring to find an opening to renew his old adventures.
At last, worn out by age, he accepted an amnesty and returned to the city of Mexico, where he died in obscurity on the 10th of June 1876.
Later, when this was found to consist of a vast archipelago enclosing the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, Antilia assumed its present plural form, Antilles, which was collectively applied to the whole of this archipelago.
The Santa Maria mines of Sonora, Mexico, probably the richest deposits in the world, supply the American lead pencil manufacturers.
Much against his own judgment, Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott, the Federal general-in-chief, a veteran of the second war with England and of the war with Mexico, felt constrained to order an advance against Beauregard, while Patterson was to hold Johnston in check on the Shenandoah.
A slight campaign in New Mexico took place in February 1862, in which several brilliant tactical successes were won by the Texan forces, but no permanent foothold was secured by them.
Part of this rejoins the North Equatorial Current, and part probably forms the variable Mexican Current, which follows the coasts of Mexico and California close to the land.
Polychrus, the "chameleon," and Liolaemus are South American; Ctenosaura of Central America and Mexico resembles the agamoid Uromastix.
Corythophanes and Laemanctus, with only a few species, are rare inhabitants of the tropical forests of Central America and Mexico.
Sauromalus, Crotaphytus, Callisaurus, Holbrookia, Uma, Uta are typical Sonoran genera, some ranging from Oregon through Mexico.
Phrynosoma, with about a dozen species, the "horned toads" of California to Texas, and through Mexico.
The Zapotecs, who call the creature Talachini, and other tribes of Mexico have endowed it with fabulous properties and fear it more than the most poisonous snakes.
Chirotes canaliculatus, and two other species; Pacific side of Mexico and Lower California.
During his stay in the city of Mexico his thoughts were seriously directed towards religion, and, eventually entering the Presbyterian communion, he ruled every subsequent action of his life by his faith.
The society's foreign agencies extend to China, Japan, Korea, the Turkish empire, Bulgaria, Egypt, Micronesia, Siam, Mexico, Central America, the South American republics, Cuba and the Philippines.
Gregory (Climatic Variations, their Extent and Causes, International Geological Congress, Mexico, 1906), who holds that the extent of climatic changes in past times has been greatly exaggerated.
When it was remembered, too, that they had decided, at a council held at Lima, that it was inexpedient to impose any act of Christian devotion except baptism on the South American converts, without the greatest precautions, on the ground of intellectual difficulties, it is not wonderful that this doubt was not satisfactorily cleared up, notably in face of the charges brought against the Society by Bernardin de Cardonas, bishop of Paraguay, and the saintly Juan de Palafox, bishop of Angelopolis in Mexico.
The interior curve formed by the Gulf of Mexico is comparatively regular and has a coast-line of about 1400 m.
The area of Mexico is commonly given by English authorities as 767,005 sq.
The great plateau of Mexico is very largely of volcanic origin.
The two noteworthy depressions in its surface, the Valley of Mexico and Bolson de Mapimi, once contained large bodies of water, of which only small lakes and marshy lagoons now remain.
The highest part of this great plateau is to be found in the states of Mexico and Puebla, where the general elevation is about 8000 ft.
Rising from the open plateau half way between this range and the city of Mexico is the isolated cone of Malinche, or Malintzin (14,636 ft.).
To a part of these ranges has been given the name of Cordillera de Anahuac, but there is no true cordillera across this part of Mexico.
This part of Mexico is highly volcanic in character, the transverse ridge just described having a large number of extinct volcanoes and at least three (Colima, Jorullo and Ceboruco) that are either active or semi-active.
The earthquake shocks of the 30th and 31st of July 1909 were unusually severe throughout southern Mexico, reducing Acapulco and Chilpancingo to ruins and shaking the city of Mexico severely.
The lowland or tierra caliente region, which lies between the sierras and coast on both sides of Mexico, consists of a sandy zone of varying width along the shore-line, which is practically a tidewater plain broken by inland channels and lagoons, and a higher belt of land rising to an elevation of about 3000 ft.
There are no large islands on the coast of Mexico, and most of the smaller ones are unimportant.
The hydrography of Mexico, therefore, is of the simplest description - a number of small streams flowing from the plateau or mountain slopes eastward to the Gulf of Mexico and westward to the Pacific. Most of these are little more than mountain torrents, but one has a course exceeding 500 m., and few have navigable channels.
The principal watershed is formed by the sierras of the state of Mexico, from which streams flow north-east to the Gulf of Mexico, northwest to the Pacific and south-west to the same coast below its great eastward curve.
The lakes of Mexico are small and few in number.
Of the former, the best known are the lakes of the Valley of Mexico - Texcoco, Chalco, Xochimilco, Zumpango, Xaltocan and San Cristobal - which are probably the remains of a lake once occupying the whole valley.
There is a marked difference between the Gulf and Pacific coastlines of Mexico in regard to their minor indentations and harbours.
The south-west part of the Gulf of Mexico is called the Gulf of Campeche (Campeachy), but no distinction is necessary.
By far the greater part of Mexico is covered by deposits.
The earliest fossiliferous beds which have been proved to exist in Mexico belong to the Carboniferous system.
It is in the western half of Mexico that they are most fully developed, but towards the southern extremity of the plateau they spread nearly to the eastern coast.
The tierras calientes (hot lands) of Mexico include the two coastal zones, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the states of Tabasco, Campeche, and part of Chiapas, the peninsula of Yucatan and a part of eastern Oaxaca.
To a large extent the climate of Mexico is determined by vertical zones.
Bancroft (Resources of Mexico, pp. 3-4), the tierras calientes, which include a coastal zone 30 to 40 m.
The tierra templada, or sub-tropical zone, rises to an elevation of 5577 ft., and comprises " the greater portions of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, nearly half of Tamaulipas, a small part of Vera Cruz, nearly the whole of Chiapas, nearly all of Oaxaca, a large portion of Guerrero, Jalisco, Sinaloa and Sonora," together with small parts of the inland states of Puebla, Mexico, Morelos and Michoacan.
The precipitation varies widely, that of the western side of the northern plateau (Chihuahua and Durango) being about 39 in., that of the Valley of Mexico about 25 in., and that of the whole republic 59 in.
This intermingling of types does not apply to south-eastern Mexico, where animal life is represented by many of the genera and species found in the forested lowlands of the great Amazon basin.
Mexico is a paradise of lizards, which are noted for their diversity in form as well as for their remarkable colouration.
Few countries, if any, can present so great a diversity in plant life as Mexico.
These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.
The cactus is unquestionably the characteristic plant of Mexico.
In central and southern Mexico the mountain slopes are forested up to 12,500 to 13,500 ft., juniper bushes continuing up to 14,000 ft.
In southern Mexico the pine is found at even lower elevations where the tropical growth has been destroyed by cultivation and fire.
The lower slopes of the sierras, especially those of southern Mexico, are well forested and include an immense number of species.
Of the 114 species of trees and cabinet-woods, 17 of oil-bearing plants, and over 60 of medicinal plants and dyewoods indigenous to Mexico, by far the larger part are represented in the tierras calientes.
Of the economic plants and products of Mexico, the list is surprisingly long and interesting.
Indian corn, which is believed to have had its origin in Mexico, also provides food for a large part of the population.
The food of the common people is chiefly made up of Indian corn, beans, red peppers and " tomatoes," There are about 50 known species of beans (Phaseolus) in Mexico and Central America, and probably a dozen species of red peppers (Capsicum) which are used both in seasoning and in making chili sauce.
Mexico has suffered much from the reckless destruction of her forests, not only for industrial purposes but through the careless burning of grassy areas.
The denuded mountain slopes and plateaus of southern Mexico are due to the prehistoric inhabitants who cleared away the tropical forest for their Indian corn fields, and then left them to the erosive action of the tropical rains and subsequent occupation by coarse grasses.
According to the census of 1900 the population of Mexico numbered 13,607,259, of which less than one-fifth (19%) were classed as whites, 38% as Indians, and 43% as mixed bloods.
Since then the Japanese have acquired an industrial footing in Mexico.
The dissimilar races that compose the population of Mexico have not been sufficiently fused to give a representative type, which, it may be assumed, will ultimately be that of the mestizos.
Mexico was conquered by a small body of Spanish adventurers, whose success in despoiling the natives attracted thither a large number of their own people.
Out of such adverse conditions has developed the present population of Mexico.
Then came the long, firm rule of Porfirio Diaz, who first broke up the organizations of bandits that infested the country, and then sought to raise Mexico from the state of discredit and disorganization into which it had fallen.
In 1864 Don Manuel Orozco y Berra found no fewer than 51 distinct languages and 69 dialects among the Indian inhabitants of Mexico, to which he added 62 extinct idioms - making a total of 182 idioms, each representing a.
The characteristic civilization of prehistoric Mexico, however, antedates both of these periods.
They were the builders of the pyramids of Cholula and Teotihuacan, near the city of Mexico, and of Papantla, Huatusco and Tuzapan, in Vera Cruz.
In southern Mexico, the Chontales, Tapijulapas, Mixes and Zoques inhabit small districts among and near the Zapotecas, the first being considered by Belmar a branch of that family.
The builders of Casas Grandes, in Chihuahua, evidently belonged to the Pueblo tribes of Arizona and New Mexico.
The ruins apparently are of an earlier period than those of Mitla and Xochicalco, and have no inscriptions and architectural decorations, but the use of dressed stone in the walls, rather than adobe, warrants the conclusion that they belonged to the civilization of southern Mexico.
From the records made at the time of the Spanish conquest, and from the antiquities found in the abandoned cities of prehistoric Mexico.
Many of these primitive arts are still to be found in the more secluded districts, and perhaps the best work in pottery moulding in Mexico to-day is that of uneducated Indian artists.
Education, industrial occupation, commercial training and political responsibility are apparently working a transformation in a class that was once known chiefly for indolence and criminal instincts, and many of the leaders of modern Mexico have sprung from this race.
Political Divisions.-The republic of Mexico is politically divided into 27 states, one federal district, and three territories.
Railways began in Mexico with a line of four kilometres between the capital and Guadalupe, which was finished in 1854 and afterwards became a part of the Ferrocarril Mexicano.
The latter dates from 1857, when a concession was granted for the construction of a railway from the city of Mexico to Vera Cruz.
The principal of these four concessions was the Ferrocarril Interoceanico running from Vera Cruz to Mexico City and across the republic toward Acapulco.
The first three of these have become important factors in the development of Mexico.
Another line built with American capital and in connexion with American railway interests extends southward from Nogales, on the northern frontier, to Hermosillo, Guaymas and Mazatlan; it is to be extended to Guadalajara and possibly to other points in southern Mexico.
One of the most important railways in Mexico is the F.C. Nacional Interoceanico de Tehuantepec, also called the Tehuantepec National, and the Mexican Isthmus railway, which is 192 m.
This line crosses the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from Coatzacoalcos (officially Puerto Mexico) on the Gulf coast to Salina Cruz on the Pacific coast, and has been under construction many years.
Mexico is well provided with tramway lines in its larger cities..
A British consular report for 1904 stated that Mexico City and Torreon only were using electric traction, but that Guadalajara, Monterrey, Aguascalientes, Lagos, Colima, Vera Cruz and San Luis Potosi would soon be using it.
In 1905 the mercantile marine of Mexico comprised only 32 steamers, of 13,199 tons, and 29 sailing vessels, of 8451 tons.
These ports are well served by a large number of foreign steamship companies, which give direct communication with the principal ports of the United States, Europe, and the west coast of South America, and the initiation of a Japanese line in 1908 also brings Mexico into direct communication with the far East.
The agricultural resources of Mexico are large and unusually varied, as they comprise some of the cereals and other food products of the temperate zone, and most of the leading products of the tropics.
An indirect result of the industrial development of Mexico, which began during the last quarter of the 19th century, has been an increased interest in agriculture, and especially in undertakings requiring large investments of capital, such as coffee, sugar and rubber plantations.
In the tierras calientes of Mexico, however, better conditions prevail.
The natural and forest products of Mexico include the agave and yucca (ixtle) fibres already mentioned; the " ceibon " fibre derived from the silk-cotton tree (Bombax pentandria); rubber and vanilla in addition to the cultivated products; palm oil; castor beans; ginger; chicle, the gum extracted from the " chico-zapote " tree (Achras sapota); logwood and other dye-woods; mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cedar and other valuable woods; " cascalote " or divi-divi; jalap root (Ipomaea); sarsaparilla (Smilax); nuts and fruits.
Stock-raising dates from the earliest Spanish settlements in Mexico and received no slight encouragement from the mother country.
The varying climatic conditions of Mexico have produced breeds of cattle that have not only departed from the original Spanish type, but likewise present strikingly different characteristics among themselves.
In Yucatan the open plains, rich pasture, and comparative freedom from moist heat, insects and vampire bats, have been particularly favourable to cattle-raising, and the animals are generally rated among the best in Mexico.
The best-known and most productive of the industries of Mexico is that of mining.
Besides the above, the mineral resources of Mexico include coal, petroleum, asphalt, platinum, graphite, soda and marble.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
Although Mexico is usually described as a nonmanufacturing country, its industrial development under President Porfirio Diaz will warrant some modification of this characterization.
The early methods of making cane sugar, clarified with clay and dried in conical moulds, are to be found all over Mexico, and the annual output of this brown or muscovado sugar (called "panela " by the natives) is still very large.
Large factories are now to be found in all parts of Mexico, and good and serviceable grades of broadcloths, cassimeres, blankets and other fabrics are turned out.
About one-half the raw cotton consumed was produced in Mexico, and the balance imported in fibre or as yarn.
Under the Constitution of the 5th of February 1857, subsequently modified in many important particulars, the government of Mexico is described as a federation of free and sovereign states invested with representative and democratic institutions.
Mexico may be said to have no navy, the ten small vessels in commission in 1908 hardly meriting such a designation.
Education in Mexico may be said to have enteredl upon a progressive phase.
The first college in Mexico was founded', during the administration of Viceroy Mendoza (1535-1550), but it taught very little beyond Latin, rhetoric, grammar and theology.
The university of Mexico, planned by Mendoza and founded on the 21st of September 1551, was formally opened on the 25th of January 1553, with faculties of law, philosophy and theology.
The university of Mexico received much support from both church and state, but it never gained a position comparable to the universities of South America - Cordoba, Lima (San Marcos) and Bogota.
The overthrow of Spanish rule in Mexico was the beginning of a new period, and efforts were made to introduce educational reforms, but the colonists and ecclesiastics were still governed by their fears and prejudices, and little was accomplished.
In 1833 the university of Mexico suspended work, and in 1865 passed out of existence altogether.
Colleges of law, medicine and engineering were created in Mexico City in 1865 in place of the old university and were successful from the beginning.
Mention must be made of the National Library in Mexico City with about 225,000 volumes, and 138 public libraries (in 1904) in other parts of the republic, 34 museums for scientific, educational and art purposes, and I I meteorological observatories.
The people of Mexico are almost wholly of the Roman Catholic faith, the census of 1900 returning 13,533,013 communicants of that church, 51,795 Protestants (in great part foreigners), 3811 of other faiths, and 18,640 of no faith.
In 1545 the bishopric of Mexico was elevated to an archbishopric, which in 1863 was divided into three archdioceses - Mexico, Michoacan and Guadalajara.
The Inquisition was active in Mexico during two and a half centuries, and was finally suppressed on the 31st of May 1820.
The public indebtedness of Mexico includes a foreign debt payable in gold, an internal debt payable in silver, and a floating debt covering unpaid balances on appropriations, unpaid interest, and other credits and obligations.
According to Matias Romero (Mexico and the United States, 1898), a new type of indebtedness was inaugurated in 1850, in the shape of an internal debt payable in silver.
The coinage of Mexico, now concentrated at the mint in the capital (all others having been closed) is based (since November 28, 1867) on the decimal system - the peso being divided into 100 centavos - and consists of gold, silver, nickel and bronze coins, whose weight and fineness are determined by the monetary law of 1904.
There were 34 chartered banks in Mexico in 1908, of which 29 enjoyed the privilege of issuing bank notes; the total note circulation on the 31st of December 1906 was 97,787,878 pesos.
Mexico adopted the metric system in 1862, and it is used in all official transactions, land measurements, railway calculations and public school work.
The Aztecs from the 12th century appear to have migrated from place to place over the mountain-walled plateau of Anahuac, the country " by the water," so called from its salt lagoons, which is now known as the Valley of Mexico.
About 1325 they founded on the lake of Tezcuco the permanent settlement of Mexico Tenochtitlan, which is still represented by the capital city, Mexico.
The name Mexico 1 was given by the Spanish conquerors to the group of countries over which the Aztec power more or less prevailed at the time of the European invasion.
Eventually Mexico and New Mexico came to designate the still vaster region of Spanish North America, which (till cut down by changes which have limited the modern republic of Mexico) reached as far as the Isthmus of Panama on the south and took in California and Texas on the north.
Mexico in this wide sense is of high interest to the anthropologist from the several native American civilizations which appear within its limits, and which conveniently if loosely group themselves round two centres, the Mexican proper and the Central American.
Hernandez and Acosta shared the opinion of their time that the great fossil bones .found in Mexico were remains of giants, and that, as before the deluge there were giants on the earth, therefore Mexico was peopled from the Old World in antediluvian times.
On the other hand the multitude of native American languages suggested that the migration to America took place after the building of the tower of Babel, and Siguenza arrived at the curiously definite result that the Mexicans were descended from Naphtuhim, son of Mizraim and grandson of Noah, who left Egypt for Mexico shortly after the confusion of tongues.
Even in the 10th century Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune in printing a magnificent compilation of Mexican picture-writings and documents in his Antiquities of Mexico to prove the theory advocated by Garcia a century earlier, that the Mexicans were the lost tribes of Israel.
Real information as to the nations of Mexico before Spanish 1 In this, as in all other Aztec names, the x (or j) represents the English sound sh; hence Mexitli and Mexico should be properly pronounced Meshitli, Meshico.
If our attention is turned to the natives of Mexico especially, the unity of type will be found particularly close.
The native population of the plateau of Mexico, mainly Aztecs, may still be seen by thousands without any trace of mixture of European blood.
In Mexico itself the languages of the Nahua nations, of which the Aztec is the best-known dialect, show no connexion of origin with the language of the Otomi tribes, nor either of these with the languages of the regions of the ruined cities of Central America, the Quiche of Guatemala and the Maya of Yucatan.
The native history of Mexico and Central America is entitled to more respect than the mere recollections of savage tribes.
Moreover, this Central American document, mythical as it is, has an historical importance from its bringing in names belonging also to the traditions of Mexico proper.
Thus the legends of the Popol-Vuh confirm what is learnt from comparing the culture of Central America and Mexico proper, that, though these districts were not connected by language, the intercourse between them had been sufficient to justify the anthropologist in including both districts in one region.
These traditions, in some measure borne out by linguistic evidence of names, point to the immigration of detachments of a widespread race speaking a common language, which is represented by the Aztec, still a spoken language in Mexico.
To this nation was due the introduction of maize and cotton into Mexico, the skilful workmanship in gold and silver, the art of building on a scale of vastness still