It's a descendant of the Mexican earless goat.
The Main Street Mexican restaurant was uncrowded on this winter evening.
Thomas, and a monolithic shaft to the memory of General John Ellis Wool (1784-1869), who served with distinction in the War of 1812 and in the Mexican War, and in the Civil War commanded for a time the Department of Virginia.
We dined at a small Mexican restaurant and spent the meal discussing general topics.
But his attire was forgotten as soon as the quartet entered the Buen Tiempo, Ouray's popular Mexican restaurant.
During the two weeks there was a Mexican dinner at the Catholic church, a couple of movies, three evenings at the Ouray Hot Springs Pool and even a day of downhill skiing at Telluride.
of the city of Mexico, near the southern margin of the great Mexican plateau, 6398 ft.
Morelia is served by a branch of the Mexican National railway; its station is outside the city, with which it is connected by a small tramway line.
There was an attempt at the tequilla slammer Mexican wave world record.
From a Mexican sombrero, to a red wetsuit (size extra large!
How many real Mexican standoffs do you think there have been in the world?
I got my latest fix at Santa Fe, a New Mexican restaurant on East Street where I finally had those shrimp tacos!
He opposed the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War, and was, as before, the recognized spokesman of his party.
What did you really think when you found out Alex was a Mexican?
He isn't a Mexican.
This terminates in a long spike thickly studded with white blossoms. The grass-tree gives as distinct a character to an Australian picture as the agave and cactus do to the Mexican landscape.
alba, the white oak, abounding all over the eastern districts to the continent from Lake Winnipeg and the St Lawrence countries of the shores of the Mexican Gulf.
virens, the live oak of the southern states; more or less abundant on the Atlantic coasts of the Carolinas and Florida, its true home is the country around the Mexican Gulf, where it rarely grows more than 50 or 60 m.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
Where the great continental sag sinks below the ocean level, we have our gulfs and our Mediterraneans, seen in our type continent, as the Mexican Gulf and Hudson Bay.
its line from San Francisco and Los Angeles to Galveston and New Orleans, running for the greater part of the distance just north of the Mexican border.
Besides Morelia, the capital and largest city, the principal towns of the state are: La Piedad (pop. 15,123), an important commercial town on the Lerma river and on the Mexican Central railway, 112 m.
of Morelia; Uruapan (98c8), on the Mexican National, 55 m.
of Morelia; Patzcuaro (7621), on Patzcuaro lake, with a station on the Mexican National, 7550 ft.
of Morelia on a branch of the Mexican National, which also passes through the mining town of Angangueo (9115) in the same district; and Tacambaro (5070), 46 m.
The Mexican State Of Yucatan is bounded N.
Its population is estimated at 3000, but as its inhabitants never submitted to Spanish and Mexican rule, and have maintained their independence against overwhelming odds for almost four centuries, this estimate should be accepted as a conjecture.
She died in 1828, leaving two sons, Daniel Fletcher, killed in the second battle of Bull Run, and Edward, a major in the United States army, who died while serving in the Mexican War, and a daughter Julia, who married Samuel Appleton.
Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality.
On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), a small grey weevil often called the Mexican boll weevil, is the most serious pest of cotton in the United States, where the damage done by it in 1907 was estimated at about £5,000,000.
As a legislator he spoke seldom, but always with great ability, his most famous speech being that of the 11th of February 1847 opposing the Mexican War.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
Laredo was named from the seaport in Spain, and was founded in 1767 as a Mexican town; it originally included what is now Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, and was long the only Mexican town on the left bank of the river.
It is a station on the Mexican Central railway, 364 m.
Three of these questions grew out of the annexation of Texas and the acquisition of western territory as a result of the Mexican War.
Underlying all of these issues was of course the great moral and political problem as to whether slavery was to be confined to the south-eastern section of the country or be permitted to spread to the Pacific. The two questions not growing out of the Mexican War were in regard to the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and the passage of a new fugitive slave law.
It was abolished by a decree of the Mexican republic on 15th September 1829.
The Mexican Central gives it railway connexion with the national capital and other prominent cities of the Republic. Leon stands in a fertile plain on the banks of the Turbio, a tributary of the Rio Grande de Lerma, at an elevation of 5862 ft.
All the characteristic species of the West Indies, the Central American and Mexican and southern Florida seaboard, and nearly all the large trees of the Mexican tropic belt, are embraced in it.
After the Ten Year's War seed of Mexican and United States tobaccos was in great demand to re-seed the ruined vegas, and was introduced in great quantities; and although by a later law the destruction of these exotic species was ordered, that destruction was in fact quite impossible.
Mexican tobaccos (Nicotiana Tabacum, variety macrophyllum) are to-day predominant in a large part of Cuban vegas..
Ordinary commercial Cuban seed of to-day is largely, and often altogether, Mexican tobacco."
Railway communication is provided by the Mexican National which crosses the northern end of the state, the Belgian line from Monterrey to Tampico, and a branch of the Mexican Central from San Luis Potosi to Tampico.
By a decree of 1842 this fund was transferred to the public treasury of Mexico, the Mexican government undertaking to pay interest thereon in perpetuity in furtherance of the design of the original donors.
After the sale of Upper California to the United States, effected by the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (1848), the Mexican government refused to pay the proportion of the interest to which Upper California was entitled.
Saltillo, on the Mexican International railway.
Gaines took a prominent part in the operations against the Seminoles in Florida in 1817 (when he was in command of the Southern Military District) and in 1836 and during the Mexican War commanded the department of the South-West, with headquarters at New Orleans.
Balsam of Tolu, produced by Myroxylon toluiferum, a native of Venezuela and New Granada; balsam of Peru, derived from Myroxylon Pereirae, a native of San Salvador in Central America; Mexican and Brazilian elemi, produced by various species of Icica or "incense trees," and the liquid exudation of an American species of Liquidambar, are all used as incense in America.
an old Mexican silver-mine of this type.
Benzoni, on the other hand, whose Travels in America (1542-1556) were published in 1565, says that the Mexican name of the herb was " tabacco."
Mexico is an important tobacco-producing country, and Mexican leaf is largely used in Europe for cigar wrappers and other purposes.
Mexican tobacco approximates more or less closely to that of Cuba, and is cultivated and prepared in very similar ways.
JALAP, a cathartic drug consisting of the tuberous roots of Ipomaea Purga, a convolvulaceous plant growing on the eastern declivities of the Mexican Andes at an elevation of 5000 to 8000 ft.
Besides Mexican or Vera Cruz jalap, a drug called Tampico jalap has been imported for some years in considerable quantity.
Toluca is on the Mexican National railway, 36 m.
The cattle are commonly small and hardy, and, like the Mexican cattle, are able to bear unfavourable conditions.
The only legal tender is the Mexican dollar, and the British and Hong-Kong dollar, or other silver dollars of equivalent value duly authorized by the governor.
With ardent anti-slavery principles, he entered political life as a "Young Whig" opposed to the Mexican War; he became an active Free-Soiler in 1848, and in 1854 took part in the organization in Massachusetts of the new Republican party.
Rhode Island, like the rest of New England, was opposed to the War of 1812 and the Mexican War.
The Mexican Central and Mexican National railways cross the S.
Queretaro is served by the Mexican Central railway.
The federal palace and the church of Santa Rosa are examples of the work of the celebrated Mexican architect, Francisco Eduardo de Tresguerras (1765-1833), who restored the church of Santa Clara also.
In 1848 a Mexican congress met here to ratify the treaty of peace with the United States, and in 1867 Queretaro was the scene of Maximilian's last stand against the republicans (under Escobedo), which resulted in his capture and subsequent execution on the Cerro de las Campanas just N.
During the Mexican war he was twice severely wounded in a reconnaissance at Cerro Gordo, 1847, was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, the battles of Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey, the storming of Chapultepec, and the assault on the city of Mexico, and received three brevets for gallant and meritorious service.
In the Mexican War he won two brevets for gallantry - that of captain for Molino del Rey and that of major for Chapultepec. He served at West Point as instructor and adjutant (1849-1855), and he took part in the Utah expedition.
Corsicana was named in honour of the wife of a Mexican, Navarro, who owned a large tract of land in the county and from whom the county was named.
Nuevo Leon lies partly upon the great Mexican plateau and partly upon its eastern slopes, the Sierra Madre Oriental crossing the state N.W.
Stock-raising receives considerable attention; there are about a score of large cattle ranges, and there is a considerable export of live cattle to Texas and to various Mexican states.
to Monterrey, and thence westward to Trevino (formerly Venadito) in Coahuila, a station on the Mexican International.
The county and the city were named in honour of Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), a political leader, orator and soldier, who was born in London, England, was taken to the United States in 1815, was a representative in Congress from Illinois in 1845-1846and 1849-1851, served in the Mexican War as a colonel (1846-1847), became a prominent lawyer in California and later in Oregon, was a Republican member of the United States Senate in 1860-1861 and was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the 21st of October in r 861, while serving as a colonel in the Federal army.
- The most interesting feature in the Mexican cosmology is the theory of the ages of the world.
8 The speculations which underlie the Mexican theory have not come down to us.
The Mexican Trimorphodon much resemble viperine snakes with the flat, triangular head, narrow neck, slit-like pupil and pugnacious disposition.
Monstera is a tropical American genus of climbing shrubs, with large often much-perforated leaves; the fruiting spikes of a Mexican species, M.
After graduating at Princeton in 1841 he practised law in St Louis, and later served in the Mexican War.
either (I) by the Mexican crusher or arrastra, in which the grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or trapiche, also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the floor, at the same time turning about a central upright - contrivances which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.
MORELOS, an inland state of Mexico on the southern slope of the great Mexican plateau, lying S.
There is a wide variation of climate for so small a territory, the higher elevations of the Sierra de Ajusco being cold and humid (the Mexican Central crosses the range at an elevation of 9974 ft.); the lower spurs mild, temperate and healthy, the lower valleys subtropical, hot and unhealthy.
to S.W., and the Mexican Central almost N.
of the city of Mexico on the Mexican Central railway, is one of the most picturesque towns in Mexico.
The town is celebrated in Mexican history for the intrepid defence of the place by Jose Maria Morelos (1765-1815), the patriot leader, against a greatly superior royalist force, from the 19th of February to the 2nd of May 1812, when he cut his way through the attacking army and escaped.
In his double capacity as governor of the Territory and commanding officer of the army, reasonably certain of his hold on Jefferson, and favourably situated upon the frontier remote from the centre of government, he attempted to realize his ambition to conquer the Mexican provinces of Spain.
- This genus, which comprises nearly 300 species, mostly Mexican, with a few Brazilian and West Indian, is called nipple cactus, and consists of globular or cylindrical succulent plants, whose surface instead of being cut up into ridges with alternate furrows, as in Melocactus, is broken up into teat-like cylindrical or angular tubercles, spirally arranged, and terminating in a radiating tuft of spines which spring from a little woolly cushion.
It comprises about loo species, largely Mexican but scattered through South America and the West Indies.
The most familiar species is P. senilis, a Mexican plant, which though seldom seen more than a foot or two in height in greenhouses, reaches from 20 ft.
There are about a dozen species known of this genus, mainly Mexican.
After the Mexican war he served in the West, in Florida and elsewhere; was married in 1850 to Miss Almira Russell of St Louis; became first lieutenant in 1853, and assistant-quartermaster with the rank of captain in 1855.
He served in the Mexican War under Scott, and was breveted for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco and at Chapultepec. He became captain in 1852 and major in 1861.
The floors of the Caribbean, Cayman and Mexican Basins in the Central American Sea are covered with a white calcareous ooze, which is clearly distinguished from the eupelagic pteropod and globigerina oozes by the presence of abundant large mineral particles and the remains of land plants.
Only a few of the larger wild animals remain, but the Texas fauna is still varied, for it includes not only many species common to northern and eastern United States but also several Mexican species.
Cottontail rabbits, raccoons (including the Mexican variety), and squirrels are common in the forests.
The peccary (Tayassu angulatum), the armadillo (Tatu novemcinctum), the civet-cat (Bassariscus astutus flavus), the Mexican bighorn (Ovis mexicanus) and the jaguar are Mexican species found in southern or south-western Texas.
The Mexican cougar (Felis hippolestes aztecus) is found in the west.
In a narrow strip along the Gulf there are some Mexican or tropical birds, notably the caracara and two varieties of grackle (Megaquiscalus).
The peculiar plants of the Rocky Mountain plateaus penetrate into the Trans-Pecos region, which the north Mexican flora, including the Agave lecheguilla, a valuable commercial fibre, is found along the Rio Grande.
Administration.-Texas as a part of Mexico was governed under the constitution (1827) of the "Free State of Coahuila and Texas"; a separate constitution adopted in 1835 was never recognized by the Mexican government and never went into effect.
It must be remembered that during the colonial period the Spanish and Mexican population was never very large, that the first permanent Anglo-American settlement was not established until 1821, that there was ill-feeling between the two peoples almost from the very beginning, and that in fifteen years the Americans carried through a successful rebellion.
But while this was true of the outward structure it was impossible to disregard entirely private rights based upon Spanish and Mexican legislation.
This was followed by an extensive immigration from the United States during the period of Mexican rule (1821-36).
Texas was joined to Coahuila in 1827 to form a state of the Mexican federation.
Although the attempt to force the Roman Catholic religion upon the people, the federal decree of 1830 forbidding further immigration from the states, and the reckless grants of land to Mexican favourites.
Under Austin's influence the delegates rejected an independence resolution and recommended a union with the Mexican Liberals for the restoration of the constitution of 1824.
Fannin defeated a Mexican force near Mission Conception on the 28th of October; and after a campaign of nearly two months Bejar was surrendered to them on the 11th of December.
In the Matamoras expedition the Texan forces were severely crippled on account of a quarrel between Governor Smith, who desired independence, and the majority of his council, who favoured union with the Mexican Liberals.
The weakness of the Mexican Liberals and the necessity of securing aid in the States led the Austin party to abandon their opposition to independence.
The Mexican commander, Pedro de Ampudia, demanded Taylor's withdrawal beyond the Nueces within twenty-four hours.
Mexican Period (1821-36)3 Trespalacios.
Bancroft, History of Texas and the North Mexican States (2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-89), valuable for authorities cited in the footnotes; and H.
In 1847, while again a representative in the state legislature, he introduced a bill appropriating money for the equipment of a regiment to serve in the Mexican War; although the bill was defeated, he raised the necessary funds privately, and served in Mexico first as colonel and afterwards as brigadier-general of volunteers.
Here also are the Coronel Collection, given in 1901 by Dona Mariana, the widow of Don Antonio Coronel, and containing relics of the Spanish and Mexican regime in California; and the Palmer Collection of Indian antiquities.
Of interest to visitors is that part of the city called Sonora Town,with its adobe houses, Mexican quarters, old Plaza and the Church of Our Lady, Queen of the Angels (first erected in 1822; rebuilt in 1861), which contains interesting paintings by early Indian converts.
Beginning about 1827, Los Angeles, being the largest pueblo of the territory, became a rival of Monterey for the honour of being the capital of California, was the seat of conspiracies to overthrow the Mexican authority, and the stronghold of the South California party in the bickerings and struggles that lasted down to the American occupation.
In 1835 it was made a city by the Mexican Congress, and declared the capital, but the last provision was not enforced and was soon recalled.
In the last years of Mexican dominion it was the most prominent of the northern settlements in which the Hispano-Californian element predominated over the new American element.
She opposed the policy that led to the Mexican War in 1846, although a regiment was raised in Massachusetts by the personal exertions of Caleb Cushing.
The national museum, which occupies the east side of the national palace, is rich in Mexican antiquities, among which are the famous " calendar stone," supposed to be of Toltec origin, and the " sacrificial stone " found in the ruins of the great teocalli destroyed by Cortes.
It contains an interesting collection of the busts of Mexican celebrities.
The Mexican Geographical Society (Sociedad mexicana de geografia y estadistica), founded in 1833, has rendered invaluable services in the work of exploration and publication; there are also the Geological Society, the Association of Engineers and Architects, and the Society of Natural History.
The Mexican and Interoceanic lines connect with Vera Cruz, the Mexican Central with Manzanillo, via Guadalajara and Colima, and the Vera Cruz & Pacific (from Cordoba) with the Tehuantepec line and the port of Salina Cruz.
The last-mentioned line also gives indirect connexion with the port of Coatzacoalcos, and the Mexican Central, via San Luis Potosi, with Tampico.
A southern extension of the Mexican Central, via Cuernavaca, has reached the Balsas river and will be extended to Acapulco, once the chief Pacific port of Mexico and the depot for the rich Philippine trade.
A Mexican extension 'of the (American) Southern Pacific which has been completed from Nogales to Mazatlan is to be extended to Guadalajara, which will give the national capital direct communication with the thriving ports of Mazatlan and Guaymas.
In addition to these, the Mexican Central and Mexican National, now consolidated, give communicaton with the northern capitals and the United States, and the Mexican Southern runs southward, via Puebla, to the city of Oaxaca.
In the war between Mexico and the United States the most decisive campaign was that of General Winfield Scott directed .against the Mexican capital.
San Antonio was easily taken about noon of the same day, and in the afternoon the main division of the Mexican army was driven from the stone church and intrenchments at Churubusco.
Janvier, The Mexican Guide (5th ed., New York,11890); D.
Mexican culture with Mayan influence.
- Crucified Figure, pierced with arrows, of the victim at the festival of the god Xipe (Mexican Tlacaxipenaliztli), with the symbols of the god.
It would have been a miracle if the first generation of Mexican and South American history had not been anarchical.
Even in Mexican and Mayan sculptures the gods are arrayed in gorgeous breech-clouts.
historic tribes makes plain the motives in gorgeous Mexican sculptures.
In the Mexican codices pictures of men and women carrying are plentiful.
Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.
The ancient Mexican tribe was composed of twenty autonomous kins.
Assoc. 1885-1898; Charles P. Bowditch, Mexican and Central American Antiquities; Bull.
In 1543 he refused the Mexican bishopric of Cuzco, but was prevailed upon to accept that of Chiapa, for which he sailed in 1544.
In 1850 it was incorporated as a city, though already long a Mexican "ciudad."
Unfortunately his indiscretion equalled his eloquence: one speech (1861) sent him to America to avoid a duel with the duke d'Aumale; another (1865), in which he justly but intemperately protested against the Mexican expedition, cost him all his official dignities.
a close analogy with the Mexican calendar sign Cipactli, a kind of marine monster resembling a narwhal s Aquarius is a still more exclusively meteorological sign than Leo.
Mexican acquaintance with the signs related only to their secondary function as dies (so to speak) with which to stamp recurring intervals of time.
10 Mexican loans are more remarkable.
The " three footprints of Vishnu," for example, unmistakably gave its name to the Mexican day 0111n, signifying the " track of the sun "; and both series further contain a " flint weapon," a " stick," and a " house."
Albuquerque is also the seat of the Harwood Industrial School (Methodist) for Mexican girls, of the Menaul Mission School (Presbyterian) for Mexican boys, and of a government Indian training school (1881) for boys and girls.
1868 to the memory of the soldiers who fell in the Mexican War; it has a column of Maryland marble 76 ft.
SANTA-ANNA,' 'ANTONIO LOPEZ DE (1795-1876), Mexican soldier and politician, was born at Jalapa in the province of Vera Cruz on the 21st of February 1795.
Part of this rejoins the North Equatorial Current, and part probably forms the variable Mexican Current, which follows the coasts of Mexico and California close to the land.
On the 15th of September 1821 Costa Rica, with the other Central American provinces, revolted and joined the Mexican empire under the dynasty of Iturbide; but this subjection never became popular, and, on the establishment of a Mexican republic in 1823, hostilities broke out between the Conservatives, who desired to maintain the union, and the Liberals, who wished to set up an independent republic. The opposing factions met near the Ochomogo Pass; the republicans were victorious, and the seat of government was transferred from Cartago, the old capital, to San Jose, the Liberal headquarters.
Allied is Sceloporus, with about 34 species, the most characteristic genus of Mexican lizards; only 4 species live in the United States, and only 3 or 4 are found south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and are restricted to Central America.
After graduating he took part, as second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery, in the Mexican War.
Less is definitely known of the elevated regions of Chiapas, on the border of Guatemala, which are separated from the great Mexican Plateau by the low Isthmus of Tehuantepec (718 ft.
Crossing the highest part of the Mexican Plateau is a broken series of ranges, which form the water-parting between its northern and southern slopes.
The Rio Grande del Norte, or Rio Bravo, on the northern frontier, is practically an American river, as it rises in American territory and receives very little water from the Mexican side.
Its larger Mexican tributaries are the Rio de los Conchos, Salado and Pesqueria.
Above this is the tierra fria, which ranges from 5577 to 8200 ft., and includes all the higher portions of the Mexican plateau, and which corresponds to the temperate regions of Central United States where frosts are very rarely experienced.
labiatus), skunk (Mephitis, Spilogale and Conepatus), marten, several species of opossum (including a pigmy species of the Tres Marias islands), sloth, two species of ant-bear (Myrmecophaga tetradactylus and Cyclothurus didactylus), armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a small arboreal porcupine (Synetheres mexicanus), the kinkajou (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus), three species of deer - the white-tailed Cariacus toltecus, the little black-faced brocket, Coassus rufinus, which is also found in Brazil, and the Sonora deer (Odocoileus couesi) - the Mexican bighorn (Ovis mexicanus) of Chihuahua, at least two species of hare (Lepus calotis and L.
To the traveller, the most conspicuous among the Mexican insects, perhaps, are the butterflies, beetles, ants and the myriads of mosquitoes, midges, fleas and chinches.
The most common plants of the Mexican plateau are the agaves, yuccas and cacti, each of which is represented by a number of species.
About one thousand species have been described, a very large percentage of which are to be found on the Mexican plateau.
" Tunas " or cactus fruit, red peppers, " zapotes " (the fruit of various trees), " arrayan " (Myrtus arayan), " ciruelas " or Mexican plums (Spondias), guavas, " huamuchil " (Pithecolobium dulce), tamarinds, aguacates (Persea gratissima), bananas, plantains, pineapples, grapes, oranges, lemons, limes, granadillas, chirimoyas, mammees (Mammea americana), coco-nuts, cacao, mangoes, olives, gourds and melons, are among the fruits of the country, and rice, wheat, Indian corn, beans, yams, sweet potatoes, onions and " tomatoes " (Physalis) are among its better-known food products.
The " tomato " or " tomatillo " mentioned, is the fruit of the Physalis ixocarpa, sometimes called the " strawberry tomato " and the " Mexican groundcherry," which is used with red peppers to make chili sauce.
The Indian element in the population is made up of several distinct races - the Aztec or Mexican, Misteca-Zapoteca, Maya or Yucateco, Otomi or Othomi, and in smaller number the Totonac, Tarasco, Apache, Matlanzingo, Chontal, Mixe, Zoque, Guaicuro, OpataPima, Tapijulapa, Seri and Huavi.
Perhaps the most remarkable of the Mexican races are the Mayas, or MayaQuiche group, which inhabit the Yucatfin peninsula, Campeche and parts of Tabasco, Chiapas, and the neighbouring states of Central America (q.v.).
Of the half-breed element which has become so important a part of the Mexican population, no safe estimate can be made.
The principal cities of Mexico, other than the capitals above mentioned, are as follows, the populations being those of 1900 except when otherwise stated: Acapulco (pop. 4932), a famous port on the Pacific coast in Guerrero, which was wrecked by the earthquake of 1909; Carmen, or Laguna de Terminos (about 6000), a thriving commercial town and port on the Gulf coast in Campeche; Celaya (2 5,5 6 5), a railway centre and manufacturing town of Guanajuato; Ciudad Guzman, or Zapotlan (about 17,500), an interesting old town of Jalisco; Cholula (about 9000), an ancient native town of Puebla, widely known for its great pyramid; Comitan (9316), the commercial centre of Chiapas; Cordoba (7974 in 1895), a picturesque Spanish town in the sierras of Vera Cruz; Cuautla (6269), the centre of a rich sugar-producing district of Morelos; Guaymas (8648), a flourishing port of Sonora on the Gulf of California; Leon (62,623), the largest city in Guanajuato and distinguished for its commercial activity, manufactures and wealth; Linares (20,690), the second city of Nuevo Leon in size and importance; Matamoros (8347), a prominent commercial centre and river port of Tamaulipas; Mazatlan (17,852), the foremost Mexican port on the Pacific coast; Orizaba (32,894), a city of Vera Cruz famous for its delightful climate and picturesque surroundings; Parral (14,748), a well-known mining centre of southern Chihuahua; San Cristobal (about 16,00o), once capital of Chiapas and rich in historical associations; Tampico (16,313), a Gulf port and railway terminus of Tamaulipas; Tehuantepec (10,386), the largest town on the Tehuantepec railway in Oaxaca; Vera Cruz (29,164), the oldest and best known Gulf port of Mexico.
Nothing more was accomplished until after the downfall of Maximilian, and with a liberal subsidy from the Mexican government the Ferrocarril Mexicano was pushed to its completion in 1873.
These two lines, popularly called the Mexican Central and Mexican National, have their northern termini at Ciudad Juarez and Laredo on the Rio Grande and connect with American trunk lines at El Paso and Laredo.
These two great lines were merged in 1908, with an aggregate capital of $460,000,000 Mexican money, of which the Mexican government holds $230,004,580, or a controlling interest.
One of the most important railways in Mexico is the F.C. Nacional Interoceanico de Tehuantepec, also called the Tehuantepec National, and the Mexican Isthmus railway, which is 192 m.
The railway has been built by the Mexican government as a transcontinental route for international commerce.
It is the evident policy of the Mexican government to prevent the absorption of its railways by private monopolies, and this is effected by state ownership of a controlling share in most of the trunk lines.
The coastwise trade is principally under the Mexican flag, but the steamers are owned abroad.
An official publication entitled " Mexico: Yesterday and To-day, 1876-1904," states that while the number of steamers engaged in the foreign trade increased from 841 to 969 in the 17 years from 1886 to 1903, the number of Mexican steamers decreased from 55 to 4.
A peculiar and highly profitable branch of Mexican agriculture is the cultivation of the Agave for two widely different purposes - one for its fibre, which is exported, and the other for its sap, which is manufactured into intoxicating liquors called "pulque " and " mescal."
In the last decade of the 19th century the capital invested in these live-stock industries was estimated (by Bancroft) to exceed $700,000,000, but an official return of the 30th of June 1902 gave an aggregate valuation of only $120,523,158 (Mexican), or about £12,052,316.
Mexican coal is of a low grade - similar to that found in Texas, but as an official geological report of 1908 estimates the supply in sight at 300,000,000 tons its industrial value to the country cannot be considered inferior to that of the precious metals.
An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.
Many of the Mexican railways are using these fuel oils, which are superseding imported coal.
The industry is protected by a high tariff, as is also the production of raw cotton, and further encouragement is offered through a remission of internal revenue taxes where Mexican fabrics are exported for foreign consumption.
The policy of the Mexican government is to encourage national manufactures, and protective duties are levied for that purpose.
A candidate for the presidency must be a native-born Mexican citizen in the full exercise of his political rights, 35 years of age, not an ecclesiastic, and a resident of the republic at the time of the election.
A senator must be not under 30 years of age, a Mexican citizen in the full enjoyment of his rights, a resident of the state he represents, and not an ecclesiastic. The chamber of deputies is composed of popular representatives, in the proportion of one deputy for each 40,000 inhabitants or fraction over 20,000, who are elected for a term of two years.
Mexican citizenship includes all persons born of Mexican parents, all naturalized aliens, and all foreigners owning real estate in the republic or having children by Mexican mothers unless formal declaration is made of an intention to retain the citizenship of another country.
Suffrage is extended to all Mexican citizens who possess honest means of livelihood, the age limit being 18 for the married and 21 for the unmarried.
- The Mexican army consisted in 1908 of 2474 officers and 24,132 men, organized on modern lines, and commanded by a general staff at the capital.
The church still exercises a boundless influence over the Mexican lower classes, and is still the most influential organization in the republic.
Owing to the circumstance that the great majority of the Mexican people own no property, carry on no industry, and are not even to be considered regular productive labourers, the revenues are small in relation to the population and are comparatively inelastic.
Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico); Mexican Year-book (London, 1908); Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington); Statesman's Year-book (London); Handbook of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington).
The word is related to or derived from the name of the Mexican national war-god, Mexitl, better known as Huitzilopochtli.
i.) gives a map of the so-called " Mexican empire," which may be roughly described as reaching from the present Zacatecas to beyond Guatemala; it is noticeable that both these names are of Mexican origin, derived respectively from words for " straw " and " wood."
Mexico in this wide sense is of high interest to the anthropologist from the several native American civilizations which appear within its limits, and which conveniently if loosely group themselves round two centres, the Mexican proper and the Central American.
Even in the 10th century Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune in printing a magnificent compilation of Mexican picture-writings and documents in his Antiquities of Mexico to prove the theory advocated by Garcia a century earlier, that the Mexicans were the lost tribes of Israel.
Moreover there are details of Mexican civilization which are most easily accounted for on the supposition that they were borrowed from Asia.
xxiii.) compared the Mexican calendar with that in use in eastern Asia.
The Mongolian peoples not only count their lunar months by these signs, but they reckon the successive days by them, rat-day, bull-day, tiger-day, &c., and also, by combining the twelve signs in rotation with the elements, they obtain a means of marking each year in the sixty-year cycle, as the woodrat year, the fire-tiger year, &c. This method is highly artificial, and the reappearance of its principle in the Mexican and Central American calendar is suggestive of importation from Asia.
Humboldt also discussed the Mexican doctrine of four ages of the world belonging to water, earth, air and fire, and ending respectively by deluge, earthquake, tempest and conflagration.
The resemblance of this to some versions of the Hindu doctrine of the four ages or yuga is hardly to be accounted for except on the hypothesis that the Mexican theology contains ideas learnt from Asiatics.
As in the Guatemala traditions, we hear of ancient migration from the Mexican legendary region of Tula; and here the leaders are four famous chiefs or ancestors who bear the Aztec name of the Tutul-Xiu, which means " Bird-Tree."
Turning now to the native chronicles of the Mexican nations, these are records going back to the 12th or 13th century, with some vague but not worthless recollections of national events from times some centuries earlier.
To this nation was due the introduction of maize and cotton into Mexico, the skilful workmanship in gold and silver, the art of building on a scale of vastness still witnessed to by the mound of Cholula, said to be Toltec work, and the Mexican hieroglyphic writing and calendar.
With the Toltecs is associated the tradition of Quetzalcoatl, a name which presentsitself in Mexican religion as that of a great deity, god of the air,.
It is further related by the Mexican historians that the Toltec nation all but perished in the 11th century by years of drought, famine and.
Lastly is recorded the Mexican immigration of the seven nations, Xochimilca, Chalca, Tepaneca, Acolhua, Tlahuica, Tlascalteca, Azteca.
of the long Aztec migration seem historical, and the map of Mexico still shows the names of several settlements recorded in the curious migration map, published by Gemelli Careri (Giro deli mondo, Venice, 1728) and commented on by Humboldt; among, these local names are Tzompanco, " place of skulls," now Zumpango in the north of the Mexican valley, and Chapultepec,.
The king of this district was Coxcoxtli, whose name has gained an undeserved reputation even in Europe as " Coxcox, the Mexican Noah," from a scene in the native picture-writing where his name appears together with the figure of a man floating in a dug-out tree, which has been mistaken even by Humboldt for a representation of the Mexican deluge-myth.
When the first Moteuczoma was crowned king of the Aztecs, the Mexican sway extended far beyond the valley plateau of its origin, and the gods of conquered nations around had their shrines set up in Tenochtitlan in manifest inferiority to the temple of Huitzilopochtli, the war-god of the Aztec conquerors.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
From the palaces and retinues of thousands of servants attached to the royal service may be inferred at once the despotic power of the Mexican rulers and the heavy taxation of the people; in fact some of the most remarkable of the picture-writings are tribute-rolls enumerating by hundreds and thousands the mantles, ocelot-skins, bags of gold-dust, bronze hatchets, loads of chocolate, &c., furnished periodically by the towns.
The Mexican military costumes are to be seen in the picture-writings, where the military orders of princes, eagles and tigers are known by their braided hair, eagles' beaks and spotted armour.
Among the accounts of the Mexican religion are some passages referring to the belief in a supreme deity.
These deities are not easily ' One of the most important sources for the ancient Mexican traditions and myths is the so-called " Codex Chimalpopoca," a manuscript in the Mexican language discovered by the Abbe analysed, but on the other hand Tonatiuh and Metztli, the sun and moon, stand out distinctly as nature gods, and the traveller still sees in the huge adobe pyramids of Teotihuacan, with their sides oriented to the four quarters, an evidence of the importance of their worship. The war-god Huitzilopochtli was the real head of the Aztec pantheon; his idol remains in Mexico, a huge block of basalt on which is sculptured on the one side his hideous personage, adorned with the humming-bird feathers on the left hand which signify his name, while the not less frightful war-goddess Teoyaomiqui, or " divine wardeath," occupies the other side.
A large fraction of the Mexican population were set apart as priests or attendants to the services of the gods.
It is the interpretation of different mythological and historical Mexican picture-writings, composed by an anonymous author some time after the conquest and copied by Fernando de Alva (Ixtlilxochitl, 1568-1648).
pp. 7-70; but in this edition the Mexican text is very corrupt, and the two Spanish translations are by no means exact.
Incense was constantly used, especially the copalli (copal) well known to us for varnish; little terra-cotta censers are among the commonest of Mexican antiquities.
The calendar of religious festivals for the Mexican year has been preserved.
The Mexican priesthood were much concerned with the art of picture-writing, which they used systematically as a means of recording religious festivals and legends, as well as keeping Picture- calendars of years and recording the historical events writing, which occurred in them.
Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina " (Mexico, 1892).
The Mexican calendar depended on the combination of numbers with picture-signs, of which the four principal were the rabbit, reed, flint,, house - tochtli, acatl, tecpatl, calli.
The cycle of 52 years was reckoned by combining these signs in rotation with numbers up to 13, thus: I rabbit, 2 reed, 3 flint, 4 house, 5 rabbit, 6 reed, &c. By accident this calendar may be exactly illustrated with a modern pack of cards laid out in rotation of the four suits, as, ace of hearts, 2 of spades, 3 of diamonds, 4 of clubs, 5 of hearts, 6 of spades, &c. In the Mexican ritual calendar of the days of the year, the same method is carried further, the series of twenty day-signs being combined in rotation with numbers up to 13; as this cycle of days only reaches 260, a series of nine other signs are affixed in addition, to make up the 365-day year.
with the five male and female elements - fire, earth, iron, water, wood; as " male-fire-bull " year, &c. This comparison is worked out in Humboldt's Vues des Cordilleres, as evidence of Mexican civilization being borrowed from Asia.
Naturally the Mexican.
Of all Mexican festivals the most solemn was that of the xiuhmolpilli, or " year-binding," when the 52-year cycle or bundle of years came to an end.
Mexican education, at any rate that of the upper class, was a systematic discipline much under the control of religion, which here presents itself under a more favourable light.
Then the royal body was invested in the mantles of his patron-gods, especially that of the war-god, for Mexican kings were warriors; on his face was placed a mask of turquoise mosaic, and a green chalchihuite-stone as a heart between his lips.
In old times Mexican clothing.
Some Central-American peoples - were actually Mexican in their language and culture, American especially the Pipils and a large part of the population of Nicaragua.
The investigations made by Dr Walter Lehmann in Central America (1907-1909), prove that these Mexican elements were extended through Guatemala, Salvador, a small part of Nicaragua (the territory of the Nicaraos) and on several places in the peninsula of Nicoya (Costa Rica) amongst the autochthonous Chorotega or Mangue.
The language spoken by the Pipils of Salvador (Balsam Coast) is a very old dialect of the Mexican language of the highland of Mexico.
To the east of the three places whose names are compounded with " Nonohualco," must have dwelt, in the time of the Pipil Indians, the Nonoualca, called also by Mexican tribes Chontales or Popoloca.
Probably the Mexican elements superseded the Maya so completely that there remained no trace of the Maya except archaeological objects; it is to be supposed that the Lenca and Sumo tribes superseded the Chorotega in Salvador.
How closely related some of the Central-American nations were in institutions to the Mexicans appears, not only in their using the same peculiar weapons, but in the similarity of their religious rites; the connexion is evident in such points as the ceremony of marriage by tying together the garments of the couple, or in holding an offender's face over burning chillies as a punishment; the native legends of Central America make mention of the royal ball-play, which was the same as the Mexican game of tlachtli already mentioned.
At the same time many of the Central-American customs differed from the Mexican; thus in Yucatan we find the custom of the youths sleeping in a great bachelor's house, an arrangement common in various parts of the world, but not in Mexico; the same remark applies to the.
Brasseur de Bourbourg, p. 140), which does not correspond with Mexican custom.
A remarkable feature of the Central-American ruins is the frequency of truncated pyramids built of hewn stone, with flights of steps up to the temple built on the platform at top. The resemblance of these structures to the old descriptions and pictures of the Mexican teocallis is so striking that this name is habitually given to them.
The teocallis built by the Nahua or Mexican nations have been mostly destroyed, but two remain at Huatusco and Tusapan (figured in Bancroft, iv.
On the other hand, there are features in Central-American architecture which scarcely appear in Mexican.
At a considerable depth below the foundations of a temple-palace at Teotihuacan, Dr Lehmann discovered certain ceramic fragments of a type quite different from any hitherto classed as Mexican.
and in Salvador, furnish important material for the investigation of the obscure problems of the Toltecs and Olmecs, and of the extension of Maya peoples on the Atlantic coast of the Mexican Gulf from Campeche as far as Tabasco and Vera Cruz.
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes (q.v.) in 1520, and the death of the last Aztec emperor, Guatemozin, introduced what is known as the colonial period of Mexican history, which lasted down to the enforced resignation of the last viceroy, O'Donoju, in 1821.
The first Mexican Congress met on the 24th of February 1822.
A section of it favoured a republic; another, monarchy under Iturbide; another, which was broken up by the refusal of Spain (continued until 1836) to recognize Mexican independence, monarchy under a Bourbon prince.
He returned almost immediately, on the pretext that Spain was intriguing against Mexican independence, and on landing (having been previously outlawed) was arrested and executed (July r, 1824).
Meanwhile, attacks on Spanish ships off Cuba by a Mexican squadron, commanded by an American, David Porter, had induced Spain to send an expedition to reconquer Mexico (1829) which was checked at Tampico by Santa Anna.
The Mexican government gave way, threatened by Federalist risings and secessions of states, which culminated in 1841.
Though a state of the Mexican Union, it had been Texas settled from the United States in consequence of a The Question.
The Mexican minister withdrew from Washington, and both sides made active preparations for war.
They established a War with depot at Point Ysabel (behind the opening of Brazos United Santiago), and erected a fort in Texan territory, corn States, manding Matamoros, on the Mexican side of the Rio 1846-48.
This provoked the Mexican forces into a defensive invasion of Texas, to cut the American communications with Point Ysabel.
An arrangement President, was effected with English holders of Mexican stock; 1848-1851.
spired by an able Conservative leader, Lucas Alaman, proved strongly Centralist: one is especially noteworthy, the establishment of the ministry of " fomento," or encouragement to public works, education, and intellectual and economic development, which is a conspicuous aid to Mexican welfare to-day.
In view of the unhealthiness of Vera Cruz, the convention of Soledad was concluded with the Mexican government, permitting the foreign troops to advance to Orizaba and incidentally recognizing Mexican independence.
But as the French harboured leaders of the Mexican reactionaries, pressed the Jecker claims and showed a disposition to interfere in Mexican domestic politics, which lay beyond the terms of the joint convention, Great Britain and Spain withdrew their forces in March 1862.
Maximilian, after some difficulty as to renouncing his right of succession to the throne of Austria, accepted the crown Maximilian subject to the approval of the Mexican people, and Emperor, reached Mexico city on the 12th of June 1864.
Mexican generals on both sides had done as much.
Maximilian now turned for support to the Mexican clericals; meditated abdication, but was dissuaded by his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I.
Execution of Maximilian, with the Mexican generals Miramon and Maximilian, Mejia, was tried by court-martial, and, refusing (or 1867.
Again in 1907 there was some friction owing to the murder of a Guatemalan ex-president by a compatriot in Mexico: later in the year, however, the Mexican government was active in stopping a war between its Central American neighbours.
Standard Mexican authorities are: C. M.
Mansfield, The Mexican War (New York, 1849); and Winfield Scott's Memoirs.
For Maximilian, the Blue-books on Mexican affairs contained in Accounts and Papers (presented to parliament), vol.
(June 1894); Romero, " The Philosophy of Mexican Revolutions," ibid.
Some of Pike's papers taken from him in Mexico are now in the Mexican archives (Seccion de Asuntos Internacionales caxa 1817-1824), and the more important were published by H.
The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend, especially towards Salvador; here the base of many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the range.
East of Tacana, which marks the Mexican frontier, and is variously estimated at 13,976 ft.
A vast number of streams, among which are the Chixoy, the Guadalupe, and the Rio de la Pasion, unite to form the Usumacinta, whose noble current passes along the Mexican frontier, and flowing on through Chiapas and Tabasco, falls into the Bay of Campeche.
The Central American provinces revolted in 1821, were annexed to the Mexican empire of Iturbide from 1822 to 1823, and united to form a federal republic from 1823 to 1839.
But though he encouraged education, promoted railway and other enterprises, and succeeded in settling difficulties as to the Mexican boundary, the general result of his policy was baneful.
The Great Plains.A broad stretch of country underlaid by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 in., and northward from the Mexican, boundary far into Canada.
lies in eastern Texas and eastern New Mexico: like the central section it is for the most part a dissected fluviatile plain, but the lower lands which surround it on all sides place it in so strong relief that it stands up as a table-land, known from the time of Mexican occupation as the Llano Estacado.
Guadalajara is served by a short branch of the Mexican Central railway from Irapuato.
He favoured the annexation of Texas, supported the Polk administration on the issues of the Mexican War and the Oregon boundary controversy, and though voting for the admission of free California demanded national protection for slavery.
In April 1826 he entered the Mexican navy, of which his father was commander-in-chief, and which he left in 1828, after the capture by the Spanish of the "Guerrero," on which he was serving under his cousin, David H.
During the Mexican War he served, from February to June 1847, as lieutenant and then as commanding officer of the "Spitfire," a paddle vessel built for use on the rivers, and took part in the bombardment of Vera Cruz and in the other naval operations under Commander M.
From the close of the Mexican War to the beginning of the Civil War he had little but detail duty; in 1855 and again in 1856 he made trips to the Mediterranean to bring to the United States camels for army use in the south-west.
Admiral Porter's three brothers were in the service of the United States: William David Porter (1809-1864) entered the navy in 1823, commanded the "Essex" on the Tennessee and the Mississippi in the Civil War, and became commodore in July 1862; Theodoric Henry Porter (1817-1846) was the first officer of the American army killed in the Mexican War; and Henry Ogden Porter (1823-1872) resigned from the United States navy in 1847, after seven years' service, fought under William Walker in Central America, returned to the American navy, was executive officer of the "Hatteras" when she was sunk by the "Alabama," and received wounds in the action from the effects of which he died several years later.
Annually in October an International Fair is held, to which Mexico sends an exhibit of Mexican products and manufactures.
San Antonio was the capital of Texas during the periods of Spanish and Mexican rule.
San Antonio was captured by the Magee-Gutierrez party in 1813, but was recovered by the Mexican royalists (see Texas: History).
After 1836 there was a large influx of Anglo-Americans and Germans, and the Mexican element long ago ceased to predominate.
Twiggs (1790-1862), a veteran of the Mexican War, surrendered the Department of Texas, without resistance, to the Confederate general, Ben McCulloch; for this General Twiggs was dismissed from the United States army, and in May he became a major-general in the Confederate service.
The Mexican adventure is mentioned by Acosta, but all trace of the culture had died out before the end of the century.
Around the plaza and elsewhere in the city, however, the Mexican style of architecture has given way to the American.
It was occupied continuously by the Spanish, Mexican and American governors of New Mexico until 1909, and houses the historical museum of the Historical Society of New Mexico (founded in 1859, incorporated in 1880), the School of American Archaeology and the New Mexico Museum of Archaeology.
Also of interest are the Rosario chapel; the ruined earthworks of Fort Marcy, north of the city, constructed by General Kearny in 1846; the ruins of the Garita, an old Spanish fortification used as a custom house under the Mexican government; the so-called "oldest house," a dilapidated adobe structure claimed to be the oldest building, continuously inhabited, in the United States; the state library; and the national cemetery, in which 1022 American soldiers are buried.
The chief manufactures of Santa Fe are brick, pottery (made by Pueblo Indians), and filigree jewelry (made by Mexican artisans).
The arrival of the first railway train, on the 9th of February 1880, marked a new epoch in the history of Santa Fe, which until then had remained essentially a Mexican town; but with the discontinuance of the wagon caravans over the old trail, it lost its importance as the entrepot for the commerce of the South-west.
Mexican peasants regularly paint or tattoo a cross on their foreheads, and the old Armenian equivalent for destiny or fate is cakatagir or forehead-writing.
Each of the larger islands has one or more ports which a local steamboat serves regularly, and Honolulu has the regular service of seven trans-Pacific lines (the American-Hawaiian Steamship Co., the Canadian-Australian Steamship Co., the Matson Navigation Co., the Oceanic Steamship Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., the Mexican Oriental and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha); it is a midway station for vessels between the United States (mainland) and Australia and Southern Asia.
Mexican is a plain, heavy grey calico, sometimes heavily sized.
In the Mexican the yarns were originally of nearly the same weight and number of threads to the 4 in., an arrangement which gave the cloth an even appearance, thus differing from the "pin-head" or medium makes.
Punjum is a Mexican, generally 36 yd.
T Cloth is a plain grey calico, similar in kind to the Mexican and exported to the same markets.
There is no absolute distinction between the two cloths, but the T cloth is generally lower in quality than the Mexican.
In Great Britain it is employed rather loosely, but commonly to describe the kind of cloth which if exported would be called a Mexican.
The word is sometimes particularly applied to cloths with a comparatively heavy weft, the distinction being made between the even "Mexican make" and the "pin-head" or "medium-make."
The culture of tobacco, which was introduced as early as 1689, was a small industry until the middle of the 19th century, but it then developed rapidly except during a brief interruption caused by the Mexican War.
The fort and the settlement were named in honour of General William Jenkins Worth (1794-1849), a native of Hudson, New York, who served in the War of 1812, commanded the United States forces against the Seminole Indians in 1841-1842, served under both General Taylor and General Scott in the Mexican War, distinguishing himself at Monterey (where he earned the brevet of major-general) and in other engagements, and later commanded the department of Texas.
The peso is also the name of the Mexican dollar.
Mexican form of which it quite agrees in colour.
Mexico has abolished its former orders, the Mexican Eagle, 1865, and Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1853; as has Brazil those of the Southern Cross, 1822, Dom Pedro I., 1826, the Rose, 1829, and the Brazilian branches of the Portuguese orders of Christ, St Benedict of Aviz and St James.
He graduated at West Point in 1846, served as second lieutenant with the Mormon battalion in California during the Mexican War, and became a captain in 1855.
Acapulco was long the most important Mexican port on the Pacific, and the only depot for the Spanish fleets plying between Mexico and Spain's East Indian colonies from 1778 until the independence of Mexico, when this trade was lost.
The town has been chosen as the terminus for two railway lines seeking a Pacific port - the Interoceanic and the Mexican Central.
The Mexican or Brazilian orchid house accommodates the plants from the warm parts of South America, and its temperature should range from about 65° to 75° during summer and from 60° to 65° in winter.
In the Mexican house the plants will generally be able to withstand greater drought occasionally, being greatly assisted by their thick pseudobulbs.
Carson took part in the Mexican War, and, after the rush to the Pacific Coast began, engaged as a guide to convoy emigrants and drovers across the plains and mountains.
In this rank he took part in the Mexican War, repeatedly winning distinction for conduct and bravery.
During the struggle between Mexico and Spain the Mexican leader Bernardo Gutierrez (1778-1814) was besieged here.
The name Goliad, probably an anagram of the name of the Mexican patriot Hidalgo (1753-1811), was first used about 1829.
In the House of Representatives on the 22nd of December 1847 he introduced the "Spot Resolutions," which quoted statements in the president's messages of the 11th of May 1846 and the 7th and 8th of December that Mexican troops had invaded the territory of the United States, and asked the president to tell the precise "spot" of invasion; he made a speech on these resolutions in the House on the 12th of January 1848.
His attitude toward the war and especially his vote for George Ashmun's amendment to the supply bill at this session, declaring that the Mexican War was "unnecessarily and unconstitutionally commenced by the President," greatly displeased his constituents.
Later friendly relations between the United States and Great Britain, where, among the upper classes, there was a strong sentiment in favour of the Confederacy, were seriously threatened by the fitting out of Confederate privateers in British ports, and the Administration owed much to the skilful diplomacy of the American minister in London, Charles Francis Adams. A still broader foreign question grew out of Mexican affairs, when events culminating in the setting up of Maximilian of Austria as emperor under protection of French troops demanded the constant watchfulness of the United States.
The prickly poppy (Argemone grandiflora) is a fine Mexican perennial with large white flowers.
This elevation was reported by the Mexican geological survey in 1895, and as the Mexican Geographical Society calculated the elevation at 17,888 ft., it may be accepted as nearly correct.
the Mexican " oyamel," or fir (Abies religiose) becomes the principal species, interspersed with evergreen oak, arbutus and elder.
Above this belt the firs gradually disappear and are succeeded by the shortleaved Pinus montezumae, or Mexican " ocote " - one of the largest species of pine in the republic. These continue to the upper tree-line, accompanied by red and purple Pentstemon and light blue lupins in the open spaces, some ferns, and occasional masses of alpine flowers.
A detailed description of the volcano was published by the Mexican geological survey in 1895 according to which the crater is elliptical in form, 2008 by 1312 ft.,, and has a depth of 1657 ft.
Other ascents were made in 1834, 1848 and subsequent years, members of the Mexican geological survey spending two days on the summit in 1895.
OCELOT (Mexican Flalocelotl, literally field-jaguar, from Flalli, field, and ocelotl, tiger, jaguar), an American member (Felis pardalis) of the family Felidae, ranging from Arkansas in the north to Paraguay.
He was a Democratic member of the United States Senate from December 1834 until March 1845, ardently supporting President Jackson, and was secretary of state in the cabinet of President Polk from 1845 to 1849 - a period marked by the annexation of Texas, the Mexican War, and negotiations with Great Britain relative to the Oregon question.
In the Mexican War he served as a brigadier-general of volunteers under General Zachary Taylor on the Rio Grande, under General John E.
C.) 0 BREGON, ALVARO (1880-), Mexican President, was born in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, in 1880, of Basque and Yaqui parentage.
AXOLOTL, the Mexican name given to larvae salamanders of the genus Amblystoma.
Some hold the view that maize originated from a common Mexican fodder grass, Euchlaena mexicana, known as Teosinte, a closely allied plant which when crossed with maize yields a maize-like hybrid.
The book was not premeditated; a single poem, called out by the recruiting for the abhorred Mexican war, couched in rustic phrase and sent to the Boston Courier, had the inspiriting dash and electrifying rat-tat-tat of this new recruiting sergeant in the little army of Anti-Slavery reformers.
Among William Jay's other writings, the most important are The Life of John Jay (2 vols., 1833) and a Review of the Causes and Consequences of the Mexican War (1849).
The horses, which are of Mexican, Spanish and Chinese origin, are small and poorly cared for; some American horses have been introduced for the purpose of improving the breed.
This monopoly lasted until the Mexican War of Independence forced the Spanish government to regard the Philippines as being in the East instead of the West.
of the Rocky Mountains: the Great Salt Lake, the Great Basin, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the fertile river basins of the Mexican province of California.
Owing to the number of American immigrants who had settled in California, the Mexican authorities there became suspicious and hostile, and ordered Fremont out of the province.
by the Mexican province of Lower California.
In 1900 the Colorado river (q.v.) was tapped south of the Mexican boundary for water wherewith to irrigate land in the Imperial Valley along the Southern Pacific railway, adjoining Salton Sea.
The average size of farms in 1850 (when the large Mexican grants were almost the only farms, and these unbroken) was 4466 acres; in 1860 it was 466.4, and in 1900 only 397.4 acres.
Notable was the innovation that agreement by threefourths of a jury should be sufficient in civil cases and that a jury might be waived in minor criminal cases, a provision which of course was based on experience under the Mexican law.
Under the Mexican Federal constitution of 1824 Upper California, first alone (it was made distinct province in 1804) and then with Lower California, received representation in the Mexican congress.
Alvarado, was recognized by the Mexican government, which had again inclined to federalism and, besides, did not take the matter very seriously, the local government rested simply on local sentiment.
It was greatly stimulated American g 9 Y g Y during the Spanish-American revolutions (the Lima and Panama trade dating from about 1813), for, as the Californian authorities practically ignored the law, smuggling was unnecessary; this was, indeed, much greater after 1822 under the high duties (in 1836-1840 generally about loo %) of the Mexican tariffs.
His position as a Mexican official, and the location of his fortified post on the border, commanding the interior country and lying on the route of the overland immigrants, made him of great importance in the years preceding and immediately following American occupation; although he was a man of slight abilities and wasted his great opportunities.
Americans supposed that Great Britain wished to exchange Mexican bonds for California; France also was thought to be watching for an opening for gratifying supposed ambitions; and all parties saw that even without overt act by the United States the progress of American settlement seemed likely to gain them the province, whose connexion with Mexico had long been a notoriously loose one.
In violation therefore of international amities, and practically in disobedience of orders, he broke the peace, caused a band of Mexican cavalry mounts to be seized, and prompted some American settlers to occupy Sonoma (14th June 1846).
The opening hostilities of the Mexican War had occurred on the Rio Grande.
Before the end of the war Mexican laws not incompatible with United States laws were by international law supposed to be in force; but nobody knew what they were, and the uncertainties of vague and variable alcalde jurisdictions were increased when Americans began to be alcaldes and grafted English common-law principles, like the jury, on Californian practices.
Never was a population more in need of clear laws than the motley Californian people of 1848-1849, yet they had none when, with peace, military rule and Mexican law technically ended.
Under the Mexican regime such grants were generous and common, and the complicated formalities theoretically essential to their validity were very often, if not usually, only in part attended to.
Titles thus gained would never have been questioned under continued Mexican government, but Americans were unaccustomed to such riches in land and to such laxity.
Claims of enormous aggregate value were thus considered and a large part of those dating from the last years of Mexican dominion (many probably artfully concocted and fraudulently antedated after the commission was at work) were finally rejected.
Sometimes this is to be regarded as beginning at Monterey, sometimes elsewhere in California, sometimes at Loreto in Lower California ., All the Spanish and Mexican governors were appointed by the national government, except in the case of the II.
Of the contemporary material on the period of Mexican domination the best is afforded by R.
He re-entered the army as a captain of mounted rifles in the Mexican War, served with distinction, and was breveted major for bravery at Contreras and Churubusco.
When completed to Orin Junction this will be a main through route from the Mexican Gulf to the N.W.
of that parallel came by the Mexican cession of 1848.
The currency is the Mexican and British dollar, the company issuing its own copper coin - viz.
The current coin consists largely of Mexican and Central and South American dollars; but little coin is in circulation.
Granada was founded in 1524 on the isthmus between the two lakes as the capital of a separate government, which, however, was soon attached as a special province to the captaincy general of Guatemala, which comprised the whole of Central America and the present Mexican state of Chiapas.
On the following day Zelaya took refuge on board a Mexican gunboat, and sailed for Mexico.
He sided with President Jackson on the question of nullification; was an efficient supporter of President Polk's administration during the Mexican War; and was an ardent advocate of slavery extension into the Territories, but when the Compromise of 1850 had been agreed upon he became its staunch supporter as a Union Democrat, and on that issue was elected governor of Georgia by a large majority.
The period of his subsequent service covered the settlement of the Oregon dispute with Great Britain and the Mexican War.
Pachuca's railway connexions include the Mexican, the Hidalgo and the Mexican Oriental, besides which it has 5 m.
The territory west of the divide was included in the Mexican cession of 1848.
In 1828 (to 1832) a fortified trading post was established near La Junta in the Arkansas valley on the Santa Fe trail; in 1834-1836 several private forts were erected on the Platte; in 1841 the first overland emigrants to the Pacific coast crossed the state, and in 1846-1847 the Mormons settled temporarily at the old Mexican town of Pueblo.
Commerce was tributary in these years to the (New) Mexican town of Taos.
In 1848, Zachary Taylor, a Mexican War hero, and hardly even a convert to the Whig party, defeated Clay for the nomination, Kentucky herself deserting her "favourite son."
A conspicuous feature of the New Mexican landscape is the mesa, a flat-topped hill created by differential erosion and projecting above the surrounding country like a table.
The New Mexican garnets are found in McKinley county.
of the Mexican boundary.
Under the Mexican republic New Mexico was called a province till 1824, when it was united with Chihuahua and Durango to form the Estado Interno del Norte.
In 1841 the republic of Texas, claiming that its western boundary was the Rio Grande, sent a force of 300 men to New Mexico to enforce these claims. The Texans reached the frontier in a starved and exhausted condition, were made prisoners by the New Mexican militia, and were sent to Mexico, where after a short term of confinement they were released.
Peons were persons held in servitude on account of debt, and the peonage system was sanctioned both by the custom of the Mexican provinces and by the laws of the Territory.
When the United States acquired possession of New Mexico, the best portions of the Territory were held in private ownership under Spanish and Mexican grants, which were confirmed by the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
The governors of New Mexico since its independence from Spain have been as follows: Under The Mexican Republic 2 Francisco Javier Chavez.
Assassinated during the Mexican revolt on the 19th of January 184 Governor as Commander of the Department.
He loyally supported Polk's administration during the Mexican War, opposed the Wilmot Proviso, and advocated the Compromise Measures of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854.
AGAVE, a large botanical genus of the natural order Amaryllidaceae, chiefly Mexican, but occurring also in the southern and western United States and in central and tropical South America.
He elaborated a theory of Toltec migrations and considered the prehistoric Mexican to be of Asiatic origin, because of observed similarities to Japanese architecture, Chinese decoration, Malaysian language and Cambodian dress, &c.
He opposed the Mexican War and slavery, and in 1847 was arrested on the charge of instigating a riot, which resulted in the rescue of several fugitive slaves; his trial, in which he was acquitted, attracted wide attention.
Many members of the group occur on the Mexican isthmus, one of which, P. cembroides, produces edible seeds; another, P. Montezumae, is a valuable timber tree.
In 1845 he again entered the Senate, where he opposed the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War, but advocated the active prosecution of the latter once it was begun.
Jean (1788-1836) emigrated to America and became a general in the Mexican army.
medica, which yield respectively the so-called "Jamaica" and the Mexican varieties.
The varieties of sarsaparilla met with in commerce are the following: Jamaica, Lima, Honduras, Guatemala, Guayaquil and Mexican.
Mexican sarsaparilla has slender, shrivelled roots nearly devoid of rootlets.
It is collected on the eastern slope of the Mexican Andes throughout the year, and is the produce of Smilax medica.
In some varieties, as the Guayaquil and Mexican, the whole plant, including the rootstock, is pulled up.
The soil is fertile, and the indigenous flora has been greatly enriched by the importation of such plants as the agave, the Mexican opuntia, the American maple, the Australian eucalyptus, the Scotch fir and the so-called Portuguese cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) from the Azores.
Some reference must be made to the Mexican land-grant litigation.
The line dividing the two regions runs roughly from Nogales on the Mexican border, past Tucson, Florence and Phoenix to Needles (California), on the W.
Small parts of the desert along the Mexican boundary are shifting sand.
In the hottest (western) portions of the true desert on the Mexican border the daily maximum temperature is about IIo° F.; but owing to the rapid radiation in the dry, clear, cloudless air the temperature frequently falls 40-50° in the night.
Even in the Mexican border, desert oak, juniper and manzanita cover the mountains, and there is a vigorous though short-lived growth of grasses and flower from July to October.
A compulsory attendance law applies to children between 6 and 14 years of age, but it is not generally obeyed by the Mexican element of population.
The decay of the military power of the presidios during the Mexican war of independence, the expulsion of loyal Spaniards - notably friars - and the renewal of Apache wars, led to the temporary abandonment of all settlements except Tubac and Tucson.
As a result of the Mexican War, New Mexico, which then included all Arizona north of the Gila, was ceded to the United States.
Officials were appointed and New Mexican legislation for the Arizona counties ignored, but nothing further was done.
In 1914 he favoured the Panama Canal Tolls Repeal bill but opposed the administration's Mexican policy.
In an address before the Pan-American Commercial Congress, 1919, certain of his remarks about Mexico brought protest to the State Department from the Mexican charge d'affaires and led the Mexican Government to withdraw its delegates.
Whisky, groceries, prints and notions were staples sent to Santa Fe; wool, buffalo robes and dried buffalo meat, Mexican silver coin, gold and silver dust and ore came in return.
Lower California is a southward extension of the State of California, United States, and is touched by only one of the Mexican states, that of Sonora on the E.
The development of mining and other industries in the territory has led to an extension of the California railway system southward into the peninsula, with the Mexican government's permission, the first section of 37 m.
Bancroft's North Mexican States and Texas, lettered vols.
Upon the definite refusal of the Mexican government under Paredes to resume with the United States the diplomatic relations broken off by the annexation of Texas, Taylor was ordered to advance to the Rio Grande for the purpose of anticipating any hostile incursion from Mexico.
The commander of the Mexican Army of the North, Ampudia, immediately summoned him to retire behind the Nueces under the threat of interpreting his advance as an invasion of Mexican territory.
A brilliant charge by the dragoons under Captain May decided this contest, which Taylor followed up by a pursuit of the Mexican general to the Rio Grande.
Meanwhile through the connivance of the American authorities, Santa Anna returned from his Cuban exile, and, as the newly elected Mexican president, disregarding his pledges to aid Polk in bringing about a satisfactory peace, prepared to wage a more effective war against the American invaders.
by the Mexican National railway N.
Railway communications are provided by the Mexican National with the United States, with the national capital and southern Mexico, and with Matamoros, and by the Belgian line with Tampico on the Gulf coast, and with Trevino, or Venadito, on the Mexican International line, which gives access to the iron deposits of Durango.
Monterrey was defended by a Mexican force of about io,000 under General Pedro de Ampudia.
Saltillo is on the Mexican National railway and another railway connects it with the important mining and industrial town of Torreon, on the Mexican Central.
Among its public institutions are a national college, an athenaeum, the Madero Institute with a good library, some fine churches, and the charitable institutions common to all Mexican cities.
The Mexican mines first sent supplies to Europe in the 16th century, and during the period1781-1800yielded twothirds of the world's production.
incarnating the God, may be well applied to the Athamantid sacrifice and to that of King Lycaon; for he derives his name from the divinity himself, and according to one version' he offers his own child; and the Lycaonid legend presents one almost unique feature, which is only found elsewhere in legendary Dionysiac sacrifice, the human flesh is eaten, and the sacrifice is a cannibalistic-sacrament, of which the old Mexican religion offers conspicuous example.
It would be easy to enumerate other languages of the world, such as Basque, Turkish, Hebrew, Malay, Mexican, all devoid of traceable resemblance to Australian and English, and to one another.
The Mestizos, who form so large a fraction of the population of modern Mexico, numbering several millions, afford a convenient test in this respect, inasmuch as their intermediate complexion separates them from both their ancestral races, the Spaniard, and the chocolate-brown indigenous Aztec or other Mexican.
The mother-tongue of this mixed race is Spanish, with an infusion of Mexican words; and a large proportion cannot speak any native dialect.
In the tailless division of the Pedipalpi, undo Mexican tailed Pedipalp (Mastigoproetus giganteus).
gigantea (the only two surviving species of this generic type are now confined to a few localities in California, but were formerly widely spread in Europe and elsewhere), Pinus Coulteri, P. Lambertiana, &c. Farther south, a few representatives of such genera as Abies, Cupressus, Pinus and juniper are found in the Mexican Highlands, tropical America and the West Indies.
He abandoned temporarily the study of law in Indianapolis to recruit a company of volunteers (of which he was made second lieutenant) for the Mexican War, and served in1846-1847in the First Indiana Battery.
Sent as a lieutenant of engineers to the Mexican War, he took part in the battles under General Scott, and by his gallantry won the brevets of first-lieutenant at Contreras-Churubusco and captain at Chapultepec; he was afterwards detailed as assistant-instructor at West Point, and employed in explorations in the South-West and in Oregon.
In early days Mexican and American military detachments escorted the caravans on either side of the international line.
of land, fraudulently alleged to have been granted to land-grabbers and others by the Mexican government prior to the close of the Mexican War.
In 1847 the vigour with which Sumner denounced a Boston congressman's vote in favour of the Mexican War Bill made him the logical leader of the " Conscience Whigs," but he declined to accept their nomination for Congress.
He was secretary of war under President Polk from 1845 to 1849, and as such discharged with ability the especially onerous duties incident to the conduct of the Mexican War; he became involved, however, in controversies with Generals Scott and Taylor, who accused him, it seems very unjustly, of seeking to embarrass their operations in the field because they were political opponents of the administration.
He entered politics as a Democrat, served in the National House of Representatives from 1845 to 1851, and although he favoured the Walker Tariff, the Mexican War and other party measures, opposed the extension of slavery.
As a single specimen of an altar, wholly unrelated to any of the foregoing, we may cite the ancient Mexican example described by W.
In February 1879 he was re-elected to the Senate to succeed Isaac P. Christiancy (1812-1890), and soon afterwards, in a speech concerning Mexican War pensions, bitterly denounced Jefferson Davis.