The city is a dynamic metropolitan area, and major financial center.
During these interminable struggles of rival princes, Kiev, which had been so long the residence of the grand-prince and of the metropolitan, was repeatedly taken by storm and ruthlessly pillaged, and finally the whole valley of the Dnieper fell a prey to the marauding tribes of the steppe.
GREENWICH, a south-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
Since the War of Independence, the kingdom of Greece has been ecclesiastically organized after the model of Russia, as one autocephalous " province," separated from its old patriarchate of Constantinople, with an honorary metropolitan and honorary archbishops (Neale, op. cit.
metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded W.
The length of underground pipes which had been laid in the metropolitan area for telephone purposes was 2030 m.
(f) From the bishop, or his official, appeal lay to the metropolitan, who again could hear causes by his official.
(g) An appeal lay from the court of the metropolitan to that of the primate.
The court of the metropolitan takes the place of the provincial synod, except possibly for the trial of bishops, and even this becomes doubtful.
"The number of telephones connected with the Post Office system in the metropolitan area on the 31st of March 1907 was 41,236, and additional subscribers were being connected at the rate of about 150 a week.
On the 16th of January 1547, he was crowned the first Russian tsar by the metropolitan of Moscow; on the 3rd of February in the same year he selected as his wife from among the virgins gathered from all parts of Russia for his inspection, Anastasia Zakharina-Koshkina, the scion of an ancient and noble family better known by its later name of Romanov.
There are, however, a few cases in which the metropolitan is still allowed to cite in the first instance.
If the metropolitan see were vacant the jurisdiction was exercised by the dean and chapter through an official (Rothery, Return of Cases before Delegates, Nos.
of London by the Metropolitan and the Great Central joint railway.
BERMONDSEY, a south-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
The third type is the intermediate one between those two, followed by the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways, in London, where the railway has an arched roof, built usually at a sufficient distance below the surface of the street to permit the other subsurface structures to lie in the ground above the crown of the arch, and where the station platforms are from 20 to 30 ft.
Serajevo is the seat of the provincial government, of a Roman Catholic bishop, an Orthodox metropolitan, the highest Moslem ecclesiastical authority or Reis-el-ulema, and the supreme court.
- Type-Section of Arched Covered Way, Metropolitan District railway, London.
From the ecclesiastics Basil likewise insisted on unquestioning obedience, and he did not hesitate to depose by his own authority a metropolitan who was at that time the highest dignitary of the Russian Church.
On the 3rd of January 1565 he declared in an open letter addressed to the metropolitan his intention to abdicate.
The metropolitan of Athens is president, and there are four other members appointed by the government in annual rotation from the senior bishops.
There are large barracks in the neighbourhood, and the Metropolitan lunatic asylum is close to the town.
The Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways followed the art of railway building as it existed at the time they were laid out.
Metropolitan Church, or Ecclesia Ursiana, and baptistery adjoining .
An " exarch " means properly a superior metropolitan having several provinces under him.
Fournier (p. 219) says that in France it was not till the 17th century that there grew up a custom of having different officials for the metropolitan, one for him as bishop, a second as metropolitan, and even a third as primate, with an appeal from one to the other, and that it was an abuse due to the parlements which strove to make the official independent of the bishop. In England there has been, for a long time, a separate diocesan court of Canterbury held before the " commissary."
During Charles's second state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university.
As to metropolitan peculiars, the metropolitan might give an appeal from the dean to his regular official principal.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
Even the London District Telegraph Company, which was formed in 1859 for the purpose of transmitting telegraph messages between points in metropolitan London, found that a low uniform rate was not financially practicable.
C. 37 ecclesiastical provinces, each under a metropolitan, cornposed of 148 suifragan dioceses.
But Nicholas is my cousin... one would have to... the Metropolitan himself... and even then it can't be done.
Isolated examples in the early middle ages of metropolitans dealing with their suffragan bishops by imprisonment in chains were extra-canonical abuses, connected with the perversion of Church law which treated the metropolitan (who originally was merely convener of the provincial synod and its representative during the intervals of sessions) as the feudal " lord " of his comprovincials.
The vast majority of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox (Greek) Church, which is governed by a synod of seven bishops under the presidency of the metropolitan of Candia.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
The cost of the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways of London varied greatly on account of the variations in construction.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
A desservant has an informal appeal, by way of recourse, to the metropolitan and ultimately to the pope (Smith, op. cit.
141), but constructed on the same lines, with the metropolitan as judge and his vicar-general as vice-judge.
Appeal lies, in nearly all cases, to the metropolitan (Smith, op. cit.
Their first and most notable victim was Philip, the saintly metropolitan of Moscow, who was strangled for condemning the oprichina as an unchristian institution, and refusing to bless the tsar (1569).
In 1870 was founded the United Synagogue, which is a metropolitan organization, and the same remark applies to the more recent Federation of Synagogues.
The area is second to that of Wandsworth among the metropolitan boroughs, but is not wholly built over.
It was not till he was about seventeen that he took an active part in the administration, and one of his first acts foreshadowed his future policy: he insisted on the metropolitan crowning him, not as grand-prince of Muscovy, but as tsar of all Russia (1547).
Dr. Humason, Teacher, and I left the others at the Dog Show and went to a reception given by the "Metropolitan Club."...
In a short time the invaders were expelled, and a Grand National Assembly elected as tsar Michael Romanov, the young son of the metropolitan Philaret, who was connected by marriage with the late dynasty.
long, from Edgware Road to King's Cross, in London, from which beginning the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways developed.
The bishop or, failing him, the metropolitan, was to see such legacies properly paid and applied and might appoint persons to administer the funds (Pollock and Maitland, op. cit.
It also seemed perfectly reasonable to take the 1962 Nash Metropolitan for a spin around the block, even though it didn't have brakes either.
In 1832 priests were forbidden to join them, and they had to apply to a deposed Bosnian metropolitan, who became their chief bishop, establishing his see in the monastery of Belokrinitsa in Bukovina.
Vercelli Alessandria della Paglia, Biella, Casale, Mnnfprr,itn, Nnvsrs Vow~,~n Twelve archbishops and sixty-one bishops are independent of all metropolitan supervision, and hold directly of the Holy See.
If a provincial synod be divided as to the guilt of a bishop, the metropolitan is to convene bishops from the neighbouring provinces to decide the cause jointly with the bishops of the original province.
Metropolitans usually now have a metropolitan tribunal distinct from their diocesan court (ib.
The tsar Theodore in 1587 exercised the power of the Byzantine emperors by deposing the metropolitan, Dionysius Grammaticus (Mouravieff, p. 125).
Some of the metropolitan railway lines cross the river in tunnels beneath its bed.
The metropolitan water district (1895) included in 1908 Boston and seventeen cities or townships in its environs; the metropolitan sewerage district (1889) twenty four; the park service (1893) thirty-nine.
The beach reservations of the metropolitan park system at Revere and Nantasket, and several smaller city beaches are a special feature of this service.
The metropolitan water board - of whose expenditures Boston bears only a share - expended from 1895 to 1900 $20,693,870; and the system was planned to consume finally probably 40 millions at least.
The city park system proper had cost $16,627,033 up to 1899 inclusive; and the metropolitan parks $13,679,456 up to 1907 inclusive.
Boston paid in 1907 36% of all state taxes, and about 33, 62, 47 and 79% respectively of the assessments for the metropolitan sewer, parks, boulevards and water services.
Nisibis early became the seat of a Jacobite bishop and of a Nestorian metropolitan, and under the Arabs (when it continued to flourish and became the centre of the district of Diya`r Rebi`a) the population of the town and neighbourhood was still mostly Christian, and included numerous monasteries.
ST MARYLEBONE (commonly called Marylebone), a northwestern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
Between 746 and 748 Boniface was made bishop of Mainz, and became metropolitan over the Rhine bishoprics and Utrecht, as well as over those he had established in Germany - thus founding the pre-eminence of the see of Mainz.
Ordinarily, the appeal from an archdeacon or his official lay to the court of the bishop; but by custom the appeal might be to the court of the metropolitan.
The latter was treated as a mere delegate, from whom an appeal could be made to the bishop. The former had one consistory with the bishop, so that appeals from him had to be made to the court of the metropolitan.
From a peculiar jurisdiction ranking as episcopal the appeal lay to the court of the metropolitan.
He merely corrects slackness or lack of doing justice (Si archiepiscopus defecerit in justitia exhibenda) and by his writ (precepto) directs the controversy to be determined in the metropolitan's court.
In some " missionary" dioceses, the metropolitan, qua metropolitan, has a separate commission of investigation, to try the criminal causes of clerks, sentence being passed by himself of his vicar-general (ib.
About forty years later (197) the question was discussed in a very different spirit between Victor, bisho p of Rome, and Polycrates, metropolitan of proconsular Asia.
For example, the priests are not to be chosen by the people; penitents are not to be present at ordinations (lest they should hear the failings of candidates discussed); bishops are to be appointed by the metropolitan and his suffragan; sub-deacons may not distribute the elements of the Eucharist; clerics are forbidden to leave a diocese without the bishop's permission.
It developed into a title implying jurisdiction over metropolitans, partly as a result of the organization of the empire into " dioceses," partly owing to the ambition of the greater metropolitan bishops, which had early led them to claim and exercise authority in neighbouring metropolitanates.
SOUTHWARK, a central metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
Near the "Elephant and Castle" is the Metropolitan Tabernacle, the original building of which, burnt down in 1898, became famous under the Baptist preacher, Charles Spurgeon.
HOLBORN, a central metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.W.
There may also be mentioned the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with museum; the Royal Colleges of Organists, and of Veterinary Surgeons, the College of Preceptors, the Jews' College, and the Metropolitan School of Shorthand.
The Cloisters (The Metropolitan Museum, N.Y.) displays the twelfth century limestone bust.
however, the disease is strongly centred upon the metropolitan area, more than half of the outbreaks being reported from the county of London alone.
The church is ruled by the patriarch of Venice, the metropolitan of the province formed by the Veneto.
A noteworthy feature of the metropolitan public water service was begun in 1896 in the Wachusett lake reservoir at Clinton, on the Nashua river.
The metropolitan system as planned in 1905 for the near future contemplated storage for 80,000,000,000 gallons, it is only part of a system planned for the service of the metropolitan area.
The park system consists of two concentric rings, the inner being the city system proper, the outer the metropolitan system undertaken by the commonwealth in co-operation with the city.
The metropolitan system, which extends around the city on a radius of 10 to 12 m., was begun in 1893.
Including the local parks of the cities and towns of the metropolitan district there are over 17,000 acres of pleasure grounds within the metropolitan park district.
Boston proper is only the centre of a large metropolitan area, closely settled, with interests in large part common.
This metropolitan area, within a radius of approximately io m.
The commonwealth has four times recognized a community of metropolitan interests in creating state commissions since 1882 for the union of such interests, beginning with a metropolitan health district in that year.
Charitable institutions include a deaf and dumb asylum (1875-1886), the Metropolitan infirmary for children (1841), and the royal sea-bathing infirmary, established in 1791 and enlarged through the munificence of Sir Erasmus Wilson in 1882.
Within the metropolitan district of a io-m.
It is a very old town, being mentioned in 1150; from 1746 to 1795 it was the residence of the metropolitan of the United Greek Church.
His son Hermenegild, however, was converted to the orthodox faith through the influence of his Frankish wife, Ingundis, daughter of King Sigebert I., and of Leander, metropolitan of Seville.
The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.
Between this central station and Altona terminus runs the metropolitan railway, which has been raised several feet so as to bridge over the streets, and on which lie the important stations Dammtor and Sternschanze.
In 834 Hamburg became an archbishopric, St Ansgar, a monk of Corbie and known as the apostle of the North, being the first metropolitan.
In the Act, however, these words were added: "until other order shall be therein taken by the authority of the Queen's Majesty, with the advice of the Commissioners appointed and authorized under the Great Seal of England, for causes ecclesiastical, or of the Metropolitan."
The Metropolitan Tabernacle, with a platform for the preacher and accommodation for 6000 persons, was opened for service on the 25th of March 1861.
He edited the Metropolitan Magazine from 1832 to 1835, and some of his best stories appeared in that paper.
The metropolitan sewage was discharged untreated into the river, and the heavier solids deposited over the river-bed, while the lighter parts flowed backwards and forwards on the tide.
On the 27th of March 1882 the dignity of cardinal was conferred upon Lavigerie, but the great object of his ambition was to restore the see of St Cyprian; and in that also he was successful, for by a bull of 10th November 1884 the metropolitan see of Carthage was re-erected, and Lavigerie received the pallium on the 25th of January 1885.
Paul, the metropolitan church of the bishopric of Rassia, in which Stephen Nemanya, king of Servia, passed from the Roman to the Greek Church in 1143.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
The metropolitan area of Sydney consists of a peninsula, about 13 m.
Adjoining Moore Park is the metropolitan race-course of Randwick.
In 1863 the metropolitan of Cape Town, as head of the Church of the Province of South Africa, excommunicated Dr Colenso and consecrated a rival bishop for Natal, who took the title of bishop of Pietermaritzburg.
By these men Hungary was divided into dioceses, with a metropolitan see at Esztergom (Gran), a city originally founded by Geza, but richly embellished by Stephen, whose Italian architects built for him there the first Hungarian cathedral dedicated to St Adalbert.
Administratively the state is divided into the city, or metropolitan district, and four rural domains (or Landherrenschaften), each under a senator as praeses, viz.
BETHNAL GREEN, an eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
The episcopate of the new metropolitan was marked by a vigour and activity that were felt not merely in his own diocese, but as far as Tours, Orleans and Paris.
Rome is indeed to be honoured as the mother of the churches; nor would Gerbert oppose her judgments except in two cases - (I) where she enjoins something that is contrary to the decrees of a universal council, such as that of Nice, or (2) where, after having been once appealed to in a matter of ecclesiastical discipline and having refused to give a plain and speedy decision, she should, at a later date, attempt to call in question the provisions of the metropolitan synod called to remedy the effects of her negligence.
Gerbert proceeds to argue that the church councils admitted the right of metropolitan synods to depose unworthy bishops, but contends that, even if an appeal to Rome were necessary, that appeal had been made a year before without effect.
The last 5th-century author to be mentioned here is Ahudhemmeh, who was Jacobite metropolitan of Taghrith from 559 till he was martyred by Khosrau Anosharwan in 575.
An interchange of courtesies with the Metropolitan of Kiev on the occasion of the Booth anniversary of the conversion of Russia (1888), led to further intercourse, which has tended to a friendlier feeling between the English and Russian churches.
The twenty-eight remaining divisions are the Metropolitan Boroughs.
The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire.
ath ' K;idbrooke Hither Green: Wes i Bromley C Longitude West 0°4' of Greenwich Rai lways....-- underground Canals ' '; County Metropolitan Boroughs ...... :: ...
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
Thus the West London Extension line carries local traffic between the North Western and Great Western and the Brighton and South-Western systems, while the Metropolitan Extension through the City connects the Midland and Great Northern with the South-Eastern & Chatham lines.
The railways whose systems are mainly or wholly confined within the metropolitan area are as follows.
The Metropolitan railway has a line from Baker Street through north-west London to Harrow, continuing to Uxbridge, while the original main line runs on to Rickmansworth, Aylesbury and Verney Junction, but has been worked by the Metropolitan and Great Central companies jointly since 1906.
Metropolitan trains also connect at New Cross with the southeastern railway system.
This company combines with the Metropolitan District to form the Inner Circle line, which has stations close to all the great railway termini north of the Thames.
The Metropolitan District (commonly called the District) system serves Wimbledon, Richmond, Ealing and Harrow on the west, and passes eastward by Earl's Court, South Kensington, Victoria and Mansion House (City) to Whitechapel and Bow.
The Metropolitan and the District lines within London are for the most part underground (this feature supplying the title of " the Underground " familiarly applied to both systems); the tunnels being constructed of brick.
The Underground Electric Railways Company, which acquired a controlling influence over these concerns, undertook the construction of a great power station at Chelsea; while the Metropolitan Company, which had fallen into line with the District (not without dispute over the system of electrification to be adopted) erected a station at Neasden on the Aylesbury branch.
Electric traction was gradually introduced on the Metropolitan and the District lines in 1906.
There are ten district head offices and about a thousand local offices in the metropolitan district.
A comparison of the death-rate of London and those of other great towns in England and abroad is given here: - In 1905 the lowest death-rates among the metropolitan boroughs were returned by Hampstead (9.3), Lewisham (11.7), Wandsworth (12.6), Woolwich (12.8), Stoke Newington (12.9), and the highest by Shoreditch (19.7), Finsbury (19.0), Bermondsey (18.7), Bethnal Green (18.6) and Southwark (18.5).
The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.
It was carried on more effectively by the Metropolitan Board of Works (1856-1888) which expended over six-and-a-half millions sterling on the work.
Hospitals.-The Metropolitan Asylums Board, though established in 1867 purely as a poor-law authority for the relief of the sick, insane Metro- and infirm paupers, has become a central hospital authority for infectious diseases, with power to receive into politan its hospitals persons, who are not paupers, suffering from Asylums fever, smallpox or diphtheria.
(2) The Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund, founded in 1873, draws the greater part of its revenue from collections in churches on stated occasions.
(3) The Metropolitan Hospital Saturday Fund was founded in 1873, and is made up chiefly of small sums collected in places of business, &c. The following is a list of the principal London hospitals, with dates of foundation I.
General Hospitals without Schools:- Great Northern Central; Islington (1856; on present site, 1887) Metropolitan; Hackney (1836).
As regards administration,Lord Llandaff's Commission recommended the creation Metro- of a Water Trust, and in 1902 the Metropolis Water Act constituted the Metropolitan Water Board to purchase politan and carry on the undertakings of the eight companies, Water and of certain local authorities.
appointed by the London County Council 1 pp y y (4), the City of London and the City of Westminster (2 each), the other Metropolitan boroughs (1 each), the county councils of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey (1 each), borough of West Ham (2), various groups of other boroughs and urban districts, and the Thames and the Lea Conservancies.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
The amalgamations mentioned were effected subsequently to 1860, and there are now three principal companies within the county, the Gas Light & Coke, South Metropolitan and Commercial, though certain other companies supply some of the outlying districts.
The Metropolitan Board of Works, and the commissioners of sewers in the City, began experiments with electric light.
At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.
The central brigade came under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works; and the County Council now manages the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, under a chief officer and a staff numbering about 1300.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
Metropolitan Cattle Market, Copenhagen Fields, Islington.
There were two bodies having jurisdiction over the whole metropolis except the City, namely, the officers appointed under the Metropolitan Building Act of 1844, and the Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, appointed under the Commissioners of Sewers Act 1848.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.
An objection to the Metropolitan Board of Works soon became manifest, inasmuch as the system of election was indirect.
The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.
It brought into existence the twenty-eight Metropolitan boroughs enumerated at the outset of this article.
The arrangements of quarter-sessions, justices, coroners, sheriffs, &c., were thus brought into line with other counties, except in so far as the ordinary organization is modified by the existence of the central criminal court, the metropolitan police, police courts and magistrates, and a paid chairman of quarter-sessions.
Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).
The Metropolitan police courts are fourteen in number, namely - Bow Street, Covent Garden; Clerkenwell; Great Marlborough Street (Westminster); Greenwich and Woolwich; Lambeth; Marylebone; North London, Stoke Newington Road; Southwark; South Western, Lavender Hill (Battersea); Thames, Arbour Street East (Stepney); West Ham; West London, Vernon Street (Fulham); Westminster, Vincent Square; Worship Street (Shoreditch).
The parliamentary boroughs are thus in many cases named and bounded differently from the metropolitan boroughs.
The parliamentary arrangements of each metropolitan borough are indicated in the separate articles on the boroughs.
A detached portion of the parliamentary division of Hornsey, Middlesex, is in the metropolitan borough of Hackney.
Part of the Wimbledon parliamentary division of Surrey is in the metropolitan borough of Wandsworth.
Further, every precept sent by an authority in London for the purpose of obtaining money (these authorities include the London County Council, the receiver of the Metropolitan Police, the Central Unemployed Body and the Boards of Guardians) which has ultimately to be raised out of a rate within a borough is sent direct to the council of the borough instead of filtering through other authorities before reaching the overseers.
The only exceptions to this rule are: (I) precepts issued by the local government board for raising the sums to be contributed to the metropolitan common poor fund; and (2) precepts issued by poor law authorities representing two or more poor-law unions; in both these cases the precept has of necessity to be first sent to the guardians.
The metropolitan borough councils make one general rate, which includes the amount necessary to meet their own expenditure, as well as to meet the demands of the various precepting authorities.
£9,491,271 Metropolitan Borough Councils 5,009,982 Boards of Guardians..
3,587,429 Metropolitan Water Board.
2,318,618 Metropolitan Police..
1,270,406 Metropolitan Asylums Board.
The produce of a penny rate was, in the £11,482,607 £11,482,607 £2,279,177 £1,378,266 163,828 44,557 685,946 2,000 4,580 £2,279,177 metropolitan police district in 1908-1909, £226,739, and in the county of London (excluding the City) £161,806.
By the Metropolitan Poor Act 1867, the metropolitan common poor fund, to which each union in London contributes in proportion to its rateable value, was established.
Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office, and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.
published annually; Returns relating to the London County Council, published annually; the annual report and accounts of the Metropolitan Water Board, and the metropolitan police accounts.
When the Metropolitan Board of Works was formed by the Metropolis Management Act of 1855 the city was affected to a certain extent, but by the Local Government Act of 1888 which founded the London County Council the right of appointing a sheriff for Middlesex was taken away from the city of London.
In 743 a Roman synod decreed that all bishops subject to the metropolitan see of Rome should meet personally every year in that city to give an account of the state of their dioceses.
The two terms are still used side by side; thus there are patriarchal, national and primatial councils, as well as provincial councils (under the metropolitan of a province) and diocesan synods, consisting of the clergy of a diocese and presided over by the bishop (or the vicar-general).
It falls within the metropolitan borough of Poplar.
Gregory, the Jacobite metropolitan of Jerusalem, visited Malabar, and, as the people had no consecrated bishop at the time, he consecrated Mar Thomas, who had been filling the office at the people's request, and remained in the country jointly administering the affairs of the Church with Thomas.
SYDENHAM, a large residential district in the south of London, England, partly within the metropolitan borough of Lewisham.
Now half the bed of the river has been walled over for the metropolitan railway, while the other half has been deepened, and the portion of it within the town has been arched over.
The New York College for the Training of Teachers became its Teachers' College of Columbia; a Faculty of Pure Science was added; the Medical School gave up its separate charter to become an integral part of the university; Barnard College became more closely allied with the university; relations were entered into between the university and the General, Union and Jewish theological seminaries of New York City and with Cooper Union, the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts and the American Museum of Natural History; and its faculty and student body became less local in character.
of St Paul's Cathedral, on the Metropolitan and London & North Western railways.
It still, however, retained its titular supremacy and continued to be the seat of the metropolitan bishop of the province of Lydia, formed in A.D.
The Roman Catholic archbishop of Freiburg is metropolitan of the Upper Rhine.
30), but, urged by Origen, and at last almost compelled by Phaedimus of Amasia, his metropolitan, neither of whom was willing to see so much learning, piety and masculine energy practically lost to the church, he, after many attempts to evade the dignity, was consecrated bishop of his native town (about 240).
In April 1732 the leading metropolitan publishers, jealous of the interloper Cave, started the London Magazine, or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer (1732-1784), which had a long and prosperous career.
The Metropolitan Magazine was started in opposition to Fraser, and was first edited by Campbell, who had left its rival.
The functions of the archbishop, as at present exercised, developed out of those of the metropolitan; though the title of archbishop, when it first appeared, implied no metropolitan jurisdiction.
The metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their preeminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive thepallium from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.
In, e.g., the Scottish and American episcopal churches, however, the metropolitan is the senior bishop pro tern.
Besides archbishops who are metropolitans there are in the Roman Catholic Church others who have no metropolitan jurisdiction.
In the Orthodox and other churches of the East the title of archbishop is of far more common occurrence than in the West, and is less consistently associated with metropolitan functions.
Thus in Greece there are eleven archbishops p to thirteen bishops, the archbishop of Athens alone being metropolitan; in Cyprus, where there are four bishops and only one archbishop, all five are of metropolitan rank.
It is, however, still borne by the Lutheran bishop of Upsala, who is metropolitan of Sweden, and by the Lutheran bishop of tkbo in Finland.
The ecclesiastical government of the Church of England is divided between two archbishops - the archbishop of Canterbury, who is "primate of all England" and metropolitan of the province of Canterbury, and the archbishop of York, who is "primate of England" and metropolitan of the province of York.
The archbishop of Canterbury exercises the twofold jurisdiction of a metropolitan and a diocesan bishop. As metropolitan he is the guardian of the spiritualities of every vacant see within the province, he presents to all benefices which fall vacant during the vacancy of the see, and through his special commissary exercises the ordinary jurisdiction of a bishop within the vacant diocese.
The archbishop of York has immediate spiritual jurisdiction as metropolitan in the case of all vacant sees within the province of York, analogous to that which is exercised by the archbishop of Canterbury within the province of Canterbury.
This was the work of Petrus Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev, and other theologians.
Mention may also be made of the longer catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Church compiled by Philaret, metropolitan of Moscow, revised and adopted by the Russian Holy Synod in 1839.
The great opposition which arose during his lifetime continued after his death, and found classic expression in the highly venerated confession of Petrus Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev (1643).(1643).
The town is now the principal seat of government; the seat of a Greek bishop, who is suffragan to the metropolitan at Candia, and the official residence of the European consuls.
Other works include the Sheridan monument in Washington; " Mares of Diomedes " and " Ruskin " in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; statue of Lincoln, Newark, N.J.; statue of Henry Ward Beecher, Brooklyn; the Wyatt Memorial, Raleigh, N.C.; " The Flyer " at the university of Virginia; gargoyles for a Princeton dormitory; " Wonderment of Motherhood " and " Conception."
Under the Tahirids of Khorasan, the Saffarids of Seistan and the Samanids of Bokhara, it flourished for some centuries in peace and progressive prosperity; but during the succeeding rule of the Ghaznevid kings its metropolitan character was for a time obscured by the celebrity of the neighbouring capital of Ghazni, until finally in the reign of Sultan Sanjar of Mer y about 1157 the city was entirely destroyed by an irruption of the Ghuzz, the predecessors, in race as well as in habitat, of the modern Turkomans.
The bulk of his possessions were left to the twenty-one metropolitan churches of his dominions, and the remainder to his children, his servants and the poor.
BRIXTON, a district in the south of London, England, included in the metropolitan borough of Lambeth.
CHIH-LI (" Direct Rule"), the metropolitan province of China, in which is situated Peking, the capital of the empire.
of canon in the metropolitan church of Florence, and thus had leisure to devote himself to his favourite art.
Especially has the commonwealth undertaken certain noteworthy enterprises as the agent of the several municipalities in the immediate vicinity of Boston, constituting what is known as the Metropolitan District; as, for example, in bringing water thither from the Nashua River at Clinton, 40 m.
The debt of the state (especially the contingent debt, secured by sinking funds) has been steadily rising since 1888, and especially since 1896, chiefly owing to the erection of important public buildings, the construction of state highways and metropolitan park roadways, the improvement of Boston harbour, the abolition of grade crossings on railways, and the expenses incurred for the Spanish-American War of 1898.
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
BLACKHEATH, an open common in the south-east of London, England, mainly in the metropolitan borough of Lewisham.
The main difference in procedure between the two inquiries is that in Ireland the schedule is filled in by the enumerator, a member of the constabulary, or, in Dublin, of the metropolitan police, instead of being left to the householder.
of London by the Metropolitan railway.
It persisted in the main during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, and only faded before the growing influence of metropolitan or diocesan bishops in the 4th century.
branch of the Nashua, which will hold 63,000 million gallons of water for the supply of the metropolitan region around Boston.
In the East the metropolitan baptistery at Constantinople still stands at the side of the mosque which was once the patriarchal church of St Sophia; and many others, in Syria, have been made known to us by recent researches, as also have some belonging to the churches of North Africa.
All those civil parishes within the county of Kent of which any part is within twelve miles of, or of which no part is more than fifteen miles from, Charing Cross are within the metropolitan police district.
By the London Government Act of 1892 the borough of Greenwich was taken out of Kent and made one of the twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs of the county of London.
Regular training on the same plan as in general hospitals is provided in London at the fever hospitals of the Metropolitan Asylums Board (12 in number, with from 360 to 760 beds each), and at a considerable number of provincial institutions.
Whitney took an active interest in the development of urban transit in New York, and was one of the organizers of the Metropolitan Street Railway Company.
There is a council consisting of the ten ministers of state - for foreign affairs, war, interior, finance, household, justice, metropolitan government, public works, public instruction and for agriculture together with the general adviser.
The suburban provinces of the metropolitan monton are also divided ' as above.
The revenue administration is controlled by the ministers of the interior, of metropolitan government and of finance, by means of well-organized departments and with expert European assistance.
In the metropolitan monton there are primary, secondary and special schools for boys and girls, affording instruction to some 10,000 pupils.
STOKE NEWINGTON, a north-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
ISLINGTON (in Domesday and later documents Iseldon, Isendon and in the 16th century Hisselton), a northern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
But this general unity became official, and expressed itself in organization, only with the rise of the conciliar and metropolitan systems. Already before the end of the and century local synods were held in Asia Minor to deal with Montanism, and in the 3rd century provincial synods became common, and by the council of Nicaea (canon 5) it was decreed that they should be held twice every year in every province.
Another organized expression of the unity of the Church was found in the metropolitan system, or the grouping of the churches of a province under a single head, who was usually the bishop of the capital city, and was known as the metropolitan bishop. The Church thus followed in its organization the political divisions of the Empire (cf.
for instance canon 12 of the council of Chalcedon, which forbids more than one metropolitan see in a province; also canon 17 of the same council: " And if any city has been or shall hereafter be newly erected by imperial authority, let the arrangement of ecclesiastical parishes follow the political and municipal forms ").
Meanwhile the tendency which gave rise to the metropolitan system resulted in the grouping together of the churches of a number of contiguous provinces under the headship of the bishop of the most important city of the district, as, for instance, Antioch, Ephesus, Alexandria, Rome, Milan, Carthage, Arles.
Furthermore, the organization of ecclesiastical offices remained unchanged: the division of the Church into bishoprics and the grouping together of bishoprics into metropolitan dioceses.
On the contrary, Rome itself was now for the first time affected by the predominance of the new empire; for Charlemagne converted the patriciate into effective sovereignty, and the successor of St Peter became the chief metropolitan of the Frankish empire.
The essential part of this was that the Empire accepted the canonical election of bishops, and allowed the metropolitan to confer the sacred office by gift of ring and pastoral staff; while the Church acknowledged that the bishop held his temporal rights from the Empire, and was therefore to be invested with them by a touch from the royal sceptre.
He appears to have attracted the notice of the Frankish king, through whose influence in 798 Salzburg was made the seat of an archbishopric; and Arno, as the first holder of this office, became metropolitan of Bavaria and received the pallium from Pope Leo III.
Subsequently he elevated Gnesen into the metropolitan see of Poland, with jurisdiction over the bishoprics of Cracow, Breslau and Kolberg, all three of these new sees, it is important to notice, being in territory conquered by Boleslaus; for hitherto both Cracow and Breslau had been Bohemian cities,-while Kolberg was founded to curb the lately subjugated Pomeranians.
As early as the 11th century Kruschwitz, Growth the old Polish capital, and Gnesen, the metropolitan of the see, were of considerable importance, and played a Towns.
The foundation of the monastery is ascribed to two saints of the 11th century - Anthony and Hilarion, the latter metropolitan of Kiev.
Army Corps, and of a metropolitan of the Orthodox Greek Church.
From Frumentius to the present day, with one break, the Metropolitan (Abuna) has always been appointed from Egypt, and, oddly enough, he is always a foreigner.
is Keney Park (680 acres), the gift of Henry Keney, and, next to the Metropolitan Reservations near Boston, the largest park in the New England states.
The principle of unity of authority was set aside by the second republic in 1848, when many of the public services were attached to the corresponding ministries in Paris, and the departments organized on the metropolitan model by division into arrondissements and communes and by placing a prefect at their head.
A conspiracy against him of all the other great boyars and the metropolitan Dionysy, which sought to break Boris' power by divorcing the tsar from Godunov's childless sister, only ended in the banishment or tonsuring of the malcontents.
It was during his government that the Muscovite church received its patriarchate, which placed it on an equality with the other Eastern churches and emancipated it from the influence of the metropolitan of Kiev.
In 1824, however, Prince Galitzin ceased to be procurator of the Holy Synod, and Seraphim, metropolitan of St Petersburg, became president of the Russian Bible Society.
Peter Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev, drew up in 1643 the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.
(1839), each in his day metropolitan of Moscow, are bulky compilations which cannot be memorized, though there is a short introductory catechism prefaced to Philaret's volume (Eng.
Melbourne has a complete tramway system; all the chief suburbs are connected with the city by cable trams. The tramways are controlled by a trust, representing twelve of the metropolitan municipalities.
The Dublin metropolitan police is a force peculiar to the city, the remainder of Ireland being protected civilly by the Royal Irish Constabulary.
The town, which for long was a mere village, owed its origin to the founding of a large Benedictine monastery, with its church, the seat of the metropolitan archbishop of Sicily.'
This, the greatest of all the monuments of the wealth and artistic taste of the Norman kings in northern Sicily, was begun about 1170 by William II., and in 1182 the church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, was, by a bull of Pope Lucius III., elevated to the rank of a metropolitan cathedral.
The first session at Florence and the seventeenth of the union council took place on the 26th of February 1439; there ensued long debates and negotiations on the filioque, in which Markos Eugenikos, archbishop of Ephesus, spoke for the irreconcilables; but the Greeks under the leadership of Bessarion, archbishop of Nicaea, and Isidor, metropolitan of Kiev, at length made a declaration on the filioque (4th of June), to which all save Markos Eugenikos subscribed.
The town contains also a Byzantine castle, built on the lofty site of the ancient citadel; a palace belonging to the Greek metropolitan; a number of mosques, synagogues and churches, the most remarkable being the church of the Virgin of Consolation, founded in 819.
In colonies which have parliamentary representation the crown cannot give to a metropolitan bishop jurisdiction or coercive legal authority over suffragan bishops or over any other person.
KENSINGTON, a western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.E.
It is a residential and manufacturing suburb of Boston, of which, industrially, it forms a part; it is included in the metropolitan water, sewer and park districts, and in the Boston postal district.
Under Emmanuel Philibert it became the usual residence of the ducal family, and in 1515 the bishopric was raised to metropolitan rank by Leo X.
Although a metropolitan see, Rio has no cathedral, the old imperial chapel facing the Praca 15 de Novembro being used for that purpose.
On Dartford Heath is a lunatic asylum of the London County Council, and, at Long Reach, the infectious diseases hospital of the Metropolitan Asylums Board.
HAMPSTEAD, a north-western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
An act of parliament transferred the ownership to the Metropolitan Board of Works, to which body the London County Council succeeded.
The principal achievements of the long session of 1902 (which extended to the autumn) were the passing of the Education Act, - entirely reorganizing the system of primary education, abolishing the school boards and making the county councils the local authority; new rules of procedure; and the creation of the Metropolitan Water Board; and on all these questions, and particularly the two first, Mr Balfour's powers as a debater were brilliantly exhibited.
London Methodism owes more than can be told to the Metropolitan Chapel Building Fund which was founded in 1861.
The work of the Metropolitan Chapel Building Fund and the London Mission is taken over by this new committee.
In Spain was produced a fairly strong itself, as it had done in the East, around the religious centralization around the Visigothic king and the metropolitan of Toledo.
In Gaul there was no chief metropolitan; but the king's court became, even sooner than that of Spain, the centre of episcopal affairs.
All of them, even down to the metropolitan sees of Milan and Aquileia, practised a certain degree of autonomy, and in the 6th century this developed into what is called the Schism of the Three Chapters.
of Lorraine, against that prince and his brother, the emperor Louis II.; and he combated Hincmar, the powerful metropolitan of Reims. It was in the course of this last dispute that the False Decretals found their way to Rome.
Practical Save in its own metropolitan province, it took no Applica- part in the nomination of bishops; the provincial tions of the or regional councils were held without its authori- Theory, zation; their judgments and regulations were carried out without any suggestion that they should be ratified by Rome.
To avoid the possibility of metropolitan domination provision is made that no city or county shall be entitled to more than one-sixth of the total number of senators.
All the Armenian bishops attended, as also the metropolitan of Urhha (Edessa), Jacobite bishops of Gartman, of Nfrkert, Amasia, by command of the archbishop of Antioch.
(1782-1830); residences for the archimandrite and the vladika or metropolitan of Cettigne; a palace built in 1863, which accommodates the ministries; the court of appeal, and a school modelled on the gymnasia of Germany and Austria; the newer palaces of the prince and his heir; foreign legations; barracks; a seminary for priests and teachers, established by the tsar Alexander II.
Laodicea was the seat of an ancient bishopric, and even had some claim to metropolitan rights.
Czernowitz is a clean, pleasant town of recent date, and is the seat of the Greek Orthodox archbishop or metropolitan of Bukovina.
The province of South Africa has ten dioceses, the bishop of Cape Town being metropolitan.
DEPTFORD, a south-eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
If a bishopric becomes vacant after a lapse has accrued to it, it goes to the metropolitan; but in case of a vacancy of a benefice during the vacancy of the see the crown presents.
The streets of Winchester are heavily shaded, the view as presented from the neighbouring hills being that of a continuous forest stretching from the beautiful Mystic Valley parkway (of the Metropolitan park system), of which more than one-half (50.2 acres) is in the southern part of the township, to the Middlesex Fells Reservation (another Metropolitan park), of which 261.9 acres are in the eastern part; and there are a large public playground and a common.
The most important ecclesiastical event of the reign was the elevation of the Bulgarian, Gregory Tsamblak, to the metropolitan see of Kiev (1425) by Vitovt, grand-duke of Lithuania; the immediate political consequence of which was the weakening of the hold of Muscovy on the south-western Russian states.
It stands on the site of a cathedral begun about the beginning of the 9th century by Hildebold, metropolitan of Cologne, and finished under Willibert in 873.
It was made the metropolitan see for the bishoprics of the Lower Rhine and part of Westphalia by Charlemagne, the first archbishop being Hildebold, who occupied the see from 785 to his death in 819.
The population of the metropolitan area in 1901 was 119,907; of the city proper, 28, 953; of South Brisbane, 25,481.
PETER MOGILA (c. 1596-1647), metropolitan of Kiev from 1632, belonged to a noble Wallachian family.
LAMBETH, a southern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.W.
386-395) Pessinus was made the capital of Galatia Secunda or Salutaris, and it became a metropolitan bishopric. After the 16th century it disappears from history, being supplanted, from the beginning of the period of Saracen invasion, by the impregnable fortress Justinianopolis (Sivri-Hissar), which became the capital and the residence of the bishop, thenceforward called "archbishop of Pessinus or of Justinianopolis."
Tradition makes its first foundation contemporary with St Lawrence himself; and a document of 987 implies that it was even then the metropolitan church.
The temple at Syracuse, which is now the metropolitan church, belongs to the earlier days of this time.
The water supply of Melrose, like that of Stoneham and of Medford, is derived from the metropolitan reservoir called Spot Pond in Stoneham, immediately west of Melrose.
Two great railway bridges across the Missouri, many smaller bridges across the Kansas, and a great interstate toll viaduct extending from bluff to bluff across the valley of the latter river, lie within the metropolitan area of the two cities.
The street-railway service is based on a universal 5-cent transfer throughout the metropolitan area.
Of the four exemplars of Othman's Koran, one was kept in Medina, and one was sent to each of the three metropolitan cities, Kufa, Basra, and Damascus.
The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively.
Similar action was taken in 1858, when Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of New Zealand; and again in 1860, when, on the petition of the Canadian bishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent were issued appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office.
In some cases, as South Africa,New South Wales,and Queensland,the metropolitan see is fixed.
Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, where no single city can claim pre-eminence, the metropolitan is either elected or else is the senior bishop by consecration.
It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.
Civil obstacles have hitherto delayed its adoption by the metropolitan of India.
In 1865 it adjudged Bishop Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to be powerless to enable him "to exercise any coercive jurisdiction, or hold any court or tribunal for that purpose," since the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions when they were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colenso was declared to be "null and void in law" (re The Bishop of Natal).
With the exception of Colenso the South African bishops forthwith surrendered their patents,and formally accepted Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in 1865 in the province of New Zealand.
In the latter case there is no legal subdivision of the older diocese, the new bishop administering such districts as belonged to it under commission from its bishop, provision being made, however, that in all matters ecclesiastical there shall be no appeal but to the metropolitan of India.
This, however, has not been done in all cases; and as late as 1890 it was taken by the metropolitan of Sydney at his consecration.
DULWICH, a district in the metropolitan borough of Camberwell, London, England.
The organization of the Christian church in the Roman empire following very closely the lines of the civil administration (see Church History), the word diocese, in its ecclesiastical sense, was at first applied to the sphere of jurisdiction, not of a bishop, but of a metropolitan.'
In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status.
The twenty-five canons adopted regulate the so-called metropolitan constitution of the church.
Ecclesiastical power is vested chiefly in the metropolitan (later called archbishop), and the semi-annual provincial synod (cf.
The chancellor, Pierre Flotte, charged him with high treason, and he was placed in the keeping of the archbishop of Narbonne, his metropolitan.
Moreover, in writing to Innocent, bishop of Rome, he addresses him as a brother metropolitan, and sends the same letter to Venerius, bishop of Milan, and Chromatius, bishop of Aquileia.
Holm, a Danish traveller, had made an exact replica of the tablet, which in 1908 was deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
FINSBURY, a central metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
Nearly 70% of the population belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, and stand under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the archbishop or metropolitan of Czernowitz.
The Sokotri appear to have remained Nestorian Christians, with a bishop under the metropolitan of Persia, through the middle ages, though there are indications pointing to a connexion with the Jacobite church.
Akyab was the metropolitan province of the native kingdom of Arakan, and the history of that country centres in it.
The adjoining residential districts are Harlesden on the south, Kilburn and Brondesbury on the east, Cricklewood and Neasden (with the works of the Metropolitan railway) on the north.
He died on his way home from the Horde, and in the words of his contemporary, the metropolitan Cyril, "with him the sun of Russia set."
VAUXHALL, a district on the south bank of the river Thames, in London, England, included in the metropolitan borough of Lambeth.
TIENTSIN, the largest commercial city in Chih-li, the metropolitan province of China.
He vigorously opposed the action of Bishop Welldon, then metropolitan of Calcutta, in excluding Scottish chaplains and troops from the use of garrison churches in India because these had received episcopal consecration.
CAMBERWELL, a southern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
It has long been the seat of a Greek metropolitan and since 1870 of a Bulgarian bishop.
Writers are fond of viewing him as representing all the degrees of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; they say that he is bishop of Rome, metropolitan of the of Roman province, primate of Italy, patriarch of the western Church and head of the universal Church.
6 of Nicaea, in 325), we see that the popes exercised a special metropolitan jurisdiction not only over the bishops nearest to Rome, the future cardinal bishops, but also over all those of central and southern Italy, including Sicily (cf.
FULHAM, a western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.W.
About the year 728 six Jacobite bishops present at the council of Manazgert established communion with the Armenians, who equally rejected Chalcedon; they were sent by the patriarch of Antioch, and among them were the metropolitan of Urha (Edessa) and the bishops of Qarha,n, Gardman, Nferkert and Amasia.
SPITALFIELDS, a district of London, England, in the western part of the metropolitan borough of Stepney.
On the death of Cardinal McCloskey in 1885 Archbishop Corrigan became metropolitan of the diocese of New York.
William of Malmesbury gives a letter to Justus of the year 625, in which Canterbury is constituted the metropolitan see of Britain for ever.
- This numbers about 1,000,000 adherents and has its own organization under the metropolitan of Fogarasch or Alba Julia, with ` three suffragan sees: Lugos, GrossWardein and Szamos-Uvjar.
In the following year Baltimore found itself the first metropolitan see of the United States, with New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Bardstown as suffragans.
Thus each province or body of bishops under a metropolitan holds provincial councils, while at greater intervals a plenary or national council is held.
12 in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, remains the largest series of Cypriote antiquities in the world, the accounts which have been given of its origin are so inadequate, and have provoked so much controversy, 13 that its scientific value is small, and a large part of subsequent excavation has necessarily been directed to solving the problems suggested by its practically isolated specimens.
Antiquities in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (3 vols., Boston, U.S.A., 1884-1886); M.
This enthusiastic priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years1199-1203paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of Pope Innocent III.
It was a metropolitan see of the Chaldean Christians.
For the most part they are linked together according to geographical distribution in associations, such as the "Metropolitan Association of Strict Baptist Churches," and the "Suffolk and Norfolk Association of Particular Baptist Churches."
The Pastors' College in connexion with the Metropolitan Tabernacle was instituted in 1856, and in 1866 the present Baptist College at Manchester was instituted at Bury in the interests of the "Strict" Baptist views.
This dignity was intermediate between the patriarchal and the metropolitan, the name patriarch being restricted after A.D.
The formation of the metropolitan police was in due course followed by the extension of the principle to the provinces.
Ireland has two police forces; the Dublin metropolitan police originated in 1808, and in 1829 the provisions of Sir Robert Peel's act for London were embodied in the Police Law for Ireland.
The extent to which the metropolitan police has developed will best be realized by contrasting its numbers on first creation and the nature of the duties and functions that then appertained to it.
The first act (the Metropolitan Police Act 1829) applied to the metropolis, exclusive of the city of London, and constituted a police area having a radius of 12 m.
This grade has since been merged in that of chief constable, of whom there are four exercising powers of disciplinary supervision in the metropolitan districts, and a fifth who is assistant in the branch of criminal investigation.
After various parliamentary reports and some legislation by way of extension, an important act was passed in 1839 reciting that the system of police established had been found very inefficient and might be yet further improved (Metropolitan Police Act 1839).
The metropolitan police district was extended to 15 m.
The whole of the river Thames (which, in its course through London, so far as related to police matters, had been managed under distinct acts) was brought within it, and the collateral but not exclusive powers of the metropolitan police were extended to the royal palaces and 10 m.
When the police was put on a more complete footing and the area enlarged, provision was made for the more effectual administration of justice by the magistrates of the metropolis (Metropolitan Police Courts Act 1839).
police offices not interfered with by the Act of 1828 should be incorporated with the metropolitan police force.
The strength of the metropolitan police in 1908 was 18,167, comprising 32 superintendents, 572 inspectors, 2378 sergeants and 15,185 constables.
At the head is a commissioner, appointed by the home office; he is assisted by four assistant commissioners, one of whom was appointed under the Police Act 1909, in accordance with the recommendation of the Royal Commission on the Metropolitan Police 1906, his duty especially being to deal with complaints made by the public against the police.
The metropolitan police are divided into 21 divisions, to which letters of the alphabet are assigned for purposes of distinction.
To the metropolitan police also are assigned the control and guardianship of the various naval dockyards and arsenals.
In Ireland the Royal Irish Constabulary are a semi-military force, numbering over Io,50o; they police the whole of Ireland, except the city of Dublin, which is under the Dublin metropolitan police, a particularly fine body.
Nor does the text imply that he gave to the suburbican churches a privilege hitherto exercised by the metropolitan church.
The metropolitan is the archbishop of Cape Town.
His strong championship of the independence of the Scottish church involved him in struggles with both the English metropolitan sees.
Amongst them may be mentioned a history of the dispute with Palamas; biographies of his uncle and early instructor John, metropolitan of Heraclea, and of the martyr Codratus of Antioch; funeral orations for Theodore Metochita, and the two emperors Andronicus; commentaries on the wanderings of Odysseus and on Synesius's treatise on dreams; tracts on orthography and on words of doubtful meaning; a philosophical dialogue called Florentius or Concerning Wisdom; astronomical treatises on the date of Easter and the preparation of the astrolabe; and an extensive correspondence.
The crown, having made choice of one of such persons, is empowered to present him by letters patent under the great seal to the metropolitan, requiring him to consecrate him to the same name, title, style and dignity of a bishop; and the person so consecrated is thereupon entitled to exercise, under a commission from the bishop who has nominated him, such authority and jurisdiction, within the diocese of such bishop, as shall be given to him by the commission, and no other.
Still farther away, on a triangular plot of land enclosed by the two arms of the Spree and the metropolitan railway, stands the Kaiser Friedrich museum (1904).
WANDSWORTH, a south-western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
Wandsworth is the largest in area of the metropolitan boroughs, including the districts of Putney by the river, part of Clapham in the north-east, Streatham in the south-east, Balham and Upper and Lower Tooting in the centre and south.
It is based, of course, on the great body of bishops; but episcopal rule, through the various grades of metropolitan, primate, exarch, attains to sovereignty only in the five patriarchal thrones.
They are under the jurisdiction of the metropolitan; a few of the most important deal direct with the patriarch and are called Stauropegia.
In the time of the first crusade 153 still survived; now there are scarcely 20, 14 of which are metropolitan sees.
In the earlier period of the church, ecclesiastical followed civil divisions so closely that Jerusalem, in spite of the sacred associations connected with it, was merely an ordinary bishopric dependent on the metropolitan of Caesarea.
- After the suppression of the Church of Ipek in 1766 Servia became ecclesiastically subject to Constantinople; but in 1830 the sultan permitted the Serbs to elect a patriarch (as a matter of fact he is merely styled metropolitan), subject to the confirmation of the patriarch of Constantinople.
On the union of the two principalities under Alexander Couza (December 1861) the Church was declared autocephalous under a metropolitan at Bucharest; and the fact was recognized by the patriarchs, as it was in the case of Servia, after the treaty of Berlin had guaranteed their independence.
The Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary, which, however, really consists of four independent sections: the Servians of Hungary and Croatia, under the patriarch of Karlowitz; the Rumanians of Transylvania, under the archbishop of Hermannstadt; the Ruthenians of Bukovina, under the metropolitan of Czernowitz; and the Serbs of Bosnia-Herzogovina, where there are four sees, that of Sarajevo holding the primacy.
The metropolitan, who was subject to the patriarch of Constantinople, resided at Kiev on the Dnieper.
In 1582 Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, raised Job, 46th metropolitan, to the patriarchal dignity; and the act was afterwards confirmed by a general council of the East.
Whilst the parochial clergy are still as unlearned as ever, there are not a few amongst the higher clergy who are distinguished for their learning beyond the limits of their own communion: for example, the metropolitan Ph.
On the other hand, the attempt made in 1901 by the Holy Synod at Athens, with the co-operation of Queen Olga of Greece (a Russian princess), to circulate a modern Greek version of the Gospels was resented as a symptom of a Pan-Slavist conspiracy, and led to an ebullition of popular feeling which could only be pacified by the withdrawal of the obnoxious version and the abdication of the metropolitan of Athens.
If, as seemed likely in 1910, in addition to the Russian and Syrian bishops, Greek and Servian ones were appointed, an independent synod could be formed, and the bishops could elect their own metropolitan.
He is elected by the lower house, subject to the approval of the metropolitan.
CHELSEA, a western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
HAMMERSMITH, a western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded E.
The principle adopted in distributing the representation is that of equal electoral districts, modified in practice by a preference given to the distant and rural constituencies at the cost of the metropolitan electorates.
The then Premier, Mr Reid, was rather lukewarm, as he considered that the free-trade policy of New South Wales would be overridden by its protectionist neighbours and its metropolitan position Attitude interfered with.
Retford, thence serving Grimsby and Hull, with branches to Lincoln, &c. The main line reached from London by joining the line of the Metropolitan railway near Aylesbury and following it to Harrow.
There is no county, however, in which the single crop of wheat or barley stands pre-eminently above others, and in the case of the upland counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Derbyshire, the metropolitan county of Middlesex, and Monmouthshire, these crops are quite insignificant.
The Metropolis Management Act of 1855 established (outside the city) two classes of parishes - the first class with vestries of their own, the second class grouped under district boards elected by the component vestries; and the Metropolitan Board of Works (abolished in 1888), elected by the vestries and the district boards, was made the central authority.
In 1867 the Metropolitan Asylums Board took over its work from the metropolitan boards of guardians.
Three years afterwards Platon was appointed archimandrite of the monastery of the Trinity (Troitskaya Lavra) near Moscow, in 1770 archbishop of Tver, and in 1787 archbishop of Moscow and metropolitan.
The dean and chapter are thereupon bound to elect the person so named by the crown within twelve days, in default of which the crown is empowered by the statute to nominate by letters patent such person as it may think fit, to the vacant bishopric. Upon the return of the election of the new bishop, the metropolitan is required by the crown to examine and to confirm the election, and the metropolitan's confirmation gives to the election its canonical completeness.
In case of a vacancy in a metropolitical see, an episcopal commission is appointed by the guardians of the spiritualities of the vacant see to confirm the election of the new metropolitan.
One of the first cares of the new prelate was the restitution to his metropolitan see of the domains that had been alienated under Ebbo and given as benefices to laymen.
He took an active part in all the great political and religious affairs of his time, and was especially energetic in defending and extending the rights of the church and of the metropolitans in general, and of the metropolitan of the church of Reims in particular.
Hincmar of Laon refused to recognize the authority of his metropolitan, and entered into an open struggle with his uncle, who exposed his errors in a treatise called Opusculum capitulorum, and procured his condemnation and deposition at the synod of Douzy (871).
First, in the teeth of opposition from the metropolitan teacher, while yet only twenty-two, he proceeded to set up a school of his own at Melun, whence, for more direct competition, he removed to Corbeil, nearer Paris.
of London; served by the Great Central, Metropolitan and Great Western railways (which use a common station) and by a branch of the London & North-Western railway.
A rifle range for the Metropolitan Volunteers and others was opened in 1892.
SHOREDITCH, an eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.W.
His collection of paintings and sculpture, much of which had long been loaned to the Metropolitan Museum, was sold in January 1886.
CLERKENWELL, a district on the north side of the city of London, England, within the metropolitan borough of Finsbury.
The metropolitan archbishop of Bucharest, officially styled metropolitan primate of Rumania, presides over the Holy Synod; the other members being the metropolitan of Jassy (primate of Moldavia), the six bishops of Ramnicu Valcea, Roman, Hushi, Buzeu, Curtea de Argesh and the Lower Danube (Galatz); together with eight bishops in partibus, their coadjutors.
In Hungary there are a uniate metropolitan and three bishops belonging to the Rumanian church.
The high court of justice was formed by the prince, metropolitan and boiars: the Boiari de Svatu decided on the verdict; the metropolitan declared the law; and the prince pronounced sentence.
In 1808 they formed a governing committee consisting of the metropolitan, another bishop, and four or five boiars under the presidency of General Kusnikov.
In 181 o Ignatius, the metropolitan of Walachia, " founded a Greek literary society in Bucharest which 1st" soon developed into a political association, and many similar bodies were formed throughout the Greek world, and finally united into one powerful secret society, the Hetairia.
The head of the Orthodox Church, the metropolitan Gennadius, had for some years past, as head of the philanthropic establishments founded by the princess Brancovan, desired to obtain the entire management of these wealthy foundations, and had made violent attacks on the two administrators, Prince George Bibescu and Prince Stirbei, both members of the Brancovan family.
Aurelian then appealed to the patriotic sentiments of the Conservative party to help to solve the difficulty, and with the aid of Lascar Catargiu and Tache Ionescu the following decision was reached: the Holy Synod was to reverse its judgment, and the metropolitan was to be restored to his ecclesiastical rank; but, after holding it for a few days, he was voluntarily to resign and to receive as compensation a handsome pension.
A Slavonic original sent by the metropolitan Serafim of Walachia served as the basis for a second collection of homilies known as Evangelie inv¢(dtoare (1580 It differs from the former in language and tendency and proves that Koresi was only a translator and printer.
Of special interest is the next publication of homilies Cheea inielesului, " the Key of understanding," by the Walachian metropolitan Varlaam, translated from the Russian and printed at Bucharest in 1678.
The only collection of original sermons is the Didahii delivered by the metropolitan Anthim the Iberian (q.v.), the scholar, artist, translator, printer and great linguist, who was the first to issue books in Arabic and even in Georgian from his printing-presses in Bucharest.
Passing over the numerous editions of the Akathist and Katavasiar, some partly in Rumanian, we may mention the Ceasoslov (Book of Hours), said to have been printed for the first time in Transylvania in 1696, but certainly printed or reprinted by the metropolitan Anthim (Tirgovishtea, 1715).
An addition to this Chronicle from the time of the Roman Conquest to Attila is ascribed to Tudosie Vestemianul, twice metropolitan of Walachia (1669-73, 1677-1703).
Such are the Ceasoslov, revised by Bishop Kliment of Ramnicu Valcea (1745), the Evhologion (1764), the Katavasiar (1753), The monumental publication of the Mineiu, in 12 folio volumes, by Bishops Kesarie and Filaret of Ramnicu Valcea (1776-80), is equal in im portance if it be not superior to the no less monumental publication of the Lives of Saints, also in 12 huge folio volumes, published under the direction and with the assistance of the metropolitan Veniamin of Moldavia.
In Transylvania, with the conversion to Greek-Catholicism of Bishop Athanasius in 1701, the Greek Orthodox had to place themselves down to 1850 under the protection of the Servian metropolitan of Karlovatz.
The metropolitan primacy of St Louis and Kansas City is reflected in the general organization of the courts.
STEPNEY, an eastern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.
The archbishop of Corinth girded him with a sword which had lain upon the Holy Sepulchre, and the metropolitan of Kiev absolved him from all his sins, without the usual preliminary of confession, before he rode forth to battle.
of London by the Metropolitan & Great Central joint railway; served also by a branch of the London & North Western railway from Watford.
Fowler was engineer of the London Metropolitan railway, the pioneer of underground railways, and noteworthy in that it was mostly made not by tunnelling, but by excavating from the surface and then covering in the permanent way; and he lived to be one of the engineers officially connected with the deep tunnelling "tube" system extensively adopted for electric railways in London.
Silistria was the Durostorum of the Romans (Bulgarian Drstr); the ancient name remains in the title of the archbishop, who is styled metropolitan of Dorostol, and whose diocese is now united with that of Tcherven (Rustchuk).
Silistria flourished under Ottoman rule; Hajji Khalifa describes it as the most important of all the Danubian towns; a Greek metropolitan was installed here with five bishops under his control and a settlement of Ragusan merchants kept alive its commercial interests.
Bishops are elected by the clergy with the assent of lay representatives, subject to the confirmation of the metropolitan and comprovincial bishops.
The metropolitan is to be consecrated in England by the archbishop of Canterbury.
The servitia communia are traceable to the oblatio paid to the pope when consecrating bishops as metropolitan or patriarch.
Of Saracen works actually belonging to the time of Saracen occupation there are no whole buildings remaining, but many inscriptions and a good many columns, often inscribed with passages from the Koran, which have been used up again in later buildings, specially in the porch of the metropolitan church.
The greatest example of this is the neighbouring metropolitan church of Monreale; more closely connected with Palermo is the church of San Spirito, outside the city on the south side, the scene of the Vespers.
Five years later there arrived from Rome the great organizer, Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus, who bound the hitherto isolated churches of the English kingdoms into a well-compacted whole, wherein the tribal bishops paid obedience to the metropolitan at Canterbury, and met him frequently in national councils and synods.
In the year 1892 the largest existing gasholder was built at the East Greenwich works of the South Metropolitan Gas Company; it has six lifts, its diameter is 293 ft., and when filled with gas stands 180 ft.
Some allowance, too, must be made for the probability that Hamza's system owed something to doctrines Christian and other, with which the metropolitan position of Cairo brought Fatimite society into contact.
But Hubert Walter, the archbishop of Canterbury, was determined to have in that position no Welshman who would dispute the metropolitan pretensions of the English primates.
The successful issue of the Moscow riots was the occasion of disquieting disturbances all over the tsardom culminating in dangerous rebellions at Pskov and Great Novgorod, with which the government was so unable to cope that they surrendered, practically granting the malcontents their own terms. One man only had displayed equal tact and courage at Great Novgorod, the metropolitan Nikon, who in consequence became in 1651 the tsar's chief minister.
It is the see of an Orthodox metropolitan, and the inhabitants, of whom two-thirds are Albanian and the remainder principally Greek, are equally divided in religion between Christianity and Islam.
COURT OF ARCHES, the English ecclesiastical court of appeal of the archbishop of Canterbury, as metropolitan of the province of Canterbury, from all the consistory and commissary courts in the province.
Originally, the official principal exercised metropolitan jurisdiction, while the dean of the Arches exercised the "peculiar" jurisdiction.
They belonged to the metropolitan see of Bremen, then to Lund, lastly to Nidaros, 1237.
whose president, elected by the members from among themselves, has the style, not the functions, of a metropolitan, being called primus: The legislature is the provincial synod, consisting of the bishops, at whose discretion it is summoned, and a lower chamber of presbyters.
It is subject, as a whole, to the ministry of education; for internal administration its governing body is a synod of five prelates, presided over by the archbishop of Belgrade, who is also the metropolitan of Servia.
Proculus, the metropolitan of Marseilles, and the metropolitans of Vienne and Narbonensis Secunda were also followers of the rigorous tradition for which Priscillian had died.
2 At a somewhat later date he wrote to Arcadius of Cyprus, commanding that "two energies" should not be spoken of; and in 626, while in Lazistan (Colchis), he had a meeting with the metropolitan, Cyrus of Phasis, during which this command was discussed, and Cyrus was at last bidden to seek further instruction on the subject from Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, a strong upholder of the pia EvEp-yECa, and the emperor's counsellor with regard to it.
Dublin has a separate metropolitan police force.
He also organized the already existing Christian communities, and with this in view founded a church at Armagh as his metropolitan see (444) It is further due to him that Ireland became linked up with Rome and the Christian countries of the Western church, and that in consequence Latin was introduced as the language of the church.
It is probable that St Patrick established Armagh as a metropolitan see, but the history of the primacy, which during a long period can only have been a shadow, is involved in obscurity.
He showed great sagacity in receiving the fugitive Adalbert, bishop of Prague, and when the saint suffered martyrdom at the hands of the pagan Sla y s (April 2 3, 997), Boleslaus purchased his relics and solemnly laid them in the church of Gnesen, founded by his father, which now became the metropolitan see of Poland.
of St Paul's Cathedral, London, on the river Colne, and on branches of the Great Western and Metropolitan railways.
Other prominent buildings are the Masonic Temple, the Chamber of Commerce, the Lumber Exchange, the Bank of Commerce, the Auditorium; the buildings of the Metropolitan Life (formerly the Guaranty), the Security Bank, the Northwestern National Bank, the First National Bank, the Andrus, the New York Life, and the Young Men's Christian Association; Hotel Radisson and West Hotel.
It had been customary for the Numidian bishops to be present at the election and consecration of the bishop of Carthage, who as metropolitan of proconsular Africa occupied a position of primacy towards all the African provinces.
Nominoe hastened to depose the four Frankish bishops, after wringing from them by force confessions of simony; he then established a metropolitan see at Dol.
Hence arose incessant complaints on the part of the dispossessed bishops, of the metropolitan of Tours, and his suffragans, notably those of Angers and Le Mans, which were more exposed than the others to the incursions of the Bretons; and this gave rise to numerous papal letters, and all this throughout a period of thirty years.
From 1152 to 1154 Nicholas was in Scandinavia as legate, organizing the affairs of the new Norwegian archbishopric of Trondhjern, and making arrangements which resulted in the recognition of Upsala as seat of the Swedish metropolitan in 1164.
The bishops of Smyrna were originally subject to the metropolitan of Ephesus; afterwards they became independent (ai ro?
In Newton Upper Falls, Echo Bridge (of the Boston Aqueduct) crosses the Charles near the falls in Hemlock Gorge Reservation of the Metropolitan Park system.
The city of Newton is primarily a residential suburb of Boston; along the Charles is a part (191.12 acres) of the Charles River Reservation of the Metropolitan Park system, and the city has several attractive public parks, including Norumbega Park, on the banks of the river, with a large open-air theatre; boating, especially canoeing, on the river is very popular.