Methyl Sentence Examples
Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH 3) 3 are obtained.
By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, it yields the isomeric a0- pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which with methyl iodide gives a substance methylated both in the pyridine and pyrrol nuclei.
By distillation over lime, the methyl group is removed from the pyridine ring, and the resulting a- pyridyl-Nmethylpyrrol gives i-nicotine on reduction.
It is the methyl ester of a neutral body colchicein, which may be obtained in white acicular crystals.Advertisement
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.
From similar investigations of valerianic acid he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c., combined with the double carbon equivalent C2.
Henry started with methyl iodide, the formula of which we write in the form CI a H b H c H d.
The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.Advertisement
This compound may be considered as derived from methane, CH 4, by replacing a hydrogen atom by the monovalent group CH 3, known as methyl; hence ethane may be named " methylmethane."
By introducing a methyl group we may obtain CH 3.
Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.
In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
Referring to the esters C9H1802 previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boilingpoints belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least symmetrical, while the minimum belongs to amyl butyrate, the most symmetrical.Advertisement
The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.
To Jaeger is due the determination of the topic parameters of certain haloid-derivatives, and, while showing that the morphotropic effects closely resemble those occasioned by methyl, he established the important fact that, in general, the crystal form depended upon the orientation of the substituents in the benzene complex.
The hydroxyl group also resembles the methyl group in its morphotropic effects, producing, in many cases, no change in symmetry but a dimensional increase in one direction.
By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.
If an aqueous solution of methyl acetate be allowed to stand, a slow decomposition goes on.Advertisement
The reaction is a general one for all aldehydes with zinc methyl and zinc ethyl, but not with the higher zinc alkyls.
Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.
It is also produced by the action of sodium on a mixture of epichlorhydrin and methyl iodide, C 3 H S OC1+CH 3 I+2Na= C 3 H 4 0+NaI+NaC1+CH 4.
When methyl iodide is used, nitromethane is the sole product, but the higher homologues give more or less of the isomeric nitrous esters.
Fraser proved that by substitution of molecules in certain compounds a stimulant could be converted into a sedative action; thus by the addition of the methyl group CH 2 to the molecule of strychnine, thebaine or brucine, the tetanizing action of these drugs is converted into a paralysing action.Advertisement
Dumas obtained barium methyl carbonate by the action of carbon dioxide on baryta dissolved in methyl alcohol (Ann., 1840, 35, p. 283).
Rhamnose or isodulcite, a component of certain glucosides, fucose, found combined in seaweeds and chinovose, present as its ethyl ester, chinovite, in varieties of quina-bark, are methyl pentoses.
Methyl and phenyl anthracenes are known; phenyl anthranol (phthalidin) being somewhat closely related to the phenolphthaleins.
Tetramethylammonium iodide, N(CH 3) 4 I, is the chief product obtained by the action of methyl iodide on ammonia (Hofmann).
On dry distillation it is resolved into trimethylamine and methyl alcohol.
Examples are water and methyl or ethyl alcohol.
Discovered by Boyle in 1661, it was first carefully studied by Dumas and Peligot in 1831; its synthesis from its elements (through methane and methyl chloride) was effected by Berthelot in 1858.
It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.
Methyl alcohol is also obtained in the dry distillation of molasses.
The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
Chemically it is the methyl ester of arecaidine.
Methyl and dimethylalloxans are also known, the former being obtained on oxidation of methyl uric acid, and the latter on oxidation of caffeine.
When the reaction is complete the acid is neutralized with soda, and the phenyl methyl pyrazolone extracted with ether and distilled in vacuo.
Methyl orange (helianthin, gold orange, Mandarin orange), (CH 3) 2 N C 6 H 4 N 2 C 6 H 4 SO 3 Na, is the sodium salt of paradimethylaminobenzene-azo-benzene sulphonic acid.
Methyl orange is used largely as an indicator.
The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.
Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).
The benzyl group shows this remarkably well, since we see that phenyl is present, as is also methyl.
Well-dried hydroxylamine hydrochloride is dissolved in methyl alcohol and mixed with sodium methylate; a solution of methyldichloramine in absolute ether is then added and an ethereal solution of diazomethane distils over.
Diazomethane converts it into the methyl derivatives of isocyanic acid, and nitramide, NH2N02.
Hyponitrous acid is formed by passing nitrous fumes into its methyl alcohol solution.
The ethers are neutral volatile liquids (the first member, methyl ether, is a gas at ordinary temperature).
Methyl ethyl ether, CH 3.0.
For diethyl ether see Ether, and for methyl phenyl ether (anisole) and ethyl phenyl ether (phenetole) see Carbolic Acid.
When mesitylene is used, the reaction does not proceed beyond the aldehyde stage since hydrocarbon formation is prevented by the presence of a methyl group in the ortho-position to the -CHO group. Acids and alkalis are in general without action on nickel carbonyl.
More volatile anaesthetics such as anestile or anaesthyl and coryl are produced by mixing with methyl chloride; a mixture of ethyl and methyl chlorides with ethyl bromide is known as somnoform.
Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid, CH3 CH(C02H)2, is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyanpropionic acid and by the action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester.
The alkaloids are therefore methyl truxillylecgonines.
Silver picrate and methyl iodide yield the methyl ester, which gives with ammonia picramide.
By distilling an alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand, trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH 3) 3 i is obtained; this combines with excess of methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH 3) 4 1.
On distilling trimethyl stibine with zinc methyl, antimony tetra-methyl and penta-methyl are formed.
A few drops of starch solution are then added, and when the blue colour has nearly vanished a drop or two of methyl orange makes the end reaction very sharp. The thiosulphate solution is standardized by dissolving o 3 to o 5 gramme of pure copper in 3 cc. of nitric acid, adding 50 cc. of water and 5 cc. of ammonia, and titrating as above after the addition of 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid and 5 cc. of the potassium iodide solution.
Narceine, C23H27N08, obtained by the action of potash on the methyl iodide of narcotine, is probably IV.
Crum Brown and Fraser of Edinburgh showed that, whilst thebaine acts like strychnine, methyl and ethyl thebaine act like curara, paralysing the terminals of motor nerves.
Pictet (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2117) obtained it by oxidizing nicotine methyl hydroxide with potassium permanganate.
With a methyl group, the chief product is an ortho-semidine, whilst with a carboxyl group, the diphenyl derivative is the chief product.
It results in the alkaline fusion of many resins, and may be prepared by fusing ortho-phenolsulphonic acid, o-chlorphenol, o-bromphenol, and o-phenoldisulphonic acid with potash, or, better, by heating its methyl ether, guaiacol, C 6 H 4 (OH) (OCH 3), a constituent of beechwood tar, with hydriodic acid.
The primary and secondary phosphines are colourless compounds, and with the exception of methyl phosphine are liquid at ordinary temperature.
With methyl and ethyl alcohols it forms secondary amines (Vidal, Comptes rendus, 1891, 112, p. 950; 1892, 115, p. 123).
Para-xylene is obtained when camphor is distilled with zinc chloride, but it is best prepared from para-brom-toluene or dibrombenzene, methyl iodide and sodium.
Canine is a secondary base, forming a nitroso derivative with nitrous acid, a urethane with chlorcarbonic ester and a tertiary base (methyl conine) with methyl iodide; reactions which point to the presence of the = NH group in the molecule.
Methyl conine, C 9 H 19 N or C8H14 N(CH3), is synthesized from conine and an aqueous solution of potassium methyl sulphate at
Decker (Ber., 9 5, 38, p. 1144) has found that many ortho substituted quinolines will not combine with methyl iodide owing to steric hindrance, but the difficulty can be overcome in most cases by using methyl sulphate and heating the reaction components to ioo C. for half an hour.
The d-form is found as a methyl ether in pirate (from the juice of Pinus lambertina, and of caoutchouc from Mateza roritina of Madagascar), from which it may be obtained by heating with hydriodic acid.
The /-form is also found as a methyl ether in quebrachite.
Pseudopelletierine (methyl granatonine), C9H15N0, an alkaloid of the pomegranate, is a derivative of cyclo-octane, and resembles tropine in that it contains a nitrogen bridge between two carbon atoms. It is an inactive base, and also has ketonic properties.
When reduced in alcoholic solution by means of sodium amalgam it yields methyl granatoline, 08H130H NCH3; this substance, on oxidation with cold potassium permanganate, is converted into granatoline, C 8 H, 5 NO, which on distillation over zinc dust yields pyridine.
Euler (Ber., 97, 30, 1989) by distilling the addition compound of methyl iodide and 2 3 5-trimethylpyrollidine with caustic potash.
Lobry de Bruyn from the hydrochloride, by dissolving it in absolute methyl alcohol and then adding sodium methylate.
The precipitated sodium chloride is filtered, and the solution of hydroxylamine distilled in order to remove methyl alcohol, and finally fractionated under reduced pressure.
Its derivatives and its relation to benzene had been previously studied by the above and other experimenters, its relation to benzene being first proved experimentally by Cannizzaro and its constitution settled by Fittig and Tollens's synthesis from sodium and a mixture of methyl iodide and brombenzene.
It may be obtained synthetically by Fittig and Tollens's method (above); by Friedel and Craft's process, devised in 1877, of acting with aluminium chloride on a mixture of benzene and methyl chloride; this reaction leads to the production of higher homologues which may, however, break down under the continued action of the aluminium chloride; or by heating the toluene carboxylic acids obtained by oxidizing the higher homologues of benzene.
By reacting with a zinc alkyl (methyl or ethyl) on an acid chloride, an addition compound is first formed, which decomposes with water to give a ketone.
It is interesting to note that, whereas zinc methyl and ethyl give tertiary alcohols, zinc propyl only gives secondary alcohols.
Many organic arsenic compounds are known, analogous to those of nitrogen and phosphorus, but apparently the primary and secondary arsines, AsH2CH3 and AsH(CH3)2, do not exist, although the corresponding chlorine derivatives, AsCl2CH3, methyl arsine chloride, and AsCl(CH3)2, dimethyl arsine chloride, are known.
AsCl4CH3, AsCl3(CH3)2, on heating break down, with separation of methyl chloride and formation of compounds of the type AsX3 the breaking down taking place more readily the fewer the number of methyl groups in the compound.
Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.
Solutions of about 10% ethyl or methyl alcohol added slowly to several drops of culture seem to work best.
In general a qualitatively similar effect is expected for toluene, and other methyl substituted aromatics.
If methyl benzene is reacted with chlorine in the presence of uv light, substitution takes place in the alkyl side chain.
Carbendazim, thiabendazole and thiophanate-methyl all belong to the group of chemicals called the methyl benzimidazole carbamates (MBC ).
Today the standard is methyl cellulose or some variation thereof.
For example, methyl chloroform is one of the many chlorinated hydrocarbons.
The old name for this would have been methyl cyanide.
Koch discovered that methyl violet dye showed up the septicaemia germ under a microscope by staining it.
The figure below shows the chemical process for methyl ester biodiesel.
Allowing ETBE to qualify for the federal tax subsidies reduces the growth of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether ), its main competitor.
The " lead " used in 4 star are organic compounds of lead - tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.
The constituents of the oil include geraniol, linalool, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol and methyl salicylate (Kariyone 1971 ).
Collect a sample of urine shortly after an attack for urinary methyl histamine, which will be excreted in the following hour.
It is now a requirement to use virtually impermeable Film in methyl bromide treatments.
Over 40 tons of highly poisonous methyl isocyanate gas leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union Carbide in Bhopal.
Catalyst (hardener) used for polyester resins is an organic peroxide (methyl ethyl ketone peroxide) and is particularly dangerous.
Unfortunately, our model could not predict the selectivity of the analogous methyl ketone reaction.
In general, however, methyl mercury levels for most fish are very low.
Polycom glass is porous sol-gel glass with its pores filled with poly(methyl methacrylate ).
Ineos claims world leadership in methyl methacrylate with a capacity of 600,000 tons.
E219 sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate The sodium salt of E218, sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate is primarily an antifungal agent.
Operator protection A written Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) assessment must be made before using methyl bromide.
Advisory notes Approved products containing methyl bromide are available for agricultural, horticultural, food storage and space spray use.
The camphor molecule has one polar atom (a carbonyl oxygen) and three methyl groups.
Monsanto recommends spraying with toxic pesticides including methyl parathion, among the deadliest chemicals used in American agriculture.
Hydroxyl radicals were produced by the photolysis of methyl nitrite in the presence of NO.
These enzymes catalyze many reactions such as carbon skeleton rearrangements or the removal of a methyl group from a tertiary amine.
Arctander (1960) believed that the sweet birch oil of commerce is adulterated synthetic methyl salicylate.
One, methyl salicylate, was an anti-inflammatory pain killer related to aspirin.
The " lead " used in 4 star are organic compounds of lead - tetra ethyl lead and tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.
The pH curve for the strong acid - weak base titration shows that phenolphthalein is not a suitable indicator but methyl orange is fine.
Boron can be estimated by precipitation as potassium fluoborate, which is insoluble in a mixture of potassium acetate and alcohol, For this purpose only boric acid or its potassium salt must be present; and to ensure this, the borate can be distilled with sulphuric acid and methyl alcohol and the volatile ester absorbed in potash.
It is obvious that we have derived three combinations of carbon with hydrogen, characterized by containing a single, double, and triple linkage; and from each of these, by the substitution of a methyl group for a hydrogen atom, compounds of the same nature result.
By continuing the introduction of methyl groups we obtain three series of homologous hydro carbons given by the general formulae CnH2,i 4.2, CnH2n, and CnH2n 2, each member differing from the preceding one of the same series by CH 2.
Further, since methane may be regarded as formed b y the conjunction of a methyl group with a hydrogen atom, it may be named " methyl hydride "; similarly ethane is " ethyl hydride," propane, " propyl hydride," and so on.
The importance of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature of organic compounds cannot be overestimated; these compound radicals, fre q uently termed alkyl radicals, serve a similar purpose to the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist.
Butlerow in 1864 by acting with zinc methyl on acetyl chloride (see Alcohols).
On distillation with zinc dust it forms cymene (1.4 methyl isopropyl benzene).
Methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM), a naturally occurring form of organic sulfur, may be the answer.
The uncharged methyl groups of the fatty acid chains that form the phospholipid bilayer have very little attractive force for water molecules.
Methyl salicylate is a natural product derived from the the wintergreen plant, an evergreen shrub.
Asparagus contains methyl mercapten, which may make wine taste vegetal.