Methods sentence example

methods
  • In no case did these methods and efforts secure a long-term solution to poverty.
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  • No doubt he didn't like being reminded that her dream could only be achieved by unnatural methods.
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  • His deposition has been ascribed to a formal act of the Witan, but this seems an antedating of constitutional methods and the circumstances point to a palace revolution.
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  • Lucian's own close investigations into Alexander's methods of fraud led to a serious attempt on his life.
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  • But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.
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  • The law of reciprocal proportion, of which some examples have been already given, is part of a larger law of equivalence that underlies most of our chemical methods and calculations.
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  • The bromide, CoBr 2, resembles the chloride, and may be prepared by similar methods.
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  • By either of these methods, it is obtained in the form of bronzecoloured crystals.
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  • He had to steer a middle course between the extremes represented by the Carbonari on the one hand and the Sanfedisti on the other, and he consistently refused to employ the cruel and inquisitorial methods in vogue under his successors.
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  • The constitution may be amended by either of two methods.
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  • The Congested Districts Board made many efforts to improve the condition of the inhabitants, especially by introducing better methods of fishing.
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  • In 1904 he delivered at the university of California a course of lectures, the object of which was to illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which were published in 1907 under the title Immunochemistry.
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  • Fermat, Roberval and Desargues took exception in their various ways to the methods employed in the geometry, and to the demonstrations of the laws of refraction given in the Dioptrics and Meteors.
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  • The ancient geometry, as we know it, is a wonderful monument of ingenuity - a series of tours de force, in which each problem to all appearance stands alone, and, if solved, is solved by methods and principles peculiar to itself.
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  • Both these methods, differing from that now employed, are interesting as preliminary steps towards the method of fluxions and the differential calculus.
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  • In pure algebra Descartes expounded and illustrated the general methods of solving equations up to those of the fourth degree (and believed that his method could go beyond), stated the law which connects the positive and negative roots of an equation with the changes of sign in the consecutive terms, and introduced the method of indeterminate coefficients for the solution of equations.'
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  • Innovations were carried out in the tactical system of the army which were to modify considerably the methods of future battle-fields.
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  • His brother, Siegmund Jacob Baumgarten (1706-1 7 57), was professor of theology at Halle, and applied the methods of Wolff to theology.
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  • Before he was sixteen he not merely knew medical theory, but by gratuitous attendance on the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment.
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  • It includes five books; of which the first and second treat of physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth deal with the methods of treating disease, and the fifth describes the composition and preparation of remedies.
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  • There are a number of methods available for adoption in the heating of buildings, but it is a matter of considerable difficulty to suit the method of warming to the class of building to be warmed.
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  • Heating by warmed air, one of the oldest methods in use, has been much improved by attention to the construction of the apparatus, and if properly installed will give as good effects as it is ossible to obtain.
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  • Methodism has always been aggressive, and her children on emigrating have taken with them their evangelistic methods.
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  • The other three methods he devised for the sake of those who would prefer to work with natural numbers; and he mentions that the promptuary was his latest invention.
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  • The first of these was due to the adoption by certain teachers in theological seminaries of the methods and results of the "higher criticism," and two famous heresy cases followed.
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  • Little attention is paid to methods of cultivation, and the farmer has no resources to help him if the cereal crops fail.
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  • No sooner had President Juarez Celman come into power towards the close of 1886, than the respectable portion of the community began to feel alarmed at the methods practised by the new president in his conduct of public affairs.
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  • No change was made in official methods, and the condition of affairs drifted from bad to worse, until the temper of the people, so long and so sorely tried, showed plainly that the situation had become insufferable.
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  • Much satisfaction was shown in Europe at the fall of President Celman, for investors had suffered heavily by the way in which the resources of Argentina had been dissipated by that the uprising of public opinion against his financial methods signified a more honest conduct of the national affairs in the future.
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  • Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
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  • Persons keeping private primary schools are free with regard to their methods, programmes and books employed, except that they may not use books expressly prohibited by the superior council of public instruction.
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  • A partisan of French methods, Moratin published in 1762 his Desengano al teatro espanol, a severe criticism of the national drama, particularly of the auto sacramental; and his protests were partly responsible for the prohibition of autos three years afterwards (June 1765).
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  • Gradually, however, the technical difficulties were overcome and success assured, largely as a result of improved methods worked out by Mond for the recovery of the ammonia.
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  • The president has the power to appoint assessors to advise him on technical points; and considerable powers of devolution of authority for the purpose of inquiry and report are conferred upon the court, the main object of which is to secure settlement by conciliatory methods.
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  • The three subjects to which Smith's writings relate are theory of numbers, elliptic functions and modern geometry; but in all that he wrote an "arithmetical" made of thought is apparent, his methods and processes being arithmetical as distinguished from algebraic. He had the most intense admiration of Gauss.
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  • One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
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  • It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
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  • He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
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  • Turenne levelled down his methods to suit the ends which he had in view.
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  • He was not actually the personal disciple of either, but he adopted their methods, though without the consistency and boldness of the first-named.
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  • This charge is denied by his apologists; and though his methods were attacked by good Catholics like Johann Hass, he was elected prior of the Dominicans in Glogau in i 505.
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  • The experience gained on the northern survey under Argelander's direction enabled Schdnfeld to introduce some improvements in the methods employed, which increased the accuracy of this work, which was practically accomplished in March 1881, some revision only remaining to be done.
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  • There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by 003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure.
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  • And as there is no branch of art in which mechanical improvements, and the consequent change in the nature of technical difficulties, bear so directly upon the possibilities and methods of external effect, it follows that an exclusive preponderance of this view is not without serious disadvantage from the standpoint of general musical culture.
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  • To write an account of symphonic instrumentation in any detail would be like attempting a history of emotional expression; and all that we can do here is to point out that the problem which was, so to speak, shelved by the polyphonic device of the continuo, was for a long time solved only by methods which, in any hands but those of the greatest masters, were very inartistic conventions.
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  • On the other hand, it is significant how everything in the development of new instruments seems to suggest, and be suggested by, the new methods of expression.
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  • In the treatment of the orchestra volumes might be written about Haydn's and Mozart's sense of fitness, as shown in Haydn's experiments and Mozart's settled methods.
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  • These methods are used in exceptional cases, but present the obvious difficulty of giving FIG.
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  • Within a few years several methods had been proposed by different inventors, but none was at first very successful, not from any fault in the principle, but because the effect of electrostatic capacity of the line was left out of account in the early arrangements.
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  • The two methods most commonly employed are the differential and bridge methods.
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  • In this, as Most important cables, such as those of the Eastern Telegraph and the other with the earth; but it differed from other methods in requiring no " artificial " or balancing cable.
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  • It was found impossible to make the Morse ink writer so sensitive that it could record signals sent over land lines of several hundred miles in length, if the speed of transmission was very much faster than that which could be effected by hand, and this led to the adoption of automatic methods of transmission.
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  • Preece, who took up the subject about the same time as Prof. Trowbridge, obtained improved practical results by combining together methods of induction and conduction.
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  • All these older methods have, however, been thrown into the background and rendered antiquated by inventions which have grown out of Hertz's scientific investigations on the production of electric waves.
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  • At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
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  • When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
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  • The scientific study of electric wave telegraphy has necessitated the introduction of many new processes and methods of electrical measurement.
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  • Two methods of " multipling " have been much used.
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  • Both the series and the branching methods of multipling are recognized at the present time as standard methods, although the former is only employed in comparatively small exchanges.
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  • Various methods of making the connexions between the large main cables and the subscribers are in use.
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  • The vine is cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy, but while in some of the districts of the south and centre it occupies from 10 to 20% of the cultivated area, in some of the northern provinces, such as Sondrio, Belluno, Grosseto, &c., the average is only about I or 2% The methods of cultivation are varied; but the planting of the vines by themselves in long rows of insignificant bushes is the exception.
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  • In the olive there is great variety of kinds, and the methods of cultivation differ greatly in different districts; in Ban, Chieti and Lecce, for instance, there are regular woods of nothing but olive-trees, while in middle Italy there are olive-orchards with the interspaces occupied by crops of variotis kinds.
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  • The great variety in physical and social conditions throughout the peninsula gives corresponding variety to the methods of agriculture.
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  • Fowls are kept on all farms and, though methods are still antiquated, trade in fowls and eggs is rapidly increasing.
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  • Modern methods have been introduced.
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  • Of the secondary and higher educatory methods, in the normal schools and licei the state provides for the payment of the staff and for scientific material, and often largely supports the ginnasi and technical schools, which should by law be supported by the communes.
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  • Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
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  • Crispis methods aroused great outcry in the Radical press, but the severe sentences of the military courts were in time tempered by the Royal prerogative of amnesty.
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  • This was intended to remove an old and serious evil, as the sheriffs had earned a very bad reputation by their methods of administering justice.
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  • The hydroid colony shows many variations in form and architec- ture which depend simply upon differences in the methods in which polyps are budded.
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  • Statistical inquiry into the facts of life has long been employed, and in particular Francis Galton, within the Darwinian period, has advocated its employment and developed its methods.
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  • It has been a feature of great promise in recent contributions to the theory of evolution, that such contributions have received attention almost directly in proportion to the new methods of observation and the new series of facts with which they have come.
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  • Discipline over ministers and other office-bearers was exercised by administrative methods in the form of trials before consistories or synods.
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  • In the Roman communion, on the other hand, both where the Church is established and where it is not, the tendency is to reduce the status of cure to that of desservant, and to deal with all members of the priestly or lower orders by administrative methods.
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  • An exact and conscientious worker, he did much to improve and systematize the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy, and his appreciation of the value of quantitative methods led him to become one of the earliest adherents of the Lavoisierian doctrines outside France.
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  • The evidence scarcely admits of a decision as to which of these methods is to be regarded as primitive in descent.
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  • The study of the differentiation of protoplasm was at that time seldom undertaken, and no particular attention was paid either to fixing it, to enable staining methods to be accurately applied to it, or to studying the action of chemical reagents upon it.
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  • It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
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  • The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.
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  • More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
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  • The physical side of geography continued to be elaborated after Varenius's methods, while the historical side was developed separately.
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  • The contrast between the yellow and white types has been softened by the remarkable development of the Japanese following the assimilation of western methods.
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  • Such were some of the methods that Torquemada introduced into the Spanish Inquisition, which was to have so baneful an effect upon the whole country.
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  • But his radicalism had now become of a disruptive quality, and he quarrelled with and even thwarted Kosciuszko because the dictator would not admit that the Polish republic could only be saved by the methods of Jacobinism.
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  • The rebellion spread like lightning, principally in the central or purely Magyar provinces, where hundreds of manor-houses and castles were burnt and thousands of the gentry done to death by impalement, crucifixion and other unspeakable methods.
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  • The influence of non-Jewish methods is seen in the more modern tendency of Azariah dei Rossi, who was opposed by Joseph Karo.
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  • They are well known in cultivation, and owing to the wide distribution of the genus different methods are adopted with different species.
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  • Designed to protect heretics from the secret and summary methods of the Inquisition, it certainly had his sympathy and approval.
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  • This value, although considerably in excess of that previously found by different methods, was held by Airy, from the care and completeness with which the observations were carried out and discussed, to be "entitled to compete with the others on, at least, equal terms."
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  • Other methods have been employed, but with varying commercial success.
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  • One of his most important works was the Elements de Philosophic published in 1759, in which he discussed the principles and methods of the different sciences.
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  • The methods of agriculture are still unscientific and unprogressive.
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  • The methods adopted by the zemstvos for improving the condition of agriculture have included the formation of agricultural councils, the appointment of inspectors, and the founding of museums, meteorological stations and depots for the sale of agricultural machinery.
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  • The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers.
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  • Similar industries, carried on by similar methods, exist at St Petersburg, Riga, Narva and Odessa.
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  • Now the tsar of Muscovy and of all Russia adopted the airs and methods of a Tatar khan and surrounded himself with the pomp and splendours of a Byzantine emperor.
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  • This was clearly perceived and keenly felt by the educated classes, and as soon as the strong hand of the uncompromising autocrat was withdrawn, they clamoured loudly for radical changes in the aims and methods of their rulers.
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  • They were accordingly replaced in great measure by the old autocratic methods of administration, and much of the administrative corruption which had been cured, or at least repressed, by the reform enthusiasm again flourished luxuriantly.
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  • But the Liverpool & Manchester railway, opened in 1830, first impressed the national mind with the fact that a revolution in the methods of travelling had really taken place; and further, it was for it that the first high-speed locomotive of the modern type was invented and constructed.
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  • It produces an uncertainty with regard to rates which prevents stability of prices, and is apt to promote the interests of the unscrupulous speculator at the expense of those whose business methods are more conservative.
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  • The advantage of this relatively free system of railway building and management is that it secures efficient and progressive methods.
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  • The moral effect of the report, with the criticisms of the company's methods and recommendations appended thereto, is great, and it rarely happens that a company refuses to adopt, or at any rate to test, the recommendations so made.
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  • The cost of such ventures and the detailed methods by which they are financed are of relatively small importance, because they are not required to earn a money return on the investment.
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  • Push-and-pull shunting is simple, but it is also slow, and therefore efforts have been made at busy yards where great numbers of trains are dealt with to introduce more expeditious methods.
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  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.
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  • For the methods of electric traction see Traction; the remainder of the present article will be devoted to the steam locomotive.
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  • Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
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  • Still, they do differ from ordinary tramways in the important fact that the procedure by which they have been authorized is simpler and cheaper than the methods by which special private acts of parliament have to he obtained for tramway projects.
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  • No serious observer, acquainted with modern microscopic technical methods, has been able to confirm the explanation of their observations.
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  • Between Roberval and Descartes there existed a feeling of ill - will, owing to the jealousy aroused in the mind of the former by the criticism which Descartes offered to some of the methods employed by him and by Pierre de Fermat; and this led him to criticize and oppose the analytical methods which Descartes introduced into geometry about this time.
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  • The careful methods of work which he had adopted from the outset had borne admirable fruit.
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  • As a philosopher, Favorinus belonged to the sceptical school; his most important work in this connexion appears to have been Hvppwvetot rpoiroc (the Pyrrhonean Tropes) in ten books, in which he endeavours to show that the methods of Pyrrho were useful to those who intended to practise in the law courts.
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  • He was undoubtedly an extremely able soldier and a skilful statesman, and much of his legislation shows a real political sense; but his inordinate ambition, his oppressive methods of government and taxation, and his cruelty created enemies on all sides, and led to the collapse of the edifice of dominion which he had raised.
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  • Experiments in immunizing by sero-therapeutic methods have not as yet met with success.
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  • It is a question for the engineer, and may require different methods in different circumstances.
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  • In spite of the difficulties, however, there is no doubt that a great deal can be done to reduce, if not stamp out, malaria by the methods indicated, which should be applied according to circumstances.
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  • In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
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  • To pay his debt to Rome he was compelled to resort to extraordinary methods of raising money; he actually met his death (187 B.C.) in an attempt to loot the temple of Elymais.
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  • The principal wealth of the island is derived from its olive groves; notwithstanding the destruction of many thousands of trees during each successive insurrection, the production is apparently undiminished, and will probably increase very considerably owing to the planting of young trees and the improved methods of cultivation which the Government is endeavouring to promote.
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  • The whites maintained their supremacy by very dubious methods until the adoption of the constitution of 1890 made it no longer necessary.
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  • The state government, through its Department of Agriculture, takes an active interest in the introduction of modern agricultural methods, and in the promotion of diversified farming; in 1899 it established the Edgecombe and in 1902 the Iredell test farm.
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  • But the most revolting methods of self-torture and self-destruction are also practised as a means of rising in sanctity.
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  • Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.
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  • The Japanese people have added to their ancient civilization and their remarkable artistic faculty, an adaptation of Western methods, and a capacity for progress in war and commerce, which single them out among Eastern races as a great modern world-force.
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  • But while we have yet to wait for that expansion of principal triangulation which will bring Asia into connexion with Europe by the direct process of earth measurement, a topobetween graphical connexion has been effected between Russian Russ/an and Indian surveys which sufficiently proves that the and deductive methods employed by both countries for the Indian determination of the co-ordinate values of fixed points so surveys.
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  • Except that the use of Arabic inscriptions is one of its principal methods of decoration, it owes little to Arabia and much to Byzantium.
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  • But the mental constitution of Asiatics is less easily modified than their institutions, and even Japan has assimilated European methods rather than European ideas.
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  • The result was a whole series of wars with the Teutonic Order, which now acknowledged Swidrygiello, another brother of Jagiello, as grand-duke of Lithuania; and though Swidrygiello was defeated and driven out by Witowt, the Order retained possession of Samogitia, and their barbarous methods of "converting" the wretched inhabitants finally induced Witowt to rescue his fellow-countrymen at any cost from the tender mercies of the knights.
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  • Despite his adoption of these barbarous Byzantine methods, Coloman was a good king and a wise ruler.
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  • It simply consisted iri the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.
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  • The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
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  • It is the improvements in methods, implements and materials, brought about by the application of science, that distinguish the husbandry of the 10th century from that of medieval and ancient times.
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  • The methods of threshing and winnowing were the same as those in use in ancient Egypt.
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  • According to early methods of cropping, which were destined to prevail for centuries, wheat, the chief article of food, was sown in one autumn, reaped the next August; the following spring, oats or barley were sown, and the year following the harvest was a period of fallow.
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  • Under the manorial system, the rise of which preceded the Norman Conquest, communal methods of husbandry remained, but the position of the cultivator was radically altered.
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  • The, 5th century, barren of progress in methods of husbandry, was in its early years moderately prosperous.
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  • It is evident from this book that the society had exerted itself with success in introducing cultivated herbage and turnips, as well as in improving the former methods of culture.
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  • Large districts still clung to the old common-field system, to the old habits of ploughing with teams of four or eight, and to slovenly methods of cultivation.
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  • During this period of depression, which lasted till the 'forties, want of confidence prevented any general improvement in agricultural methods.
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  • Wheat was so great a glut in the market that various methods were devised for feeding it to stock, a purpose for which it is not specially suited; in thus utilizing the grain, however, a smaller loss was often incurred than in sending it to market.
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  • To add to the educational value of the display, information as to the methods of feeding would be desirable, as it would then be possible to correlate the quality of the meat with the mode of its manufacture.
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  • Because all accept the same methods of investigation, the same tests of truth.
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  • Is it possible then to obtain unanimity as to the methods of arriving at conclusions in social and political matters, so as to secure similar agreement of opinion among the specially skilled, and similar general respect for their authority ?
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  • It was in 1837, on reading Whewell's Inductive Sciences and re-reading Herschel, that Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and joining on the new logic as a supplement to the old.
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  • He succeeded in abolishing the old-fashioned medieval textbooks and methods of instruction, and led his pupils to the study of the classical authors themselves.
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  • In this article we propose therefore to confine ourselves to discussing the character and subject-matter of the science, indicating its relation to other sciences, and explaining the methods by which economists reach their conclusions.
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  • It is in the adaptation of biological conceptions and methods, in the positive contributions of jurisprudence, law and history, in the rigorous application, where possible, of quantitative tests, that the explanation of the present position of economics is to be found.
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  • Mathematics has influenced the form and the terminology of the science, and has sometimes been useful in analysis; but mathematical methods of reasoning, in their application to economics, while possessing a certain fascination, are of very doubtful utility.
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  • In every age economists have applied the methods ordinarily in use amongst scientific men.
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  • The methods applied to economics in the 18th and the early part of the 19th century were no more invented with a special view to that subject than the principles of early railway legislation, in the domain.
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  • Where the newer methods were assimilated, the position of economics was strengthened and its practical utility increased.
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  • As in modern problems, so in those of past times, a man requires for success qualities quite distinct from those conferred by merely academic training and the use of scientific methods.
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  • To many minds the interest and usefulness of economics depend entirely on the application of these methods, for it is the actual working of economic institutions about which the statesman, the publicist, the business man and the artisan wish to know.
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  • Definite economic problems can very rarely be dealt with by merely quantitative methods.
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  • Suppose, now, we ignore the writers who were inaugurating neit methods, investigating special problems or laboriously collecting facts, and concentrate attention on the dominant school, with its long series of writers from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill.
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  • If by the " old Political Economy " we mean the methods and conclusions of certain great writers, who stood head and shoulders above their contemporaries and determined the general character of economic science, we are still under no obligation to define the attitude of the present generation with regard to them.
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  • Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.
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  • Just as the historical school grew up along with the greatest constructive achievement of the 29th century, namely, the consolidation of Germany, so the application to modern problems of the methods of that school has been called forth by the constructive needs of the present generation.
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  • We have already shown how these methods, in their turn, require the aid of general theory, but not of a general theory which tries to do their work.
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  • All the materials for investigation, all the facts and figures from which illustrations are drawn, all methods of keeping accounts in England, assume the ordinary English tongue.
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  • This would matter very little, perhaps, if Englishmen had a firm belief, established by actual experience, in the soundness of their policy, the present security of their position, and the sufficiency of their methods to strengthen or maintain it.
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  • It thus became the work of economic science ruthlessly to analyse the existing situation, explain the issues involved in the commercial policy of different countries, and point out the alternative methods of dealing with present difficulties, with their probable results.
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  • Where his fundamental conception admits of it, he tries to solve historical problems by historical methods.
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  • All those who wished for peace and orderly government came by degrees to oppose the Directors; and, seeing that the latter clung to Jacobinical catchwords and methods, public opinion tended to become "moderate" or even royalist.
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  • The acquiescence of these bodies in the transition to despotic methods predisposed the public to a similar attitude of mind.
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  • His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
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  • But this view is gained by following the methods which Cuvier taught.
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  • New amalgams and methods of colouring have been discovered, and fresh forms have been diligently studied.
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  • The methods of catching prey adopted by spiders are extremely varied.
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  • Graber turned their attention to the detailed investigation of some one species or to special points in the structure of some particular organs, using for the elucidation of their subject the ever-improving microscopical methods of research.
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  • By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
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  • The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.
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  • The actual amounts differ with different varieties, conditions of cultivation, methods of ginning, &c.; a recent estimate in the United States gives 35% of lint for Upland cotton and 25% for Sea Island cotton as more accurate.
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  • Webber is prominently associated, and a full discussion of methods and results will be found in his various papers in the Year-books of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
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  • In India, where conditions are much more diversified and it is more difficult to induce the native cultivator to adopt new methods, attention has also been directed during recent years to the improvement of the existing races.
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  • Fundamental alterations have been made in the structure of the leading cotton markets, and in methods of buying and selling cotton, in the last hundred years.
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  • Originally cotton was imported by the Liverpool dealer as an agent for American firms or at his own risk, and then sold by private treaty, auction, or through brokers, to Cotton market methods.
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  • He considers that in its earliest origins Christian faith and the methods of Greek thought were so closely intermingled that much that is not essential to Christianity found its way into the resultant system.
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  • Harnack, both as lecturer and writer, was one of the most prolific and most stimulating of modern critical scholars, and trained up in his "Seminar" a whole generation of teachers, who carried his ideas and methods throughout the whole of Germany and even beyond its borders.
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  • The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
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  • The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.
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  • Natural gas is largely used in the United States, and for some time, owing to defective methods of storage, delivery and consumption, great waste occurred.
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  • In the United States, various methods of testing and various minimum standards have been adopted.
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  • Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
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  • The meeting was held and ten months later Bourne was expelled by the Burslem Quarterly Meeting, ostensibly for non-attendance at class (he had been away from home, evangelizing), really, as the Wesleyan superintendent told him "because you have a tendency to set up other than the ordinary worship" which was precisely the reason why, fifty years earlier, the Anglican Church had declined to sanction the methods of John Wesley.
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  • The collections of Malay Proberbs made by, Klinkert, Maxwell and Clifford also give a good idea of the literary methods of the Malays.
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  • The cheaper mottled and brown soaps have for their basis bone fat, obtained by treating bones with superheated steam or other methods.
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  • Two principal methods of preparing such compound soaps are employed.
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  • The author of these receipts is not under any delusion that he is transmuting metals; the MS. is merely a workshop manual in which are described processes in daily use for preparing metals for false jewellery, but it argues considerable knowledge of methods of making alloys and colouring metals.
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  • They were followed by treatises of a different character, clearer in matter, more systematic in arrangement, and reflecting the methods of the scholastic logic; these are farther from the Greek tradition, for although they contain sufficient traces of their ultimate Greek ancestry, their authors do not know the Greeks as masters and cite no Greek names.
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  • It must be noted that the processes described by the alchemists of the 13th century are not put forward as being miraculous or supernatural; they rather represent the methods employed by nature, which it is the end of the alchemist's art to reproduce artificially in the laboratory.
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  • As a stratigraphical geologist he rendered much assistance on the Geological Survey of France, but in the course of time he gave his special attention to the study of volcanic phenomena and earthquakes, to minerals and rocks; and he was the first to introduce modern petrographical methods into France.
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  • Below are set forth the methods of determining and dealing with such orbits.
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  • This classical work is still a favourite among students, the improvements on its methods made since its publication being rather in details than in general principles.
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  • The word used shows Loyola's military ideal of the duties and methods of the nascent society.
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  • Above all the methods of the two are essentially different.
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  • He gives various methods of prayer; methods of making an election; his series of rules for the discernment of spirits; rules for the distribution of alms and the treatment of scruples; tests of orthodoxy.
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  • The ruthless methods by which the Spaniards forced the natives to labour for them caused a change in the attitude of the erstwhile friendly Borinquenos.
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  • This section treats of the qualitative detection and separation of the metals, and the commoner methods employed in quantitative analysis.
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  • From the Alexandrians the science passed to the Arabs, who made discoveries and improved various methods of separating substances, and afterwards, from the 11th century, became seated in Europe, where the alchemical doctrines were assiduously studied until the 15th and 16th centuries.
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  • In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
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  • Although Boyle practised the methods which he expounded,.
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  • Dumas did not adopt the best methods for emphasizing his discoveries.
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  • He emphasized that the practical training should include (1) the qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, (2) the preparation of substances according to established methods, (3) original research - a course which has been generally adopted.
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  • In the succeeding iatrochemical period, the methods of the alchemists were improved and new ones devised.
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  • The general tendency of this period appears to have taken the form of improving and developing the methods of the alchemists; 1 The definite distinction between potash and soda was first established by Duhamel de Monceau (1700-1781).
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  • The beginning of the 19th century witnessed the discovery of certain powerful methods for the analysis of compounds and the isolation of elements.
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  • Since their day many chemists have entered the lists, new and powerful methods of research have been devised, and several new elements definitely characterized.
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  • In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
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  • The extraordinary patience requisite to a successful termination of such an analysis can only be adequately realized by actual research; an idea may be obtained from Crookes's Select Methods in Analysis.
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  • Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
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  • Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
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  • Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
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  • Important differences, however, are immediately met with when we consider the methods by which derivatives are obtained.
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  • Decompositions of this nature were first discovered in the naphthalene series, where it was found that derivatives of indene (and of hydrindene and indone) and also of benzene resulted; Zincke then extended his methods to the disintegration of the oxybenzenes and obtained analogous results, R-pentene and aliphatic derivatives being formed (Rsymbolizing a ringed nucleus).
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  • Bergman laid the foundations of systematic qualitative analysis, and devised methods by which the metals may be separated into groups according to their behaviour with certain reagents.
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  • He applied himself more particularly to the oxygen compounds, and determined with a fair degree of accuracy the ratio of carbon to oxygen in carbon dioxide, but his values for the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in water, and of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric acid, are only approximate; he introduced no new methods either for the estimation or separation of the metals.
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  • We may, however, notice Heinrich Rose i and Friedrich WShler, 2 who, having worked up the results of their teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable observations, exerted great influence on the progress of analytical chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable accounts of the then known methods of analysis.
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  • Fresenius, the founder of the Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie (1862), we are particularly indebted for perfecting and systematizing the various methods of analytical chemistry.
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  • By strengthening the older methods, and devising new ones, he exerted an influence which can never be overestimated.
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  • Since then the subject has been extensively studied, more particularly by Alexander Classen, who has summarized the methods and results in his Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis (1903).
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  • The ever-increasing importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older methods.
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  • Volumetric analysis, possessing as it does many advantages over the gravimetric methods, has of late years been extensively developed.
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  • Volhard, and these methods rank side by side in value with the older and more tedious gravimetric methods.
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  • We shall now treat the different methods in more detail.
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  • Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.
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  • The solution contains magnesium, sodium and potassium, which are separately distinguished by the methods given under their own headings.
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  • It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and characters of individual substances have been studied, and we therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular elements and compounds for more information on this subject.
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  • In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
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  • Methods depending upon oxidation in the presence of a contact substance have come into favour during recent years.
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  • Practical methods are treated in Lassar-Cohn, Arbeitsmethoden fur organisch-chemische Laboratorien (4th ed., 1906-1907).
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  • The present influence of Wagnerian harmony is, then, somewhat indefinite, since the most important real phenomena of later music indicate a revolt both from it and from earlier classical methods.
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  • During his residence in London he applied himself to the discovery of methods for curing smoky chimneys and the contrivance of improvements in the construction of fireplaces.
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  • German literature tells of several literary schools, or groups of writers animated by the same ideas, and working in the spirit of the same principles and by the same poetic methods.
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  • He travelled a great deal in Europe, Egypt, Palestine, Russia, Algeria and America, and between 1853 and 1863 was largely occupied with researches into the history and methods of marine propulsion.
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  • The rule of treatment in all cases of threatened mortification is to keep the part warm by flannel or cotton-wool, but to avoid all methods which unduly hurry the returning circulation.
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  • It may be prepared by the general methods, and occurs in fusel oil, especially in potato spirit.
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  • Her methods were those of her cautious younger son, Leopold II., and not of her eldest son and immediate successor, Joseph II.
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  • The compiler, in combining these materials, is called upon to examine the various sources of information, and to form an estimate of their value, which he can only do if he have himself some knowledge of surveying and of the methods of determining positions by astronomical observation.
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  • It is claimed for this method that it affords a means of giving a graphic representation of Alpine districts where other methods of shading fail.
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  • The methods of producing reliefs vary according to the scale and the materials available.
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  • The Romans have been reproached for having neglected the scientific methods of mapmaking advocated by Hipparchus.
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  • The ocean separating Europe from he was dependent upon dead reckoning, for although various methods for determining a longitude were known, the available astronomical ephemerides were not trustworthy, and errors of 30 in longitude were by no means rare.
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  • More than 80 methods of showing the hills have found advocates since that time, but all methods must be based upon contours to be scientifically satisfactory.
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  • About the year 260 an Egyptian bishop, Nepos, in a treatise called 'XEyxos 6,XX yoptarCnv, endeavoured to overthrow the Origenistic theology and vindicate chiliasm by exegetical methods.
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  • The advent of the Reformation brought in critical methods, and the book was unjustly disparaged as a mere Christian forgery for nearly four centuries.
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  • It seems to have begun in really voluntary agreements; but for these the unscrupulous greed of the traders soon substituted methods of fraud and violence.
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  • Wesley's writings did much to open the eyes of candid men to his motives and his methods.
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  • Among the analytical methods worked up by him the best known is that for the estimation of sugars by "Fehling's solution," which consists of a solution of cupric sulphate mixed with alkali and potassium-sodium tartrate (Rochelle salt).
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  • The charta Fanniana appears to have been a kind of papyrus worked up from the amphitheatrica, which by flattening and other methods was increased in width by an inch, in the factory of a certain Fannius at Rome.
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  • Crofting agriculture is conducted on primitive methods, spade tillage being almost universal, and seaweed the principal manure.
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  • By the last two methods the colour of the flowers may be well preserved.
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  • Exegesis of this sort is not the characteristic of any single circle, people or century; unscientific methods of biblical interpretation have prevailed from Philo's treatment of the Pentateuch to modern apologetic interpretations of Genesis, ch.
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  • A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
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  • Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
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  • A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
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  • The methods of cultivation, however, are still distinctly extensive, and the returns are much less than they would be (and in some other cane countries are) under more intensive and scientific methods of cultivation.
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  • In the markets of the world Cuban tobacco has always suffered less competition than Cuban sugar, and still less has been done than in the case of sugar cane in the study of methods of cultivation, which in several respects are far behind those of other tobacco-growing countries.
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  • Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.
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  • With the improvement of methods the old partially refined grades (moscobados) have disappeared.
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  • Numerous determinations of the atomic weight of nitrogen have been made by different observers, the values obtained varying somewhat according to the methods used.
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  • These methods have been purely chemical (either gravimetric or volumetric), physical (determinations of the density of nitrogen, nitric oxide, &c.) or physicochemical.
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  • Guye has given a critical discussion of the relative accuracy of the gravimetric and physico-chemical methods, and favours the latter, giving for the atomic weight a value less than 14.01.
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  • But on the assumption that "mathematics" is to denote a science well marked out by its subject matter and its methods from other topics of thought, and that at least it is to include all topics habitually assigned to it, there is now no option but to employ "mathematics" in the general sense' of the "science concerned with the logical deduction of consequences from the general premisses of all reasoning."
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  • Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
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  • But although oranges, pine-apples and some other fruits form important articles of commerce, it is only rarely that systematic and thorough methods of cultivation are prosecuted.
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  • On the whole agriculture is backward, despite the richness of the soil; for the cultivators are a very conservative race, and prefer the methods and implements of their ancestors.
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  • The government of the country was then handed over to the imperial ministry of finance; but the bureaucratic methods of the finance ministers, Baron von Hoffmann and Joseph de Szlavy, resulted only in the insurrection of 1881-82.
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  • It may be said to be an absolutely autocthonous enterprise, no recourse having been had to foreign capital to find the means requisite for construction and equipment, which were provided by means of a " national subscription " - not entirely voluntary - and from other sources which, although the financial methods were not strictly orthodox, were strictly Turkish.
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  • Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
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  • Considering the dilatory methods of Orientals, even when they are creditors, it is doubtful whether this sum adequately covers the whole of the claims outstanding, and it may be found difficult, even for a parliament, to refuse claims which should equitably be admitted and which may be preferred later.
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  • These men, returning to their various districts, impart to others the instruction they have received, and thus spread through the regions adapted to sericulture the proper methods of selection and rearing.
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  • But the regions not under its administration benefited at least equally by the methods above described.
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  • The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
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  • Knowing the emperor's methods, he wisely restrained the ardour of his subordinates and asked for instructions whether to attack or wait.
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  • The archduke Charles was the foremost amongst many workers who had realized that numbers were absolutely needed to confront the new French methods.
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  • With these numbers it was impossible to attain the high degree of individual efficiency required for the old line tactics, hence they were compelled to adopt the French methods of skirmishers and columns, but as yet they had hardly realized the increased density necessary to be given to a line of battle to enable it to endure the prolonged nervous strain the new system of tactics entailed.
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  • The history of his youth reveals no special predilection for the military service - the bent of his mind was political far more than military, but unlike the politicians of his epoch he consistently applied scientific and mathematical methods to his theories, and desired above all things a knowledge of facts in their true relation to one another.
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  • He was simply a master of the methods of his time.
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  • In recent years the demands of modern travel have led to the establishment of a hotel, which affords comfortable accommodation according to European methods.
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  • With the change of the methods of transportation its importance has naturally declined.
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  • The methods which Leonardo made use of in solving those problems fill the Liber quadratorum, the Flos, and a Letter to Magister Theodore.
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  • Leonardo's works are mainly developments of the results obtained by his predecessors; the influences of Greek, Arabian, and Indian mathematicians may be clearly discerned in his methods.
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  • The Liber abaci, which fills 459 printed pages, contains the most perfect methods of calculating with whole numbers and with fractions, practice, extraction of the square and cube roots, proportion, chain rule, finding of proportional parts, averages, progressions, even compound interest, just as in the completest mercantile arithmetics of our days.
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  • In early times, though there is considerable variety in the cases treated and the methods of cure, there are certain characteristics common to the majority of the cases.
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  • The pruning and training of the trees in the peach house do not differ materially from the methods practised out of doors.
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  • Its work is primarily that of the investigation of the fisheries of northern Europe, but its general methods are oceanographical, and its published results have formed an immense contribution to the science.
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  • Hydrodynamical methods received increased attention and the investigation of the movements of the ocean by means of physico-mathematical devices developed as a result of the older work of Bjerknes, continued chiefly by Helland-Hansen and Sandstrom.
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  • In these attempts new methods are elaborated and in their criticism contributory phenomena are discovered.
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  • Hansen's early results were much criticized and the original methods very greatly modified and improved.
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  • The details of the calculation are given in the article Electric conduction, § where also will be found an account of the methods which have been used to measure the velocities of many ions by direct visual observation.
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  • The chemical activity of a substance is a quantity which may be measured by different methods.
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  • On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.
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  • By both these methods the single potential-differences found at the surfaces of the zinc and copper have opposite signs, and the effective electromotive force of a Daniell's cell is the sum of the two effects.
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  • Volumetric methods are used, but the uncertainty of the end of the reaction has led to the suggestion of special indicators, or of determining the amount of cuprous oxide gravimetrically.
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  • This is largely due to the improved methods of preparing the rubber practised by the planters of Ceylon and Malaya, which lead to the exclusion of the impurities usually found in " wild " rubber.
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  • These vines are less satisfactory than trees as rubber producers, owing to the readiness with which they are injured and destroyed by careless tapping, and to the difficulty of regulating these methods in the case of vines distributed over enormous areas of forest.
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  • The native methods in vogue in Brazil and Mexico are primitive and often injurious to the tree.
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  • In some instances a combination of these methods is employed.
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  • America, and it is therefore probable that with greater experience as to the best methods of tapping and with older trees considerably larger yields may be expected from plantations in the future.
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  • It is, however, important to remember that rough as these native methods are they result in the production of rubber which commands the highest price.
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  • At present, however, the methods of analysis usually employed are not sufficiently delicate to afford all the necessary information as to the intrinsic value of the higher grades of rubber, and do not go much beyond the exclusion of inferior rubber.
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  • The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.
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  • Others have arranged a means of obtaining high conductivity wire from cathode-copper without fusion, by depositing the metal in the form of a spiral strip on a cylinder, the strip being subsequently drawn down in the usual way; at present, however, the ordinary methods of wire production are found to be cheaper.
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  • Tillage is conducted on very primitive methods.
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  • Mica mining is an industry of considerable importance, especially in India; but here the methods of mining are very primitive and wasteful.
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  • In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.
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  • Van Buren did not originate the system, for it was already well developed when he entered public life; but the nickname of "Little Magician" which presently attached to him testifies to the skill with which he exploited it, and to the popular impression which his political methods produced.
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  • The Egbas are enthusiastic farmers and have largely adopted European methods of cultivation.
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  • Two methods of treatment have been carried on in parallel lines, the unsymbolic and the symbolic; both of these originated with Cayley, but he with Sylvester and the English school have in the main confined themselves to the former, whilst Aronhold, Clebsch, Gordan, and the continental schools have principally restricted themselves to the latter.
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  • The two methods have been conducted so as to be in constant touch, though the nature of the results obtained by the one differs much from those which flow naturally from the other.
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  • Thus, while cupellation still furnishes the only means for the final separation of lead and silver, it has become an auxiliary process to the two methods of concentration given.
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  • Father Claude de Lingendes (1591-1660) has been looked upon as the father of the classic French sermon, although his own conciones were invariably written in Latin, but his methods were adopted in French, by the school of Bourdaloue and Bossuet.
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  • The legal is the older group, and to it the name of casuist is often exclusively reserved, generally with the implication that its methods are too purely technical to commend themselves to mankind at large.
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  • These deal with the casuists of the Counter - Reformation in the spirit of Milton, laying especial stress on the artificiality of their methods and the laxity of their results.
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  • Two obvious methods of experiment have been tried.
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  • Newcomb, was used from 1882 to 'goo; and since then the value 8.80" has been employed, having been adopted at a Paris conference in 1896.1 Five fundamentally different methods of determining the distance of the sun have been worked out and applied.
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  • No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.
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  • Two methods were devised.
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  • The combined result from both these methods is 8.857", while the combination of all the contact observations made by all the parties gave the much smaller result, 8.794".
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  • Both direct and indirect methods are available.
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  • Coulomb, who by using very long and thin magnets, so arranged that the action of their distant poles was negligible, succeeded in establishing the law, which has since been confirmed by more accurate methods, that the force of attraction or repulsion exerted between two magnetic poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.
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  • Nevertheless, many important problems relating to the distribution of magnetic induction may be solved by methods similar to those employed for the solution of analogous problems in electricity.
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  • The ratio M/H is then found by one of the magnetometric methods which in their simplest forms are described below.
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  • The magnetic condition assumed by a piece of ferromagnetic metal in different circumstances is determinable by various modes of experiment which may be classed as magnetometric, ballistic, and traction methods.
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  • The results, nevertheless, agree very well with those for annealed wrought iron obtained by other methods.
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  • Terada in a research remarkable for its completeness and the ingenuity of the experimental methods employed.
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  • What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
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  • Most of his memoirs are masterpieces - full of original methods, profound ideas and far-reaching imagination.
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