We have already seen this method work.
Now I'm able to adjust my method of operation accordingly.
His method was direct — addressing her needs with simple statements and questions.
This method in one shape or another has been often employed.
A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
Had the idea only been a clever method to gain favors?
To obtain an absolutely pure culture with certainty it is necessary, even when the gelatin method is employed, to start from a single cell.
His method upon arrival at home had remained the same.
Another method of genetic modification, called mutagenesis, dates to the early part of the twentieth century.
2940, Dr Repsold proposed a method of meridian observing which consists in causing a web to follow the image of a star in transit by motions communicated by the observer's hands alone, whilst electrical contacts on the drum of the micrometer screw register on the chronograph the instants corresponding to known intervals from the line of collimation.
Yet Carmen insisted that any artificial method of conception was sinful – playing God.
She got the language from the language itself, and this is, next to hearing the language spoken, the way for any one to get a foreign tongue, more vital and, in the end, easier than our schoolroom method of beginning with the grammar.
If you figure out a way to do this all day and still make the ranch turn a profit, you could make a fortune teaching your method at seminars.
And today's primary method for treating cancer is, in a way, very tenth century: Essentially, chemotherapy is a medical way of saying, Let's fill you so full of poison either you or the cancer dies.
While back-country skiing was also popular, the ever constant danger of killing snow slides made marked trails a safer method of enjoying this vigorous sport.
The progress of civilization has resulted in a vast change in the method of punishment.
His anger was unfounded, but she had to accept some of the blame for his method of approach.
There is only one method of birth control that sure, and I doubt your husband would tolerate it.
Diablo. He's Yancey's method of relieving stress and getting away from us women once in a while.
Maybe Yancey would be more careful in the future about using the threat of bears as a method of keeping Lisa away from that building.
This new method was like being intimate with a stranger.
As a proof of the seriousness with which he regarded the literary vocation, it may be mentioned that he used to write out his poems in printed characters, believing that that process best enabled him to understand his own peculiarities and faults, and probably unconscious that Coleridge had recommended some such method of criticism when he said he thought "print settles it."
Many people have thought that any attempt to find the principles in her method would be nothing but a later theory superimposed on Miss Sullivan's work.
This method did not give very certain results, for it could not be guaranteed that the growth in the inoculated flask was necessarily derived from a single bacterium.
He emphasized the opinion that yeast derived from one cell was of no good for top fermentation, and advocated Pasteur's method of purification.
To her, the rifle was a method of defending herself or getting food when there would otherwise be none.
We use democracy as a method of selecting representatives.
Even today, the scientific method involves experimentation that almost always necessitates some amount of data collection.
A second method of radical redistribution is to increase marginal tax rates to a point that is confiscatory.
Enabling people to communicate in a method with which their governments cannot interfere is a force for freedom and peace.
The method of counting the total number of revolutions gives more friction and is less convenient than Repsolds', and no provision seems to be made for illuminating the micrometer head in the practical and convenient plan adopted by Repsolds.
This method obtains when yeast is vigorously fermenting a saccharine solution.
He justly termed his father "the father of the Translators," but Samuel's own method surpassed his father's in lucidity and fidelity to the original.
She tugged on the back end of the goat, but that method was obviously going to take someone much taller.
Miss Fuller's method was this: she passed my hand lightly over her face, and let me feel the position of her tongue and lips when she made a sound.
(With this method of observation it often happens that the observer, influenced by the direction he himself prefers, regards those as leaders who, owing to the people's change of direction, are no longer in front, but on one side, or even in the rear.)
If she had a method of transportation, that would be an alternative.
Dean tried to remember how Ryland had described the method of securing the other end of the line to the climber's body.
Diet was one method, but it had been long enough that she had forgotten specifics.
He used the age-old method of asking questions that needed answers until she swung into something akin to conversation.
We have adopted Christianity merely as an improved method of agri-culture.
The distinction between the old and new method of observation may thus, in one sense, be described as the difference between shooting at a moving object and in shooting at one at rest.
And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
Still more recently the method has been largely employed at the Cape of Good Hope and elsewhere.
Usually we rely on Betsy's sole decision as a method of choosing a case but the wide spread interest in this kidnapping caused her to share it with all of us.
Brunn, whose comparative method in art-criticism he much developed.
Dean's lack of proficiency at mountain climbing left him to make do instead of utilizing a more effective and safer method of descent.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
This conception is the one handle by means of which the material of history, as at present expounded, can be dealt with, and anyone who breaks that handle off, as Buckle did, without finding some other method of treating historical material, merely deprives himself of the one possible way of dealing with it.
We have created documents that enshrine our values as a method of articulating and preserving them.
The true method of science which he possessed forced him to condemn as useless the entire form which Schelling's and Hegel's expositions had adopted, especially the dialectic method of the latter, whilst his love of art and beauty, and his appreciation of moral purposes, revealed to him the existence of a transphenomenal world of values into which no exact science could penetrate.
I do not think the importance of YouTube lies in its role as a communication method nor as a fundamentally new means of distribution of media.
In all parts of history in which he was best versed Vico pursues a stricter and more scientific method, and arrives at safer conclusions.
The old method of growing mushrooms in ridges out of doors, or on prepared beds either level or sloping from a back wall in sheds or cellars, may generally be adopted with success.
Despite being the most efficient method ever, it is still highly inefficient, and this inefficiency inspires hope.
These observations have given me a clue to the method to be followed in teaching Helen language.I SHALL TALK INTO HER HAND AS WE TALK INTO THE BABY'S EARS.
For it was Dr. Bell who first saw the principles that underlie Miss Sullivan's method, and explained the process by which Helen Keller absorbed language from books.
By this method several races of Saccharomycetes and brewery yeasts were isolated and described.
His style is clear and vivid; his method of describing what he sees extraordinarily plastic; above all, he has the art of presenting objects to us from their most interesting and attractive side.
In 1953, he developed a method to make strains of wheat highly resistant to a single form of rust.
In the second he not only enlarges his matter and gives multiplied applications of his ideas, but also follows the synthetic method, first expounding the laws he had discovered and then proving them by the facts to which they are applied.
The ancient historians all employed one and the same method to describe and seize the apparently elusive--the life of a people.
You will perhaps also see in your further initiation a like method of enlightenment.
Her method might not succeed so completely in the hands of any one else.
I think we will learn to conquer distance though a method of which we cannot yet conceive.
Perhaps an explanation of the method that was in use when I took my examinations will not be amiss here.
I think Shipton found the pages and decided to follow Annie's method of death.
The method originally used by Huggins, who first conceived and proved the possibility of measuring stellar velocities in the line of sight, was to measure with a filar micrometer the displacement of some well-known line in a stellar spectrum relative to the corresponding line of a terrestrial spectrum.
The restaurant's real claim to fame is the cooking method.
But the mind of man not only refuses to believe this explanation, but plainly says that this method of explanation is fallacious, because in it a weaker phenomenon is taken as the cause of a stronger.
Then in the 1940s, another American, Oswald Avery, was able to show, through an ingenious method, that the genetic information had to be carried by the DNA.
This method will allow us to treat the entire world as a controlled experiment in retrospect.
You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
It is due to Vieillot to mention these facts, as he has been accused of publishing his method in haste to anticipate some of Cuvier's views, but he might well complain of the delay in London.
Many of the excellencies of L'Herminier's method could not be pointed out without too great a sacrifice of space, because of the details into which.
claims a few words, though its scope is rather to show differences than affinities; but treatment of that kind is undoubtedly useful at times in indicating that alliances generally admitted are unnatural; and this is the case here, for, following Calvier's method, the author's researches prove the artificial character of some of its associations.
This Tentamen, containing his complete method of classifying birds in general, naturally received much attention, the more so perhaps, since, with its appendices, it was nearly the last labour of its respected author, whose industrious life came to an end in the course of the following year.
Ignatius was constantly adding to his work as his own personal experience increased, and as he watched the effects of his method on the souls of those to whom he gave the exercises.
He was one of the first to perceive the vast changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam into the navy, which would necessitate a new system of signals and a new method of tactics.
In 1536 legislation for changing the method of general government and regulating common pasturages and public property caused extreme dissatisfaction, but for many years thereafter the form of control alternated between alcaldes selected by the inhabitants and annual governors appointed by the Council of the Indies.
Owing to the method of assessment the tax fell with peculiar hardship on the middle classes, and to this day traces of the endeavours to lighten its burden may be seen in numerous bricked-up windows.
It is really not extraordinary that Isaac Hollandus was able to indicate the method of the preparation of the " philosopher's stone " from " adamic " or " virgin " earth, and its action when medicinally employed; that in the writings assigned to Roger Bacon, Raimon Lull, Basil Valentine and others are to be found the exact quantities of it to be used in transmutation; and that George Ripley, in the 15th century, had grounds for regarding its action as similar to that of a ferment.
Glauber showed how to prepare hydrochloric acid, spiritus salis, by heating rock-salt with sulphuric acid, the method in common use to-day; and also nitric acid from saltpetre and arsenic trioxide.
Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
It consisted in heating metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1798, when it was detected by L.
The second method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies.
This method has been improved, especially by Justus v.
Other elements do not interfere with this method.
(2) No general directions can be given as to the method of precipitation.
In such cases the simplicity of manipulation and the high degree of accuracy of the method have made it especially valuable.
We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.
An improvement on the old method of classification by purely external characters was introduced to the Academy of Sciences of Stockholm by C. J.
In this scheme birds are arranged according to what the author considered to be their natural method and sequence; but the result exhibits some unions as ill-assorted as can well be met with in the whole range of tentative arrangements of the class, together with some very unjustifiable divorces.
He also displays in this work a considerable knowledge of the Rabbinical writings and a skilful polemical method which was surpassed by none of the later anti-Jewish writers.
The law does not make the nomination of candidates for the United States Senate by this method mandatory nor such choice binding upon the General Assembly.
He also shows how his method may be used to determine some curious and long-discussed problems, such as the light of the stars, the ebb and flow of the tide, the motion of the balance.
Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
The ever-increasing importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older methods.
Gay Lussac may be regarded as the founder of the method, although rough applications had been previously made by F.
For substances of a difficultly combustible nature he adopted the method in common use to-day, viz.
In the first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace.
Want of data for the elements, however, restricts this method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary.
By this method it is shown that water, when present as " water of crystallization," behaves as if it were ice.
The first method needs no explanation.
Similarly, by this method of differences, the atomic refraction of any element may be determined.
Each has its independent occasion, purpose, character and method; but they draw largely on a common store of thought and use common means of expression.
While we have elsewhere no connected account of this, Justin's Apology contains a few paragraphs (61 seq.), which give a vivid description of the public worship of the Church and its method of celebrating the sacraments (Baptism and the Eucharist).
Koch subsequently improved the method.
This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.
Their absolute freedom from diffraction, the perfect control of the illumination and thickness of the lines, and the accuracy with which it will be possible to construct scales for zone observations will be important features of the new method.
But as yet he had only glimpses of a logical method which should invigorate the syllogism by the co-operation of ancient geometry and modern algebra.
In 1636 Descartes had resolved to publish some specimens of the fruits of his method, and some general observations on its 7 lb.
In the Discourse of Method Descartes had sketched the main points in his new views, with a mental autobiography which might explain their origin, and with some suggestions of as to their applications.
The answer to that question is the method of Descartes.
Each problem was something unique; the elements of transition from one to another were wanting; and the next step which mathematics had to make was to find some method of reducing, for instance, all curves to a common notation.
Having thus perfected the instrument, his next step was to apply it in such a way as to bring uniformity of method into the isolated and independent operations of geometry.
" I had no intention," 5 he says in the Method, " of attempting to master all 2 lb.
Both these methods, differing from that now employed, are interesting as preliminary steps towards the method of fluxions and the differential calculus.
In pure algebra Descartes expounded and illustrated the general methods of solving equations up to those of the fourth degree (and believed that his method could go beyond), stated the law which connects the positive and negative roots of an equation with the changes of sign in the consecutive terms, and introduced the method of indeterminate coefficients for the solution of equations.'
Such are the four points of Cartesian method: (1) Truth requires a clear and distinct conception of its object, excluding all doubt; (2) the objects of knowledge naturally fall into series or groups; (3) in these groups investigation must begin with a simple and indecomposable element, and pass from it to the more complex and relative elements; (4) an exhaustive and immediate grasp of the relations and interconnexion of these elements is necessary for knowledge in the fullest sense of that word.4 " There is no question," he says in anticipation of Locke and Kant, " more important to solve than that of knowing what human knowledge is and how far it extends."
The Discourse of Method and the Meditations apply what the Rules for the Direction of the Mind had regarded in particular instances to our conceptions of the world as a whole.
In 1705 Cartesianism was still subject to prohibitions from the authorities; but in a project of new statutes, drawn up for the faculty of arts at Paris in 1720, the Method and Meditations of Descartes were placed beside the Organon and the Metaphysics of Aristotle as text-books for philosophical study.
Fortunately the Cartesian method had already done its service, even where the theories were rejected.
There are also numerous editions and translations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Hungarian.
Veitch, Method, Meditations and Selections from the Principles (1850-1853; I Ith ed., 1897; New York, 1899); by H.
Fortified by this exhaustive preparation, Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae, which he intended to be the sum of all known learning, arranged according to the best method, and subordinate to the dictates of the church.
On all good greens the game is played in rinks of four a side, there being, however, on the part of many English clubs still an adherence to the old-fashioned method of two and three a side rinks.
In 1882 Jenkin invented an automatic method of electric transport for goods - "telpherage" - but the completion of its details was prevented by his death on the 12th of June 1885.
C. Baur's method.
the Eternity of the Son - is passed over as beyond the range of his method.
All remaining impurities, including the excess of oxygen, can then be taken out of the gas by Sir James Dewar's ingenious method of absorption with charcoal cooled in liquid air.
They have made this observation the basis of a practical method of separating helium from the other inert gases.
The best method of prescribing podophyllin is in pill form.
There are a number of methods available for adoption in the heating of buildings, but it is a matter of considerable difficulty to suit the method of warming to the class of building to be warmed.
Heating may be effected by one of the following systems, or installations may be so arranged as to combine the advantages of more than one method: open fires, closed stoves, hot-air apparatus, hot water circulating in pipes at low or at high pressure, or steam at high or low pressure.
With closed stoves much less heat is wasted, and consequ;ntly less fuel is burned, than with open grates, but they often cause an unpleasant sensation of dryness in the air, and the products of combustion also escape to some extent, rendering this method of heating not only unpleasant but sometimes even dangerous.
The method in Great Britain is almost entirely confined to places of public assembly, but in Warm air FIG.
In the case of factories the exhaust steam from the engines used for driving the working machinery is made use of and forms the most economical method of heating possible.
It is certainly the most scientific method of steam-heating, and heat can be made to travel a greater distance by its aid than by any other means.
This method is frequently adopted in combined schemes of heating and ventilating; the fresh air is warmed by being passed over their surfaces previously to being admitted through the gratings into the room.
12 the cylinder is placed in proximity to the boiler; this is the usual and most effective method, but it may be placed some distance away if desired.
This method differs from that adopted in the cylinder system, where all services are led from the top of the cylinder.
A "methodist" is one who follows a "method," the term being applied not only to the Wesleyan body, but earlier to the Amyraldists, and in the 17th century to certain Roman Catholic apologists.
Wesley and his helpers, finding the Anglican churches closed against them, took to preaching in the open air; and this method is still followed, more or less, in the aggressive evangelistic work of all the Methodist Churches.
The method which Napier terms "Rabdologia" consists in the use of certain numerating rods for the performance of multiplications and divisions.
The second method, which he calls the "Promptuarium Multiplicationis" on account of its being the most expeditious of all for the performance of multiplications, involves the use of a number of lamellae or little plates of metal disposed in a box.
These rules were published in the Canonis Descriptio (1614), and Napier has there given a figure, and indicated.a method, by means of which they may be proved directly.
He took immense pains with his work, and to some degree anticipated the modern scientific method of writing history.
The electoral districts so formed are expected to be equal in proportion to the number of inhabitants; but this method has led to much abuse in the past, through the making of unequal districts for partisan purposes.
With this end in view he expounded to the Berlin academy in 1849 a mode of determining an elliptic orbit from three observations, and communicated to that body in 1851 a new method of calculating planetary perturbations by means of rectangular coordinates (republished in W.
In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."
Boron bromide BBr 3 can be formed by direct union of the two elements, but is best obtained by the method used for the preparation of the chloride.
The events of these three years taught the Labour leaders that a parliamentary party was of little practical influence unless it was able to cast on all important occasions a solid vote, and to meet the case a new method was devised.
He was a great Hebrew teacher: his Grammar of the Hebrew Language (1861, revised 1888) was a distinct improvement in method on Gesenius, Roediger, Ewald and Nordheimer.
Still more original and remarkable, however, was that part of his system, fully stated in his Laws of Thought, which formed a general symbolic method of logical inference.
The second part of the Laws of Thought contained a corresponding attempt to discover a general method in probabilities, which should enable us from the given probabilities of any system of events to determine the consequent probability of any other event logically connected with the given events.
xiv.), which point in the same direction, and indicate that the model of the liver was used as an object lesson to illustrate the method of divination through the liver.
As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence or through the Babylonians.
It has been quarried since 1785; marble monuments were first manufactured about 1808; and at South Dorset in 1818 marble seems first to have been sawed in blocks, the earlier method having been chiselling.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
A similar method is that of J.
A laboratory method is to mix solutions of sodium nitromethane, CH 2: NO(ONa), and mercuric chloride, a yellow basic salt being formed at the same time.
The electric transmission of energy can be performed with an efficiency not reached by any other method, and the electric motor readily adapts itself to cranes.
For overhead travellers in workshops, and for most of the cranes which fall into our second class, electricity as a motive power has already displaced nearly every other method.
This second method forms the basis of the lifting gear in all hydraulic cranes.
In electric cranes a useful method is to arrange the connexions so that the lifting motor acts as a dynamo, and, driven by the energy of the falling load, generates a current which is converted into heat by being passed through resistances.
In the second, or " braking off " method, the brake is automatically applied by a spring or weight, and is released either mechanically or, in the case of electric cranes, by the pull of a solenoid or magnet which is energized by the current passing through the motor.
The first method is in general use for steam cranes; it allows for a far greater range of power in the brake, but is not automatic, as is the second.
This method of working is very suitable for electric dock-side cranes of capacities up to about 5 or 7 tons, and for overhead travellers where the height of lift is moderate.
Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
In 1836 Cooke, to whom the idea appears to have been suggested by Schilling's method, invented a telegraph in which an alphabet was worked out by the single and combined movement of three needles.
The poles are of red fir, creosoted, this method of preservation being the only one now used for this purpose in the United Kingdom.
- Method of testing Circuits.
This method has the advantage of distinctness, and so is writer less trying to the eyes of the operators.
23, representing the " differential " method, B is the sending battery, B 1 a resistance equal to that of the battery, R a rheostat and C an adjustable condenser.
- Duplex Working: differential method.
In the " bridge " method (fig.
- Duplex Working: bridge method.
One very great advantage in this method is that the instrument used between P and Q may be of any ordinary form, i.e.
in the ordinary methods, a differentially wound receiving instrument was used, one coil being connected with the cable Company and the various Atlantic cables, are worked duplex on method of duplexing a cable was described by Lord Muirhead's plan.
By a modification of the bridge method, applied with excellent results by Dr Muirhead to submarine work, condensers are substituted for a and b, one being also placed in the circuit between P and Q.
The first to attain practical success was Edison, and his method with some modifications is still the one in most general use.
A method of recording signals in the Morse code, formerly used to a considerable extent, was to use a chemically prepared ribbon of paper.
By this method of transmission the battery is always to the line for the same interval of time, and alternately with opposite poles, so that the effect of electrostatic induction is reduced to a minimum.
In the Rowland multiple method of telegraphic working, the transmitter consists of a mechanical keyboard provided with a series of levers, which effect certain combinations of positive and negative currents for each letter.
The advantage of using the magnetic bridge duplex method is that the maximum current is sent to line or cable, and the receiving system benefits accordingly.
- Morse's Con Numerous investigators followed in duction Method.
James Bowman Lindsay of Dundee, between 1845 and 1854, reinvented and even patented Morse's method, and practically put the plan into operation for experimental purposes across the river Tay.
He and others also suggested the applicability of the method to the inter-communication of ships at sea.
At a later date, 1891, Trowbridge discussed another method of effecting communication at a distance, viz., by means of magnetic induction between two separate and completely insulated circuits.
This method of communication by magnetic induction through space establishes, therefore, a second method of wireless telegraphy which is quite independent of and different from that due to conduction through earth or water.
Following on this he made an interesting experiment, using Morse's method, to connect the Isle of Wight telegraphically with the mainland, by conduction across the Solent in two places, during a temporary failure of the submarine cable in 1882 in that channel.
The method of induction between insulated primary and secondary circuits laid out flat on the surface of the earth proves to be of limited application, and in his later experiments Preece returned to a method which unites both conduction and induction as the means of affecting one circuit by a current in another.
P. Granville put into practice between Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight and the Needles lighthouse a method which depends upon conduction through sea water.
Communication was established by this method in the year 1895 with the lighthouse on the Fastnet."
There is no evidence, however, that the method proposed could or did effect the transmission of speech or signals between stations separated by any distance.
In December 1898 communication was established by the Marconi method between the East Goodwin lightship and the South Foreland lighthouse; and this installation was maintained for upwards of a year, during which it was the means of saving both life and property.
If these spark balls are set at the right distance, then when the potential difference accumulates the antenna will be charged and at some stage suddenly discharged by the discharge leaping across the spark gap. This was Marconi's original method, and the plan is still used under the name of the direct method of excitation or the plain antenna.
This method of receiving soon came to be known as the telephonic method.
A method of syntonic telegraphy proposed by A.
Very briefly stated, his method consists in sending out a group of wave trains at certain irregular but assigned intervals of time to constitute the simplest signal equivalent to a dot in the Morse code, and a sequence of such trains, say three following one another, to constitute the dash on the Morse code.
12039 of 1896) brought forward the idea of focusing a beam of electric radiation for telegraphic purposes on a distant station by means of parabolic mirrors, and tried this method successfully on Salisbury Plain up to a distance of about a couple of miles.
In his method three vertical antennae are employed, placed at equidistant distances, and oscillations are created in the three with a certain relative difference of phase.
The condenser method of making oscillations is analogous to the production of air vibrations by twanging a harp string at short intervals.
Poulsen's method of producing continuous or undamped electrical waves has been applied by him in radio-telegraphy.
An important modification of this method enables not only audible signals but articulated words to be transmitted, and gives thus a system of wireless telephony.
15599 of 1903; also a lecture given in London, November 27, 1906, " On a Method of producing undamped Electrical Oscillations and their employment in Wireless Telegraphy," Electrician, 1906, 58, p. 166.
The evidence of date derived from changes in the language is more difficult to formulate, and the inquiry calls for the most diligent use of scientific method and critical judgment.
The method first employed for working a telephone line was extremely simple.
Dean's method (fig.
A cord circuit, similar in many respects, including the method .y.^9 Jr '' of operation, but equipped with condensers and impedance coils, in place of the repeating coil, is shown in fig.
Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
Aerial distribution from distributing poles is a method frequently adopted.
The original method of charging adopted in Great Britain took the telephone instrument as the unit, charging a fixed annual rental independent of the amount of use to which the instrument was put.
Another method of charge, known as the " measured service rate," is de - signed to make the subscriber pay in proportion to the quality and quantity of the service he takes.
A similar method prevails in the Abruzzi, and in the provinces of Salerno, Benevento and Avellino.
In the province of Naples, Caserta, &c., the method of fallows is widely adopted, the ground often being left in this state for fifteen or twenty years; and in some parts of Sicily there is a regular interchange of fallow and crop year by year.
The following scheme indicates a common Sicilian method of a type which has many varieties: fallow, grain, grain, pasture, pastureother two divisions of the area following the same order, but beginning respectively with the two years of grain and the two of pasture.
In order to understand the future history of Italy, it is necessary to form a clear conception of the method pursued by the Lombards in their conquest.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
Or at least he has rightly seen what are the assertions to aim at; it is difficult to accept the principle or method upon which his answer to the riddle proceeds, the dialectic method.
Anyhow, whatever the method or interpretation is to be, idealism, even more fully than materialism, is pledged to monism and to the rejection of dualism.
The new method of definition which Socrates applied to problems of human conduct was extended by Plato to the whole universe of the knowable.
Assuredly Butler did not mean to give him his right of speaking about moral evil and good when he waived the " high priori method of vindicating their real existence.
inductive proof requiring, according to Mill's Logic, the " Method of Difference."
Still, the Design argument is a good sample of a proof by means of the inferior method.
Unfortunately, however, the method of agreement is liable to be baffled by " plurality of causes."
It is very interesting, but it does not constitute any marked advance in the history of parliament, as it merely expresses the customary method of summoning a council.
In the monopodial method (figs.
- Diagrams of the monopodial method of budding, shown in five stages (1-5).
In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.
In this method of budding F s there are two types.
- Diagram showing method of branchcessively its organs ing in the Aglaophenia-type.
- A eginopsis hensenii, slightly magnified, showing the manner in which the tentacles are carried in life.) medusa usually has a characteristic method of carrying its tentacles.
Nearly every possible method of reproduction occurs amongst the Hydromedusae.
The direct method of medusa-budding only differs from the polyp-bud by its greater complexity of parts and organs.
44, 45) is the commonest method by which medusabuds are formed.
- Modifications of the method of becomes reduced budding shown in fig.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
- This method of budding is commonly described as budding from a single body-layer, instead of from both layers.
The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.
Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.
II, Method of Cunina; (a) the mouth arises, next the umbrella (b), and lastly the tentacles (c).
III, Hypothetical transition from II to the indirect method with an entocodon; the formation of the manubrium is retarded, that of the umbrella hastened (IIIa, b).
This method of reproduction has been described by E.
It is very remarkable that this method of characterizing and diagnozing species has never been extended to the marine hydroids.
The buds become medusae by the direct method of budding described above.
It is in these parasitic forms that we meet with the method of reproduction by sporogony described above.
First of all, his genetic method as applied to the mind's ideas - which laid the foundations of English analytical psychology - was a step in the direction of a conception of mental life as a gradual evolution.
The method is simply the logical result of the fact that every existing form of life stands at the summit of a long branch of the whole tree of life.
In embryology the method finds its expression in the limitation of comparisons to the corresponding stages of low and high forms and the exclusion of the comparisons between the adult stages of low forms and the embryonic stages of higher forms.
Another expression of the same method, due to Cope, and specially valuable to the taxonomist, is that when the relationship between orders is being considered, characters of subordinal rank must be neglected.
It must not be supposed that earlier writers all neglected this method, or still less that all writers now employ it, but merely that formerly it was frequently overlooked by the best writers, and now is neglected only by the worst.
Enough, however, has already been done to show the vast importance of the method in grouping and codifying the empirical facts of life, and in so preparing the way for the investigation of ultimate " causes."
William the Conqueror revived it immediately of ter his accession, as a convenient method of national taxation, and it was with the object of facilitating its collection that he ordered the compilation of Domesday Book.
Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1893, 116, p. 1225), or by the Goldschmidt method (Rosenheim and Braun, Zeit.
The term Cryptogam is archaic, implying a hidden method of reproduction as compared with the obvious method represented by the flower of the Phanerogam; with the aid of a good microscope it is, however, easier to follow the process of fertilization.
on the method of association.
This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour.
Radlkofer (1883) was the first to call attention to the great importance of this method in systematic botany, as providing fresh characters on which to base a natural classification.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
This method of study has to a large extent modified our ideas of the relative importance of the parts of such an organism as a large tree.
Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
The method by which this is brought about is, however, the subject of much controversy.
The general method by which this is effected in this and other cases is statistical.
A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.
Both branches, although enriched by new facts, remained stationary so far as method is concerned until nearly the end of the 18th century.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.
The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.
O CH 3, is prepared either by the above method or by the action of diazomethane on phenol, C6HSOH+CH2N2=N2+C6H5.
Some method of subdivision is necessary, and the simplest and most obvious is that which breaks the whole into two great parts, the ante-Nicene and the post-Nicene.
A notable method of borrowing power from another magic-wielding agency is simply to breathe its name in connexion with the spell that stands in need of reinforcement; as the name suggests its owner, so it comes to stand for his real presence.
His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.
It began, as a method, with the Sopherim (though there are traces in the Old Testament itself), and was most developed among the Tannaim and Amoraim, rivalling even the study of halakhah.
Later on, Jacob 3 I Hebrew vi, from the initial letters of Rabbi Shelomoh Yizbagi, a convenient method used by Jewish writers in referring to well-known authors.
The method of this irrigation is peculiar.
In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired; after a time the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom of the hole and is then ladled out.
To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
But Boetius belonged to the school of musical writers who based their science on the method of Pythagoras.
Definition is merely a circuitous method of stating an identity: "a tree is a vegetable growth" is logically no more than "a tree is a tree."
It would only lead to confusion, however, if we called this method " apologetic."
In 1749 he furnished a method of applying his principles to the motion of any body of a given figure; and in 1754 he solved the problem of the precession of the equinoxes, determined its quantity and explained the phenomenon of the nutation of the earth's axis.
The value of the fish has much increased owing to the introduction of cold storage; as a result of the employment of this method of packing, fish is now exported in a fresh state from the Black Sea to all parts of S.W.
This method, however, was not found satisfactory: the projecting feet were liable to be broken off, and in 1799 or 1800 Jessop abandoned them, using instead separate cast-iron sockets or chairs, which were fastened to the sleepers and in which the rails were supported in an upright position.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
It has generally come to be that of Germany and, so far as the finances of the countries allow, of Austria and Russia; British India also affords not a few examples of the same method.
The commission method of control was not a new one.
Spiller, and " A Practical Method for the Improvement of Existing Railway Curves," by W.
This method of construction, however, has been adopted only to a very limited extent.
In the first method, which is practically universal in Great Britain and is also employed to 1 See a full account of steel sleepers in a paper read by A.
This method of construction is more FIG.
The oldest and commonest method of shunting is that known as " push-and-pull," or in America as " link-and-pin " or " tail " shunting.
The method of working is for the pole to be swung out behind a number of wagons; one engine is then started and with its pole pushes the wagons in front of it until their speed is sufficient to carry them over the points, where they are diverted into any desired siding.
Another method, which was introduced into America from Europe about 1890, is that of the summit or " hump."
In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
The same method is finding increased favour in Great Britain, to the supersession of the old hot-water footwarmers.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
The method of constructing the working faces of this coupler is shown in fig.
Wherever possible the lines were constructed in open cutting, to ensure adequate ventilation; and where this was not possible they were built by a method suggestively named " cut and cover."
(For the details of the shield and method of its operation, see Tunnel.) By means of the shield Greathead cut a circular hole at a depth ranging from 40 to 80 ft.
This method of construction has been used for building other railways in Glasgow and London, and in the latter city alone the " tube railways " of this character have a length of some 40 m.
For instance, it is not very uncommon to find persons who can make loud sounds by partially dislocating and restoring the toe, knee, or other joints, and some experiments made with the Fox girls in 1851 supported the view that they made raps by this method.
the only permitted method of kindling it, (b) the tracing on the ground of the vedi, or magical circle, to destroy impurities, (c) the digging of the hole which constituted the real altar, (d) the preparation of the post which represented the sacrificer and to which the victim was tied, and other minor details.
C. Janssen, a spectroscopic method for observing the solar prominences in daylight, and the names of both astronomers appear on a medal which was struck by the French government in 1872 to commemorate the discovery.
Roberval was one of those mathematicians who, just before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, occupied their attention with problems which are only soluble, or can be most easily solved, by some method involving limits or infinitesimals, and in the solution of which accordingly the calculus is always now employed.
Another of Roberval's discoveries was a very general method of drawing tangents, by considering a curve as described by a moving point whose motion is the resultant of several simpler motions.
In pursuance of his method of successive studies he began in 1823 the study of Italian literature, passing over German as demanding more labour than he could afford.
In accordance with his general method these notes were in turn read over to him until he had completely mastered them, when they were worked up in his memory to their final shape.
As an historian Prescott stands in the direct line of literary descent from Robertson, whose influence is clearly discernible both in his method and style.
He worked, therefore, upon more assured ground; his sifting of authorities was more thorough and his method less restricted.
But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."
In judging the Decline and Fall it should carefully be observed that it falls into two parts which are heterogeneous in the method of treatment.
There is quite a different method of considering the nebular origin of our system, which leads in a very striking manner to conclusions practically identical with those we have just sketched.
Forbes communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a short paper of his on a mechanical method of tracing Cartesian ovals.
Though his method is throughout scholastic, he covers the same ground, and Grotius speaks of him in terms of high respect.
For the method of their formation see Joyce, op. cit.
Both lines of study were readily combined by applying to the interpretation of descriptions of natural objects the allegorical method adopted for the interpretation of Biblical texts.
His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics.
As a very great number of important chemical actions take place on mixing solutions, the method for such cases has been thoroughly studied.
Since thermochemical measurements of this type may be frequently performed with an error due to other causes of much less than i per cent., the error introduced by either of these assumptions is the chief cause of uncertainty in the method.
Ostwald has proposed a modification of Berthelot's method which has many advantages, and is now commonly in use.
Since heats of formation afford such convenient data for calculation on the above method, they have been ascertained for as many compounds as possible.
But there has been considerable interference (ostensibly on humanitarian grounds) with the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food (Shehitah) and the method was prohibited by a referendum in 1893.
The elaborate method and bureaucratic control visible in the clay documents of the palace point to a highly developed legal organization.
The method of election is peculiar, being based in part upon the national presidential model.
Since 1890 further and more rigorous application of the telegraphic method of determining longitudes differentially with Greenwich has resulted in a slight correction (amounting to about 2" of arc) to the previous determination by the same method through Suez.
4 Kuenen, " The Critical Method," Modern Review, 1880, p. 701 (Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Germ.
His first publication, however, dealt with a question of philosophical method suggested by the reading of Hutcheson.
At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.
The Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus which Romilly translated was the only important work Mirabeau wrote in the year 1785, and it is a good specimen of his method.
The Logic, an eminently practical work, written from the point of view of Locke, is in five parts, dealing with (1) the nature of the human mind, its faculties and operations; (2) ideas and their kinds; (3) the true and the false, and the various degrees of knowledge; (4) reasoning and argumentation; (5) method and the ordering of our thoughts.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
His method was empirical, and the laws which he established were generally the result of repeated experiment.
Delisle is chiefly remembered as the author of a method for observing the transits of Venus and Mercury by instants of contacts.
1731; 2nd ed., 1 735, 4 vols.; 3rd ed., 1736-1738, 4 vols.); Life and Acts o f Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury (1710), of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (1711), and of John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury (1718); An Accurate Edition of Stow's Survey of London (1720), a valuable edition of Stow, although its interference with the original text is a method of editing which can scarcely be reckoned fair to the original author; and Ecclesiastical Memorials (3 vols., 1721; 3 vols., 1733).
The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
There are no limits to the good results of his introduction of a true method of reasoning into the moral and political sciences.
He thus takes substantially the same ground as Descartes, but he rejected the a priori method.
In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school.
It is evident that the same method may be followed with other sorts which continue only a short time in a mature state.
He mentions the different kinds of wheat, barley and oats; and after describing the method of harrowing "all maner of cornnes," we find the roller employed.
The author then points out the great advantages of enclosure; recommends " quycksettynge, dychynge and hedgeyng "; and gives particular directions about settes, and the method of training a hedge, as well as concerning the planting and management of trees.
Before 1655 the culture of clover, exactly according to the present method, seems to have been well known in England, and it had also made its way to Ireland.
The author bespeaks the favour of those to whom he addresses himself in the following significant terms: - " Neither shall I affright you with hedging, ditching, marling, chalking, paring and burning, draining, watering and such like, which are all very good improvements indeed, and very agreeable with the soil and situation of East Lothian, but I know ye cannot bear as yet a crowd of improvements, this being only intended to initiate you in the true method and principles of husbandry."
The great losses arising from spoilt hay crops served to stimulate experimental inquiry into the method of preserving green fodder known as ensilage, with the result that the system eventually became successfully incorporated in the ordinary routine of agricultural practice.
In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.
old-fashioned system of guessing at the weight of an animal by the sounder method of obtaining the exact weight by means of the weighbridge.
A familiar practical method of estimating carcase weight from live weight is to reckon one Smithfield stone (8 lb) of carcase for each imperial stone (14 lb) of live weight.
In 1882, at Reading, a gold medal was given for a cream separator for horse power, whilst a prize of roo guineas offered for the most efficient and most economical method of drying hay or corn crops artificially, either before or after being stacked, was not awarded.
The progress of steam cultivation has not justified the hopes that were once entertained in the United Kingdom concerning this method of working implements in the field.
By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
He was a man of extreme simplicity in his method of life.
With respect to economic method he shifted his position, yet to the end occupied uncertain ground.
In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."
Notwithstanding his misgivings and even disclaimers, he yet remained as to method a member of the old school, and never passed into the new "historical" school.
This method has made great advances in recent years.
Whatever " method " of economic investigation we employ, we must at every stage see how far our reasoning is borne out by the actual experience of life.
There is no method of investigation which is peculiarly economic or of which economics has the monopoly.
The application of the a priori method in economics was an accident, due to its association with other subjects and the general backwardness of other sciences rather than any exceptional and peculiar character in the subject-matter of the science itself.
As a matter of fact, discussions of method and the criticism of hypotheses and assumptions are very rarely found in early economic works.
General discussion of method, however, is rarely profitable.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
There is no reason why we should apply to this particular act a different method of inquiry from that we should apply to any other of the numerous acts, of more or less economic importance, passed in the same session of parliament.
But at this stage in historical investigation it is generally the want of evidence of a sufficiently complete and continuous character, rather than difficulties of method, which forces us to leave the problem unsolved.
When we come to exclusively modern questions, there is no reason or necessity for a fundamental change of method.
To buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest; to secure cheapness by lowering the expenses of production; to adopt the less expensive rather than the more expensive method of obtaining a given result - these and other maxims are as old as human society.
" Anticipations " of method and doctrine can generally be found by the diligent investigator in the economic literature of his own or a foreign country.
This is true whether their method is good or bad, whether their conclusions are true or false.
1, A), and agrees with the method of coiling of a mollusc without lateral torsion, such as Nautilus.
Rabl has with remarkable skill applied the method of sections to the study of the minute embryos of Planorbis.
With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.
On this method the sacred writings are regarded as an inexhaustible mine of philosophical and dogmatic wisdom; in reality the exegete reads his own ideas into any passage he chooses.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.
The method of this dorsal closure varies in different insects.
The larvae produced by this remarkable method (paedogenesis) of virgin-reproduction are hatched within the parent larva, and in some cases escape by the rupture of its body.
If so, there is an alternative method by which the endopterygotous may have arisen from the exopterygotous condition.
His principal single production, representing his scholarly method and conservative conclusions, was The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel: External Evidences (1880; second edition, by J.
With certain modifications in principle not very important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, Aldrovandus adopted Belon's method of arrangement, but in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression.
Both these works (now rare) are manifestly framed on the Linnaean method, so far as it had then reached; but in their arrangement of the various forms of birds they differed greatly from that which they designed to supplant, and they deservedly obtained little success.
Immediately on the completion of his Regne Animale in 1756, Brisson set about his Ornithologie, and it is only in the last two volumes of the latter that any reference is made to the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae, in which the binomial method was introduced.
It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
His Synopsis was finished in 1785; two supplements were added in 1787 and 1802, 6 and in 1790 he produced an abstract of the work under the title of Index Ornithologicus, wherein he assigned names on the Linnaean method to all the species described.
The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.
In 1816 Vieillot published at Paris an Analyse d'une nouvelle ornithologie elementaire, containing a method of classification which he had tried in vain to get printed before, both in Turin and in London.
4 The method was communicated to the Turin Academy, on 10th January 1814, and was ordered to be printed (Mem.
As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine specimen of inductive research.
He certainly describes a method of constructing a telescope, but not so as to lead one to conclude that he was in possession of that instrument.
In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
It is believed that the rotation must differ with every variety of soil, with the result that each planter has his own method, and little can be said in general.
They bore holes and penetrate into flower-buds and young bolls, causing them to drop. Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize, to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.
A simple method of increasing the yield is that practised with success by some growers in the States.
A more elaborate method of selection is practised by some of the Sea Island cotton planters in the Sea Islands, famous for the quality of their cotton.
This method is in actual use by growers of Sea Island cotton in America and in the islands off the coast of S.
- The method employed is to select, for seed purposes, plants which are resistant to the particular disease.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
principal strata bored through, the Canadian method of drilling differs from the Pennsylvanian or American system in the following particulars: 1.
Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.
In America, crude petroleum was at first transported in iron-hooped barrels, holding from 40 to 42 American gallons, which were carried by teamsters to Oil Creek and the Allegheny River, where they were loaded on boats, these being floated down stream whenever sufficient water was present - a method leading to much loss by collision and grounding.
The most common method of distribution in cities and towns is by a series of pipes from 12 in.
But what the Third Crusade showed most clearly was that the crusading movement was being lost to the papacy, and becoming part of the demesne of the secular state - organized by the state on its own basis of taxation, and conducted by the state according to its own method of negotiation.
Increase in size appears sometimes to be accompanied by the development of a new layer of fibres, whereas a difference in the method of preparation may give to a layer which appeared homogeneous in one specimen a decidedly fibrous aspect in another.
In addition to the Old Testament the Therapeutae had books by the founders of their sect on the allegorical method of interpreting Scripture.
The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.
The finer soaps are perfumed by the cold method; the soap is shaved down to thin slices, and the essential oil kneaded into and mixed with it by special machinery, after which it is formed into cakes by pressure in suitable moulds.
The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.
In it Maclaurin developed several theorems due to Newton, and introduced the method of generating conics which bears his name, and showed that many curves of the third and fourth degrees can be described by the intersection of two movable angles.
In the preface he states that the work was undertaken in consequence of the attack on the method of fluxions made by George Berkeley in 1734.
The modern method of determining orbits from three or four observations was first developed by C. F.
His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which he saw it during the course of his walks.
The original parts of the book are principally to be found in the meditations, which are clearly Ignatian in conception as well as method.
(a) Gravimetric. - This method is made up of four operations: (I) a weighed quantity of the substance is dissolved in a suitable solvent; (2) a particular reagent is added which precipitates the substance it is desired to estimate; (3) the precipitate is filtered, washed and dried; (4) the filter paper containing the precipitate is weighed either as a tared filter, or incinerated and ignited either in air or in any other gas, and then weighed.
Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
The former method, usually called the " natural scale," may be described as " international," for it is quite independent of local measures of length, and depends exclusively upon the size and figure of the earth.
The second method is still employed in many cases, and we find thus: In cases where the draughtsman has omitted to indicate the scale we can ascertain it by dividing the actual length of a meridian degree by the length of a degree measure upon the map. Thus a degree between 50° and 51° measures 111,226,000 mm.; on the map it is represented by i r r mm.
Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
It is claimed for this method that it affords a means of giving a graphic representation of Alpine districts where other methods of shading fail.
The method of manufacturing a globe is much the same as it was at the beginning of the 16th century.
The method of preparing these gores was originally found empirically, but since the days of Albert Darer it has also engaged the minds of many mathematicians, foremost among whom was Professor A.
It only cost X169 as compared with £360 had the old method been pursued.
keeper of the famous library of Alexandria in 247 B.C., and died in that city in 195 B.C. He won fame as having been the first to determine the size of the earth by a scientific method.
A few latitudes had indeed been observed, but although Hipparchus had shown how longitudes could be determined by the observation of eclipses, this method was in reality not available for want of trustworthy time-keepers.
But in spite of his errors the scientific method pursued by Ptolemy was correct, and though he was neglected by the Romans and during the middle ages, once he had become known, in the 15th century, he became the teacher of the modern world.
Lehmann (1783) who based his method of hill-shading or hachuring upon these horizontal contours.
They believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the varying needs of the day.
Apart from points of doctrine which can be more or less definitely stated (not always with unanimity) Quakerism is an atmosphere, a manner of life, a method of approaching questions, a habit and; attitude of mind.
In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.
His fears and prejudices melted away as he discerned that this was the very method needed for reaching the multitudes living in almost heathen darkness.
His method is largely allegorical.
11 -13) has transmitted to us of the manufacture of the writing material from the papyrus plant should be taken strictly to refer to the process followed in his own time; but, with some differences in details, the same general method of treatment had doubtlessly been practised from time immemorial.
A third method consists in placing the specimen within bibulous paper, and enclosing the whole between two plates of coarsely perforated zinc supported in a wooden frame.
They are full of both grace and individuality; the features show excellent draughtsmanship; and the flesh-painting is firm and sound in method, though frequently tending a little to hardness and opacity.
They enumerate the following primary types of instinctive behaviour: the manner of attacking and capturing a particular kind of prey which alone affords the requisite presentation to sense; the manner of conveying the prey to the nest; the general style and locality of the nest; the method and order of procedure in stocking the nest with food for the unseen young.
This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
Its salts may be obtained in some cases by heating the corresponding nitrates, but the method does not give good results.
Thus the whole method of measurement in geometry as described in the elementary textbooks and the older treatises is obscure to the last degree.
- A one-one relation between the members of two classes a and 0 is any method of correlating all the members of a to all the members of 13, so that any member of a has one and only one correlate in 1 3, and any member of l3 has one and only one correlate in a.
- Rational numbers and real numbers in general can now be defined according to the same general method.
The difference is a difference in method.
The enthusiastic spirit of reform which heralded the accession of the latter sultan never altogether died out, and from about the last decade of the 19th century has been rapidly and effectively growing in force and in method.
In 1888 a school of sericulture was founded by the public debt administration for the rearing of silkworms according to the Pasteur method.
This is the method so frankly condemned by Ali Aga, as was seen above, in 1653.
Passing now to the examination of the budget, it should be observed that the method of estimating the revenues - a matter of great difficulty owing to the previous want of method - is described by Laurent as follows: " For every nature of receipts the total effective collections for the five last known years were set out, the averages were taken of these and the increase or decrease of the yearly average of those same years was worked out and added to or deducted from the figure previously obtained.
metres of the superficial area covering the mine, and a proportional duty varying from I% to 20% of the gross value of metal contained in the ore, according to the kind of metal and the method of extraction of the ore), £T45,141; and tax-papers (Tezkeres), £T58,434.
Elaborate regulations are in force for this method of collection to secure the state receiving its full due Total..
But to all these Berthier in the emperor's name sent the stereotyped reply- " The emperor has ordered you to carry four days' provisions, therefore you can expect nothing further - you know the emperor's method of conducting war."
What followed presents perhaps the finest instance of tlNapoleonic method.
At Friedland, however, his success was complete, and henceforth the method recurs on practically every battlefield.
A partial explanation of this phenomenon may perhaps be found in the economy of nervous energy his strategical method ensured to him.
The characteristic, but by no means attractive, street dress of the Moslem women of the better class comprises a black horse-hair visor completely covering the face and projecting like an enormous beak, the nether extremities being encased in yellow boots reaching to the knee and fully displayed by the method of draping the garments in front.
Leonardo gave as solution the numbers 11 i 4 4, 16, 9 4 - 7 4 and 6197 T, - the squares of 3,, 41'v and 2, 7; and the method of finding them is given in the Liber quadratorum.
Leonardo's method, therefore, when the difference was a fixed condition of the problem, was necessarily very different from the Arabian, and, in all probability, was his own discovery.
Genocchi believes Leonardo to have been in possession of a certain method called regula aurea by H.
In the Letter to Magister Theodore indeterminate problems are chiefly worked, and Leonardo hints at his being able to solve by a general method any problem of this kind not exceeding the first degree.
Here the invalids used to sleep when consulting the god, and the inscriptions found here record not only the method of consulting the god, but the manner of his cures.
3), so called from its inventor, is merely a refinement on the Montreuil method.
What is most worthy of notice in this method is the management of the e subordinates in the pruning for fruit.
5) approaches more nearly to the French method than any other practised in England; but the direct channel FIG.
The variations themselves are detected by the method of seasonally repeated hydrographic soundings.
Taking such an easily surveyable area as the North Sea, the quantity of relatively warm and dense Atlantic water entering it from year to year can be estimated by the method of hydrographic sections.
He was a distinguished educationist who fought for the retention of the Latin classics in the schools and instituted the celebrated catechetical method of St Sulpice.
P. Sabanezhev obtained the value 15,000 by Raoult's method for purified egg albumin.
The method employed was to measure the changes in volume caused by the action.
Another method is to allow an acid to act on an insoluble salt, and to measure the quantity which goes into solution.
The results of this method are given in column III.
The character of the vestments, the method of putting them on, and the occasions on which they are severally to be worn, are regulated with the minutest care in the Missal and the Caeremoniale.
He suggested that the method was applicable for quantitatively estimating glucose, but its acceptance only followed after H.
In his method of employing illustration he is suggestive of Thomas Adams, Thomas Fuller, Richard Baxter, Thomas Manton and John Bunyan.
This separation can be rapidly effected with some latices by the use of a centrifugal machine, but this method has not yet been applied to any extent commercially.
Although intrinsically of excellent quality, Rambong rubber, owing to the careless method of collection practised by the natives which leads to the inclusion of much impurity, usually fetches a lower price than Para.
The rubber is of good quality, though, owing to the method of preparation adopted, the product is often impure and discoloured, and consequently usually brings a lower price than the best rubbers of commerce.
The success of the method cannot yet be judged, but the experiment is one which deserves very full trial.
One of the most important subjects in connexion with rubber plantations is the method to be adopted in tapping the trees for latex.
At present it cannot be said that finality has been reached on the subject of the best method, giving a good return of latex with a minimum of damage to the tree.
A method at one time largely adopted was to make a series of V-shaped incisions on four sides of the tree to a height of about 6 ft.
This method is said to answer well with the latex of Castilloa, but it appears to be inapplicable to the latex of Hevea, which does not cream readily when centrifugalized.
There is no feasible method at present known of preventing the inclusion of the resin of the latex with the rubber during coagulation, and although the separation of the resin from the solid caoutchouc by means of solvents is possible, it is not practicable or profitable commercially.
Another method of vulcanizing articles made from cut sheet rubber consists in exposing them to the action of chloride of sulphur.
Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.
Zinc is commonly deposited by electrolysis on iron or steel goods which would ordinarily be "galvanized," but which for any reason may not conveniently be treated by the method of immersion in fused zinc. The zinc cyanide bath may be used for small objects, but for heavy goods the sulphate bath is employed.
Cobalt is deposited by a method analogous to that used for its sistermetal nickel.
Some thinkers fell back on the "modalistic" solution which regards "Father" and "Son" as two aspects of the same subject; but a simpler and more popular method was the "adoptianist" or humanitarian.
Since the mineral occurs in definite veins, a more satisfactory and economical method of working would be that adopted in metalliferous mines, with a vertical shaft, cross-cuts, and levels running along the strike of the vein: the mica could then be extracted by overhead stopping, and the waste material used for filling up the worked-out excavations.
A later result of this method of investigation was the discovery of a new member of the rare earths, monium or victorium, the spectrum of which is characterized by an isolated group of lines, only to be detected photographically, high up in the ultra-violet; the existence of this body was announced in his presidential address to the British Association at Bristol in 1898.
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
At the great Indian eclipse of 1868 he demonstrated the gaseous nature of the red prominences, and devised a method of observing them under ordinary daylight conditions.
The instrument affords a ready method of transferring liquids.
Stroh, from a knowledge of the results, was able to verify and extend the results by the symbolic method.
The partition method of treating symmetrical algebra is one which has been singularly successful in indicating new paths of advance in the theory of invariants; the important theorem of expressibility is, directly we exclude unity from the partitions, a theorem concerning the expressibility of covariants, and involves the theory of the reducible forms and of the syzygies.
a3 a 2 0 b 2 b1 0 a 3 0 0 b2 This is Euler's method.
Bezout's method gives the resultant in the form of a determinant of order m or n, according as m is n.
There is no difficulty in expressing the resultant by the method of symmetric functions.
- An important method for the formation of covariants is connected with the form f +X4), where f and 4 are of the same order in the variables and X is an arbitrary constant.
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