Method Sentence Examples
We have already seen this method work.
Now I'm able to adjust my method of operation accordingly.
His method was direct — addressing her needs with simple statements and questions.
This method in one shape or another has been often employed.
A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.Advertisement
To obtain an absolutely pure culture with certainty it is necessary, even when the gelatin method is employed, to start from a single cell.
Another method of genetic modification, called mutagenesis, dates to the early part of the twentieth century.
She got the language from the language itself, and this is, next to hearing the language spoken, the way for any one to get a foreign tongue, more vital and, in the end, easier than our schoolroom method of beginning with the grammar.
The restaurant's real claim to fame is the cooking method.
Had the idea only been a clever method to gain favors?Advertisement
We use democracy as a method of selecting representatives.
The distinction between the old and new method of observation may thus, in one sense, be described as the difference between shooting at a moving object and in shooting at one at rest.
In his method three vertical antennae are employed, placed at equidistant distances, and oscillations are created in the three with a certain relative difference of phase.
Unfortunately, however, the method of agreement is liable to be baffled by " plurality of causes."
This method has been improved, especially by Justus v.Advertisement
A second method of radical redistribution is to increase marginal tax rates to a point that is confiscatory.
Poulsen's method of producing continuous or undamped electrical waves has been applied by him in radio-telegraphy.
The second method possesses greater advantages, for rings of approximate stability come in one group, and, consequently, their derivatives may be expected to exhibit considerable analogies.
Other elements do not interfere with this method.
In such cases the simplicity of manipulation and the high degree of accuracy of the method have made it especially valuable.Advertisement
At the great Indian eclipse of 1868 he demonstrated the gaseous nature of the red prominences, and devised a method of observing them under ordinary daylight conditions.
The instrument affords a ready method of transferring liquids.
Even today, the scientific method involves experimentation that almost always necessitates some amount of data collection.
We have created documents that enshrine our values as a method of articulating and preserving them.
Despite being the most efficient method ever, it is still highly inefficient, and this inefficiency inspires hope.Advertisement
This method of communication by magnetic induction through space establishes, therefore, a second method of wireless telegraphy which is quite independent of and different from that due to conduction through earth or water.
Following on this he made an interesting experiment, using Morse's method, to connect the Isle of Wight telegraphically with the mainland, by conduction across the Solent in two places, during a temporary failure of the submarine cable in 1882 in that channel.
The method of induction between insulated primary and secondary circuits laid out flat on the surface of the earth proves to be of limited application, and in his later experiments Preece returned to a method which unites both conduction and induction as the means of affecting one circuit by a current in another.
P. Granville put into practice between Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight and the Needles lighthouse a method which depends upon conduction through sea water.
Communication was established by this method in the year 1895 with the lighthouse on the Fastnet."
There is no evidence, however, that the method proposed could or did effect the transmission of speech or signals between stations separated by any distance.
In December 1898 communication was established by the Marconi method between the East Goodwin lightship and the South Foreland lighthouse; and this installation was maintained for upwards of a year, during which it was the means of saving both life and property.
If these spark balls are set at the right distance, then when the potential difference accumulates the antenna will be charged and at some stage suddenly discharged by the discharge leaping across the spark gap. This was Marconi's original method, and the plan is still used under the name of the direct method of excitation or the plain antenna.
This method of receiving soon came to be known as the telephonic method.
Very briefly stated, his method consists in sending out a group of wave trains at certain irregular but assigned intervals of time to constitute the simplest signal equivalent to a dot in the Morse code, and a sequence of such trains, say three following one another, to constitute the dash on the Morse code.
An important modification of this method enables not only audible signals but articulated words to be transmitted, and gives thus a system of wireless telephony.
The evidence of date derived from changes in the language is more difficult to formulate, and the inquiry calls for the most diligent use of scientific method and critical judgment.
The method first employed for working a telephone line was extremely simple.
A cord circuit, similar in many respects, including the method .y.^9 Jr '' of operation, but equipped with condensers and impedance coils, in place of the repeating coil, is shown in fig.
Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
Aerial distribution from distributing poles is a method frequently adopted.
The original method of charging adopted in Great Britain took the telephone instrument as the unit, charging a fixed annual rental independent of the amount of use to which the instrument was put.
Another method of charge, known as the " measured service rate," is de - signed to make the subscriber pay in proportion to the quality and quantity of the service he takes.
In the province of Naples, Caserta, &c., the method of fallows is widely adopted, the ground often being left in this state for fifteen or twenty years; and in some parts of Sicily there is a regular interchange of fallow and crop year by year.
In order to understand the future history of Italy, it is necessary to form a clear conception of the method pursued by the Lombards in their conquest.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
Or at least he has rightly seen what are the assertions to aim at; it is difficult to accept the principle or method upon which his answer to the riddle proceeds, the dialectic method.
Anyhow, whatever the method or interpretation is to be, idealism, even more fully than materialism, is pledged to monism and to the rejection of dualism.
The new method of definition which Socrates applied to problems of human conduct was extended by Plato to the whole universe of the knowable.
Assuredly Butler did not mean to give him his right of speaking about moral evil and good when he waived the " high priori method of vindicating their real existence.
Still, the Design argument is a good sample of a proof by means of the inferior method.
It is very interesting, but it does not constitute any marked advance in the history of parliament, as it merely expresses the customary method of summoning a council.
Nearly every possible method of reproduction occurs amongst the Hydromedusae.
The direct method of medusa-budding only differs from the polyp-bud by its greater complexity of parts and organs.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
It is very remarkable that this method of characterizing and diagnozing species has never been extended to the marine hydroids.
The buds become medusae by the direct method of budding described above.
It is in these parasitic forms that we meet with the method of reproduction by sporogony described above.
First of all, his genetic method as applied to the mind's ideas - which laid the foundations of English analytical psychology - was a step in the direction of a conception of mental life as a gradual evolution.
The method is simply the logical result of the fact that every existing form of life stands at the summit of a long branch of the whole tree of life.
In embryology the method finds its expression in the limitation of comparisons to the corresponding stages of low and high forms and the exclusion of the comparisons between the adult stages of low forms and the embryonic stages of higher forms.
Another expression of the same method, due to Cope, and specially valuable to the taxonomist, is that when the relationship between orders is being considered, characters of subordinal rank must be neglected.
It must not be supposed that earlier writers all neglected this method, or still less that all writers now employ it, but merely that formerly it was frequently overlooked by the best writers, and now is neglected only by the worst.
Enough, however, has already been done to show the vast importance of the method in grouping and codifying the empirical facts of life, and in so preparing the way for the investigation of ultimate " causes."
William the Conqueror revived it immediately of ter his accession, as a convenient method of national taxation, and it was with the object of facilitating its collection that he ordered the compilation of Domesday Book.
The term Cryptogam is archaic, implying a hidden method of reproduction as compared with the obvious method represented by the flower of the Phanerogam; with the aid of a good microscope it is, however, easier to follow the process of fertilization.
This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour.
Radlkofer (1883) was the first to call attention to the great importance of this method in systematic botany, as providing fresh characters on which to base a natural classification.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
This method of study has to a large extent modified our ideas of the relative importance of the parts of such an organism as a large tree.
Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
The method by which this is brought about is, however, the subject of much controversy.
The general method by which this is effected in this and other cases is statistical.
A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.
Both branches, although enriched by new facts, remained stationary so far as method is concerned until nearly the end of the 18th century.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.
The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.
O CH 3, is prepared either by the above method or by the action of diazomethane on phenol, C6HSOH+CH2N2=N2+C6H5.
Some method of subdivision is necessary, and the simplest and most obvious is that which breaks the whole into two great parts, the ante-Nicene and the post-Nicene.
A notable method of borrowing power from another magic-wielding agency is simply to breathe its name in connexion with the spell that stands in need of reinforcement; as the name suggests its owner, so it comes to stand for his real presence.
His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.
It began, as a method, with the Sopherim (though there are traces in the Old Testament itself), and was most developed among the Tannaim and Amoraim, rivalling even the study of halakhah.
Later on, Jacob 3 I Hebrew vi, from the initial letters of Rabbi Shelomoh Yizbagi, a convenient method used by Jewish writers in referring to well-known authors.
The method of this irrigation is peculiar.
In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired; after a time the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom of the hole and is then ladled out.
To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
But Boetius belonged to the school of musical writers who based their science on the method of Pythagoras.
It would only lead to confusion, however, if we called this method " apologetic."
In 1749 he furnished a method of applying his principles to the motion of any body of a given figure; and in 1754 he solved the problem of the precession of the equinoxes, determined its quantity and explained the phenomenon of the nutation of the earth's axis.
The value of the fish has much increased owing to the introduction of cold storage; as a result of the employment of this method of packing, fish is now exported in a fresh state from the Black Sea to all parts of S.W.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
It has generally come to be that of Germany and, so far as the finances of the countries allow, of Austria and Russia; British India also affords not a few examples of the same method.
The commission method of control was not a new one.
This method of construction is more FIG.
The oldest and commonest method of shunting is that known as " push-and-pull," or in America as " link-and-pin " or " tail " shunting.
The method of working is for the pole to be swung out behind a number of wagons; one engine is then started and with its pole pushes the wagons in front of it until their speed is sufficient to carry them over the points, where they are diverted into any desired siding.
Another method, which was introduced into America from Europe about 1890, is that of the summit or " hump."
In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
The same method is finding increased favour in Great Britain, to the supersession of the old hot-water footwarmers.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
The method of constructing the working faces of this coupler is shown in fig.
Wherever possible the lines were constructed in open cutting, to ensure adequate ventilation; and where this was not possible they were built by a method suggestively named " cut and cover."
This method of construction has been used for building other railways in Glasgow and London, and in the latter city alone the " tube railways " of this character have a length of some 40 m.
For instance, it is not very uncommon to find persons who can make loud sounds by partially dislocating and restoring the toe, knee, or other joints, and some experiments made with the Fox girls in 1851 supported the view that they made raps by this method.
C. Janssen, a spectroscopic method for observing the solar prominences in daylight, and the names of both astronomers appear on a medal which was struck by the French government in 1872 to commemorate the discovery.
Roberval was one of those mathematicians who, just before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, occupied their attention with problems which are only soluble, or can be most easily solved, by some method involving limits or infinitesimals, and in the solution of which accordingly the calculus is always now employed.
Another of Roberval's discoveries was a very general method of drawing tangents, by considering a curve as described by a moving point whose motion is the resultant of several simpler motions.
In pursuance of his method of successive studies he began in 1823 the study of Italian literature, passing over German as demanding more labour than he could afford.
In accordance with his general method these notes were in turn read over to him until he had completely mastered them, when they were worked up in his memory to their final shape.
As an historian Prescott stands in the direct line of literary descent from Robertson, whose influence is clearly discernible both in his method and style.
He worked, therefore, upon more assured ground; his sifting of authorities was more thorough and his method less restricted.
But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."
In judging the Decline and Fall it should carefully be observed that it falls into two parts which are heterogeneous in the method of treatment.
There is quite a different method of considering the nebular origin of our system, which leads in a very striking manner to conclusions practically identical with those we have just sketched.
Forbes communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a short paper of his on a mechanical method of tracing Cartesian ovals.
Though his method is throughout scholastic, he covers the same ground, and Grotius speaks of him in terms of high respect.
Both lines of study were readily combined by applying to the interpretation of descriptions of natural objects the allegorical method adopted for the interpretation of Biblical texts.
His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics.
As a very great number of important chemical actions take place on mixing solutions, the method for such cases has been thoroughly studied.
Since thermochemical measurements of this type may be frequently performed with an error due to other causes of much less than i per cent., the error introduced by either of these assumptions is the chief cause of uncertainty in the method.
Ostwald has proposed a modification of Berthelot's method which has many advantages, and is now commonly in use.
Since heats of formation afford such convenient data for calculation on the above method, they have been ascertained for as many compounds as possible.
But there has been considerable interference (ostensibly on humanitarian grounds) with the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food (Shehitah) and the method was prohibited by a referendum in 1893.
The method of election is peculiar, being based in part upon the national presidential model.
Since 1890 further and more rigorous application of the telegraphic method of determining longitudes differentially with Greenwich has resulted in a slight correction (amounting to about 2" of arc) to the previous determination by the same method through Suez.
His first publication, however, dealt with a question of philosophical method suggested by the reading of Hutcheson.
At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.
The Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus which Romilly translated was the only important work Mirabeau wrote in the year 1785, and it is a good specimen of his method.
The Logic, an eminently practical work, written from the point of view of Locke, is in five parts, dealing with (1) the nature of the human mind, its faculties and operations; (2) ideas and their kinds; (3) the true and the false, and the various degrees of knowledge; (4) reasoning and argumentation; (5) method and the ordering of our thoughts.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
His method was empirical, and the laws which he established were generally the result of repeated experiment.
Delisle is chiefly remembered as the author of a method for observing the transits of Venus and Mercury by instants of contacts.
The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
There are no limits to the good results of his introduction of a true method of reasoning into the moral and political sciences.
He thus takes substantially the same ground as Descartes, but he rejected the a priori method.
In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school.
It is evident that the same method may be followed with other sorts which continue only a short time in a mature state.
He mentions the different kinds of wheat, barley and oats; and after describing the method of harrowing "all maner of cornnes," we find the roller employed.
The author then points out the great advantages of enclosure; recommends " quycksettynge, dychynge and hedgeyng "; and gives particular directions about settes, and the method of training a hedge, as well as concerning the planting and management of trees.
Before 1655 the culture of clover, exactly according to the present method, seems to have been well known in England, and it had also made its way to Ireland.
The great losses arising from spoilt hay crops served to stimulate experimental inquiry into the method of preserving green fodder known as ensilage, with the result that the system eventually became successfully incorporated in the ordinary routine of agricultural practice.
In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.
A familiar practical method of estimating carcase weight from live weight is to reckon one Smithfield stone (8 lb) of carcase for each imperial stone (14 lb) of live weight.
The progress of steam cultivation has not justified the hopes that were once entertained in the United Kingdom concerning this method of working implements in the field.
By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
He was a man of extreme simplicity in his method of life.
With respect to economic method he shifted his position, yet to the end occupied uncertain ground.
In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."
Notwithstanding his misgivings and even disclaimers, he yet remained as to method a member of the old school, and never passed into the new "historical" school.
Whatever " method " of economic investigation we employ, we must at every stage see how far our reasoning is borne out by the actual experience of life.
There is no method of investigation which is peculiarly economic or of which economics has the monopoly.
The application of the a priori method in economics was an accident, due to its association with other subjects and the general backwardness of other sciences rather than any exceptional and peculiar character in the subject-matter of the science itself.
As a matter of fact, discussions of method and the criticism of hypotheses and assumptions are very rarely found in early economic works.
General discussion of method, however, is rarely profitable.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
There is no reason why we should apply to this particular act a different method of inquiry from that we should apply to any other of the numerous acts, of more or less economic importance, passed in the same session of parliament.
But at this stage in historical investigation it is generally the want of evidence of a sufficiently complete and continuous character, rather than difficulties of method, which forces us to leave the problem unsolved.
When we come to exclusively modern questions, there is no reason or necessity for a fundamental change of method.
To buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest; to secure cheapness by lowering the expenses of production; to adopt the less expensive rather than the more expensive method of obtaining a given result - these and other maxims are as old as human society.
This is true whether their method is good or bad, whether their conclusions are true or false.
Rabl has with remarkable skill applied the method of sections to the study of the minute embryos of Planorbis.
With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.
On this method the sacred writings are regarded as an inexhaustible mine of philosophical and dogmatic wisdom; in reality the exegete reads his own ideas into any passage he chooses.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.
The larvae produced by this remarkable method (paedogenesis) of virgin-reproduction are hatched within the parent larva, and in some cases escape by the rupture of its body.
If so, there is an alternative method by which the endopterygotous may have arisen from the exopterygotous condition.
With certain modifications in principle not very important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, Aldrovandus adopted Belon's method of arrangement, but in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression.
Both these works (now rare) are manifestly framed on the Linnaean method, so far as it had then reached; but in their arrangement of the various forms of birds they differed greatly from that which they designed to supplant, and they deservedly obtained little success.
Immediately on the completion of his Regne Animale in 1756, Brisson set about his Ornithologie, and it is only in the last two volumes of the latter that any reference is made to the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae, in which the binomial method was introduced.
It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
His Synopsis was finished in 1785; two supplements were added in 1787 and 1802, 6 and in 1790 he produced an abstract of the work under the title of Index Ornithologicus, wherein he assigned names on the Linnaean method to all the species described.
The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.
In 1816 Vieillot published at Paris an Analyse d'une nouvelle ornithologie elementaire, containing a method of classification which he had tried in vain to get printed before, both in Turin and in London.
As an instance of his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature and cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine specimen of inductive research.
He certainly describes a method of constructing a telescope, but not so as to lead one to conclude that he was in possession of that instrument.
In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
It is believed that the rotation must differ with every variety of soil, with the result that each planter has his own method, and little can be said in general.
They bore holes and penetrate into flower-buds and young bolls, causing them to drop. Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize, to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.
A simple method of increasing the yield is that practised with success by some growers in the States.
A more elaborate method of selection is practised by some of the Sea Island cotton planters in the Sea Islands, famous for the quality of their cotton.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.
In America, crude petroleum was at first transported in iron-hooped barrels, holding from 40 to 42 American gallons, which were carried by teamsters to Oil Creek and the Allegheny River, where they were loaded on boats, these being floated down stream whenever sufficient water was present - a method leading to much loss by collision and grounding.
The most common method of distribution in cities and towns is by a series of pipes from 12 in.
But what the Third Crusade showed most clearly was that the crusading movement was being lost to the papacy, and becoming part of the demesne of the secular state - organized by the state on its own basis of taxation, and conducted by the state according to its own method of negotiation.
Increase in size appears sometimes to be accompanied by the development of a new layer of fibres, whereas a difference in the method of preparation may give to a layer which appeared homogeneous in one specimen a decidedly fibrous aspect in another.
In addition to the Old Testament the Therapeutae had books by the founders of their sect on the allegorical method of interpreting Scripture.
The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.
The finer soaps are perfumed by the cold method; the soap is shaved down to thin slices, and the essential oil kneaded into and mixed with it by special machinery, after which it is formed into cakes by pressure in suitable moulds.
The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.
In it Maclaurin developed several theorems due to Newton, and introduced the method of generating conics which bears his name, and showed that many curves of the third and fourth degrees can be described by the intersection of two movable angles.
In the preface he states that the work was undertaken in consequence of the attack on the method of fluxions made by George Berkeley in 1734.
His account, drawn up from notes taken in the main from personal observation, possesses an especial importance for topographical research, owing to his method of describing each object in the order in which he saw it during the course of his walks.
The original parts of the book are principally to be found in the meditations, which are clearly Ignatian in conception as well as method.
Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
The former method, usually called the " natural scale," may be described as " international," for it is quite independent of local measures of length, and depends exclusively upon the size and figure of the earth.
Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
It is claimed for this method that it affords a means of giving a graphic representation of Alpine districts where other methods of shading fail.
The method of manufacturing a globe is much the same as it was at the beginning of the 16th century.
It only cost X169 as compared with £360 had the old method been pursued.
A few latitudes had indeed been observed, but although Hipparchus had shown how longitudes could be determined by the observation of eclipses, this method was in reality not available for want of trustworthy time-keepers.
But in spite of his errors the scientific method pursued by Ptolemy was correct, and though he was neglected by the Romans and during the middle ages, once he had become known, in the 15th century, he became the teacher of the modern world.
Lehmann (1783) who based his method of hill-shading or hachuring upon these horizontal contours.
They believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the varying needs of the day.
Apart from points of doctrine which can be more or less definitely stated (not always with unanimity) Quakerism is an atmosphere, a manner of life, a method of approaching questions, a habit and; attitude of mind.
In the last method the master turned the slave round, with the words " Tiber esto," in the presence of the praetor, that officer or his lictor at the same time striking the slave with his rod.
His fears and prejudices melted away as he discerned that this was the very method needed for reaching the multitudes living in almost heathen darkness.
His method is largely allegorical.
A third method consists in placing the specimen within bibulous paper, and enclosing the whole between two plates of coarsely perforated zinc supported in a wooden frame.
They are full of both grace and individuality; the features show excellent draughtsmanship; and the flesh-painting is firm and sound in method, though frequently tending a little to hardness and opacity.
This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
Its salts may be obtained in some cases by heating the corresponding nitrates, but the method does not give good results.
Thus the whole method of measurement in geometry as described in the elementary textbooks and the older treatises is obscure to the last degree.
The difference is a difference in method.
The enthusiastic spirit of reform which heralded the accession of the latter sultan never altogether died out, and from about the last decade of the 19th century has been rapidly and effectively growing in force and in method.
In 1888 a school of sericulture was founded by the public debt administration for the rearing of silkworms according to the Pasteur method.
This is the method so frankly condemned by Ali Aga, as was seen above, in 1653.
Elaborate regulations are in force for this method of collection to secure the state receiving its full due Total..
But to all these Berthier in the emperor's name sent the stereotyped reply- " The emperor has ordered you to carry four days' provisions, therefore you can expect nothing further - you know the emperor's method of conducting war."
What followed presents perhaps the finest instance of tlNapoleonic method.
At Friedland, however, his success was complete, and henceforth the method recurs on practically every battlefield.
A partial explanation of this phenomenon may perhaps be found in the economy of nervous energy his strategical method ensured to him.
The characteristic, but by no means attractive, street dress of the Moslem women of the better class comprises a black horse-hair visor completely covering the face and projecting like an enormous beak, the nether extremities being encased in yellow boots reaching to the knee and fully displayed by the method of draping the garments in front.
Leonardo's method, therefore, when the difference was a fixed condition of the problem, was necessarily very different from the Arabian, and, in all probability, was his own discovery.
In the Letter to Magister Theodore indeterminate problems are chiefly worked, and Leonardo hints at his being able to solve by a general method any problem of this kind not exceeding the first degree.
Here the invalids used to sleep when consulting the god, and the inscriptions found here record not only the method of consulting the god, but the manner of his cures.
What is most worthy of notice in this method is the management of the e subordinates in the pruning for fruit.
The variations themselves are detected by the method of seasonally repeated hydrographic soundings.
Taking such an easily surveyable area as the North Sea, the quantity of relatively warm and dense Atlantic water entering it from year to year can be estimated by the method of hydrographic sections.
He was a distinguished educationist who fought for the retention of the Latin classics in the schools and instituted the celebrated catechetical method of St Sulpice.
P. Sabanezhev obtained the value 15,000 by Raoult's method for purified egg albumin.
The method employed was to measure the changes in volume caused by the action.
Another method is to allow an acid to act on an insoluble salt, and to measure the quantity which goes into solution.
The results of this method are given in column III.
The character of the vestments, the method of putting them on, and the occasions on which they are severally to be worn, are regulated with the minutest care in the Missal and the Caeremoniale.
In his method of employing illustration he is suggestive of Thomas Adams, Thomas Fuller, Richard Baxter, Thomas Manton and John Bunyan.
This method of solution fails when the discriminant R vanishes, for then the Hessian has equal roots, as also the cubic f.
It Is Better Now To Proceed By The Method Of Stroh.
Le Quatrieme Evangile, one thousand large pages long, is possibly over-confident in its detailed application of the allegorical method; yet it constitutes a rarely perfect sympathetic reproduction of a great mystical believer's imperishable intuitions.
While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.
Thus in the Moffett method it is immaterial whether metal or fume is produced, as in either case it is saved and the price is about the same.
In the old Dutch method, pieces of sheet lead are suspended in stoneware pots so as to occupy the upper two-thirds of the vessels.
These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
It has sometimes been thought of as an outward law, sometimes as an inward disposition; and each of these rival conceptions has developed a casuistical method of its own.
Thus caught between two fires the casuists developed a highly ingenious method, not unlike that of the Roman Stoics, for eviscerating the substance of a rule while leaving its shadow carefully intact.
Glanvill's first work (a passage in which suggested the theme of Matthew Arnold's Scholar Gipsy), The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Confidence in Opinions, manifested in a Discourse of the shortness and uncertainty of our Knowledge, and its Causes, with Reflexions on Peripateticism, and an Apology for Philosophy (1661), is interesting as showing one special direction in which the new method of the Cartesian philosophy might be developed.
Glanvill supported a much more honourable cause when he undertook the defence of the Royal Society of London, under the title of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of Science since the time of Aristotle (1668), a work which shows how thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical method.
The nature of this element is a problem which has been provisionally, but not conclusively, solved by many psychologists; the method is necessarily experimental, and all experiments on feeling are peculiarly difficult.
The second is Fechner's method; it consists of recording the changes in feeling-tone produced in a subject by bringing him in contact with a series of conditions, objects or stimuli graduated according to a scientific plan and presented singly in pairs or in groups.
Mention should also be made of a third method which has hardly yet been tried, namely, that of endeavouring to isolate one of the three "directions" by the method of suggestion or even hypnotic trance observations.
The best method of application is by rubbing in a small quantity of the aconitine ointment until numbness is felt, but the costliness of this preparation causes the use of the aconite liniment to be commonly resorted to.
Up to about the middle of the 19th century it was supposed that transits of Venus across the disk of the sun afforded the most trustworthy method of making the determination in question; and when Encke in 1824 published his classic discussion of the transits of 1761 and 1769, it was supposed that we must wait until the transits of 1874 and 1882 had been observed and discussed before any further light would be thrown on the subject.
The second method is in principle extremely simple, consisting merely in multiplying the observed velocity of light by the time which it takes light to travel from the sun to the earth.
The third method is through the determination of the mass of the earth relative to that of the sun.
The fourth method is through the parallactic inequality in the moon's motion.
The fifth method consists in observing the displacement in the direction of the sun, or of one of the nearer planets, due to the motion of the earth round the common centre of gravity of the earth and moon.
The uncertainty of this mass impairs the accuracy of the method.
To begin with the results of the first method.
The Germans laid the greatest stress on measures with the heliometer; the Americans, English, and French on the photographic method.
The failure of the method based on transits of Venus led to an international effort carried out on the initiative of Sir David Gill to measure the parallax by observations on those minor planets which approach nearest the earth.
As the entire time required for light to pass over the radius of the earth's orbit is only about 500 seconds, this error is fatal to the method.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
So exact is the latter determination that, were there no weak point in the subsequent parts of the process, this method would give far the most certain result for the solar parallax.
Brown the value of the solar parallax derived by this method is about 8.773".
In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.
He applied his method with good effect, however, in testing a large number of commercial specimens of iron and steel, the magnetic constants of which are given in a table accompanying his paper.
The method, though tedious in operation, is very accurate, and is largely employed for determining the magnetic quality of bars intended to serve .as standards.
Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
It is shown in the paper that the greatest possible force which the isthmus method can apply at a point in the axis of the bobbin is F = 11, 137 I, log i n b/a, I, being the saturation value of the magnet pores, a the radius of the neck on which the cones converge, and b the radius of the bases of the cones.
The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.
It may be remarked that, whereas Fleming and Dewar employed the ballistic method, their specimens having the form of rings, Honda and Shimizu worked magnetometrically with metals shaped as ovoids.
His title to be honoured as the " Father of Magnetic Philosophy " is based even more largely upon the scientific method which he was the first to inculcate and practise than upon the importance of his actual discoveries.
The accuracy of this law was in 1832 confirmed by Gauss, 3 who employed an indirect but more perfect method than that of Coulomb, and also, as Maxwell remarks, 1 The quotations are from the translation published by the Gilbert Club, London, 1900.
At the same time, the abolition of the indirect method of collecting the taxes in the provinces greatly reduced the political influence of the' equites.
This double cultivation of his scientific powers had the happiest effect on his subsequent work; for the greatest achievements of Riemann were effected by the application in pure mathematics generally of a method (theory of potential) which had up to this time been used solely in the solution of certain problems that arise in mathematical physics.
At the age of nineteen he communicated to Leonhard Euler his idea of a general method of dealing with "isoperimetrical" problems, known later as the Calculus of Variations.
He is thus justly regarded as the inventor of the "method of variations" - a name supplied by Euler in 1766.
This unification of method was one of matter also.
The leading idea of this work was contained in a paper published in the Berlin Memoirs for 1772.5 Its object was the elimination of the, to some minds, unsatisfactory conception of the infinite from the metaphysics of the higher mathematics, and the substitution for the differential and integral calculus of an analogous method depending wholly on the serial development of algebraical functions.
The calculus of variations lay undeveloped in Euler's mode of treating isoperimetrical problems. The fruitful method, again, of the variation of elements was introduced by Euler, but adopted and perfected by Lagrange, who first recognized its supreme importance to the analytical investigation of the planetary movements.
It deserves to be recorded as one of the numerous coincidences of discovery that Laplace, on being made acquainted by Lagrange with his new method, produced analogous expressions, to which his independent researches had led him.
The final achievement of Lagrange in this direction was the extension of the method of the variation of arbitrary constants, successfully used by him in the investigation of periodical as well as of secular inequalities, to any system whatever of mutually interacting bodies.'
In algebra he discovered the method of approximating to the real roots of an equation by means of continued fractions, and imagined a general process of solving algebraical equations of every degree.
The method indeed fails for equations of an order above the fourth, because it then involves the solution of an equation of higher dimensions than they proposed.
The method of "generalized coordinates," as it is now called, by which he attained this result, is the most brilliant achievement of the analytical method.
In the Berlin Memoirs for 1778 and 1783 Lagrange gave the first direct and theoretically perfect method of determining cometary orbits.
In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.
The end of the period was thus brought about by the internal decay of its method and principles quite as much as by the variety of external causes which contributed to transfer men's interests to other subjects.
The most interesting example of this method is seen in the Tractatus de sacramento altaris where Occam accepts the doctrine of Real Presence as a matter of Faith, and sets forth a rational theory of the Eucharist (afterwards adopted by Luther) known as " Consubstantiation."
His cryophorus was described in 1813, in a paper "On a method of freezing at a distance."
The method generally adopted was to deprive the preachers in the towns of their churches by force, Italian mercenaries being preferably employed for the purpose.
That this condition of things could not be allowed to continue was, indeed, recognized by all parties; the fundamental difference of opinion was as to the method by which it was to be ended.
The third class of Magyar novelists comprises those cosmopolitan writers who take their method of work, their inspiration and even many of their subjects from foreign authors, chiefly French, German, Russian and also Norwegian.
The device known as the method of least squares, for reducing numerous equations of condition to the number of unknown quantities to be determined, had been adopted as a practically convenient rule by Gauss and Legendre; but Laplace first treated it as a problem in probabilities, and proved by an intricate and difficult course of reasoning that it was also the most advantageous, the mean of the probabilities of error in the determination of the elements being thereby reduced to a minimum.
Laplace published in 1779 the method of generating functions, the foundation of his theory of probabilities, and the first part of his Theorie analytique is devoted to the exposition of its principles, which in their simplest form consist in treating the successive values of any function as the coefficients in the expansion of another function with reference to a different variable.
He also showed that every equation of an even degree must have at least one real quadratic factor, reduced the solution of linear differential equations to definite integrals, and furnished an elegant method by which the linear partial differential equation of the second order might be solved.
This is sometimes treated as a debt of 5s.; an alternative method is to recognize that our zero is really arbitrary, and that in fact we shift it with every operation of addition or subtraction.
The problem of finding the sum of r terms is aided by graphic representation, which shows that the terms may be taken in pairs, working from the outside to the middle; the two cases of an odd number of terms and an even number of terms may be treated separately at first, and then combined by the ordinary method, viz.
We start with related facts, and adopt a particular method of visualizing the relation.
The ordinary method of representation is as follows.
This is the method of undetermined coefficients.
To apply the method to the calculation of N n, it is necessary that we should be able to express N in the form A+a or Aa, where a is small in comparison with A, A" is easy to calculate and a/A is convenient as a multiplier.
This cannot be summed directly by the above method.
In the graphic method of representation the sign - may be taken as denoting a reversal of direction, so that, if + 3 represents a length of 3 units measured in one direction,-3 represents a length of 3 units measured in the other direction.
The graphic method, therefore, does not give any direct assistance towards the conception of negative numbers as operators, though it is useful for interpreting negative quantities as results.
An application of the method is to the summation of a recurring series, i.e.
For instance, there are the symbols A, D, E used in the calculus of finite differences; Aronhold's symbolical method in the calculus of invariants; and the like.
But whereas Diophantus aimed at obtaining a single solution, the Hindus strove for a general method by which any indeterminate problem could be resolved.
The method of solving equations geometrically was considerably developed by Omar Khayyam of Khorassan, who flourished in the 1 r th century.
Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
The area of biological knowledge which Darwin was the first to subject to scientific method and to render, as it were, contributory to the great stream formed by the union of the various branches, is that which relates to the breeding of animals and plants, their congenital variations, and the transmission and perpetuation of those variations.
By the introduction of a method of classification which was due to the superficial Pliny - depending, not on structure, but on the medium inhabited by an animal, whether earth, air or waterWotton is led to associate Fishes and Whales as aquatic animals.
Apart from his special discoveries in the anatomy of plants and animals, and his descriptions of new species, the great merit of Linnaeus was his introduction of a method of enumeration and classification which may be said to have created systematic zoology and botany in their present form, and establishes his name for ever as the great organizer, the man who recognized a great practical want in the use of language and supplied it.
Between Linnaeus and Cuvier there are no very great names; but under the stimulus given by the admirable method and system of Linnaeus observation and description of new forms from all parts of the world, both recent and fossil, accumulated.
On the one hand, the true method of arriving at a knowledge of the genealogical tree was recognized as lying chiefly in attacking the problem of the genealogical relationships of the smallest twigs of the tree, and proceeding from them to the larger branches.
If 2R be the diameter of the objectglass and D the distance of the object, the angle subtended by AP is E/D, and the angular resolving power is given by X/2 D sin a = X/2 R (3) This method of derivation (substantially due to Helmholtz) makes it obvious that there is no essential difference of principle between the two cases, although the results are conveniently stated in different forms. In the case of the telescope we have to deal with a linear measure of aperture and an angular limit of resolution, whereas in the case of the microscope the limit of resolution is linear, and it is expressed in terms of angular aperture.
A different treatment is then necessary, and for some of the problems which arise under this head the method of Abbe is convenient.
The principle gives an instantaneous solution of the question of the ultimate optical efficienc y in the method of " mirror-reading," as commonly practised in various physical observations.
A comparison with the method of a material pointer, attached to the parts whose rotation is under observation, and viewed through a microscope, is of interest.
The best gratings were obtained by the last method, but a suitable diamond point was hard to find, and to preserve.
In different gratings the lengths of the spectra and their distances from the axis were inversely proportional to the grating interval, while with a given grating the distances of the various spectra from the axis were as i, 2, 3, &c. To Fraunhofer we owe the first accurate measurements of wave-lengths, and the method of separating the overlapping spectra by a prism dispersing in the perpendicular direction.
In the case of a reflection grating the same method applies.
A much easier method, applicable to glass originals, is that of photographic reproduction by contact printing.
The same method of representation is applicable to spherical waves, issuing from a point, if the radius of curvature be large; for, although there is variation of phase along the length of the infinitesimal strip, the whole effect depends practically upon that of the central parts where the phase is sensibly constant.'
The method of resolution just described is the simplest, but it is only one of an indefinite number that might be proposed, and which are all equally legitimate, so long as the question is regarded as a merely mathematical one, without reference to the physical properties of actual screens.
Thus, to refer again to the acoustical analogue in which plane waves are incident upon a perforated rigid screen, the circumstances of the case are best represented by the first method of resolution, leading to symmetrical secondary waves, in which the normal motion is supposed to be zero over the unperforated parts.