Metchnikoff in Cunina and allied genera.
" - Interview with Metchnikoff in Sir Ray Lankester's Science from an Easy Chair, p. 43 2 In 1767, when Catherine II.
xii., 1885; Metchnikoff, " Embryologie d.
Massart and Bordet, Leber, Metchnikoff and others have studied the phenomenon in leucocytes, with the result that while there is evidence of their being positively chemiotactic to the toxins of many pathogenic microbes, it is also apparent that they are negatively influenced by such substances as lactic acid.
This phagocytal action of certain cells of the body is held by Metchnikoff and his followers to have an important bearing on the pathology of immunity.
A further application of the facts of chemiotaxis and phagocytosis has been made by Metchnikoff to the case of Inflammation.
Among the latest is that of Metchnikoff: " Inflammation generally," he says, " must be regarded as a.
v.; Metchnikoff, Lectures on Comp. Path.
Cohnheim (1839-1884) and of Iliya Metchnikoff on the dynamical side of his- Fevers tology.
Meanwhile Cohnheim and Metchnikoff were engaged in destroying the ontological conception not of fever only, but also of inflammation, of which, as a local event, an ontological conception was no less strongly implanted.
By his eminent labours in cellular pathology, Virchow, and Metchnikoff later, gave the last blow to the mere humoral pathology which, after an almost unchallenged prevalence for some two thousand years, now finds a resting-place only in our nurseries.
To these injurious microbes Metchnikoff has given the name of "wild," and he proposes to restore health by giving "tame" microbes, such as lactic acid bacilli.
The work of Metchnikoff, dating from about 1884, has proved of high importance, his theory of phagocytosis (vide infra) having given a great stimulus to research, and having also contributed to important advances.
Metchnikoff and Bordet subsequently devised means by which a similar change could be produced in vitro, and analysed the conditions necessary for its occurrence.
We have no distinct proof that there occurs in active immunity any education of the phagocytes, in Metchnikoff's sense, that is, any increase of the inherent ingestive or digestive activity of these cells.
In the case of the latter animal the serum infective conditions led Metchnikoff to place great p g importance on phagocytosis.
Metchnikoff showed that in animals immune to a given organism phagocytosis is present, whereas in susceptible animals it is deficient or absent.
The most important works on immunity are: Ehrlich, Studies in Immunity (English translation, New York, 5906), and Metchnikoff, Immunity in Infective Diseases (English translation, Cambridge, 1905).
studied by Metchnikoff and Beard.
Metchnikoff observed (1866) in the development of the parthenogenetic eggs produced by the precocious larva of the gall-midge Cecidomyia that a large " polar-cell " appeared at one extremity during the primitive cellsegmentation.
Since Metchnikoff's introduction (see Longevity) of the use of soured milk for dietetic purposes-the lactic acid bacillus destroying pathogenic bacteria in the intestine-a great impetus has been given to the multiplication of laboratory preparations containing 'cultures of the bacillus; and in recent years much benefit to health has, in certain cases, been derived from the discovery.
Foot repre sented by a button-like disk, carried far from the posterior surface; Apsilus Metchnikoff (fig.
These matters, however, and others such as phagocytosis (first described by Metchnikoff in 1884), and the epoch-making discovery of the opsonins of the blood by Wright, do not here concern us (see II.
red corpuscles (Bordet, Ehrlich and Morgenroth), leucocytes and spermatozoa (Metchnikoff).
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