Romans stands on an eminence on the right bank of the Isere, a fine stone result will be the inclusion of all Israel in the heritage of the messianic kingdom of Christ.
These amulets recognized the Messianic claims of Sabbatai Sebi, and a famous rabbinic contemporary of Eybeschiitz, Jacob Emden, boldly accused him of heresy.
He was opposed to political Zionism, and the Montreal Conference (1897), at his instigation, passed resolutions disapproving of the attempt to establish a Jewish state, and affirming that the Jewish Messianic hope pointed to a great universal brotherhood.
(4) Yet a fourth variation of the picture of the incoming of the Messianic deliverance is given in chap. xiv.
For modification in light of recent scholarship of argument from prophecy, to Riehm's Messianic Prophecy, Stanton's Jewish and Christian Messiah, and Woods's Hope of Israel.
This Messianic expectation had been a fermenting leaven since the great days of Judas Maccabaeus.
The conceptions of Jesus of Nazareth, however, were not the Messianic conceptions of his fellow-countrymen, but 1 Deut.
Such vicissitudes were the ordinary lot of the Jews for several centuries, and it was their own inner life - the pure life of the home, the idealism of the synagogue, and the belief in ultimate Messianic redemption - that saved them from utter demoralization and despair.
9-12), and the Messianic vision of Zechariah xiv.
This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.
At first it was assumed that the Messianic kingdom in Palestine would last for ever (so the prophets; cf.
As a necessary consequence, a limited period had to be assigned to the Messianic kingdom.
Nowhere in the discourses of Jesus is there a hint of a limited duration of the Messianic kingdom.
That all believers will have a share in the first resurrection and in the Messianic kingdom is an idea of which the author of Revelation knows nothing.
Nay more, the Gentile Christians took possession of them, and just in proportion as they were neglected by the Jews - who, after the war of Bar-Cochba, became indifferent to the Messianic hope and hardened themselves once more in devotion to the law - they were naturalized in the Christian communities.
Papias actually confounds expressions of Jesus with verses from the Apocalypse of Baruch, referring to the amazing fertility of the days of the Messianic kingdom (Papias in Iren.
So that in the view of Barnabas the Messianic reign still belongs to ounros o auov.
Dionysius of Alexandria had already referred a Messianic prediction of the Old Testament to the emperor Gallienus.
" Messianic Kingdom"); Bousset, Religion des Judenthums (1903), 273-276; C. A.
The case of James Nayler (1617?-1660), who, in spite of Fox's grave warning, allowed Messianic homage to be paid to him, is the best known of these instances; they are to be explained partly by mental disturbance, resulting from the undue prominence of a single idea, and partly by the general religious excitement of the time and the rudeness of manners prevailing in the classes of society from which many of these individuals came.
To this John Hyrcanus, in whom had culminated all the glories and gifts of this great family, our author addresses two Messianic hymns.
The writer already sees the Messianic kingdom established, under the sway of which the Gentiles will in due course be saved, Beliar overthrown, sin disappear from the earth, and the righteous dead rise to share fr1 the blessedness of the living.
When we contrast the expectations of the original writer and the actual events that followed, it would seem that the chief value of his work would consist in the light that it throws on this obscure and temporary revolution in the Messianic expectations of Judaism towards the close of the 2nd century.
24, the reader is left to recognize Enoch from his knowledge of the Biblical narrative.) In the second part of the book there is no expression of "messianic" hope; in the first part the picture of the national future agrees in general (if its expressions are to be taken literally) with that given in the book of Daniel: the Jews are to have dominion over the peoples (iii.
In 1771 he published his well-known Commentary on the Psalms, a series of expositions based on the Messianic idea.
These doctrinal interpretations introduce the economy of blinding the Jews into the parabolic teaching; the declaration as to the redemptive character of the Passion into the sayings; the sacramental, institutional words into the account of the Last Supper, originally, a solemnly simple Messianic meal; and the formal night-trial before Caiaphas into the original Passion-story with its informal, morning decision by Caiaphas, and its one solemn condemnation of Jesus, by Pilate.
Now the current religious literature of Judaism outside the canon was composed of apocryphal books, the bulk of which bore an apocalyptic character, and dealt with the coming of the Messianic kingdom.
Writing in the palmiest days of the Maccabean dominion, he looked for the immediate advent of the Messianic kingdom.
5, 6), and then enjoy the blessings of the Messianic kingdom under the Messianic king (xxiii.
The righteous as a nation should yet possess the earth, even in this world the faithful community should attain its rights in an eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, or else in temporary blessedness here and eternal blessedness hereafter.
Though the individual might perish amid the disorders of this world, he would not fail, apocalyptic taught, to attain through resurrection the recompense that was his due in the Messianic kingdom or in heaven itself.
As for the author, he was no Essene, for he recognizes animal sacrifices and cherishes the Messianic hope; he was not a Sadducee, for he looks forward to the establishment of the Messianic kingdom (x.); nor a Zealot, for the quietistic ideal is upheld (ix.), and the kingdom is established by God Himself (x.).
His object, therefore, is to protest against the growing secularization of the Pharisaic party through its adoption of popular Messianic beliefs and political ideals.
The book treats of the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom, the woes of Israel in the past and the destruction of Jerusalem in the present, as well as of theological questions relating to original sin, free will, works, &c. The views expressed on several of these subjects are often conflicting.
The central theme of his preaching was, according to the Synoptic Gospels, the nearness of the coming of the Messianic kingdom, and the consequent urgency for preparation by repentance.
John was evidently convinced that he himself had received the divine commission to bring to a close and complete the prophetic period, by inaugurating the Messianic age.
It profoundly influenced the Messianic movement depicted in the Gospels.
The divine chariots and horses that make the round of the world by Yahweh's orders return to the heavenly palace and report that there is still no movement among the nations, no sign of the Messianic crisis.
As by rights the Messianic kingdom should follow immediately on the exile, it is probable that the prophet designs to hint in a guarded way that Zerubbabel, who in all other places is mentioned along with Joshua, is on the point of ascending the throne of his ancestor David.
The visions hardly veil the thought, and the mode of expression is usually simple, except in the Messianic passages, where the tortuousness and obscurity are perhaps intentional.
(1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.
1-3: " Ask rain of Yahweh, not of the diviners ") a second and quite analogous Messianic prophecy follows.
presents a third variation on the Messianic promise.
His reconquest of Babylon in 520 may, in particular, have seemed the prelude to the Messianic age (Wellhausen, Gesch., p. 161 n.).
The importance attached to the temple service, even in Messianic times (Zech.
Of these (3) and (4) are of marked eschatological character, and show little contact with definite historical events ' Driver, op. cit., p. 229, who also refers to the differences of Messianic outlook, and the substitution of an atmosphere of war for one of peace.
1 seq.) 3 and Messianic (v.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
The writer of Acts ii., anxious to prove that Providence from the first included the Gentiles in the Messianic Kingdom, assumes that the gift of tongues was a miraculous faculty of talking strange languages without having previously learned them.
Abrabanel often quotes Christian authorities, though he opposed Christian exegesis of Messianic passages.
The talismanic name Immanuel became the nucleus out of which the later Messianic prophecies of Isaiah grew.
Thus Isaiah became in that troubled age the true founder of Messianic prophecy.
The Messianic prophecies of Isaiah, the prophet of faith and deliverance, were destined to reverberate through all subsequent centuries.
The closing years of the Judaean kingdom and the final destruction of the temple (586 B.C.) shattered the Messianic ideals cherished in the evening of Isaiah's lifetime and again in the opening years of the reign of Josiah.
The untimely death of that monarch upon the battlefield of Megiddo (608 B.C.), followed by the inglorious reigns of the kings who succeeded him, who became puppets in turn of Egypt or of Babylonia, silenced for a while the Messianic hopes for a future king or line of kings of Davidic lineage who would rule a renovated kingdom in righteousness and peace.
The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.
We clearly discern how this reacted on his Messianic conceptions.
Ioo) clearly reveal the powerful revival of Messianic hopes of a national deliverer of the seed of David.
to the vicegerent of Yahweh, seated on the throne of Zion, the king of Israel who is also priest after the order of Melchizedek, and then, after the Gospel had ensured the Messianic interpretation of the Psalm (Matt.
Their broad culture (reinforced, perhaps, by the political conditions of the time) made them comparatively indifferent to Messianic hopes and to that conception of a final judgment of the nations that was closely connected with these hopes: a Messiah is not mentioned in their writings (not in Prov.
7), and these the apostle Paul associates with the coming of Christ, and, adopting a characteristic and artificial style of interpretation prevalent in his time, endeavours to force a Messianic interpretation out of them.'
It is to be observed that our author follows the apocalyptic scheme of two judgments which is first attested about ioo B.C. The first judgment precedes the establishment of the temporary Messianic kingdom, as here in xix.
In the record of Christ's own teaching the term " church " occurs only twice, once in the universal sense, as the true or Primitive Congrega= Messianic " Israel of God " (Matt.
The expectation of a Messianic restoration to the Holy Land has always been strong, if often latent, in the Jewish consciousness.
The orthodox were at first cool because they had always dreamed of a nationalism inspired by messianic ideals, while the liberals had long come to dissociate those universalistic ideals from all national limitations.
(d) Solemn inauguration of the Messianic ministry (ii.
But the Synoptists, especially Mark, give the slow steps in even the apostles' realization of Jesus' Messianic character; only at Caesarea Philippi Simon alone, for the first time, clearly discerns it, Jesus declaring that His Father has revealed it to Him, and yet Simon is still scandalized at the thought of a suffering Messiah (Mark viii.
It was this need which led also to the development of Messianic prophecy and the ultimate interpretation of the Jewish Bible as a Christian book (see Bible).
According to the early disciples Jesus was the Jewish Messiah, and had significance only in relation to the expected Messianic kingdom.
It was believed among the Jews that the Messianic age would be the age of the Spirit in a marked degree, and this belief passed over into the Christian Church and controlled its thought and life for some generations.
Bound up with this question of literary criticism is the very important question of the origin and development of the Messianic idea.
The Messiah, as all Jews conceived of Him, was a superhuman being; and His First Coming as a man among men did not count as really Messianic. The whole first generation of Christians looked intently for His Coming in power and great glory, which they believed to be near at hand.
16-22), and frequently passages which originally had another application have a Messianic reference in 3 For the Rabbinical " rules " and examples of their working see F.
They conclude (c) with Messianic or consolatory passages on the future glory of Israel.
13-15 and interesting Messianic references.
Among more recent works and articles should be mentioned Briggs, Messianic Prophecy; Giesebrecht, Die Berufsbegabung der alttestamentlichen Propheten; Volz, Die vorexilische Jahwe-Prophetie u.
1) has foretold that in the Messianic age the Spirit of God would be poured out on every member of the religious community, and in point of fact it was the universal conviction of those who believed in Christ that they all possessed the Spirit of God.
The cup is not the blood of Jesus, but the holy vine of David, revealed through Jesus; and the holy vine can but signify the spiritual Israel, the Ecclesia or church or Messianic Kingdom, into which the faithful are to be gathered.
It belongs to the same order of ideas that the headship of the Messianic ecclesia in Judea was assigned after the death of Jesus to his eldest brother James, and after him for several generations to the eldest living representative of his family.
and lxxxix., where the Messianic reference is strongly personal.
But all agree in giving the central place to the realization of a real effective kingship of Yahweh; in fact the conception of the religious subject as the nation of Israel, with a national organization under Yahweh as king, is common to the whole Old Testament, and connects prophecy proper with the so-called Messianic psalms and similar passages which speak of the religious relations of the Hebrew commonwealth, the religious meaning of national institutions, and so necessarily contain ideal elements reaching beyond the empirical present.
All such passages are frequently called Messianic; but the term is more properly reserved as the specific designation of one particular branch of the Hebrew hope of salvation, which, becoming prominent in post-canonical Judaism, used the name of the Messiah as a technical term (which it never is in the Old Testament), and exercised a great influence on New Testament thought - the term" the Christ "(6 xpccrros) being itself nothing more than the translation of" the Messiah."
§ 16) gives a Messianic interpretation of Num.
Soon after, Messianic hopes were active at the time of the fall of the Omayyads, and led to a serious rising under Abu `Isa of Ispahan, who called himself forerunner of the Messiah.
he Messianic claims of Abraham Abulafia of Saragossa (born 1240) had a cabalistic basis, and the same studies encouraged the wildest hopes at a later time.
Within the limits of this article it is impossible to attempt any extended survey of parallels to Hebrew Messianic conceptions drawn from other religions.
It would carry us too far to consider in this place the details of the Jewish conception of the Messiah and the Messianic times as they appear in the later apocalypses or in Talmudic theology.
For the Messianic hopes of the Pharisees and the Psalter of Solomon see especially Wellhausen, Phariseer and Sadduccer (Greifswald, 1874).
In its ultimate form the Messianic hope of the Jews is the centre of the whole eschatology, embracing the doctrine of the last troubles of Israel (called by the Rabbins the "birth pangs of the Messiah"), the appearing of the anointed king, the annihilation of the hostile enemy, the return of the dispersed of Israel, the glory and world-sovereignty of the elect, the new world, the resurrection of the dead and the last judgment.
But even the final form of Jewish theology shows much vacillation as to these details, especially as regards their sequence and mutual relation, thus betraying the inadequacy of the harmonistic method by which they were derived from the Old Testament and the stormy excitement in which the Messianic idea was developed.
iyn or H n ' yn), whether the resurrection embraces all men or only the righteous, whether it precedes or follows the Messianic age.
In brief they were as follows: that he had taught that reason and the Church are each a " fountain of divine authority which apart from Holy Scripture may and does savingly enlighten men "; that " errors may have existed in the original text of the Holy Scripture "; that " many of the Old Testament predictions have been reversed by history " and that " the great body of Messianic prediction has not and cannot be fulfilled "; that " Moses is not the author of the Pentateuch," and that " Isaiah is not the author of half of the book which bears his name "; that " the processes of redemption extend to the world to come " - he had considered it a fault of Protestant theology that it limits redemption to this world - and that" sanctification is not complete at death."
His publications include Biblical Study: Its Principles, Methods and History (1883); Hebrew Poems of the Creation (1884); American Presbyterianism: Its Origin and Early History (1885); Messianic Prophecy (1886); Whither ?
This bond was doubtless preserved by Christian Hellenists, and must have tended to continue their reliance on the Temple services for the forgiveness of their recurring "sins of ignorance" - subsequent to the great initial Messianic forgiveness coming with faith in Jesus.
7 f.), and the way in which the analogy in this respect between Jesus, as Messianic Son, and those united to Him by faith, is set in relief.
The p p p p eschatology of the Old Testament is thus closely connected with, but not limited by, Messianic hope, as there are eschatological teachings that are not Messianic. As the Old Testament revelation is concerned primarily with the elect nation, and only secondarily (in the later writings) with the individual persons composing it, we follow the order of importance as well as of time in dealing first with the people.
It ushers in the Messianic age.
While the moral issues are finally determined by this day, yet the world of the Messianic age is painted with the colours of the prophet's own surroundings.
The Messiah is very variously conceived: (i) "a passive, though supreme member of the Messianic Kingdom"; (2) "an active warrior who slays his enemies with his own hand"; (3) "one who slays his enemies by the word of his mouth, and rules by virtue of his justice, faith and holiness"; (4) a supernatural person, "eternal Ruler and Judge of Mankind" (R.
In some of the writings no Messianic kingdom is looked for; in others only a temporal duration on earth is assigned to it; in others still it abides for ever either on earth as it is, or on earth transformed.
(1) The Messianic is executed by the Messiah or the saints by victory in war, or by judicial sentence.
This judgment either closes the Messianic age, if thought of as temporal, or ushers it in, if conceived as eternal, or closes the world's history, if no Messianic age is expected.
The expectations were often grossly materialistic, as is evidenced by Papias's quotation as the words of the Lord of a group of sayings from the Apocalypse of Baruch, setting forth the amazing fruitfulness of the earth in the Messianic time.
The presence and power of His Spirit, the spread of His Gospel, the progress of His kingdom have been as much a fulfilment of the eschatological teaching of the New Testament as His life and work on earth were a fulfilment of Messianic prophecy, for fulfilment always transcends prophecy.
Verse 20 anticipates that the exiles from northern Israel will occupy Phoenician territory, whilst those from Jerusalem "which are in Sepharad" will occupy the southern districts in the Messianic restoration.
16 sqq.); the Messianic recognition at Caesarea Philippi (Mark vii.
It shows us the Lord Jesus entering on the mission predicted by the Baptist without declaring Himself to be the Messiah; attracting the multitudes in Galilee by His healing power and His unbounded sympathy, and at the same time awakening the envy and suspicion of the leaders of religion; training a few disciples till they reach the conviction that He is the Christ, and then, but not till then, admitting them into the secret of His coming sufferings, and preparing them for a mission in which they also must sacrifice themselves; then journeying to Jerusalem to fulfil the destiny which He foresaw, accepting the responsibility of the Messianic title, only to be condemned by the religious authorities as a blasphemer and handed over to the Roman power as a pretender to the Jewish throne.
Time after time His life is threatened before the feast is ended, and when the last passover has come we can well understand, what was not made sufficiently clear in the brief Marcan narrative, why Jerusalem proved so fatally hostile to His Messianic claim.
There is no reference or allusion to national Messianic hopes (certainly none in xvi.
It contains a brief history of Israel from Moses to the Messianic age.
The author was not an Essene, for he recognizes animal sacrifices and cherishes the Messianic hope.
He was not a Sadducee, for he looks forward to the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom (x.).
His object is to protest against the growing secularization of the Pharisaic party through its adoption of popular Messianic beliefs and political ideals.
It is in keeping with the old conceptions of the divine kingship, which, though they survive only in isolated biblical references, live on in the ideals of the Messianic king and his kingdom and in the post-exilic high priest. ?
By some the Messianic kingdom was thought of as permanent, by others as intermediary, the external kingdom being transcendent.
As religion thus becomes thoroughly ethical, so is the notion of the Messianic kingdom transformed.
The Messianic kingdom which they sought was opposed point by point to the kingdom of which he spoke, and their God and his Father - though called by the same sacred name - were different.
He wrought miracles, it is true, because of his divine sympathy and compassion, but he refused to show miraculous signs as a proof of his Messianic character (Mark viii.
Especially were the Messianic hopes forgotten or transferred to a transcendent sphere beyond death.
Nevertheless the latter continues because of its presence in the primary sources, but it is no longer a determining factor, since its presupposition - the Messianic kingdom on earth - has been obscured.
As the way of salvation was modified, so too was the idea of salvation: the dream of a Messianic kingdom on earth, with its corollary the resurrection of the physical body, faded away, especially after the Roman empire ado pd y?
the prominence given to this idea in Stephen's long speech) - and partly to jealousy of those who, by preaching the wider Messianic Evangel, were winning over the Gentiles, and particularly proselytes, in such great numbers.
What was said above of the Christology of the Petrine speeches applies to the whole conception of Messianic salvation, the eschatology, the idea of Jesus as equipped by the Holy Spirit for His Messianic work, found in these speeches, as also to titles like " Jesus the Nazarene " and " the Righteous One " both in and beyond the Petrine speeches.
it must have been a matter of small interest by what tentative stages the Messianic salvation first extended to the Gentiles, it is surely surprising that Acts enters into such detail on the subject, and is not content with a summary account of the matter such as the mere logic of the subject would naturally suggest.
SABBATAI SEBI (1626-1676), Jewish mystic, whose Messianic claims produced an unparalleled sensation throughout the world, was born in Smyrna.
He began to dream of the fulfilment of Messianic hopes, being supported in his vision by the outbreak of English Millenarianism.
And so the Messianic imposture ended in the apostacy of Sabbatai.
It contains no Messianic expectation nor any reference to a future life.
He was associated with David Reubeni, who also made Messianic claims. Molko, after a chequered career, was condemned to death by the ecclesiastical court at Mantua.
8), written in 344, forms an appendix on the Messianic fulfilment of prophecy, together with a treatment of the chronology from Adam to Christ.
The sole valid charter to Messianic privileges was observance of the Mosaic law, which remained obligatory upon pagan converts (iii.
In the Apostolic age itself, "apostle" often denotes simply an "envoy," commissioned by Jesus Christ to be a primary witness and preacher of the Messianic Kingdom.
The Views of the Author on the Messianic Kingdom and the Future Life.
- According to our author the Messianic kingdom was to be brought about gradually by the progressive spiritual development of man and a corresponding transformation of nature.
They kept both the Jewish Sabbath and the Christian Lord's day, and held extreme millenarian ideas in which Jerusalem figured as the centre of the coming Messianic kingdom.
The mythical theory that the Christ of the Gospels, excepting the most meagre outline of personal history, was the unintentional creation of the early Christian Messianic expectation he applied with merciless rigour to the narratives.
Had the work been composed during the Babylonian era, it would be more natural to expect prophecies of the return of the exiled Jews to Palestine, as in Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Isaiah, rather than the acclamation of an ideal Messianic kingdom such as is emphasized in the second part of Daniel.
An eternal Messianic kingdom at the close of the judgment is to be established under the Messiah, with its centre in the New Jerusalem set up by God Himself.
An eternal Messianic kingdom is no longer anticipated, but only a temporary one, at the close of which the final judgment will ensue.
I; hence its present form is earlier than 166 B.C. It represents a primitive and very sensuous view of the eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, seeing that the righteous beget woo children before they die.
The Messianic doctrine and eschatology of this section is unique.
The question arises whether Jesus Himself instituted baptism as a condition of entry into the Messianic kingdom.
17 to him, reading not Cochab (" a star"), but Cosiba (" goes forth from Jacob"); thus Bar-cochab is a Messianic title of the "man of Cozeba" (cf.
Wrede and others have more boldly conjectured that the Christ's pre-existence had become an accepted element in Jewish Messianic - it certainly occurs in one portion of the Book of Enoch and in 4 Ezra'--and chat Paul merely transferred to Jesus a doctrine which he had held while still in the Jews' religion.
According to it, the man Jesus was exalted to Messianic or divine rank.
Although written in the style of the historical books of the old Testament, the work is characterized by a religious reticence which avoids even the use of the divine name, and by the virtual absence of the Messianic hope.
He taught almost the same principles of devotion as Segarelli, but the Messianic character which he attributed to himself, the announcement of a communistic millennial kingdom, and, besides, an aggressive anti-sacerdotalism, gave to Dolcino's sect a clearly marked character, analogous only to the theocratic community of the Anabaptists of Minster in the 16th century.
This supposed discovery gave a new impulse to Menasseh's Messianic hopes.
But he was convinced that the Messianic age needed as its certain precursor the settlement of Jews in all parts of the known world.
Besides this, Messianic and other mystic hopes were current in England.
These treat of the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom, the woes of Israel in the past and the destruction of Jerusalem in the present, as well as of theological questions relating to original sin, free will, works, the number of the saved, the nature of the resurrection body, &c. The views expressed on several of the above subjects are often conflicting.
The first three were composed when Jerusalem was still standing and the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom were expected: A', a mutilated apocalypse = xxvii.
In B' the earthly Jerusalem is to be rebuilt, but not so in B 2; in the former the exiles are to be restored, but not in the latter; in the former a Messianic kingdom without a Messiah is expected, but no earthly blessedness of any kind in the latter, &c. B 1 = i.
We are also present with one another, sharing the bread which is given by God as foretaste of the coming messianic banquet.
dispensation of grace under the messianic lordship of Jesus Christ.
T he Church in the Power of the Spirit: a Contribution to Messianic ecclesiology.
The language is purely Essene and messianic--just what we would have expected a Nasi like John the Baptist and now Jesus to be proclaiming.
foretaste of the coming messianic banquet.
prophecycentury Christianity was simply a revival of the Judaism which began with the messianic prophesy.
Be aware of the major types of messianic psalms.
Messianic zeal, nationalism and myth came together to justify the savagery of the colonial shock troops let loose in the country.
In this way we perceive the transformation of the old Messianic doctrine through apocalyptic. Of apocalyptic literature we have numerous examples extending from the 2nd century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D.
The hope of the regeneration of his dynasty, and, at a later period, of its restoration to the throne - the Messianic expectation - must have worked powerfully in the same direction.
The view most frequently expressed there (see Von Otto in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift, 18 77, p. 527 seq.) is that the Messianic kingdom will last for one thousand (some said two thousand) years.
He believes, with the Jews, in a restoration and extension of the city of Jerusalem; he assumes that this city will be the seat of the Messianic kingdom, and he takes it as a matter of course that there all believers (here he is at one with Barnabas) along with patriarchs and prophets will enjoy perfect felicity for one thousand years.
But the non-fulfilment of prophecies relating to this or that individual event or people served to popularize the methods of apocalyptic in a very slight degree in comparison with the nonfulfilment of the greatest of all prophecies - the advent of the Messianic kingdom.
At length Yahweh intervenes; the foolish shepherd falls by the sword; two-thirds of the people perish with him in the Messianic crisis, but the remnant of one-third forms the seed of the new theocracy (xi.
The Messianic kingdom was originally conceived of as of everlasting duration on the present earth, but about roo B.C. this idea was abandoned and the hopes of the faithful were directed to a temporary earthly kingdom of 400 or 1000 years or of indefinite duration (see R.
- The crucifixion of Jesus Christ resulted in the scattering of his followers, but within a short time they became convinced that he had risen from the dead, and would soon return to set up the expected Messianic kingdom, and so to accomplish the true work of the Messiah (cf.
In their belief, however, in the Messiahship of Jesus, and their consequent assurance of the speedy establishment by him of the Messianic kingdom, they stood alone.
5, § 4) testifies that the belief in the immediate appearance of the Messianic king gave the chief impulse to the war that ended in the destruction of the Jewish state; after the fall of the temple the last apocalypses (Baruch, 4 Ezra) still loudly proclaim the near victory of the God-sent king; and Bar Cochebas, the leader of the revolt against Hadrian, was actually greeted as the Messiah by Rabbi Aqiba (cf.
But when we look at the deeper side of the Messianic conception in the Psalter of Solomon, at the heartfelt longing for a leader in the way of righteousness and acceptance with God which underlies the aspirations after political deliverance, we see that it was in no mere spirit of accommodation to prevailing language that Jesus did not disdain the name in which all the hopes of the Old Testament were gathered up.
This we may consider as one of the striking parallels which meet us in other religions to that "hope of the advent of an ideal king which was one of the features of that larger hope of the salvation of Israel from all evils, the realization of perfect reconciliation with Jehovah and the felicity of the righteous in Him," to which reference was made in an early portion of this article and which constitutes the essential meaning of Messiahship. The form in which the Indian conception presents itself in the above quoted lines is more closely analogous amid many differences to the later and apocalyptic type of the Messianic idea as it appears in Judaism.
liii.) which their own exegesis admitted to be Messianic, though it did not accept the Christian inferences as to the atoning death of the Messianic king.
But the record of miracle as such cannot prejudice the question of authorship. Even the form in which the gift of Tongues at Pentecost is conceived does not tell against a companion of Paul, since it may have stood in his source, and the first outpouring of the Messianic Spirit may soon have come to be thought of as unique in some respects, parallel in fact to the Rabbinic tradition as to the inauguration of the Old Covenant at Sinai (cf.
The world was renewed in the creation of the true man Jacob, and its final renewal was to synchronize with the setting-up of God's sanctuary in Zion and the establishment of the Messianic kingdom.
In relation to the publicans and soldiers who, smitten with remorse, sought out John in the wilderness, his baptism was a purification from their past and so far identical with the proselyte's bath; but so far as it raised them up to be children unto Abraham and filled them with the Messianic hope, it advanced them further than that bath could do, and assured them of a place in the kingdom of God, soon to be established - this, without imposing circumcision on them; for the ordinary proselyte was circumcised as well as baptized.
His cheery optimism was at the basis of this attitude, and strongly coloured his belief in the Messianic ideals.
In one class of passages there is everywhere manifest a vigorous optimism as to Israel's ultimate well-being on earth, and the blessedness of the chosen people in the Messianic kingdom is sketched in glowing and sensuous colours (xxix., xxxix.
The messianic nature of Klaatu's visit to Earth escaped no one.
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