Meridian Sentence Examples
The axis of this band, almost a meridian line, is 156 statute miles long.
It marks the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography.
From the springs the journey was continued along the same meridian to the Fitzroy river.
It enters the Maranon very near the 74th meridian.
By authority, therefore, of Queensland, the mainland of New Guinea, opposite her shores east of the 141st meridian, was annexed to that colony in 1883.Advertisement
Finally, however, in 1884 a British protectorate was authoritatively proclaimed by Commodore Erskine over the region " lying between the 141st meridian eastward as far as East Cape, with the adjacent islands as far as Kosman Island."
To Germany were assigned all the territory and islands to the north of the British boundary under the name of Kaiser Wilhelms Land, while all to the west of the 141st meridian remained under its old flag as Dutch New Guinea.
America, broadening in the north as if to span the oceans by reaching to its neighbours on the east and west, tapering between vast oceans far to the south where the nearest land is in the little-known Antarctic regions, roughly presents the triangular outline that is to be expected from tetrahedral warping; and although greatly broken in the middle, and standing with the northern and southern parts out of a meridian line, America is nevertheless the best witness among the continents of to-day to the tetrahedral theory.
While the majority of his researches bear on one or other of the subjects just mentioned, others deal with such widely different topics as the birds of Greenland, ocean temperatures, the Gulf Stream, barometric measurement of heights, arcs of meridian, glacier transport of rocks, the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands, and various points of meteorology.
With the tables of the sun's declination then available, he could calculate his latitude by meridian altitudes of the sun taken with his astrolabe.Advertisement
Formerly each nation took its own capital or principal observatory as the standard meridian from which longitudes were measured.
While the system of counting from the capital of the country is still used for local purposes, the tendency in recent years is to use the meridian of Greenwich for nautical and international purposes.
This area extends from the mist meridian up the White river for about 120 m.
This border-range, which continues on to the 97th meridian, separates the Nan-shan range from the Pe-shan range.
From 1792 to 1799 he was occupied with the measurement of the arc of the meridian extending from Dunkirk to Barcelona, and published a detailed account of the operations in Base du systeme metrique (3 vols., 1806, 1807, 1810), for which he was awarded in 181 o the decennial prize of the Institute.Advertisement
His work Eratosthenes Batavus, published in 1617, describes the method and gives as the result of his operations between Alkmaar and Bergen-opZoom a degree of the meridian equal to 55,100 toises =117,449 yds.
From the meridian of Garm or Harm it rises above the snowline, attaining at least 18,000 ft.
Judged from the standpoint of empirical science, philosophy passed its meridian in Plato and Aristotle, declined in the post-Aristotelian systems, and set in the darkness of Neoplatonism.
Bailey, was accordingly despatched (1889), and the meridian photometer erected successively in three different positions on the slopes of the Andes.
The places of the objects were at the same time determined with the Dorpat meridian circle (Stellarum fixarum imprimis duplicium et multiplicium positiones mediae, St Petersburg, 1852 seq.).Advertisement
No part of Central America contains a greater diversity of tribes, and in 1883 Otto Stoll estimated the number of spoken languages as eighteen, although east of the meridian of Lake Amatitlan the native speech has almost entirely disappeared and been replaced by Spanish.
The Great Plains.A broad stretch of country underlaid by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 in., and northward from the Mexican, boundary far into Canada.
The line separating the two phases of the system is a little east of the 1 ooth meridian.
The Lower Austral zone occupies the greater part of the Southern states, and is divided near the 98th meridian into an eastern humid or Austroriparian area and a western arid or Lower Sonoran area.
Only an eighth of the countrys total population lived in I900 west of the 96th meridian, which divides the country into two nearly equal parts.Advertisement
Repsold introduced essential improvements in the meridian circles by substituting microscopes (on Jesse Ramsden's plan) for the verniers to read the circles, and by making the various parts perfectly symmetrical.
For a number of years the firm furnished meridian circles to the observatories at Hamburg, Konigsberg, Pulkova, &c.; later on its activity declined, while Pistor and Martins of Berlin rose to eminence.
The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination.
In order to determine the magnetic meridian the orientation of the magnetic FIG.
The telescope B serves to observe the scale attached to the magnet when determining the magnetic meridian, and to observe the sun or star when determining the geographical meridian.
The mean of all the readings of the verniers gives the reading on the azimuth circle corresponding to the magnetic meridian.
Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading corresponding to the geographical meridian.
The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory.
Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian.
What is known as the method of sines is used, for since the axes of the two magnets are always at right angles when the mirror magnet is in its zero position, the ratio M/H is proportional to the sine of the angle between the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet and the magnetic - = meridian.
The difference between the two sets of readings gives twice the angle which the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet makes with the magnetic meridian.
Omitting correction terms depending on the temperature and on the inductive effect of the earth's magnetism on the moment of the deflecting magnet, if 0 is the angle which the axis of the deflected magnet makes with the meridian when the centre of the deflecting magnet is at a distance r, then zM sin B=I+P+y2 &c., in which P and Q are constants depending on the dimensions and magnetic states of the two magnets.
In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars.
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
Although a compass may thus be made practically correct for a given time and place, the magnetism of the ship is liable to changes on changing her geographical position, and especially so when steaming at right angles or nearly so to the magnetic meridian, for then sub-permanent magnetism is developed in the hull.
In 1784 Virginia agreed to the extension of the line and to the establishment of the western limit (the present boundary between Pennsylvania and Ohio) as the meridian from a point on the Mason and Dixon line five degrees of longitude west of the Delaware river.
This was followed by a zone-catalogue of 73,160 stars (1884), and a general catalogue (1885) compiled from meridian observations of 32,448 stars.
Mechain in the attempt to determine an arc of the meridian, and the greater number of the instruments employed in the task were invented by him.
On most of the country west of the 97th meridian and extending to the Pacific Ocean less than 20 in.
Auroral Meridian.-It is a common belief that the summit of an auroral arc is to be looked for in the observer's magnetic meridian.
Thus there must in general be a difference between the observer's magnetic meridian - answering to the mean position of the magnetic needle at his station - and the direction the needle would have at a given hour, if undisturbed by the aurora, at any spot where the phenomena which the observer sees as aurora exist.
But clearly, whilst the arcs and bands, and to a lesser extent the patches, showed a marked preference for the magnetic meridian, the rays showed no such preference.
The Swedish Expedition (17) of 1899-1902, engaged in measuring an arc of the meridian in Spitsbergen, were unusually well provided spectrographically, and succeeded in taking photographs of aurora in conjunction with artificial lines-chiefly of hydrogen-which led to results claiming exceptional accuracy.
In the northern part of this desert the dunes lie about N.W.-S.E., but farther south incline more towards the meridian, becoming at last very nearly north and south.
The French academician Bouger, who was chief of the scientific commission sent to Ecuador in 1736 to measure a degree of the meridian on the equator, made a trigonometrical measurement of Iliniza, and Wagner ascended to within 800 ft.
The setting in the meridian is effected by turning the instrument after setting for latitude until a pin-hole aperture s and a small screen P, placed so that Ps is parallel to CO, are in a line with the sun.
It is equal to the angle at the pole between the hour circle through the body and the meridian, but is usually expressed in time.
The first known mention of it seems to be that by Hsuan-Tsang, at a time when apparently it had already passed its meridian, and was the head of one of the small states into which the empire of the White Huns had broken up. At a later period Bamian was for half a century, ending A.D.
In the latter case, being determined by observations of the sun, it is taken to begin with the passage of the mean sun over the meridian of the place, or at mean noon, while the civil day begins at midnight.
At a point which is not far east of the Kabul meridian an offshoot is directed southwards, which becomes the water-parting between the Kurram and the Logar at Shutargardan, and can be traced to a connexion with the great watershed of the frontier dividing the Indus basin from that of the Helmund.
A vertical plane passing through A A is therefore in the meridian, and the polar axis is inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to that of the latitude of the place of observation.
Thus, when the declination axis is horizontal the telescope moves in the plane of the meridian by rotation on the declination axis only.
If we now attach to the polar axis a graduated circle D D, called the" hour circle,"of which the microscope or vernier R reads o h when the declination axis is horizontal, we can obviously read off the hour angle from the meridian of any star to which the telescope may be directed at the instant of observation.
If the local sidereal time of the observation is known, the right ascension of the star becomes known by adding the observed hour angle to the sidereal time if the star is west of the meridian, or subtracting it if east of the meridian.
I i shows the whole instrument on a small scale with the telescope directed to the pole, and the hour circle set 6" from the meridian.
The chief defect in equatorial mountings of type C is that in general they are not capable of continued observing much past the meridian without reversal.
This is an unquestionable drawback when long exposures near the meridian are required.
A pair of stars of known declination are selected such that their zenith distances, when on the meridian, are nearly equal and opposite, and whose right ascensions differ by five or ten minutes of time.
Assuming, for example, that the northern star has the smaller right ascension, the instrument is first, with the aid of the stop, placed in the meridian towards the north; the verniers of the graduated circle g are set to read to the reading 40-2(Sn+Ss) where 0 is the approximate latitude of the place and Sn, Ss the declinations of the northern and southern star respectively; then the level frame h is turned till the levels k and I are in the middle of their run, and there clamped by the screw m, aided in the final adjustment by the adjoining slow motion screw shown in the figure.
When the star enters the field of view its image is approximately bisected by the spider web of the micrometer n, the exact bisection being completed in the immediate neighbourhood of the meridian.
By the use of photography, however, it is possible to photograph the trail of a star as it transits the meridian when the telescope is directed towards the north, and another trail be similarly photographed when the telescope is directed towards the south.
In 1529, by the treaty of Zaragosa, Spain relinquished to Portugal all claims to the Moluccas and agreed that no Spaniard should trade or sail west of a meridian drawn 297 leagues east of the Moluccas.
Very special precautions are required to eliminate instrumental error before we can compare observations, say, of a star on the meridian in winter at 6 p.m.
Formerly attempts were made to determine parallaxes by measuring changes in the absolute right ascensions and declinations of the stars from observations with the meridian circle.
Meridian was laid out in 1854 at a proposed railway crossing, and was chartered as a city in 1860.
In February 1864 General William Tecumseh Sherman, with an army of about 20,000, made an expedition from Vicksburg to Meridian, then an important railway centre and depot for Confederate supplies, chiefly for the purpose of making inoperative the Mobile & Ohio and the Jackson & Selma railways; on the 14th of the month his army entered Meridian, and within a week destroyed nearly everything in the city except the private houses, and tore up over i io m.
The upper end of the suspension is turned till the axis of the magnet is at right angles to the magnetic meridian.
According as one regards the Louisiana purchase as including or not including Texas to the Rio Grande (in the territorial meaning of the state of Texas of 1845), one may say that all of Colorado east of the meridian of the head of the Rio Grande, or only that north of the Arkansas and east of the meridian of its head, passed to the United States in 1803.
A large northern tributary of the Puelo, the Manso, has its sources in Lake Mascardi and other lakes and streams south-east of the Cerro Tronador, also in Argentina, and flows south-west through the Cordilleras to unite with the Puelo a few miles west of the 72nd meridian.
The Tibetan plateau, or Chang, breaks up about the meridian of 92 E., and to the east of this meridian the affluents of the Tsanpo (the same river as the Dihong and subsequently as the Brahmaputra) drain no longer from the elevated Eastern ' 'Tibet.
Passing to the westward, and viewing the flora of Kumaon, which province holds a central position on the chain, on the 80th meridian, we find that the gradual decrease of moisture and increase of high summer heat are accompanied by a marked change of the vegetation.
In attempting to calculate the effect of this surface-tension in determining the form of a drop of the liquid, Segner took account of the curvature of a meridian section of the drop, but neglected the effect of the curvature in a plane at right angles to this section.
Let us first determine the nature of a curve, such that if it is rolled on the axis its origin will trace out the meridian section of the bubble.
Hence the meridian section of the film may be traced by the focus of such a conic, if the conic is made to roll on the axis.
When the conic is an ellipse the meridian line is in the form of a series of waves, and the film itself has a series of alternate swellings and contractions as represented in figs.
When the ellipse becomes a circle, the meridian line becomes a straight line parallel to the axis, and the film passes into the form of a cylinder of revolution.
When the ellipse differs infinitely little from a circle, the equation of the meridian line becomes approximately y = a+c sin (x/a) where c is small.
We know that the radius of curvature of a surface of revolution in the plane normal to the meridian plane is the portion of the normal intercepted by the axis of revolution.
In 1736 he accompanied Pierre Louis Maupertuis and Alexis Claude Clairaut in the expedition to Lapland for the measurement of a degree of the meridian.
On the 5th of February, as the result of prolonged negotiations, France conceded the right of the Association to the course of the lower Congo below Manyanga, and accepted the Chiloango river and the water-parting of the waters of the Niadi Kwilu and the Congo, as far as beyond the meridian of Manyanga, as the boundary between her possessions and those of the Association on the lower river.
Bruns in 1889; measured an arc of the meridian in East Prussia in 1831-1832; and deduced for the earth in 1841 an ellipticity of 2 4 9.
The boundary between Argentina and Chile has been settled in such a manner that Argentina holds that part of the main island of Tierra del Fuego which is situated east of the meridian of Cape Espiritu Santo, the frontier striking the north shore of Beagle Channel about its centre; and Chile holds all the western part of the main island and the other numerous islands to the west and to the south of Beagle Channel.
Near by is the hill of Tarqui which the French astronomers chose for their meridian in 1742.
On some plates the stars were allowed to trail and the planet was followed, in others the reverse procedure was taken; in either case the planet's position is measured by referring it to " comparison stars " of approximately its own magnitude situated within 25' to 30' of the centre of the plate, while these stars are themselves fixed by measurement from brighter " reference stars," the positions of which are found by meridian observations if absolute places are desired.
The measure of the earth, which had hitherto been accepted by geographers and navigators, was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the earth's surface measured along a meridian was .60 m.
The palace (Schloss), built in1751-1776on the site of the previous erection of 1715, is a plain building in the old French style, composed of a centre and two wings, presenting nothing remarkable except the octagon tower (Bleiturna), from the summit of which a splendid view of the city and surrounding country is obtained, and the marble saloon, in which the meridian of Cassini was fixed or drawn.
He was British delegate to the International Prime Meridian Conference at Washington in 1884, when he also attended the meetings of the British Association at Montreal and of the American Association at Philadelphia.
But beyond that of Anie (8215 ft.), on the meridian of Orthez, which marks the boundary of Beam, much loftier elevations appear, - Mourrous (9760 ft.), on the border of Hautes-Pyrenees, and the southern peak of Ossau (9465 ft.).
That wonderful agricultural region, extending from the international line on the north to the 37th parallel, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Tooth meridian, and comprising 26 states, produces 76% of the American wheat crop. This region, which contains only 30% of the land surface of the country, but embraces 60% of its total farm area and 70% of its improved farm acreage, is the greatest cereal-producing region of the world.
Shortly after he engaged to take part in the Portuguese expedition for the survey of Brazil, and the measurement of a degree of the meridian; but he yielded to the urgent request of the pope that he would remain in Italy and undertake a similar task there.
It was for the most part written on horseback, during the author's rides in the country while engaged in his meridian measurements.
The committee decided in favour of the latter and a commission was appointed to measure the arc of the meridian between Dunkirk and Mont Jany, near Barcelona.
Owing to the unceasing apparent motion of the sun toward the east, the interval between two passages of the same star over the meridian is nearly four minutes less than the interval between consecutive passages of the sun.
Considering the position of the vernal equinox, and also of a star on the celestial sphere, it will be seen that the interval between the transits of these two points across the meridian may be used to measure the right ascension of a star, since the latter amounts to FIG.
Right ascensions are now determined, not by measuring the angle between one star and another, but, by noting the time between the transits of successive stars over the meridian.
Next in extent of use are the transit instrument and the meridian circle, which are commonly united in a single instrument, the transit circle, known also as the meridian circle.
This instrument moves only in the plane of the meridian on a horizontal east and west axis, and is used to determine the right ascensions and declinations of stars.
They were, on the other hand, probably acquainted, a couple of millenniums before Meton gave it his name, with the nineteen-year cycle, by which solar and lunar years were harmonized; 1 they immemorially made observations in the meridian; regulated time by water-clocks, and used measuring instruments of the nature of armillary spheres and quadrants.
Among the fruits of the strenuous career of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille were tables of the sun, in which terms depending upon planetary perturbations were, for the first time, introduced (1758); an extended acquaintance with the southern heavens; and a determination of the moon's parallax from observations made at opposite extremities of an arc of the meridian 85' in length.
The instrument used at Harvard was a " meridian photometer," constructed on the principle of polarization; while the " method of extinctions," by means of a wedge of neutral-tinted glass, served for the Oxford determinations.
In consequence of the orbital motion the moon rises, crosses the meridian, and sets, about 48 m.
In Paris he advocated the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Lapland, and took part, in 1736, in the expedition organized for the purpose by the French Academy.
Cassini, obtained employment, first in surveying the coast from Nantes to Bayonne, then, in 1 739, in remeasuring the French arc of the meridian.
Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the observation of io,000 southern stars.
At first he devoted himself to mathematical and astronomical studies; his Cosmotheoria (1528) records a determination of a degree of the meridian, which he made by counting the revolutions of his carriage wheels on a journey between Paris and Amiens.
Indian corn is grown to some extent all over the state, except in the north-west, but the great bulk of the crop is produced east of the 99th meridian.
The following table shows an average value for any date and for the Greenwich meridian for a number of years, from which the actual value will seldom deviate more than 20 seconds until after 1950.
Longitude moved east and west from the prime meridian.
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The diagram shows an analemma for a location about three degrees west of the time meridian.
The MC (medium coeli) is where the meridian of the birthplace meets the ecliptic.
The altitude of the celestial equator at a meridian is a function of the latitude of the observer.
For this is where the Earth's prime meridian, the line of zero degrees longitude, originates.
At what time did the Moon cross the meridian?
He took care also to observe the moment when it passed the meridian below the pole, which would simplify the operation.
The meridian of that place, from which the longitude is reckoned, is called the first meridian.
Here, there was no significant special effect of crossing the vertical meridian.
Grid values to the west of this central meridian are less than 500,000; to the east, more than 500,000.
There are two somewhat different senses in which the meridian of Greenwich is the standard meridian for nearly the entire world.
The mean solar day measures the interval between successive transits over the same meridian by the mean sun.
Callaghan was pursuing a personal interest in the oriental energy meridian system.
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For this is where the earth's prime meridian, the line of zero degrees longitude, originates.
Azores The Island of St Mary in the Azores was used to define the prime meridian by Christopher Saxton, 1584.
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The English reckon the longitude from the meridian of London, and the French now reckon it from the meridian of Paris.
The same thing happened to a French savant among the mountains of Spain, when he was measuring the terrestrial meridian.
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Meridian systems are designed so that they can be mounted virtually unseen in video walls with the electronics rack mounted in standard formats.
In actuality each one is a curved meridian running from pole to pole, crossing the zenith or overhead position of its planet.
Suppose, for distinctness of statement, that the primary ray is vertical, and that the plane of vibration is that of the meridian.
This method of observation was very successfully employed, under Seeliger at Munich, in an extensive series of meridian observations, and, under the auspices of the Geodetic Institute at Potsdam, in telegraphic longitude operations.
In 1881 a treaty was signed which provided that the boundary line should follow the highest crests of the Andes forming the watershed as far south as the 52nd parallel,thence east to the 10th meridian and south-east to Cape Dungeness at the eastern entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
The line starts at the intersection of the 23rd parallel with the 67th meridian and runs south-westerly and southerly to the mountain and volcano summits of Rincon, Socompa, Llullaillaco, Azufre, Aguas Blancas and Sierra Nevada, thence to the initial point of the British award.
The leading manufacturing centres are Meridian, Vicksburg, Jackson, Natchez and Biloxi.
A range of mountains, called Stanovoi, rising to heights of 4000 or 5000 ft., follows the southern coast of the eastern extremity of Asia from Kamchatka to the borders of Manchuria, as far Man- as the 135th meridian, in lat.
Nevertheless, it should be observed that our globes take no account of the oblateness of our sphere; but as the difference in length between the circumference of the equator and the perimeter of a meridian ellipse only amounts to o 16%, it could be shown only on a globe of unusual size.
The next period is the meridian of his genius, the time of his greatest lyrical inspiration, which he himself associates with the peace and leisure secured to him by his Sabine farm.
Thus the system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau, and in the meridian of the Tatra group. It covers an area of 72,600 sq.
France, however, uses the meridian of the Paris observatory as its standard for all nautical and astronomical purposes (see Time).
Political Division.-Politically the whole of the archipelago, except British North Borneo, &c. (see Borneo), part of Timor (Portuguese), New Guinea east of the 141st meridian (British and German), and the Philippine Islands, belongs to the Netherlands.
During the Revolution, he was one of the three members of the council established to introduce the decimal system, and he was also a member of the commission appointed to determine the length of the metre, for which purpose the calculations, &c., connected with the arc of the meridian from Barcelona to Dunkirk were revised.
In 1877 he decided to devote one of the telescopes of the observatory to stellar photometry, and after an exhaustive trial of various forms of photometers, he devised the meridian photometer (see Photometry, Stellar), which seemed to be free from most of the sources of error.
Almost all of the United States east of the 98th meridian is naturally a forest region, and forests cover the greater part of the Rocky Mountains, the Cascades, the Sierra Nevadas and the Coast Range, but throughout the belt of plains, basins and deserts west of the Rocky Mountains and on the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains there are few trees except along the watercourses, and the prevailing type of vegetation ranges from bunch grass to sage brush and cactuses according to the degree of aridity and the temperature.
With the exception of a narrow strip along the Canadian frontier, thunderstorm frequency is fairly high over the whole of the United States to the east of the tooth meridian.
From it the exact time is conveyed each day at one o'clock by electric signal to the chief towns throughout the country; British and the majority of foreign geographers reckon longitude from its meridian.
The records preserved in each city were examined, topographical information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun and pole star and by a system of remeasurements.
The great geographical event of the century, as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc of the So meridian.
A mean degree of the meridian being assumed to be 69-09 statute miles of 5280 ft., the nautical mile (A l b - degree) is taken as 6080 ft., which is a sufficiently close approximation for practical purposes, and the distances between the knots are made to bear the same relation to 6080 ft.
Slightly developed, it was crossed by another ring fixed in the plane of the meridian.
Arago, with whom he had already carried out investigations on the refractive properties of different gases, in the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Spain, and in subsequent years he was engaged in various other geodetic determinations.
Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central meridian or the equator.
Following Hipparchus he divided the equator into 360 drawing his prime meridian through the Fortunate Islands (Canaries).
In France, in the meantime, an arc of the meridian had been measured (1669-1670) by Jean Picard, numerous longitudes had been observed between 1672 and 1680 by the same, and by Phil.
The northern slopes of the Elburz and the lowlands which lie between them and the Caspian, and together form the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad, are covered with dense forest and traversed by hundreds (Persian writers say 1362) of perennial rivers and streams. The breadth of the lowlands between the foot of the hills and the sea is from 2 to 25 m., the greatest breadth being in the meridian of Resht in Gilan, and in the districts of Amol, Sari and Barfurush in Mazandaran.
By the American photographs the distances between the centres of Venus and the sun, and the angles between the line adjoining the centres and the meridian, could be separately measured and a separate result for the parallax derived from each.
From the meridian observations of the same planets made for the purpose of controlling the elements of motion of the planets Auwers found it = 8.806".
Meridian observations of the moon have been heretofore made by observing the transit of its illuminated limb.
The compass needle is a little steel magnet balanced upon a pivot; one end of the needle, which always bears a distinguishing mark, points approximately, but not in general exactly, to the north,' the vertical plane through the direction of the needle being termed the magnetic meridian.
The bar-magnet, if suspended horizontally in a paper stirrup by a thread of unspun silk, will also come to rest in the magnetic meridian with its marked end pointing northwards.
For the practical observation of this phenomenon it is usual to employ a needle which can turn freely in the plane of the magnetic meridian upon a horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of the needle.
If two magnets having moments M, M' are arranged at right angles to each other upon a horizontal support which is free to rotate, their resultant R will set itself in the magnetic meridian.
Let 0 be the angle which the standard magnet M makes with the meridian, then M'/R = sin 0, and M/R = cos 0, whence M' = M tan 0.
On the other hand, a vertically placed rod is subject to the inconvenience that it is influenced by the earth's magnetic field, which is not the case when the rod is horizontal and at right angles to the magnetic meridian.
The line adopted starts from Lake Suches, the source of a small river of that name flowing into the north of Lake Titicaca, crosses the Cordillera by the Palomani to the Tambopata river, follows that stream to the mouth of the Lanza, thence crosses to the source of the Heath river, which forms the dividing line down to its junction with the Madre de Dios, descends that river to the mouth of the Torosmonas, thence in a straight line north-westerly to the intersection of the Tahu.amanu river by the 69th meridian, and thence north on that meridian to the Brazilian frontier.
Godin, a member of the French commission for measuring an arc of the meridian near Quito, became professor of mathematics at San Marcos in 1750; and the botanical expeditions sent out from Spain gave further zest to scientific research.
He had already prepared for a further advance by making an expedition into the heart of Mississippi as far as Meridian, destroying railways and making impracticable, for a season, the transfer of military operations to that region; and on Grant becoming general-in-chief (March 1864) he was made commander of the military division of the Mississippi, including his Army of the Tennessee, now under McPherson, the Army of the Cumberland, under Thomas, and the Army of the Ohio, under Schofield.
After taking part in a scientific expedition in the Levant (1731), he became a member with Louis Godin and Pierre Bouguer of the expedition sent to Peru in 1735 to determine the length of a degree of the meridian in the neighbourhood of the equator.
A simple, practical boundary between the three oceans can be obtained by prolonging the meridian of the southern extremity of each of the three southern continents to the Antarctic circle.
It has also been found convenient to take the boundary between the Atlantic and Pacific, as the shortest line across Drake Strait, from Cape Horn through Snow Island to Cape Gunnar, instead of the meridian of Cape Horn.
Thence westward to the Tooth meridian are the prairies, the south-westward extension of the Prairie Plain province.
They were to be, in general terms, the Sabine river, the 94th meridian (approximately), the Red river, the tooth meridian, the Arkansas river, and the 42nd parallel.
The western boundary claimed by the republic was the Rio Grande to its source and the meridian of longitude from that point to the forty-second parallel, although as a political division of Mexico its limits never extended farther west than the Nueces and the Medina.
Under the Florida treaty of 1819-21 a portion of the Red river was to be the northern boundary of Texas east of the tooth meridian, but as there are two branches of%the river meeting east of the meridian the enclosed territory (Greer county) was in dispute.
In 1904, however, it was found that the 30th meridian had been placed some 25 m.
When the instrument has been set up and levelled (either with aid of the cross level d, or the levels k and 1), the reading of the circle p for the meridional position of the telescope is determined either by the method of transits in the meridian (see Transit Circle), or by the observation of the azimuth of a known star at a known hour angle.
The catenaries which lie between the two whose direction coincides with the axis of revolution generate surfaces whose radius of curvature convex towards the axis in the meridian plane is less than the radius of concave curvature.
The catenaries which lie beyond the two generate surfaces whose radius of curvature convex towards the axis in the meridian plane is greater than the radius of concave curvature.
In shiatsu treatment a specific zone can be worked along with the same meridian.
This is a soppy song, ' suggests Meridian.
Greenwich was also chosen for a worldwide time zone system by the International Meridian Conference, 1884.
Purchased from developer Archetype Interactive, initially with the thoughts of using the technology to bring 3DO's Might and Magic franchise to online play, Meridian 59 was a small effort that did surprisingly well.
Chinese traditional medicine may be helpful by working to reconnect chi (life energy) through the meridian lines along the line of a fracture.
The company is based in Meridian, Idaho and their first product was the Authentic Scentsy Bar.
Founded in 2004, Scentsy is based out of Meridian, Idaho.
The Meridian is a low ankle boot, too, but with bicycle stitching at the toe to add a little flair.
The 1884 International Prime Meridian Conference established an international standard time system.
The stage was set for the formation of Paramore when, at age 13, Hayley Williams moved from her hometown of Meridian, Mississippi to Franklin, Tennessee.
Between the Andamans and Cape Negrais intervene two small groups, Preparis and Cocos; between the Andamans and Sumatra lie the Nicobar Islands, the whole group stretching in a curve, to which the meridian forms a tangent between Cape Negrais and Sumatra; and though this curved line measures 700 m., the widest sea space is about 91 m.
In 1847 an altazimuth was erected, designed by Airy to enable observations of the moon to be made not only on the meridian, but whenever she might be visible.
From the western end of the Yablonoi range, on the 115th meridian, a mountainous belt extends along a somewhat irregular line to the extremity of Pamir, known under various names Mongolia.
The globe itself rotates within a metallic meridian to which its axis is attached.
A first meridian, separating a leeward from a windward region, passed through Ras Kumhari (Comorin) and was thus nearly identical with the first meridian of the Indian astronomers which passed through the sacred city of Ujjain (Ozere of Ptolemy) or the meridian of Azin of the Arabs.
Within the same region we may expect to find considerable differences as we pass from one meridian to another.
Thence he went to the Kurile Islands and Kamchatka, and sailed from the far north down the meridian to the Navigator and Friendly Islands.
Large quantities of mineral water, sulphur, chalybeate and lithia, bottled at Meridian, Raymond and elsewhere, are sold annually.
The Laccadives and Maldives are groups of small coral islands, situated along the 73rd meridian, at no great distance from the Indian peninsula, on which they have a political dependency.
The southern and south-western face follows the coast closely up the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Indus, and is formed farther west by the mountain scarp, which, rising in many points to 10,000 ft., flanks the Tigris and the Mesopotamian plains, and extends along Kurdistan and Armenia nearly to the 40th meridian; beyond which it turns along the Taurus range, and the north - eastern angle of the Mediterranean.
The western part of the range, which received the name of Paropamisus Mons from the ancients, diminishes in height west of the 65th meridian and constitutes the northern face of the Afghan and Persian plateau, rising abruptly from the plains of the Turkoman desert, which lies between the Oxus and the Caspian.
New Guinea extends almost to the same meridian as the eastern coast of Australia, from the north point of which it is separated by Torres Straits.
St Petersburg, again, is connected with Greenwich by European systems of triangulation; and the Greenwich meridian is adopted by Russia as the zero for all her longitude values.
If the two places are upon the same meridian or upon the equator the exact distance separating them is to be found by reference to a table giving the lengths of arcs of a meridian and of the equator.
Having determined the difference of latitude between Alexandria and Syene which he erroneously believed to lie on the same meridian, and obtained the distance of those places from each other from the surveys made by Egyptian geometers, he concluded that a degree of the meridan measured 700 stadia.'
Ptolemy were translated into Arabic, and in 827, in the reign of the caliph Abdullah al Mamun, an arc of the meridian was measured in the plain of Mesopotamia.
The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
He was a member of the International Prime Meridian and Time Conference in 1884, and of the Board of Fortifications in 1885-1886; was superintendent of the Naval Academy from 1886 to 1890; and was promoted to captain and served as delegate at the International Maritime Conference at Washington in 1889.
The eastern flank of this tableland follows a line of hills drawn a short distance from the Indus, between the mouth of that river and the Himalaya, about on the 72nd meridian; these hills do not generally exceed 4000 or 5000 ft.
The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.
This map of Eratosthenes, notwithstanding its many errors, such as the assumed connexion of the Caspian with a northern ocean and the supposition that Carthage, Sicily and Rome lay on the same meridian, enjoyed a high reputation in his day.
Let us not be upset and overwhelmed in that terrible rapid and whirlpool called a dinner, situated in the meridian shallows.