The largest pond is as sensitive to atmospheric changes as the globule of mercury in its tube.
Mercury is found in New South Wales and Queensland.
The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found.
The current can be passed into and out of the movable coil by permitting the ends of the coil to dip into two mercury cups.
Mercury is a fluid, volatile, spiritual essence.
The atomist has an easy answer; he says that the new body is made up by the juxtaposition of the atoms of iodine and mercury, which still exist in the red powder.
A battery with a sufficient number of cells is connected to these two electrodes so as to pass a current through the mercury vapour, negative electricity proceeding from the mercury cathode to the iron anode.
At Meshed i Sar, the port, or roadstead of Barfurush, the steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Company call weekly, and a brisk shipping trade is carried on between it and other Caspian ports.
Maybe it was the mercury in the tuna she ate or the excessive amounts of chocolate.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
This is true not only of the major planets Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; it is also true of the host of more than five hundred minor planets.
Then he treated oil of vitriol in the same way, but got nothing until by accident he dropped some mercury into the liquid, when "vitriolic acid air" (sulphur dioxide) was evolved.
In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
Another form of receiver can be made depending on the properties of mercury vapour.
copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).
perfect electrical contact between the steel and mercury for low voltage currents, but when electric oscillations were passed through the junction it was pierced and good electrical contact established as long as the oscillations continued.
The wheel was connected to a receiving antenna and the mercury to earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity.
The more important of those in use to-day are carbolic acid, the perchloride and biniodide of mercury, iodoform, formalin, salicylic acid, &c. Carbolic acid is germicidal in strong solution, inhibitory in weaker ones.
The mercury vapour then possesses a unilateral conductivity, and can be used to filter off all those oscillations in a train which pass in one direction and make them readable on an ordinary galvanometer.
For, if the Sun presides over the first hour of Sunday, and therefore also over the eighth, the fifteenth and the twenty-second, Venus will have the twenty-third hour, Mercury the twenty-fourth, and the Moon, as the third in order from the Sun, will preside over the first hour of Monday.
GayLussac, who obtained it by heating mercury or silver cyanide; this discovery is of considerable historical importance, since it recorded the isolation of a "compound radical."
The Trinity--the three elements of matter--are sulphur, mercury, and salt.
This or the biniodide of mercury is the last antiseptic applied to the surgeon's and assistants' hands before an operation begins.
With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
The next salt to be obtained was the mercuric salt, which was prepared in 1 799 by Edward Charles Howard, who substituted mercury for silver in Brugnatelli's process.
After the suspension of the Reflector in 1753, he edited in the New York Mercury the "Watch Tower" section (1754-1755), which became the recognized organ of the Presbyterian faction.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
So late as 1782, James Price, an English physician, showed experiments with white and red powders, by the aid of which he was supposed to be able to transform fifty and sixty times as much mercury into silver and gold.
Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.
Sulphur is of an oily and fiery nature; in combination with salt by its fiery nature it arouses a desire in the latter by means of which it attracts mercury, seizes it, holds it, and in combination produces other bodies.
His opponent would be disposed to say that the iodine and the mercury ceased to exist when the red powder was formed, that they were components but not constituents of it.
8-10) ascribed the victory to the magic arts of an Egyptian named Arnuphis who prevailed on Mercury and other gods to 2 Aurelius has been severely criticized for sending Verus.
The views of Becher on the composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt, mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the combustible earths.
Subsequently electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) disappeared as a specific metal, and tin was ascribed to Jupiter instead, the sign of mercury becoming common to the metal and the planet.
A highly insulated tube contains a little mercury, which is used as a negative electrode, and the tube also has sealed through the glass a platinum wire carrying an iron plate as an anode.
of mercury, and, when of specific gravity 1.295 (corresponding to about 80% of glycerin), it is distilled under a vacuum of 28 to 29 in.
Delisle is chiefly remembered as the author of a method for observing the transits of Venus and Mercury by instants of contacts.
The use of mercury cups is open to many objections on account of the fact that the mercury becomes oxidized, and such instruments are not very convenient for transportation.
It may be obtained direct from pure and bright coloured portions of the native ore cinnabar, or, artificially, by subliming a mixture of mercury and sulphur.
It also forms amalgams with mercury, and on this account has been employed in dentistry for the purpose of stopping (or filling) teeth.
Those who believe the " Declaration " to be spurious argue that survivors remembered only one such document, that the Resolutions might easily be thought of as a declaration of independence, that Governor Martin in all probability had knowledge only of these and not of the alleged " Declaration," and that the dates of publication in the Raleigh and Charleston newspapers, and the politics of those papers, show that the Resolutions are authentic. In July 1905 there appeared in Collier's Weekly (New York) what purported to be a facsimile reproduction of a copy of the Cape Fear Mercury which was referred to by Governor Martin and which contained the " Declaration "; but this was proved a forgery.'
Thus by heating spirits of salt he obtained "marine acid air" (hydrochloric acid gas), and he was able to collect it because he happened to use mercury, instead of water, in his pneumatic trough.
Lead, antimony, mercury and copper are also produced.
Of the names of the planets Estera (Ishtar Venus, also called Ruha d'Qudsha, "holy spirit"), Enba (Nebo, Mercury), Sin (moon), Kewan (Saturn), Bil (Jupiter), and Nirig (Nirgal, Mars) reveal their Babylonian origin; Il or Il Il, the sun, is also known as Kadush and Adunay (the Adonai of the Old Testament); as lord of the planetary spirits his place is in the midst of them; they are the source of all temptation and evil amongst men.
of mercury it boils at 170° C. In an atmosphere of steam it distils without decomposition under ordinary barometric pressure.
Chaucer, Chanouns Yemannes Tale, where, however, mercury figures both as a spirit and a body: " The firste spirit quik-silver called is, The second orpiment, the thridde ywis Sal armoniak, and the ferthe brimstoon."
If 127 parts of iodine, which is an almost black solid, and loo parts of mercury, which is a white liquid metal, be intimately mixed by rubbing them together in a mortar, the two substances wholly disappear, and we obtain instead a brilliant red powder quite unlike the iodine or the mercury; almost the only property that is unchanged is the weight.
van Helmont (1577-1644) was the last distinguished investigator who professed actually to have changed mercury into gold, though impostors and mystics of various kinds continued to claim knowledge of the art long after his time.
F, Fixed coil; D, Movable coil; S, Spiral spring; T, Torsion head; MM, Mercury cups; I, Index needle.
The prima materia was early identified with mercury, not ordinary mercury, but the " mercury of the philosophers," which was the essence or soul of mercury, freed from the four Aristotelian elements - earth, air, fire and water - or rather from the qualities which they represent.
Thus the operator had to remove from ordinary mercury, earth or an earthy principle or quality, and water or a liquid principle, and to fix it by taking away air or a volatile principle.
This is briefly the doctrine that the metals are composed of mercury and sulphur, which persisted in one form or another down to the 17th century.
Thus in the Speculum Naturale of Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1250) it is said that there are four spirits - mercury, sulphur, arsenic and sal ammoniac - and six bodies - gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.
Later, as in the works attributed to Basil Valentine, sulphur, mercury and salt are held to be the constituents of the metals.
The perchloride of mercury is another very powerful antiseptic used in solutions of strength I in 2000, I in 1000 and 1 in 500.
On the other hand, they show faintly acid properties since the hydrogen: of the amido group can be replaced by metals to give such compounds as mercury acetamide (CH 3 CONH) 2 Hg.
In the last-named place the assays of ore yielded 22% of mercury.
The electromotive force of each cell is i 07 volts and the resistance 3 ohms. The Fuller bichromate battery consists of an outer jar containing a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, in which a plate of hard carbon is immersed; in the jar there is also a porous pot containing dilute sulphuric acid and a small quantity (2 oz.) of mercury, in which stands a stout zinc rod.
Precipitate, red, and all oxides of mercury.
" quicksand," loose water-logged sand, readily yielding to weight or pressure, and "quicksilver," the common name of the metal mercury.
We must conceive a time when the sun was swollen to such an extent that it filled up the entire space girdled by the orbit of Mercury.
From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
Another false prophet and magician was Yishu M'shiha, who was in fact a manifestation of the planet Mercury.
See Pigments and Mercury.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
He also showed that on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary air; moreover, the weight of the " air " set free from a given weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern carbon dioxide, was formed.
Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
mercury calx was LJ .3 Bergman's symbolism was obviously cumbrous, and the system used in 1782 by Lavoisier was equally abstruse, since the forms gave no clue as to composition; for instance water, oxygen, and nitric acid werev 4), and e-f.
4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.
All the metals are solids at ordinary temperatures with the exception of mercury, which is liquid.
The molecule of every compound must obviously contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are as follows: I.
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
The compounds of mercury attracted considerable attention, mainly on account of their medicinal properties; mercuric oxide and corrosive sublimate were known to pseudo-Geber, and the nitrate and basic sulphate to " Basil Valentine."
The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, and consequently supposed to contain mercury.
A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder.
The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.
The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.
The residue, which is black in colour, consists of mercuroso-ammonium chloride, in which mercury can be confirmed by its ordinary tests.
Any residue consists of black mercuric sulphide (and possibly white lead sulphate), in which mercury is confirmed by its usual tests.
In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited.
Bevan collected the carbon dioxide obtained in this way over mercury.
It is found that mercury vapour, helium, argon and its associates (neon, krypton, &c.) have the value 1.67; hence we conclude that these gases exist as monatomic molecules.
It is also formed by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on sodium nitrite in the presence of mercury.
Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome, manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent building stone.
Herzegovina has more affinity to the Dalmatian mountains, oppressively hot in summer, when the mercury often rises beyond 110° Fahr.
The empire is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, coal, mercury, borax, emery, zinc; and only capital is needed for successful exploitation.
ELONGATION, strictly "lengthening"; in astronomy, the apparent angular distance of a heavenly body from its centre of motion, as seen from the earth; designating especially the angular distance of the planet Mercury or Venus from the sun, or the apparent angle between a satellite and its primary.
The greatest elongation of Venus is about 45°; that of Mercury generally ranges between 18° and 27°.
Kohlrausch has prepared water of which the conductivity compared with that of mercury was only o 4 oX 11 at 18° C. Even here some little impurity was present, and the conductivity of chemically pure water was estimated by thermodynamic reasoning as o 36X1011 at 18° C. As we shall see later, the conductivity of very dilute salt solutions is proportional to the concentration, so that it is probable that, in most cases, practically all the current is carried by the salt.
On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.
African epigraphy has revealed the names of some of their deities: deus invictus Aulisva; the god Motmanius, associated with Mercury; the god Lilleus; Baldir Augustus; Kautus pater; the goddess Gilva, identified with Tellus, and Ifru Augustus (Tissot i.
Another leading paper, the Natal Mercury, dates from 1852.
Sir John Robinson, the first premier of Natal under responsible government, was the editor of the Mercury from 1860 until he became prime minister in 1893.
Richard Chevenix (1774-1830), a chemist, having bought some of the substance, decided after experiment that it was not a simple body as claimed, but an alloy of mercury with platinum, and in 1803 presented a paper to the Royal Society setting forth this view.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Finding himself out of sympathy with monastic life, he fled in 1783 to North Germany, and settled in Weimar, where he became Wieland's collaborateur on the German Mercury, and eventually his son-in-law.
In the German Mercury he published, in the years 1786-87, his Briefe fiber die Kantische Philosophie, which were most important in making Kant known to a wider circle of readers.
Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.
Silver, tin, lead, mercury and precious stones are listed among the mineral resources of the country, but no mines have been developed, and they are possibilities only.
Leber experimented with several chemical compounds to find what reaction they had on these cells; by using fine glass tubes sealed at the outer end and containing a chemical substance, and by introducing the open end into the blood vessels he found that the leucocytes were attracted - positive chemiotaxis - by the various compounds of mercury, copper, turpentin, and other substances.
Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.
hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.
His "oration" on this occasion, which was immediately published in the French Mercury, remains a striking landmark in the history of French Protestantism.
On the other hand, as in mining ores containing lead, arsenic and mercury, the dust may be poisonous.
The apparatus, after having been carefully cleaned and dried, is charged with pure and dry mercury which must next be worked backwards and forwards between A and B to remove all the air-bells.
lifting B to a sufficient level, turning the cock Geisler's Air-Pump. so as to communicate with the atmosphere and letting the mercury flow into A until it gets to the other side of the stop-cock, which is then placed in the intermediate position.
The cock is now shut against both communications, the reservoir lifted, the gas contents of A discharged and so on, until, when after an exhaustion mercury is let into A, the metal strikes against the top without interposition of a gas-bell.
An absolute vacuum cannot be produced on account of the unavoidable air-film between the mercury and the walls of the apparatus.
of mercury to balance the pressure of the atmosphere, a Geisler pump necessarily is a somewhat long-legged and unwieldy instrument; in addition, the long tube is liable to breakage.
be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube.
Every drop of mercury, as it enters from the funnel, entirely closes the narrow tube like a piston, and in going past the place where the side tube enters entraps a portion of air and carries it down to the trough, where it can be collected.
If the vertical tube, measuring from the point where the branch comes in, is a few inches greater than the height of the barometer, and the glass and mercury are perfectly clean, the apparatus slowly but surely produces an almost absolute vacuum.
The principle of applying metallic films to glass seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected.
Silicon tetraiodide, Si14, is formed by passing iodine vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98); the iodo-compound condenses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury.
Silicobenzoic acid, C 6 H 5 S10.0H, results from the action of dilute aqueous ammonia on phenyl silicon chloride (obtained from mercury diphenyl and silicon tetrachloride).
Silver vapour is blue, potassium vapour is green, many others (mercury vapour, for instance) are colourless.
Very thin films of liquid mercury, according to Melsens, transmit light with a violet-blue colour; also thin films of copper are said to be translucent.
The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.
The cubical expansion of mercury from 0° to 100° C. is .018153 = 5 u.187 (Regnault).
Distillable below redness: mercury.
The latent heat of vaporization of mercury was found by Marignac to be 103 to 106.
Mercury and copper and some other metals are capable of dissolving their own oxides.
Mercury, by doing so, becomes viscid and unfit for its ordinary applications.
Mercury, if pure, and all the "noble" metals (silver, gold, platinum and platinum-metals), are absolutely proof against water even in the presence of oxygen and carbonic acid.
A group (C) may be formed of mercury, silver, gold and platinum, which are not touched by either aqueous acid in any circumstances.
Mercury, within XVIII.7 a a certain range of temperatures situated close to its boiling point, combines slowly with oxygen into the red oxide, which, however, breaks up again at higher temperatures.
Of the several individual chlorides, the following are liquids or solids, volatile enough to be distilled from glass vessels: AsC13, SbC1 3, SnCl 4, BiCl 3, HgC1 2, the chlorides of arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, mercury respectively.
All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.
(I) The principle is illustrated in the article Barometer, where a column of mercury of density a and height h, rising in the tube to the To:ricellian vacuum, is balanced by a column of air of density p, which may be supposed to rise as a homogeneous fluid to a height k, called the height of the homogeneous atmosphere.
Thus water being about Boo times denser than air and mercury 13.6 times denser than water, k/h = 6,/p = 800 X 13.6 = Io,880; (2) and with an average barometer height of 30 in.
of mercury, or 30 X13.6÷12 =34 ft.
It is chemically related to cadmium and mercury, the resemblance to cadmium being especially well marked; one distinction is that zinc is less basigenic. Zinc is capable of isomorphously replacing many of the bivalent metals - magnesium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and cadmium.
In this domain his first research was on the fulminates of mercury and silver, and his study of these bodies led him to the discovery of the isomerism of cyanic and fulminic acids, for the composition of fulminic acid as found by him was the same as that of cyanic acid, as found by F.
They are all strong bases, readily forming salts with the mineral acids and double salts with the chlorides of gold, platinum and mercury.
On the other hand the enigmatical motion of the perihelion of Mercury has not yet found any plausible explanation except on the hypothesis that the gravitation of the sun diminishes at a rate slightly greater than that of the inverse square - the most simple modification being to suppose that instead of the exponent of the distance being exactly - 2, it is - 2.000 000 161 2.
It is certain that, in the general average, year after year, the force with which Mercury is drawn toward the sun does vary from the exact inverse square of its distance from the sun.
The most plausible explanation of this is that one or more masses of matter move around the sun, whose action, whether they are inside or outside the orbit of Mercury, would produce the required modification in the force.
From an investigation of all the observations upon Mercury and the other three interior planets, Simon Newcomb found it almost out of the question that any such mass of matter could exist without changing either the figure of the sun itself or the motion of the planes of the orbits of either Mercury or Venus.
It is in this sandstone that the rich mercury mines of Huancavelica are worked.
The metal generally occurs as sulphide of mercury (cinnabar), but the ores vary greatly in richness - from 21 to 20%.
Moestlin and his pupil Kepler - the latter applying it in 1607 to the observation of a transit of Mercury - also by Johann Fabricius, in 1611, for the first observations of sun-spots.
It generally happens that much of the mercury column is outside the flask and consequently at a lower temperature than the bulb, hence a correction of the observed temperature is necessary.
If N be the length of the unheated mercury column in degrees, t the temperature of this column (generally determined by a small thermometer placed with its bulb at the middle of the column), and T the temperature recorded by the thermometer, then the corrected temperature of the vapour is T-+o 000143 (T - t) N (T.
Large chambers are also used in the condensation of mercury.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
Mercury mines have begun to be worked; other minerals are known to exist.
Between it and other ports in the Caspian communication is maintained by the mail-steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Steam Navigation Company and many vessels of commercial firms with head offices chiefly at Baku.
There are mines of chrome, mercury, cinnabar, argentiferous lead and rock salt.
Silver, gold, copper, mercury, lead, tin, antimony and precious stones are found, in some cases in very rich deposits.
He was the first to employ mercury for the air-pump, and devised a method of determining longitude at sea by observations of the moon among the stars.
Soon after the introduction of the literary journal in England, one of a more familiar tone was started by the eccentric John Dunton in the Athenian Gazette, or Casuistical Mercury, resolving all the most Nice and Curious Questions (1689-1690 to 1695-1696), afterwards called The Athenian Mercury, a kind of forerunner of Notes and Queries, being a penny weekly sheet, with a quarterly critical supplement.
When a solution of silver nitrate is poured on to metallic mercury, the mercury replaces the silver in the solution, forming nitrate of mercury, and the silver is precipitated; it does not, however, appear as pure metallic silver, but in the form of crystalline needles of an alloy of silver and mercury.
7 gives the freezing-point curve of mercury and thallium; here A and E are the melting-points of pure mercury and pure thallium, and the branches AB and ED do not cut each other, but cut an intermediate rounded branch BCD.
It is probable that all the alloys of compositions between B and D, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of the compound; the lower eutectic B probably corresponds to a solid complex of mercury and the compound.
This compound melts at 350° C., a temperature far above the melting-point of either sodium or mercury.
In the cases of aluminium dissolved in tin and of mercury or bismuth in lead, it is at least probable that the molecules in solution are Al 2j Hg 2 and Bit respectively, while tin in lead appears to form a molecule of the type Sn4.
Its high coefficient of thermal expansion, coupled with its low freezing point, renders it a valuable thermometric fluid, especially when the temperatures to be measured are below - 39° C., for which the mercury thermometer cannot be used.
With regard to the history of the metallurgy of gold, it may be mentioned that, according to Pliny, mercury was employed in his time both as a means of separating the precious metals and for the purposes of gilding.
The atomic weight of gold was first determined with accuracy by Berzelius, who deduced the value 195.7 (H= i) from the amount of mercury necessary to precipitate it from the chloride, and 195.2 from the ratio between gold and potassium chloride in potassium aurichloride, KAuC1 4.
The alloy with mercury-gold amalgam-is so readily formed that mercury is one of the most powerful agents for extracting the precious metal.
forming a gold amalgam, afterwards removing the mercury by distillation; 3.
The upper end contains a perforated riddle plate which is placed directly over the riffle box, and under certain circumstances mercury may be placed behind the riffles.
Copper plates amalgamated with mercury are also used when the gold is very fine, and in some instances amalgamated silver coins have been used for the same purpose.
square laid parallel to the direction of the current, and at other points with boards having transverse notches filled with mercury.
These are paved with stone blocks or lined with mercury riffles, so that from the greatly reduced velocity of flow, due to the sudden increase of surface, the finer particles of gold may collect.
The loss of mercury is about the same, from 5 to 6 cwt.
It then passes through screens and grizzlies to retain the coarse gravel, the finer material passing on to sluice boxes provided with riffles, supplied with mercury.
lumps in a rock-breaker, is fed in through an aperture at the back of the " battery box," a constant supply of water is admitted from above, and mercury in a finely divided state is added at frequent intervals.
long, a certain volume being discharged at every blow and carried forward by the flushing water over an apron or table in front, covered by copper plates filled with mercury.
When the ore does not contain any considerable amount of free gold mercury is not, as a rule, used during the crushing, but the amalgamation is carried out in a separate plant.
The most primitive is the rubbing together of the concentrated crushings with mercury in iron mortars.
This consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels.
The stuff from the stamps is conveyed to the middle of the muller, and is distributed over the mercury, when the gold subsides, while the quartz and lighter materials are guided by the blades to the circumference and are discharged, usually into a second similar mill, and subsequently pass over blanket tables, i.e.
One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites, arises from the so-called " sickening " or " flouring " of the mercury; that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals.
Henry Wurtz in America (1864) and Sir William Crookes in England (1865) made independently the discovery that, by the addition of a small quantity of sodium to the mercury, the operation is much facilitated.
It is also stated that sodium prevents both the " sickening " and the " flouring " of the mercury which is produced by certain associated minerals.
The amalgam is first pressed in wetted canvas or buckskin in order to remove excess of mercury.
Though he lived in an atmosphere of alchemy, he derided the notion of the alkahest or universal solvent, and denounced the deceptions of the adepts who pretended to effect the transmutation of metals; but he believed mercury to be a constituent of all metals and heavy minerals, though he held there was no proof of the presence of "sulphur comburens."
His dissertation on the "barometric light," first observed by Jean Picard, and discussed by Jean Bernoulli under the name of mercurial phosphorus, or mercury shining in vacuo (Diss.
The general nature of the phenomena is thus easily understood; but it is at a maximum at pressures comparable with a millimetre of mercury, at which the free path is still small, the greater number of molecules operating in intensifying the result.
AMALGAM, the name applied to alloys which contain mercury.
Many amalgams are formed by the direct contact of a metal with mercury, sometimes with absorption, sometimes with evolution, of heat.
Other methods are to place the metal and mercury together in dilute acid, to add mercury to the solution of a metallic salt, to place a metal in a solution of mercuric nitrate, or to electrolyse a metallic salt using mercury as the negative electrode.
Some amalgams are liquids, especially when containing a large proportion of mercury; others assume a crystalline form.
In some cases definite compounds have been isolated from amalgams which may be regarded as mixtures of one or more of such compounds with mercury in excess.
In general these compounds are decomposable by heat, but some of them, such as those of gold, silver, copper and the alkali metals, even when heated above the boiling point of mercury retain mercury and leave residues of definite composition.
But as the orbits are not centred on the sun, which is in a focus of each, the displacement of the seeming circle would be readily seen in the case of Mercury and of Mars.
The substance whose volume is to be determined is placed in the cup PE, and the tube PC is immersed in the vessel of mercury D, until the mercury reaches the mark P. The plate E is then placed on the cup, and the tube PC raised until the surface of the mercury in the tube stands at M, that in the vessel D being at C, and the height MC is measured.
In historical order we may briefly enumerate the following: - in 1811, Gay-Lussac volatilized a weighed quantity of liquid, which must be readily volatile, by letting it rise up a short tube containing mercury and standing inverted in a vessel holding the same metal.
Troost made it available for specially high temperatures by employing porcelain vessels, sealing them with the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe, and maintaining a constant temperature by a vapour bath of mercury (3500), sulphur (4400), cadmium (860°) and zinc (1040°).
Before discussing the methods now used in detail, a summary of the conclusions reached by Victor Meyer in his classical investigations in this field as to the applicability of the different methods will be given: (I) For substances which do not boil higher than 260° and have vapours stable for 30° above the boiling-point and which do not react on mercury, use Victor Meyer's "mercury expulsion method."
(3) For substances boiling at higher temperatures, or for any substance which reacts on mercury, Meyer's "air expulsion method" must be used.
(a) Hofmann's is the best if the substance volatilizes at below 310°, and does not react on mercury; otherwise (b) Demuth and Meyer's, Eykman's, Schall's, or other methods may be used.
The vessel is completely filled with mercury, the capillary sealed, and the vessel weighed.
Mercury is expelled, and when this expulsion ceases, the vessel is removed, allowed to cool, and weighed.
It is necessary to determine the pressure exerted on the vapour by the mercury in the narrow limb; this is effected by opening the capillary and inclining the tube until the mercury just reaches the top of the narrow tube; the difference between FIG.
the height of the mercury in the wide tube and the top of f he narrow tube represents the pressure due to the mercury column, and this must be added to the barometric pressure in order to deduce the total pressure on the vapour.
The alloy used is composed of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium; it melts at 70°, and can be experimented with as readily as mercury.
To prevent the bottom of the apparatus being knocked out by the impact of the substance, a layer of sand, asbestos or sometimes mercury is placed in the tube.
6) consists of a barometer tube, containing mercury and standing in a bath of the same metal, surrounded by a vapour jacket.
The vapour is circulated through the jacket, and the height of the mercury read by a cathetometer or otherwise.
It ascends the tube, the substance is rapidly volatilized, and the mercury column is depressed; this depression is read off.
by weighing in mercury; below this mark it was calibrated in the ordinary way so that a scale reading gave the volume at once.
The vapour tension of mercury need not be taken into account when water is used in the jacket.
The vaporizing bulb A has fused about it a jacket B, provided with a condenser c. Two side tubes are fused on to the neck of A: the lower one leads to a mercury manometer M, and to the air by means of a cock C; the upper tube is provided with a rubber stopper through which a glass rod passes - this rod serves FIG.
All parts of the apparatus are open to the air, and the mercury in the manometer is adjusted so as to come to a fixed mark a.
The substance is now placed on the support already mentioned, and the apparatus closed to the air by inserting the cork at D and turning the cock C. By turning or withdrawing the support the substance enters the bulb; and during its vaporization the free limb of the manometer is raised so as to maintain the mercury at a.
When the volatilization is quite complete, the level is accurately adjusted, and the difference of the levels of the mercury gives the pressure exerted by the vapour.
P. Joule with the perforated piston and with the friction of water and mercury.
Probably the last example of its employment is an observation of the transit of Mercury (November 4, 1868) by Mann, at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope (Monthly Notices R.A.S.
It alloys with iron, molybdenum and tungsten, but not with silver or mercury.
In the second portion the carbonic acid is driven out by means of a current of hydrogen, collected over mercury and absorbed by caustic potash.
The principle is to have a constriction in the tube above the bulb so proportioned that when the instrument is upright it acts in every way as an ordinary mercurial thermometer, but when it is inverted the thread of mercury breaks at the constriction, and the portion above the point runs down the now reversed tube and remains there as a measure of the temperature at the moment of turning over.
For convenience in reading, the tube is graduated inverted, and when it is restored to its original position the mercury thread joins again and it acts as before.
It has the advantage over the thermometer on Six's principle that, being filled with mercury, it does not require such long immersion to take the temperature of the water.
A correction has, of course, to be made for the expansion or contraction of the mercury thread if the temperature of reading differs much from that of reversing.
In both forms it is usual to have the space between the bulb and the protecting sheath partly filled with mercury or alcohol to act as a conductor and reduce the time necessary for the thermometer to acquire the temperature of its surroundings.
The observation that acetylene can be resolved into its constituents by detonation is due to Berthelot, who started an explosive wave in it by firing a charge of oï¿½i gram of mercury fulminate.
„ air 15° C = 49,800 „ „ „ mercury vapour at o° „ C = 18,500 „ and other velocities can readily be calculated.
There are many thousands of lines in the mercury spectrum, so that from this evidence it would appear that for mercury vapour n ought to be very great, and y almost equal to unity.
The first two books contain the allegory proper - the marriage of Mercury to a nymph named Philologia.
of music. These abstract discussions are linked on to the original allegory by the device of personifying each science as a courtier of Mercury and Philologia.
The tetroxide, 0s04, can be easily reduced to the metal by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and adding zinc, mercury, or an alkaline formate to the liquid, or by passing its vapour, mixed with carbon dioxide and monoxide, through a red-hot porcelain tube.
The trichloride, OsC1 3, is only known in solution and is formed by the reducing action of mercury on ammoniacal solutions of the tetroxide.
BLACK DROP, in astronomy, an apparent distortion of the planet Mercury or Venus at the time of internal contact with the limb of the sun at the beginning or end of a transit.
These lines isolate certain swellings or monticuli, the largest of which is (I) the ball of the thumb, called the mountain of Venus; (2) that at the base of the index finger is the mountain of Jupiter; (3) at the root of the middle finger is the mountain of Saturn, while those at the bases of ring and little finger are respectively the mountains of the (4) Sun and (5) of Mercury.
Above the mountain of Mercury, and between the lines of head and heart is (6) the mountain of Mars, and above the line of the heart is (7) the mountain of the Moon.
The greater of the two temples was sacred to Jupiter (Baal), identified with the Sun, with whom were associated Venus and Mercury as a-p,u co,uoc Beni.
of mercury or 1,014,000 dynes / sq.
Kundt and Warburg applied the method to find y for mercury vapour (Pogg.
In the mercury experiment the sounding rod was sealed into the dust-tube, which was exhausted of air, and contained only some mercury and some quartz dust to give the heaps.
It was placed in a high temperature oven, where the mercury was evaporated.
The circuit of the electro-magnet is made and broken by the vibration of the fork in different ways - say, by a wire bridge attached to the lower prong which dips into and lifts out of two mercury cups.
The mercury level is so adjusted that the circuit is just not made when the fork is at rest.
But partly owing to the delay in making contact through the carriage down of air on the contact piece, and partly owing to the delay in establishing full current through selfinduction, the attracting force does not rise at once to its full value in the outgoing journey, whereas in the return journey the mercury tends to follow up the contact piece, and the full current continues up to the instant of break.
As the giver of luck he became a deity of gain and commerce (KEpS ios, 6.yopa70s), an aspect which caused his identification with Mercury, the Roman god of trade.
In this meter the electrolyte is a solution of mercurous nitrate which is completely enclosed in a glass tube of a particular form, having a mercury anode and a platinum or carbon cathode.
The current is determined by measuring the volume of the mercury delivered at the cathode.
It consists of an electromagnet within the iron core of which is a flat disk-like cavity containing mercury, the sides of the cavity being stamped with grooves.
The thin disk of mercury is therefore traversed perpendicularly by lines of magnetic force when the magnet is excited.
The current to be measured is passed through the coils of the electromagnet, then enters the mercury disk at the centre, flows through it radially in all directions, and emerges at the periphery.
The mass of mercury is thus set in motion owing to the tendency of a conductor conveying an electric current to move transversely across lines of magnetic force; it becomes in fact the armature of a simple form of dynamo, and rotates with a speed which increases with the strength of the current.
The rotation of the mercury is detected and measured by means of a small vane of platinum wire immersed in it, the shaft of this vane being connected by an endless screw with a counting mechanism.
It follows that the number of the revolutions the mercury makes in a given time is proportional to the quantity of electricity which is passed through the meter.
The armature is immersed in a shallow vessel filled with mercury, which is insulated from the vessel and the armature, except at the ends of the copper strips.
In citing a Chaldaean observation of Mercury dating from 235 B.C. (Almagest, ii.
Thus Mercury, as the planet nearest the sun, obtained Virgo, the sign adjacent to Leo, with the corresponding lunar house in Gemini; Venus had Libra (solar) and Taurus (lunar); and so for the rest.
Davy, inspired by his successful isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by the electrolysis of their hydrates, attempted to decompose a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide by the electric current; an amalgam of calcium was obtained, but the separation of the mercury was so difficult that even Davy himself was not sure as to whether he had obtained pure metallic calcium.
Electrolysis of lime or calcium chloride in contact with mercury gave similar results.
Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.
By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.
There is also another poem attributed to Potocki called the New Mercury.
His first book on the subject was The Sceptical Chemist, published in 1661, in which he criticized the "experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their Salt, Sulphur and Mercury to be the true Principles of Things."
On heating it melts at 95.6° (Bunsen) to a liquid resembling mercury, and boils at 877.5° (Ruff and Johannsen, Ber., 1905, 38, p. 3601), yielding a vapour, colourless in thin layers but a peculiar purple, with a greenish fluorescence, when viewed through thick layers.
Algeria is rich in minerals, found chiefly in the department of Constantine, where iron, lead and zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines are worked.
In the case of the Clark standard cell above mentioned the elements are mercury and zinc separated by a paste of mercurous sulphate mixed with a saturated solution of zinc sulphate.
Then, by the use of another piece of platinum as anode, mercury is electrolytically deposited upon the platinum, which may also be amalgamated by making it white hot in a Bunsen flame and plunging it in mercury.
To prepare the cadmium amalgam, one part of pure cadmium is dissolved in six parts of pure mercury, and the product while warm and fluid is placed in one limb of the cell and warmed, to ensure perfect contact with the platinum wire.
The mercurous sulphate must be free from acid, and made neutral by trituration with finely divided mercury.
The cell has the electromotive force above stated if the amalgam of cadmium has from 6 to 13 parts of mercury to I of cadmium.
The former, "fire-air," or oxygen, he prepared from "acid of nitre," from saltpetre, from black oxide of manganese, from oxide of mercury and other substances, and there is little doubt but that he obtained it independently a considerable time before Priestley.
This latter is represented by the weight of a column of mercury 760 mm.
in height; the specific gravity of mercury being now taken as 13.5950, after Volkmann and Marek, and at the normal intensity followed under this pressure.
of mercury at 0°, lat.
Coefficient of expansion of air = 0.00367; Î” mercury at o° C. = 13.595.
According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
That of Mercury was actually seen by Gassendi in Paris on the 7th of November 1631 (being the first passage of a planet across the sun ever observed); that of Venus, predicted for the 6th of December following, was invisible in western Europe.
The following is a list of the principal conditions in which iodides are recognized to be of definite value: metallic poisonings, as by lead and mercury, asthma, aneurism, arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, gout, goitre, syphilis, haemophilia, Bright's disease (nephritis) and bronchitis.
As this comet is almost the only one that passes within the orbit of Mercury, it is quite possible that it alone would show the effect of such a medium.
After his death (which occurred soon after that of his friend) these were purchased by Dr Worthington, of Cambridge; and from his hands the treatise Venus in sole visa passed into those of Hevelius, and was published by him in 1662 with his own observations on a transit of Mercury.
Its aqueous solution is not an electrolyte, and consequently does not give the reactions of the mercury and cyanogen ions.
When heated it yields mercury, cyanogen and paracyanogen.
The silver and mercury salts, when heated, yield the metal, with liberation of carbon dioxide and formation of free formic acid; and the ammonium salt, when distilled, gives some formamide, Hconh 2.
The minerals discovered in Guatemala include gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, mercury, antimony, coal, salt and sulphur; but it is uncertain if many of these exist in quantities sufficient to repay exploitation.
The chief metalliferous deposits of the range are of mercury at New Almaden, not far south of San Francisco.
The ore of mercury had been discovered in California before the epoch of the gold excitement, and was being extensively worked, the yield in the year1850-1851being nearly 2,000,000 lb.
In Shelley's "Evening: Ponte al Mare, Pisa," 20, "By darkest barriers of enormous cloud" for "cinereous"; " Hymn to Mercury" (trans.), 57, "And through the tortoise's hard strong skin" for "stony."
In the Egyptian astronomy, the order of the planets, beginning with the most remote, is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, the Moon.
In like manner the first hour of the 3rd day would fall to the Moon, the first of the 4th day to Mars, of the 5th to Mercury, of the 6th to Jupiter, and of the 7th to Venus.
It is usually made of glass, the lower bulb being loaded with mercury or small shot which serves as ballast, causing the instrument to float with the stem vertical.
The quantity of mercury or shot inserted depends upon the density of the liquids for which the hydrometer is to be employed, it being essential that the whole of the bulb should be immersed in the heaviest liquid for which the instrument is used, while the length and diameter of the stem must be such that the hydrometer will float in the lightest liquid for which it is required.
But, instead of employing a number of instruments differing only in the weights with which they are loaded, we may employ the same instrument, and alter its weight either by adding mercury or shot to the interior (if it can be opened) or by attaching weights to the exterior.
The instrument is provided with an additional piece, or "plongeur," the weight of which exceeds 5 grammes by the weight of water which it displaces; that is to say, it is so constructed as to weigh 5 grammes in water, and consists of a glass envelope filled with mercury.
If the mercury in the thermometer stand above this zero the spirit must be reckoned weaker than the hydrometer indicates by the number on the thermometer scale level with the top of the mercury, while C f if the thermometer indicate a temperature a? ?!
It is also very useful as a supplement to mercury, which needs a saline aperient to complete its action.
The salt should be given a few hours after the mercury, e.g.
in the early morning, the mercury having been given at night.
The imports consist principally of machinery, coal, grain, dried fish, tobacco and hides, and the exports of hemp, hides, olive oil, soap, coral, candied fruit, wine, straw hats, boracic acid, mercury, and marble and alabaster.
He experimented with an air-thermometer, in which the temperature was defined by measurement of the length of a column of mercury; and he pointed out that the extreme cold of such a thermometer would be that which reduced the "spring" of the air to nothing, thus being the first to recognize that the use of air as a thermometric substance led to the inference of the existence of a zero of temperature.
In 1704 he noted that barometers are affected by heat as well as by the weight of the atmosphere, and in the following year he described barometers without mercury, for use at sea.
One of the most interesting examples is that furnished by the green mercury line, which when examined by a powerful echelon spectroscope splits up into a number of constituents which have been examined by several investigators.
The spectra of magnesium, calcium, zinc, cadmium and mercury, give the two branch series, and each series is repeated three times with constant difference of frequency.
The cadmium line having a wave-length of 2288 A broadens by pressure equally in both directions, but if mercury be added the broadening is more marked on the less refrangible side.
Other works are A Discourse concerning a New Planet (1640); Mercury, or the Secret and Swift Messenger (1641), a work of some ingenuity on the means of rapid correspondence; and Mathematical Magick (1648).
The oxide and carbonate of magnesium are also invaluable as antidotes, since they form insoluble compounds with oxalic acid and salts of mercury, arsenic, and copper.
Lapis-lazuli and mercury are among the minor mineral products of the country.
It may be compared directly with that of the pure solvent, as the vapourpressure of a pure liquid is determined, by placing solvent and solution respectively above the mercury in two barometer tubes, and comparing the depressions of the mercury with the height of a dry barometer at the same temperature.
In order to secure tightness in spite of cracks, mercury was placed in the bends.
A subsequent determination over mercury by A.
The same value had previously been found for mercury vapour by Kundt and Warburg, and had been regarded as confirmatory of the monatomic character attributed on chemical grounds to the mercury molecule.
C. Oersted heated its chloride with potassium amalgam, and failed in his object simply by reason of the mercury, so that when F.
Most of the weight of the instrument is floated on mercury contained in three troughs (c, c, c) which form part of the cast-iron base.
von Kienmayer's amalgam, consisting of one part of zinc, one of tin and two of mercury.
This remarkable debut excited much attention, and, on the recommendation of Francois Arago, he took in hand the theory of Mercury, producing, in 1843, vastly improved tables of that planet.
His inference of the existence, between Mercury and the sun, of an appreciable quantity of circulating matter (Comptes rendus, 1859, ii.
They are also partly caused by the large uncertainties of the corrections, especially those of the mercury thermometers under the peculiar conditions of the experiment.
Trans., 1892), with the substitution of thermo-couples (following Wiedemann) for mercury thermometers.
p. 503, 1888) applied this method directly to mercury, and determined the conductivity of some other metals by comparison with mercury.
In the case of mercury he employed a column in a glass tube 13 mm.
The top of the mercury was heated by steam, the lower end rested on an iron plate cooled by ice.
The temperature at different heights was measured by iron wires forming thermo-junctions with the mercury in the inner tube.
The heat-flow through the central column amounted to about 7.5 calories in 54 seconds, and was measured by continuing the tube through the iron plate into the bulb of a Bunsen ice calorimeter, and observing with a chronometer to a fifth of a second the time taken by the mercury to contract through a given number of divisions.
The calorimeter tube was calibrated by a thread of mercury weighing 19 milligrams, which occupied eighty-five divisions.
An additional difficulty arises in the case of observations made with long mercury thermometers buried in vertical holes, that the correction for the expansion of the liquid in the long stems is uncertain, and that the holes may serve as channels for percolation, and thus lead to exceptionally high values.
In using mercury thermometers, it is best, as in the apparatus figured, to work on a large scale (4-in.
Other varieties contain small amounts of mercury, tin, manganese or thallium.
The idea of the pressure of the air and the invention of the instrument for measuring it were both new when he made his famous experiment, showing that the height of the mercury column in a barometer decreases when it is carried upwards through the atmosphere.
C. t has for its subject pavements and roads, their construction, mosaic floors; c. 2 is on white stucco for walls (opus albarium); c. 3 on concrete vaults, gypsum mouldings, stucco prepared for painting; c. 4 on building of hollow walls to keep out the damp, wall decoration by various processes; c. 5 on methods and styles of wall painting, the debased taste of his time; c. 6 on fine stucco made of pounded marble - three coats to receive wall paintings; c. 7 on colours used for mural decoration; c. 8 on red lead (minium) and mercury, and how to use the latter to extract the gold from wornout pieces of stuff or embroidery; c. 9 on the preparation of red lead and the method of encaustic painting with hot wax, finished by friction; cc. to-14 on artificial colours - black, blue, purple;, c. to white lead and ostrum, i.e.
In 1857 a votive altar dedicated to Jupiter, Mars and Mercury was unearthed, and is now in the Provincial Museum at Bonn.
Almaden, the Sisapon of the Romans, is celebrated for its mercury mines, which were extensively wrought by the Romans and Moors, and are still productive, the ore increasing in richness with the depth of the descent.
The mines ranked with those of Adria, in South Austria, as the most valuable in the world, until the great development of the mercury deposits at New Almaden, in California, U.S.A., between 1853 and 1857.
FLUORANTHENE, C15H10, also known as idryl, a hydrocarbon occurring with phenanthrene, pyrene, diphenyl, and other substances in "Stupp" fat (the fat obtained in working up the mercury ores in Idria), and also in the higher boiling fractions of the coal tar distillate.
Riegler (ibid., 18 94, 33, p. 49) decomposes urea solutions by means of mercury dissolved in nitric acid, and measures the evolved gas.
In the intra-andine depression, between the East and West Cordilleras, recent deposits with plant remains occur near Loja, and to the north-east of Cuenca is a sandstone containing mercury ores, somewhat similar to that of Peru.
The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.
The bottom of the trough is covered with mercury.
The sodium as it is formed at the cathode at once dissolves in the mercury which protects it against the action of the water as long as the percentage of sodium in the mercury does not exceed, say, 0.02%.
At the same time fresh mercury, from which the sodium had been previously extracted, flows from the other outside compartment into the central one.
The moon's apparent mean motion in longitude seems also to indicate slow periodic changes in the earth's rotation; but these are not confirmed by transits of Mercury, which ought also to indicate them.
By the addition of mercury to Darcet's metal the melting point may be reduced so low as 45°.
On the voyage he noticed the retardation of the pendulum in approaching the equator; and during his stay on the island he observed, on the 7th of November 1677, a transit of Mercury, which suggested to him the important idea of employing similar phenomena for determining the sun's distance.
He studied the whole subject of thermometry critically; he introduced the use of an accurate air-thermometer, and compared its indications with those of a mercurial thermometer, determining the absolute dilatation of mercury by heat as a step in the process.
This float dips into a tank filled with mercury so that practically the entire instrument is floated by the mercury, leaving only sufficient pressure on the bearings to ensure that the pivots will remain in contact with them.
Common's telescope presents many ingenious features, especially the relief-friction by flotation of the polar axis in mercury, and in the arrangements of the observatory for giving ready access to the eye-piece of the telescope.
The difficulties of relief friction could probably be best overcome by a large hollow cylinder concentric with the polar axis fixed near the centre of gravity of the whole instrument and floated in mercury, on the plan adopted in the Mount Wilson 60-in.
On this principle the use of the level is abolished, the telescope is mounted on a metallic float, and it is assumed that, in course of the rotation of this float, the zenith distance of the axis of the telescope will remain undisturbed, that is, of course, after the undulations, induced by the disturbance of the mercury, have ceased.
This process, which reached its culmination in the post-Khammurabic period, led to identifying the planet Jupiter with Marduk, Venus with Ishtar, Mars with Nergal, Mercury with Nebo, and Saturn with Ninib.
It is obtained by condensing benzal chloride with mercury diphenyl (Kekule and Franchimont, Ber., 1872, 5, p. 907); from benzal chloride or benzotrichloride and zinc dust or aluminium chloride; from chloroform or carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride; and deamidating diand tri-aminotriphenylmethane with nitrous acid and alcohol (0.
Considerable interest is attached to the remarkable series of hydrocarbons obtained by Gomberg (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3150, et seq.) by acting on triphenylmethane chloride (from triphenylmethane carbinol and phosphorus pentachloride, or from carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride) and its homologues with zinc, silver or mercury.
In the practical use of the instrument it is not necessary to know both the latent heat of fusion of ice and the change of volume which occurs on melting; it is sufficient to determine the change of volume per calorie, or the quantity of mercury which is drawn into the bulb of the apparatus per unit of heat added.
This can be determined by a direct calibration, by inserting a known quantity of water at a known temperature and observing the contraction, or weighing the mercury drawn into the apparatus.
In order to be independent of the accuracy of the thermometer employed for observing the initial temperature of the water introduced, it has been usual to employ water at ioo° C., adopting as unit of heat the " mean calorie," which is one-hundredth part of the heat given up by one gramme of water in cooling from ioo° to o° C. The weight of mercury corresponding to the mean calorie has been determined with considerable care by a number of observers well skilled in the use of the instrument.
One of the chief difficulties in the practical use of the Bunsen calorimeter is the continued and often irregular movement of the mercury column due to slight differences of temperature, or pressure between the ice in the calorimeter and the ice bath in which it is immersed.
If the inner bulb is filled with mercury instead of water and ice, the same arrangement answers admirably as a Favre and Silbermann calorimeter, for measuring small quantities of heat by the expansion of FIG.
measure is equivalent to 4.177 joules per calorie at 16.5° C., on the scale of Joule's mercury thermometer.
000 Per 1° C. His Thermometers Were Compared With A Mercury Thermometer Standardized In Paris, And With A Platinum Thermometer Standardized By Griffiths.
Rowland Himself Considered His Results To Be Probably Correct To One Part In 500, And Supposed That The Greatest Uncertainty Lay In The Comparison Of The Scale Of His Mercury Thermometer With The Air Thermometer.
The Range Of Temperature In Each Experiment Was 14° To 26° C. The Rate Of Rise Was Observed With A Mercury Thermometer Standardized By Comparison With A Platinum Thermometer Under The Conditions Of The Experiment.
Surrounded By A Nickel Plated Steel Enclosure B, Forming The Bulb Of A Mercury Thermo Regulator, Immersed In A Large Water Bath Maintained At A Constant Temperature.
An Example Taken From The Electrician, September 1897, Of One Of The Earliest Experiments By This Method On The Specific Heat Of Mercury Will Make The Method Clearer.
The Outside Of The Vacuum Jacket Was Immersed In A Water Jacket At A Steady Temperature Equal To That Of The Inflowing Mercury.
Specific Heat Of Mercury By Continuous Electric Method It Is Assumed As A First Approximation That The Heat Loss Is Proportional To The Rise Of Temperature Do, Provided That Do Is Nearly The Same In Both Cases, And That The Distribution Of Temperature In The Apparatus Is The Same For The Same Rise Of Temperature Whatever The Flow Of Liquid.
In The Case Of Mercury The Liquid Itself Can Be Utilized To Conduct The Electric Current.
Pernet, Extended From O° To 100° C., And Appears To Have Attained As High A Degree Of Excellence As It Is Possible To Reach By The Employment Of Mercury Thermometers In Conjunction With The Method Of Mixture.
Water Is Always Selected, Although Some Less Volatile Liquid, Such As Aniline Or Mercury, Would Possess Many Advantages.
The Electrical Resistance Thermometer Of Platinum Presents Very Great Advantages For This Purpose Over The Mercury Thermometer In Point Of Reproducibility, Accuracy And Adaptability To The Practical Conditions Of Experiment.
The Conditions Of Use Of A Mercury Thermometer In A Calorimetric Experiment Are Necessarily Different From ' Those Under Which Its Corrections Are Determined, And This Difference Must Inevitably Give Rise To Constant Errors In Practical Work.
This Appears To Be Actually The Case For Monatomic Gases Such As Mercury Vapour (Kundt And Warburg, 1876), Argon And Helium (Ramsay, 1896).
The preparations of morphine are incompatible with salts of iron, copper and mercury, also with lime water and alkaline earths and substances containing tannin.
Winkler discovered that an iron chain wound round the bottle could be substituted for the hand, and Sir William Watson in England shortly afterward showed that iron filings or mercury could replace the water within the jar.
17, p. 1 77, 1882) in a slightly different form, and appropriately applied to the calculation of the vapour-pressures of mercury at ordinary temperatures, where they are much too small to be accurately measured.
above the sea, the mercury does not fall below 28°.
Mercury and Venus were also studied, and he concluded that these planets rotated on their axes in the same time as they revolved about the sun; but these views are questioned.
The gas must be collected either by downward displacement, since it is soluble in water and also attacks mercury; or over a saturated salt solution, in which it is only slightly soluble.
Balard determined the volume composition of the gas by decomposition over mercury on gentle warming, followed by the absorption of the chlorine produced with potassium hydroxide, and then measured the residual oxygen.
Chlorine peroxide must be collected by displacement, as it is soluble in water and readily attacks mercury.
In 1815, in conjunction with Alexis Therese Petit (1791-1820), the professor of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique, he made careful comparisons between the mercury and the air thermometer.
For the purposes of this determination he set up a continuous column of mercury, constructed with 13 sections of glass tube each 2 metres long and 5 mm.
In regard to steam, the old tower was so shaky that it was considered unwise to risk the effects of an explosion, and therefore the mercury column was removed bodily to a court in the observatory.
He discussed the transits of Venus of 1761 and 1769, and those of Mercury from 1677 to 1881.
He showed that light was produced when mercury was shaken up in a glass tube exhausted of its air.
Canton first suggested the use of an amalgam of mercury and tin for use with glass cylinder electrical machines to improve their action.
Trans., 1823) showed that when two wires connected with the pole of a battery were dipped into a cup of mercury placed on the pole of a powerful magnet, the fluid rotated in opposite directions about the two electrodes.
On bringing down on to the mercury surface a wire conveying an electric current, and allowing the current to pass through the mercury and out at the bottom, the magnetic pole at once began to rotate round the wire (Exper.
This, however, was overcome by sending the current out at the centre of the magnet by means of a short length of wire dipping into an annular groove containing mercury.
Barlow, Sturgeon and others then showed that a copper disk could be made to rotate between the poles of a horseshoe magnet when a current was passed through the disk from the centre to the circumference, the disk being rendered at the same time freely movable by making a contact with the circumference by means of a mercury trough.
Tetrahedrite, fahlerz, or grey copper, contains from 30 to 48% of copper, with arsenic, antimony, iron and sometimes zinc, silver or mercury.
Seal Island and Penguin Island are in the bay; Ichaboe, Mercury, and Hollam's Bird islands are to the north; Halifax, Long, Possession, Albatross, Pomona, Plumpudding, and Roastbeef islands are to the south.
In a similar manner, for systems used in photography, the vertex of the colour curve must be placed in the position of the maximum sensibility of the plates; G'; and to accomplish this the F and violet mercury lines are united.
30, 1889) Baron Julius de Reuterin consideration of giving up the rights which he held by his concession obtained in I873became the owner of a concession for the formation of a Persian State Bank, with exclusive rights of issuing bank-notes and working the mines of iron, copper, lead, mercury, coal, petroleum, manganese, borax, and asbestos in Persia.
It is incompatible with potassium, calcium, mercury and vegetable astringents.
Davy tried to electrolyse baryta, but was unsuccessful; later attempts were made by him using barium chloride in the presence of mercury.
In this way he obtained an amalgam, from which on distilling off the mercury the barium was obtained as a silver white residue.
Bunsen in 1854 electrolysed a thick paste of barium chloride and dilute hydrochloric acid in the presence of mercury, at 10o C., obtaining a barium amalgam, from which the mercury was separated by a process of distillation.
Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.
Three couches were prepared for three pairs of gods - Apollo and Latona, Hercules and Diana, Mercury and Neptune.
Similar honours were paid to other divinities in subsequent times - Fortuna, Saturnus, Juno Regina of the Aventine, the three Capitoline deities (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva), and in 217, after the defeat of lake Trasimenus, a lectisternium was held for three days to six pairs of gods, corresponding to the twelve great gods of Olympus - Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Minerva, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Vulcan, Vesta, Mercury, Ceres.
This arises from its adhesion to the tube, and the upper part of the mercury sustains a considerable tension, or negative pressure, without the separation of its parts.
He did not, however, enter into the explanation of particular phenomena, as this had been done already by Laplace, but he pointed out to physicists the advantages of the method of Segner and Gay Lussac, afterwards carried out by Quincke, of measuring the dimensions of large drops of mercury on a horizontal or slightly concave surface, and those of large bubbles of air in transparent liquids resting against the under side of a horizontal plate of a substance wetted by the liquid.
The constancy of the angle of contact between the surface of a fluid and a solid was first pointed out by Dr Young, who states that the angle of contact between mercury and glass is about 140°.
According to the rule, water, which has the lower surface-tension, should spread upon the surface of mercury; whereas the universal experience of the laboratory is that drops of water standing upon mercury retain their compact form without the least tendency to spread.
He found that mercury specially prepared behaves quite differently from ordinary mercury, and that a drop of water deposited thereon spreads over the entire surface.
The process described by Quincke is somewhat elaborate; but there is little difficulty in repeating the experiment if the mistake be avoided of using a free surface already contaminated, as almost inevitably happens when the mercury is poured from an ordinary bottle.
The mercury should be drawn from underneath, for which purpose an arrangement similar to a chemical wash bottle is suitable, and it may be poured into watch-glasses, previously dipped into strong sulphuric acid, rinsed in distilled water, and dried over a Bunsen flame.
When the glasses are cool, they may be charged with mercury, of which the first part is rejected.
For mercury in a glass tube the angle of contact is 128° 52', the cosine of which is negative.
Hence when a glass tube is dipped into a vessel of mercury, the mercury within the tube stands at a lower level than outside it.
[An effect of an opposite character may be observed when the fluid is mercury in place of water.
When two pieces of flat glass are pressed together under mercury with moderate force they cohere, the mercury leaving the narrow crevasses, even although the alternative is a vacuum.
The course of events is more easily followed if one of the pieces of glass constitutes the bottom, or a side, of the vessel containing the mercury.] In many experiments bodies are floated on the surface of water in order that they may be free to move under the action of slight horizontal forces.
But If The Fluid Be Mercury, The Flat End Of The Tube Remains Unwetted, And The Formation Of The Drop Depends Upon The Internal Diameter Only.
1899).] Phenomena arising from the Variation of the Surface-tension.- Pure water has a higher surface-tension than that of any other substance liquid at ordinary temperatures except mercury.
The surface-tension of mercury is greatly altered by slight changes in the state of the surface.
The surface-tension of pure mercury is so great that it is very difficult to keep it clean, for every kind of oil or grease spreads over it at once.
The tension of the surface of contact of mercury and dilute sulphuric acid depends on the electromotive force acting between the mercury and the acid.
If the electromotive force is from the acid to the mercury the surface-tension increases; if it is from the mercury to the acid, it diminishes.
Faraday observed that a large drop of mercury, resting on the flat bottom of a vessel containing dilute acid, changes its form in a remarkable way when connected with one of the electrodes of a battery, the other electrode being placed in the acid.
When the mercury is made positive it becomes dull and spreads itself out; when it is made negative it gathers itself together and becomes bright again.
He has constructed a capillary electrometer by which differences of electric potential less than o oi of that of a Daniell's cell can be detected by the difference of the pressure required to force the mercury to a given point of a fine capillary tube.
He has also found that this action is reversible, for when the area of the surface of contact of the acid and mercury is made to increase, an electric current passes from the mercury to the acid, the amount of electricity which passes while the surface increases by one square centimetre being sufficient to decompose.
(K-k) 2 = 2T/gp the specific cohesion, we may state the general results of his experiments as follows: The bromides and iodides have a specific cohesion about half that of mercury.
The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.
Water, the carbonates and sulphates, and probably phosphates, and the metals platinum, gold, silver, cadmium, tin and copper have a specific cohesion double that of mercury.
Zinc, iron and palladium, three times that of mercury, and sodium, six times that of mercury.
He holds the doctrine that everything endowed with an apparent quality possesses an opposite occult quality in much the same terms as it is found in Latin writers of the middle ages, but he makes no allusion to the theory of the generation of the metals by sulphur and mercury, a theory generally attributed to Geber, who also added arsenic to the list.
Copper, mercury, and iron ores, as also pure copper, ochre and sulphur, are found in the peninsula.
It may be prepared by distilling calcium benzoate; by condensing benzene with benzoyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride; by the action of mercury diphenyl on benzoyl chloride, or by oxidizing diphenylmethane with chromic acid.
The heat is sufficient to keep the resulting lead oxide fused, and the porous cupel has the property of absorbing melted lead oxide without taking up any of the metallic globule, exactly in the same way that blottingpaper will absorb water whilst it will not touch a globule of mercury.
Silver is widely diffused throughout nature, occurring in minute amount in sea-water, and in the mineral kingdom as the free metal, as an amalgam with mercury and as alloys with gold, platinum, copper and other metals.
Silver is not oxidized by oxygen, but resembles mercury in being oxidized by ozone.
The mass, along with certain proportions of water, scrap-iron and mercury, is then placed in barrels, which are made to rotate so that the several ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
This solution and precipitation is continuous, and the metal formed unites with the mercury to form a semi-fluid amalgam.
The amalgam is pressed in linen bags to eliminate a quantity of relatively silver-free liquid mercury (which is utilized as such in subsequent operations), and the remaining solid amalgam is subjected to distillation from iron retorts.
Egleston, The Metallurgy of Silver, Gold and Mercury (New York, 1887-1890), part i.; M.
As soon as he was able to work again he attempted to obtain the metals of the alkaline earths by the same methods as he had used for those of the fixed alkalis, but they eluded his efforts and he only succeeded in preparing them as amalgams with mercury, by a process due to Berzelius.
We find moreover as emi-scientific conception of the basis of divination; the whole of nature is linked together; just as the variations in the height of a column of mercury serve to foretell the weather, so the flight of birds or behaviour of cattle may help to prognosticate its changes; for the uncultured it is merely a step to the assumption that animals know things which are hidden from man.
Lead ore, tin (Ubangi basin), sulphur and mercury have been discovered.