This was better in some respects than if the mercenaries had been foreigners.
The mercenaries again held Ortygia and Achradina.
It must further be noticed that the rise of mercenaries was synchronous with a change in the nature of Italian despotism.
His reading in Livy taught him to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this plan might be adopted with success by the Italians.
With 15,000 mercenaries, whom he had to train into Roman discipline, he took Carthage, defeated Gelimer the Vandal king, and carried him captive, in 534, to grace the first triumph witnessed in Constantinople.
At the same time John Casimir, brother of the elector palatine, at the invitation of the Calvinist party and with the secret financial aid of Queen Elizabeth, entered the country at the head of a body of German mercenaries from the east.
Lodovico escaped to Germany, returned the next year, was betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries and sent to die at Loches in France.
They were first noticed by Lepsius at Abu-Simbel, where he correctly inferred that they were the work of the Carian mercenaries of Psammetichus.
These served partly as mercenaries, partly in contingents contributed by the states in virtue of their alliance.
By this time the rising had attained the dimensions of a revolution; all the feudal levies of the kingdom were called out against it; and mercenaries were hired in haste from Venice, Bohemia and the emperor.
The mercenaries were at last got rid of in 461.
The constables of these castles had adopted the custom of compelling these landholders to give money and not service, mercenaries being then hired to perform this.
The chief con spirator, Shuiski, seized the power and was elected tsar by an Assembly composed of his faction, but neither Shuiski, the ambitious boyars, nor the pillaging Cossacks, nor the German mercenaries were satisfied with the change, and soon a new impostor, likewise calling himself Dimitri, son of Tsar Ivan, came forward as the rightful heir.
The German mercenaries evacuated Courland by Jan.
Kronstadt, now the sole flourishing trade centre in the kingdom, defended itself with hired mercenaries against the robber barons.
The Czech mercenaries under Giszkra held the northern counties and from thence plundered those in the centre.
Herein he was aided by the troops of Facino Cane, who, dying opportunely at this period, left considerable wealth, a welltrained band of mercenaries, and a widow, Beatrice di Tenda.
With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
Only where the cities were held by garrisons in the Persian service, garrisons composed mainly of Greek mercenaries, was the liberator likely to meet with any resistance.
When he went on his last disastrous campaign, Hyrcanus led a Jewish contingent to join his army, partly perhaps a troop of mercenaries (for Hyrcanus was the first of the Jewish kings to hire mercenaries, with the treasure found in David's tomb).
The Seljukian Turks, first the mercenaries and then the masters of the caliph, had given new life to the decadent caliphate of Bagdad.
17, 3) at the time of Alexander's passage into Asia, the mercenaries numbered 5,000, and the troops of the alliance 7,000 foot and 600 horse.
It was shortly after this revolution, in 317, that Agathocles with a body of mercenaries from Campania and a host of exiles from the Greek cities, backed up by the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was in friendly relations with the Syracusan oligarchy, became a tyrant or despot of the city, assuming subsequently, on the strength of his successes against Carthage, the title of king.
Egypt had already recovered its independence (660 B.C.) with the help of mercenaries sent by Gyges of Lydia, who had vainly solicited aid from Assyria against his Cimmerian enemies.
Italy, Piero de' Medici, encouraged by the league, enlisted a number of mercenaries and marched on Florence, but the citizens, fired by Savonarola's enthusiasm, flew to arms and prepared for an energetic resistance; owing to Piero's incapacity and the exhaustion of his funds the expedition came to nothing.
But the initial difficulties of the vast field of operations were greatly increased by the want of skill of the British leaders in adapting themselves to new conditions, while even loyalist sentiment was shocked by the employment of German mercenaries and Red Indian savages against men of English blood.
Basil obtained timely aid, in the shape of Varangian mercenaries, from his brother-in-law Vladimir, the Russian prince of Kiev, and marched to Abydos.
says that as soon as peace is made all foreign mercenaries are to be banished.
They were all-powerful with the people, but Hyrcanus with his mercenaries was independent of the people, and the wealthy belonged to the sect of the Sadducees.
He was expelled in 1311 by his Catalonian mercenaries; the mutineers bestowed the duchy " of Athens and Neopatras " on their leader, Roger Deslaur, and, in the following year, on Frederick of Aragon, king of Sicily.
It was with a small force of mercenaries, raised at his own expense, that the young king won his first Turkish victories, and expelled the Czechs from his northern and the Habsburgs from his western provinces.
Subsequently Greek mercenaries became indispensable not only to the king but also to the satraps, who thereby gained the means for attempting successful rebellions, into which they were provoked by the weakness of the king, and by the continuous intrigues between the Persian magnates.
But from this time forward they laid down their arms, and played the game of warfare by the aid of mercenaries.
But his conduct giving rise to suspicions, an expedition under the earl of Essex was sent against him, which met with such doubtful success that in 1575 a treaty was arranged by which O'Neill received extensive grants of lands and permission to employ three hundred Scottish mercenaries.
He joined the Illyrians in an attempt to plunder the temple of Delphi, pillaged the temple of Caere on the Etruscan coast, and founded several military colonies on the Adriatic. In the Peloponnesian War he espoused the side of the Spartans, and assisted them with mercenaries.
As these phalangites are distinguished both from the Greek mercenaries and the native Egyptian levies, it looks (although such a fact would be staggering) as if more Macedonians could be raised for military service in Egypt than in Macedonia itself (but see Beloch, p. 353).
To the troops drawn from their own dominions the mercenaries which the kings procured from abroad were an important supplement.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
Development of Map-making among the Greeks 3 - Ionian mercenaries and traders first arrived in Egypt, on the invitation of Psammetichus I.
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
The regular army of his province and the fortresses were independent of him and commanded by royal officers; but he was allowed to have troops in his own service (in later times mostly Greek mercenaries).
The method generally adopted was to deprive the preachers in the towns of their churches by force, Italian mercenaries being preferably employed for the purpose.
He was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse; in 317 he returned with an army of mercenaries under a solemn oath to observe the democratic constitution which was then set up. Having banished or murdered some Io,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created a strong army and fleet and subdued the greater part of Sicily.
He was a born leader of mercenaries, and, although he did not shrink from cruelty to gain his ends, he afterwards showed himself a mild and popular "tyrant."
He gave citizenship both to mercenaries and to settlers from Greece, and added to the population the inhabitants of other cities conquered by him, so that Syracuse became a city of mixed population, in which the new citizens had the advantage.
In this revolution Thrasybulus and his mercenaries held the fortified quarters of Ortygia and Achradina; the revolted people held the unwalled suburbs, already, it is plain, thickly inhabited.
He next, by another trick, procured from a military assembly at Leontini a vote of a bodyguard; he hired mercenaries and in 406-405 came back to Syracuse as tyrant of the city (Diod.
All hope for the city being now at an end, the Syracusans threw themselves on the mercy of Marcellus; but Achradina and the island still held out for a brief space under the Syracusan mercenaries, till one of their officers, a Spaniard, betrayed the latter position to the enemy, and at the same time Achradina was carried and taken.
This was agreed to, and in 1405 the city was sold to Florence for 260,000 florins; and Gino Capponi,' the Florentine commissioner, took possession of the citadel, but a few days later the citizens arose in arms and recaptured it from the mercenaries.
Besides perpetuating the strife with his enemies he was alienating his friends, and finding it increasingly difficult to pay his mercenaries.
Pherae called in the help of the Phocian mercenaries, who had profaned Delphi, and Philip met with a check.
The Phocian mercenaries at Thermopylae were bought off and Philip crossed into central Greece.
The invaders met with little encouragement from the populace, who were not well disposed towards a monarch whom it was sought to impose upon them by the aid of Irish and German mercenaries.
In 356 he ordered all the satraps to dismiss their mercenaries.
He and his bastard brother, Alexander, were joined by the former favourite, Georges de la Tremoille, John V., duke of Brittany, who allied himself with the English, the duke of Alencon, the count of Vendome, and captains of mercenaries like Antoine de Chabannes, or Jean de la Roche.
Y P Here he began to denounce the abuses in the Church, as well as the traffic in mercenaries which had so long been a blot upon his country's honour.
The French army, similarly arrayed, but with a few battalions attached to the cavalry wings, was more heterogeneous than the German, being composed of French, Hessian, German mercenaries, and Liegeois.
Rameses, however, collected a large fleet and an army of native troops and mercenaries and claimed decisive victories.
The Holy See, much dependent at that time on its Swiss mercenaries in the pursuit of its secular ends, expressed no resentment on this occasion.
His first publications, which appeared as rhymed allegories, were political rather than religious, being aimed at what he deemed the degrading Swiss practice of hiring out mercenaries in the European wars.
The close of the general war, however, had released great numbers of mercenaries (the great companies) from control, and, as they began to play the part of brigands in France, it was necessary to get rid of them.
During the 15th and 16th centuries Siam was frequently invaded by the Burmese and Peguans, who, attracted probably by the great wealth of Ayuthia, besieged it mote than once without success, the defenders being aided by Portuguese mercenaries, till about 1555, when the city was taken and Siam reduced to dependence.
In return Hussite mercenaries fought on the Polish side at Tannenburg, and Czech patriots repeatedly offered the crown of Bohemia to Wladislaus.
Moreover Casimir's difficulties were materially increased by the necessity of paying for Czech mercenaries, the pos polite ruszenie, or Polish militia, proving utterly useless at the very beginning of the war.
The miserable collapse of the Polish chivalry during the Bukovinian campaign of 1497 had convinced every one that the ruszenie pospolite was useless for serious military purposes, and that Poland, in order to hold her own, must in future follow the example of the West, and wage her warfare with trained mercenaries.
The Polish government had employed Hussite mercenaries, but rejected Hussite propagandists.
On the 7th of March 1606 Sigismund summoned a diet for the express purpose of introducing the principle of decision by majority in the diet, whereupon Zebrzydowski summoned a counter-confederation to Stenczyn in Little Poland, whose first act was to open negotiations with the prince of Transylvania, Stephen Bocskay, with the view of hiring mercenaries from him for further operations.
Chodkiewicz's own army, unpaid for years, abandoned him at last en masse in order to plunder the estates of their political opponents, leaving the grand hetman to carry on the war as best he could with a handful of mercenaries paid out of the pockets of himself and his friends.
He was opposed by the legate Pandulf (1218-1221), who claimed the guardianship of the kingdom for the Holy See; by the Poitevin Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, who was the young king's tutor; by the foreign mercenaries of John, among whom Falkes de Breaute took the lead; and by the feudal party under the earls of Chester and Albemarle.
He treated his most respectable supporters with base ingratitude, reserved his favour for unscrupulous adventurers, and gave a free rein to the licence of his mercenaries.
In 1589 he obtained in Geneva and Berne sums sufficient to raise an army of mercenaries for Henry III., partly by the sale of jewels, among them the "Sancy" diamond which in 1835 found its way to the Russian imperial treasure, and partly by leading the Swiss to suppose that the troops were intended for serious war against Savoy.
But they could not command the fidelity of their mercenaries, :and the Saxon peril only grew greater.
Matthias enforced his authority by the vigorous use of his mercenaries and by wholesale confiscations of the lands of turbulent nobles.
1219), and his successor, the justiciar Hubert de Burgh, asserted the royal prerogative against native barons and foreign mercenaries.
Charles's chief claim to remembrance is that he was the first ruler to adopt the system of hiring his soldiers out to foreign powers as mercenaries, as a means of improving the national finances.
It is argued that the troops were in any case mercenaries, and that the practice was quite common.
On the Continent the systematic employment of mercenaries was both an early and a common practice.
He landed at Kalmar with 5000 men, mostly Hungarian mercenaries; the fortress opened its gates to him at once and the capital and the country people welcomed him.
These troops, returning home from a disastrous expedition to Cyrene, suspected that they had been betrayed in order that Apries, the reigning king, might rule more absolutely by means of his mercenaries, and their friends in Egypt fully sympathized with them.
Amasis, sent to meet them and quell the revolt, was proclaimed king by the rebels, and Apries, who had now to rely entirely on his mercenaries, was defeated and taken prisoner in the ensuing conflict at Momemphis; the usurper treated the captive prince with great lenity, but was eventually persuaded to give him up to the people, by whom he was strangled and buried in his ancestral tomb at Sais.
It may be ascribed partly to the wealth and influence acquired by Aetolian mercenaries in Hellenistic courts, but chiefly to the formation of a national Aetolian league, the first effective institution of this kind in Greece.
At an early age he rose to distinction, and ultimately became commander of the French mercenaries in the employment of the emperors of Nicaea.
Originally Carthaginian mercenaries, they were induced to serve the Romans in a similar capacity, and Livy (xxiv.
49) distinctly states that they were the first mercenaries in the Roman army.
The mercenaries who had received citizenship from the tyrants were settled at Messana.
His only bright side is his championship of Hellas against the Phoenician, and this is balanced by his settlements of barbarian mercenaries in several Greek cities.
His dominion is Italian as well as Sicilian; his influence, as an ally of Sparta, is important in old Greece; while, as a hirer of mercenaries everywhere, he had wider relations than any earlier Greek with the nations of western Europe.
Catana was the first Siceliot city to receive a settlement of Campanian mercenaries, while others settled in non-Hellenic Entella.
Dionysius then planted mercenaries at Leontini, conquered some Sicel towns, Henna among them, and made alliances with others.
This time he took Tauromenium and settled it with his mercenaries.
He also gave help to Sparta against Thebes, sending Gaulish and Iberian mercenaries to take part in Greek warfare.
Among these changes the most marked is the settlement of Campanian mercenaries in Greek and Sicel towns.
But he now relieved Syracuse from the Carthaginian blockade; his mercenaries gained a victory over Acragas; and he sailed again for Africa, where fortune had turned against his son Archagathus, as it now did against himself.
And Hellas was cut short by the seizure of Messana by the disbanded Campanian mercenaries of Agathocles (c. 282), who proclaimed themselves a new people in a new city by the name of Mamertines, children of Mamers or Mars.
On the other hand the Peloponnesian armies were unpaid, while Athens had to spend considerable sums on the payment of crews and mercenaries.
Already in the 7th century B.C., when Hellenism was still in a rudimentary stage, the citizens of the Greek city-states had been known to the courts of Babylon and Egypt as admirable soldiers, combining hardihood with discipline, and Greek mercenaries came to be in request throughout the Nearer East.
The kings of the East leant more than ever upon Greek mercenaries, whose superiority to barbarian levies was sensibly brought home to them by the expedition of Cyrus.
610 B.e.) Greek mercenaries had been used to prop Pharaoh's throne.
It is generally ~ believed that the successes gained in the time of the Pharaohs were due to foreign legions; and from Cambyses to Alexander, from the Ptolemies to Antony (Cleopatra), from Augustus to the 7th century, throughout the Arab period, and from Saladins dynasty down to the middle of the I3th century, the military power of Egypt was dependent on mercenaries.
Then Mehemet Ali, a small tobacconist of Kavala, Macedonia, coming with Albanian mercenaries, made himself governor, and later (1811), by massacring the Mamelukes, became the actual master of the country, and after seven years war brought Arabia under Egypts rule.
The dagger grew longer and stouter, but the sword made its appearance late, probably first in the hands of the Sherdana (Sardinian?), mercenaries of the time of Rameses II.
The military spirit awakened in the struggle with the Hyksos had again departed from the Egyptian nation; mercenaries from the Sudan, from Libya and from the northern.
This fleet joined the Libyan invaders, but was overthrown with heavy loss by the Egyptians, in whose ranks there actually served many Sherden and Kehaka, Sardinian and Libyan mercenaries.
Lydia, and aided by lonian and Carian mercenaries, extended and consolidated his power.i By the ninth year of his reign he was in full possession of Thebes.
Psammetichus guarded the frontiers of Egypt with three strong garrisons, placing the lonian and Carian mercenaries especially at the Pelusiac Daphnae in the N.E., from which q~1arter the most formidable enemy was likely to appear.
Later, however, a disastrous expedition sent to aid the Libyans against the Greek colony of Cyrene roused the suspicion and anger of the native soldiery at favors shown to the mercenaries, who of course had taken no part in it.
The former came to the throne when a Persian invasion was imminent, 378 B.C. Hakor had already formed a powerful army, largely composed of Greek mercenaries.
Nekhtharheb was succeeded by Tachos or Teos, whose short reign was occupied by a war with Persia, in which the king of Egypt secured the services of a body of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan king Agesilaus and a fleet under the Athenian general Chabrias.
A first expedition was defeated by the Greek mercenaries of Nekhtnebf, ~ut a second, commanded by Ochus himself, subdued Egypt with no further resistance than that of the Greek garrison of Felusium.
This event finally crushed the Coptic nation, which never again made head against the Moslems. In the following year the caliph Motasim, who surrounded himself with a foreign bodyguard, withdrew the stipends of the Arab soldiers in Egypt; this measure caused some of the Arab tribes who had been long settled in Egypt to revolt, but their resistance was crushed, and the domination of the Arab element in the country from this time gave way to that of foreign mercenaries, who, belonging to one nation or another, held it for most of its subsequent history.
15), and were Roman mercenaries, perhaps even in Great Britain (Pal.
to pay off his German mercenaries immediately after the religious coup d'etat of 1536.
Peoples (apparently Iranian) of Hittite connexion from the powerful state of Mitanni (Northern Syria and Mesopotamia) had already left their mark as far south as Jerusalem, as may be inferred from the personal names, 4 and to the intercourse with (apparently) Aegean culture revealed by excavation, the letters add references to mercenaries and bands from Meluhlia (viz.
(7th century), and not only are they in touch with Judah and Samaria, but in Psamtek's time an effort was made by the Asiatic and other mercenaries to escape into Ethiopia (J.
In 403 B.C. it was taken by Dionysius of Syracuse, who plundered the city, sold the inhabitants into slavery and replaced them with Campanian mercenaries.
The following year he was fighting the English, and in 1443 aided his father to suppress the revolt of the count of Armagnac. His first important command, however, was in the next year, when he led an army of from 15,000 to 20,000 mercenaries and brigands, - the product of the Hundred Years' War, - against the Swiss of the canton of Basel.
At the same time he contrived to elevate the power of the Abna, the descendants of those Persian soldiers who had established the dynasty of the Abbasids, in order to break the supremacy of the Turks and other mercenaries.
and a number of German princes of the Rhine region, had been formed in the north-east, while John of England made one more attempt to recover his heritage at the head of an army of mercenaries aided by the fickle baronage of Poitou.
Feudal service was more and more compounded for by a money payment, while additional taxes were raised, all going to pay the mercenaries with whom he fought Richard I.
The army which safeguarded this active monarchy consisted chiefly of mercenaries.
It can be traced in the graffiti of the mercenaries of Psammetichus at Abu Simbel in Upper Egypt, where Greeks, Carians and Phoenicians all cut their names upon the legs of the colossal statues.
For its insurrection against the French garrison in 1499 it paid a terrible penalty in 1500, and in 1512, after the victory of Ravenna, Pavia presented to Louis XII., as a sign of fidelity, a magnificent standard: this however fell into the hands of Swiss mercenaries and was sent to Fribourg as a trophy of war (it no longer exists).
The oldest specimen of a distinctively Ionian alphabet is the famous inscription of the mercenaries of Psammetichus, in Upper Egypt, as to which the only doubt is whether the Psammetichus in question is the first or the second, and consequently whether the inscription is to be dated 01.40 or 01.47.
Wars were conducted on a showy system by means of mercenaries, who played a safe game in the field and developed a system of bloodless campaigns.
In 395 Dionysius failed to take it by assault on a winter's night, but in 392 he occupied it and settled his mercenaries there.
Many of the turbulent Welsh warriors having now become mercenaries on the continent or else enlisted under the English king, and the whole of the land west of Severn at last enjoying internal peace, the commercial resources of Wales were developed in a manner that had hitherto not been possible.
The Greek mercenaries, on the contrary, had to be paid in currency; nor could the satrapsof the west dispense with hard cash.
When, in 400 B.C., Xenophon marched with the mercenaries of Cyrus, from the Tigris to the Black Sea, the authority of the king was nonexistent north of Armenia, and the tribes of the Pontic moun~ tains, with the Greek cities on the coast, were completely inde~ pendent.
These were facilitated by the customquite contrary to the original imperial organizationwhich entrusted the provincial military commands to the satraps, who began to receive great masses of Greek mercenaries into their service.
And simultaneously the Greek pmgi~~g,~ civilizationdiffused by mercenaries, traders, artists, of Greek prostitutes and slaves,advanced in ever greater Influence, force.
Both French and British military expeditions had been sent against the Sofas - Moslem mercenaries who, under the chieftainship of Fulas or Mandingos like Samory, ravaged the hinterland both of Sierra Leone and French Guinea.
The army, reinforced by British troops under the earl of Inchiquin and by French and German volunteers or mercenaries, was led in the field by Portuguese generals, who successfully carried out the plans of Schomberg.
He arrived there on the 10th of July, with a large force of Spanish and Walloon mercenaries, and occupied the city almost without resistance.
The Lydian king, finding that Nineveh was helpless to assist him, turned instead to Egypt and furnished the mercenaries with whose help Psammetichus drove the Assyrians out of the country and suppressed his brother satraps.
26), the employment of foreign mercenaries (xxv.
He introduced a system of national militia in the place of foreign mercenaries, and during his government the long war with Pisa was brought to a close with the capture of that city by the Florentines in 1509.
A third attempt made in 1520 with a large army of French, German and Scottish mercenaries proved successful.
Mentor became general of the maritime provinces, suppressed the rebels, and sent Greek mercenaries to the king, while Bagoas administered the upper satrapies and gained such power that he was the real master of the kingdom (Diod.
They were about to accept his offer, not having received their subsidies from the pope and the king of Spain, when a fresh corps of mercenaries descended into Italy, desirous both of gaining booty and of showing their prowess against their new rivals the French and Lower Rhine "lansquenets" (Landsknechts) and against the French gendarmerie, whom (alluding to the "Battle of the Spurs" at Guinegatte in 1513) they called "hares in armour."
Assuming this, and rejecting the evidence of the 1476 chronicle as an interpolation and full of mistakes, and that of the song as not proved to have been in existence before 1531, Herr Burkli comes to the startling conclusion that the phalanx formation of the Austrians, as well as the name and act of Winkelried, have been transferred to Sempach from the fight of Bicocca, near Milan (April 27, 1522), where a real leader of the Swiss mercenaries in the pay of France, Arnold Winkelried, reall y met his death in very much the way that his namesake perished according to the story.
Next year Pelopidas was again called upon to interfere in Macedonia, but, being deserted by his mercenaries, was compelled to make an agreement with Ptolemaeus of Alorus.
Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who 1 On the much discussed tablet, which is said to date from his 1 ith year, the writer had at first written "loth year of Cyrus," and then corrected this date into "1st year of Cambyses"; see Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cambyses, No.
Aware that the resources of his own duchy were inadequate to the conquest of England, he sent all over Europe to hire mercenaries, promising every knight who would join him broad lands beyond the Channel in the event of victory.
Both sides promised to lay down their arms, to dismiss their mercenaries, and to acquiesce in the destruction of unlicensed castles, of which it is said, with no very great exaggeration, that there were at the moment over 1000 in the realm.
He expelled all Stephens mercenaries, took back into his hands the royal lands and castles which his predecessor had granted away, and destroyed hundreds of the adulterine castles which the barons and knights had built without leave during the years of the anarchy.
But it must also be remembered that a feudal army was an inefficient weapon for long wars, and that the mercenaries, by whom alone it could be replaced, were both expensive and untrustworthy.
In vain John hired foreign mercenaries, garrisoned his castles, and leagued himself with the king of France when the latter returned from the Crusade.
Then he crossed to England with a band of mercenaries, and seized Windsor and Wallinglord castles.
John found himself obliged to turn back, since hardly a man save his mercenaries had rallied to his standard at Portsmouth.
He sent the earl of Salisbury with some of his mercenaries to join the confederates in Flanders, while he sailed with the main body of them to La Rochelle, whence he marched northwardr devastating the land before him.
his pretence of keeping his promise lasted less than two months; by August 1215 he was already secretly collecting money and hiring more mercenaries.
The king, who had already gathered in many mercenaries, gained the first advantage by capturing Rochester Castle before the army of the barons was assembled.
Yet he was so frankly impossible as a ruler that, save the earls of Pembroke and Chester, all his English followers had left him, and he had no one to back him but the papal legate Gualo and a band of foreign mercenaries.
He then began to recall his foreign friends and relatives, and to assemble mercenaries.
at Ravenspur with a small body of exiles and mercenaries.
resolved to tr~ his fortune once more, and landed near Hull on the 15th of March Edward 1471 with a body of mercenaries lent him by the ~ duke of Burgundy.
This time it was successfully carried out, and the earl of Richmond landed at Milford Haven with many exiles, both Yorkists and Lancastrians, and 1000 mercenaries lent him by the princess regent of France.
In May 1487 Lincoln and Lovel landed in Ireland accompanied by other exiles and 2000 German mercenaries.
But the pretender nevertheless sailed from Flanders in July 1495 with a following of 2000 exiles and German mercenaries.
From T016 to 1030 the Normans were pure mercenaries, serving either Greeks or Lombards, and then Sergius of Naples, by installing the leader Rainulf in the fortress of Aversa in 1030, gave them their first pied-aterre and they began an organized conquest of the land.
In 1514 he was given 12,000 German mercenaries ostensibly for the defence of Brittany, but really for an invasion of England.
Wars were conducted by professional soldiers whose troops were chiefly mercenaries, and who were usually regarded by the politicians either as instruments or as enemies.
Of 2000 infantry and 200 cavalry at least one quarter must be Athenian citizens capable of directing the mercenaries.
In the winter of 325-324 Harpalus, the receiver-general of Alexander in Asia, fled to Greece, taking with him 8000 mercenaries, and treasure equivalent to about a million and a quarter sterling.
His services were given to the French government, which maintained regiments of Scottish mercenaries.
On the former lived a motley population of slaves, horse-boys, and mercenaries composed of broken men of other clans, many of whom were fugitives from justice, possessing no rights either in the sept or tribe and entirely dependent on the bounty of the lord, and consequently living about his fortified residence.
On the 24th of February 1389, Albert, who had returned from Mecklenburg with an army of mercenaries, was routed and taken prisoner at Aasle near Falk ping, and Margaret was now the omnipotent mistress of three kingdoms. Stockholm then almost entirely a German city, still held out; fear of Margaret induced both the Mecklenburg princes and the Wendish towns to hasten to its assistance; and the Baltic and the North Sea speedily swarmed with the privateers of the Viktualien brodre or Vitalianer, so called because their professed object was to revictual Stockholm.
From Ireland, accompanied by some bands of German mercenaries procured for him in the Low Countries, he invaded England; but the rising was put down at Stoke near Newark in Nottinghamshire, and, Simnel being captured, the king made him a menial of his kitchen.
conquered Milan in seven months and held it br fourteen years; while Lodovico Sforza, betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries, died a prisoner in France.
the Cloth of Gold, he joined hands with Suleiman the Magnificent, the conqueror of Mohtics; and the Turkish cavalry, crossing the Hungarian Puszla, made their way as far as Vienna, while the mercenaries of Charles V., under the constable de Bourbon, were reviving the saturnalia of Alaric in the sack of Rome (1527).
Civil war now began against the rebellious coalition of great nobles, lawyers of the parlement, populace, and mercenaries The just set free from the Thirty Years War.
While retaining the principles of feudal recruiting, he had endeavoured to establish a system of rigid discipline among his troops, which he had strengthened by taking into his pay foreign mercenaries, particularly Englishmen and Italians, and by developing his artillery.
He landed, with his wife, at Corunna on the 28th of April 1506, accompanied by a body of German mercenaries.
70-73), and immediately afterwards marched through Thessaly at the head of 700 helots and loon Peloponnesian mercenaries to join the Macedonian king Perdiccas.
A few years later Gyges joined in the revolt against Assyria, and the Ionic and Carian mercenaries he despatched to Egypt enabled Psammetichus to make himself independent.
Her only ally in the war, Bernabo Visconti of Milan, gave her little help on this side, but his mercenaries invaded the territory of Genoa.
Beaumanoir commanded thirty Bretons, Bramborough a mixed force of twenty Englishmen, six German mercenaries and four Breton partisans of Montfort.
His one ally was the Franciscan friar, Giovanni da Capistrano (q.v.), who preached a crusade so effectually that the peasants and yeomanry, ill-armed (most of them had but slings and scythes) but full of enthusiasm, flocked to the standard of Hunyadi, the kernel of whose host consisted of a small band of seasoned mercenaries and a few banderia of noble horsemen.
those on the lessons to be learnt from the revolt of the mercenaries in Africa, i.
During the ensuing campaign of 1629 Gustavus had to contend against the combined forces of Koniecpolski and ro,000 of Wallenstein's mercenaries.
Whether Dierdirien came to her aid or she resorted to bribing mercenaries and Memon's smaller allies, she needed more blood and time.
Reuters news agency quotes diplomats in Ivory Coast as saying that they have heard of the hiring of 300 fresh mercenaries.
There are three types of troops available to every lords: knights, the fyrd (or feudal levy ), and mercenaries.
mercenaryis hiring mercenaries in Chile to replace its soldiers on security duty in Iraq.
mercenaryne sources do mention attempts to recruit western mercenaries in the 1090s.
mercenaryossible both Nations preferred to employ Bohemian mercenaries to crew their war wagons.
mercenaryill more than enough for most bad guys tho as he battles Middle Eastern mercenaries led by Liquid Ocelot.
mercenary these troops were mercenaries paid for with Dutch money.
mercenaryt using mercenaries, he later built a large fleet of ships to a design superior to that used by the Danes.
mercenarya disease of epidemic proportions among Swiss mercenaries in the pay of European Kings.
mercenaryts needed help and they arranged for foreign mercenaries from Europe to fight off these invaders.
mercenary, Greek mercenaries helped the Egyptians when they actually did rebel.
mercenaryan 3,000 rebels, mainly peasants, were killed during the clash with 15,000 German mercenaries.
mercenarys the use of the armed forces as American mercenaries - and without any advantage gained in return.
mercenaryurray - You canÃ¢t teach old collaborators human rights The Banality of Evil | Main | British mercenaries cleared by US » .. .
unnervet's certainly unnerving to see mercenaries using vehicles against you.
In Herodotus's account of the first Greek intercourse with Egypt (about 664 B.e.) he describes " Ionian and Carian " adventurers and mercenaries in the Delta.
In a few cases, indeed, we find very complicated systems of fortification - a wall of circumvallation with towers at the corners, protecting a small settlement of nuraghe-like buildings, as in the case of the Nuraghe Losa near Abbasanta and the Nuraghe Saurecci near Guspini; 2 or, as in the It has been widely believed that the Shardana, who occur as foreign mercenaries in Egypt from the time of Rameses II.
During the confusion that followed that event Alexius Comnenus escaped into Asia, and, having collected an army of Iberian mercenaries, entered Trebizond, where he was acknowledged as the legitimate sovereign, and assumed the title of Grand Comnenus.
War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hamadan; in 1024 the former captured Hamadan and its towns, and expelled the Turkish mercenaries.
But it is to be presumed that the punishment came from Israel - the use of Syrian mercenaries not excluded - and if, instead of using his treasure to ward off the invasion of Syria, Jehoash bribed Damascus to break off relations with Israel, an alternative explanation of the origin of the Aramaean wars may be found.2 12.
Although the dominant position of Lysander had been broken in 403 by King Pausanias, the Spartan government gave him all the support which was possible without going into open war against the king; it caused a partisan of Lysander, Clearchus, condemned to death on account of atrocious crimes which he had committed as governor of Byzantium, to gather an army of mercenaries on the Thracian Chersonesus, and in Thessaly Menon of Pharsalus, head of a party which was connected with Sparta, collected another army.
Out of a citizen body of over 50,000 freemen, reinforced by mercenaries and slaves, a superb fleet exceeding 300 sail and an army of 30,000 drilled soldiers could be mustered.
61 sqq.) of the costumes of the mercenaries of Xerxes is classical (see Rawlinson's edition, iv.
But when the mercenaries and other new settlers were shut out from office 3 new struggles 1 Holm and Cavallari (cf.
The tactlessness of Charles, the rapacity of his generals, the barbarity of his mercenaries, his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet, his negotiations for the partition of the very state he affected to befriend, awoke the long slumbering public spirit of the country.
In the following year a more modest proposal was made by the Crown in the shape of a capitation of six gulden, to be levied on every nobleman at the beginning of a campaign, for the hiring of mercenaries.
The triumph of so fanatical a reformer as Christian brought about the fall of Catholicism, but the Catholics were still so strong in the council of state that Christian was forced to have recourse to a coup d'etat, which he successfully accomplished by means of his German mercenaries (12th of August 1536), an absolutely inexcusable act of violence loudly blamed by Luther himself, and accompanied by the wholesale spoliation of the church.
In the reign of the caliph Motasim a serious revolt of Persian Mazdakite sectaries (the Khorrami) in alliance with Byzantium was with difficulty suppressed, as also a rising of Tabaristan under an hereditary chief Maziyar who was secretly supported by the Turkish mercenaries (e.g., Af shin) whom the caliph had invited to his court.
Owing to Aratus's irresolute generalship, the indolence of the rich burghers and the inadequate provision for levying troops and paying mercenaries, the league lost several battles and much of its territory; but rather than compromise with the Spartan Gracchus the assembly negotiated with Antigonus Doson, who recovered the lost districts but retained Corinth for himself (223-221).
Ludovico, at the head of an army of Swiss mercenaries, returned victoriously in February 1 Soo, and was welcomed by a population disgusted with the oppression of the invaders.
And it 's certainly unnerving to see mercenaries using vehicles against you.
But unlike missionaries, the personal goals of mercenaries tend to be personal rather than tied to the product or company.
Mercenaries may achieve their goals, but they often aren't as ambitious and long-term as missionaries.
Some people start out as mercenaries but become missionaries as they move through the startup phases.
During this period, Croatian mercenaries used scarves to hold the tops of their shirts together.
Eventually he discovers that she has been kidnapped by a vicious band of mercenaries who are keeping her captive.
Three new recruits (your party) from Balamb Garden, a military academy that trains mercenaries known as SeeDs, are sent to deal with a battle between neighboring nations Galbadia and Dollet.
It is from this scenario that a small band of mercenaries and a blue-haired warrior named Ike will rise up as the only home to overcome the evil empire of Daein.
You play as a group of mercenaries who are known as the Killer 7 led by a crippled old-timer named Harman Smith.
You can also use spies to find out enemy locations and even hire mercenaries to join your troops.
Hire mercenaries and re-allocate their skill points to your other units.
Play the mercenaries mini-game and get a five star ranking.
Note: To unlock these characters you need to play the Mercenaries Mini-Game and score a 4 star rating.
Gattsu (a.k.a Guts) and Casca survived a brutal supernatural attack against their band of mercenaries called The Hawks.
Margaret of Parma meanwhile, with the aid of a considerable body of German mercenaries, had inflicted exemplary punishment upon the iconoclasts and Calvinist sectaries.
But Matthias, who began by deposing Garai and dismissing Szilagyi, and then proceeded to levy a tax, without the consent of the Diet, in order to hire mercenaries, easily prevailed.
He joined the Pompeian party, and organized bands of mercenaries and gladiators to support the cause by public violence in opposition to P. Clodius, who gave similar support to the democratic cause.
During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.
and the counts of Cilli, flooded northern and western Hungary with Hussite mercenaries, one of whom, Jan Giszkra, she made her captain-general, while Wladislaus held the central and south-eastern parts of the realm.
The nucleus of the new army he found in the Czech mercenaries, seasoned veterans who readily transferred their services to the best payer.
In 238 B.C. the Carthaginian mercenaries revolted, and the Romans took advantage of the fact to demand that the island should be given period.
Alexander summoned his mercenaries, and 6000 Jews were killed before he set out on his disastrous campaign against an Arabian king.
After Agathocles' death, his mercenaries, the Mamertines, treacherously seized the town about 282 B.C. and held it.
and a few months later he crossed the frontier with a large force of Poles, Russian exiles, German mercenaries and Cossacks from the Dnieper and the Don.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.