This was better in some respects than if the mercenaries had been foreigners.
It must further be noticed that the rise of mercenaries was synchronous with a change in the nature of Italian despotism.
These served partly as mercenaries, partly in contingents contributed by the states in virtue of their alliance.
The mercenaries again held Ortygia and Achradina.
With 15,000 mercenaries, whom he had to train into Roman discipline, he took Carthage, defeated Gelimer the Vandal king, and carried him captive, in 534, to grace the first triumph witnessed in Constantinople.
At the same time John Casimir, brother of the elector palatine, at the invitation of the Calvinist party and with the secret financial aid of Queen Elizabeth, entered the country at the head of a body of German mercenaries from the east.
The constables of these castles had adopted the custom of compelling these landholders to give money and not service, mercenaries being then hired to perform this.
By this time the rising had attained the dimensions of a revolution; all the feudal levies of the kingdom were called out against it; and mercenaries were hired in haste from Venice, Bohemia and the emperor.
The chief con spirator, Shuiski, seized the power and was elected tsar by an Assembly composed of his faction, but neither Shuiski, the ambitious boyars, nor the pillaging Cossacks, nor the German mercenaries were satisfied with the change, and soon a new impostor, likewise calling himself Dimitri, son of Tsar Ivan, came forward as the rightful heir.
They were first noticed by Lepsius at Abu-Simbel, where he correctly inferred that they were the work of the Carian mercenaries of Psammetichus.
When he went on his last disastrous campaign, Hyrcanus led a Jewish contingent to join his army, partly perhaps a troop of mercenaries (for Hyrcanus was the first of the Jewish kings to hire mercenaries, with the treasure found in David's tomb).
The Seljukian Turks, first the mercenaries and then the masters of the caliph, had given new life to the decadent caliphate of Bagdad.
17, 3) at the time of Alexander's passage into Asia, the mercenaries numbered 5,000, and the troops of the alliance 7,000 foot and 600 horse.
The German mercenaries evacuated Courland by Jan.
Kronstadt, now the sole flourishing trade centre in the kingdom, defended itself with hired mercenaries against the robber barons.
His reading in Livy taught him to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this plan might be adopted with success by the Italians.
The Czech mercenaries under Giszkra held the northern counties and from thence plundered those in the centre.
Herein he was aided by the troops of Facino Cane, who, dying opportunely at this period, left considerable wealth, a welltrained band of mercenaries, and a widow, Beatrice di Tenda.
Lodovico escaped to Germany, returned the next year, was betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries and sent to die at Loches in France.
With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
As these phalangites are distinguished both from the Greek mercenaries and the native Egyptian levies, it looks (although such a fact would be staggering) as if more Macedonians could be raised for military service in Egypt than in Macedonia itself (but see Beloch, p. 353).
To the troops drawn from their own dominions the mercenaries which the kings procured from abroad were an important supplement.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
Development of Map-making among the Greeks 3 - Ionian mercenaries and traders first arrived in Egypt, on the invitation of Psammetichus I.
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
The method generally adopted was to deprive the preachers in the towns of their churches by force, Italian mercenaries being preferably employed for the purpose.
He was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse; in 317 he returned with an army of mercenaries under a solemn oath to observe the democratic constitution which was then set up. Having banished or murdered some Io,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created a strong army and fleet and subdued the greater part of Sicily.
He was a born leader of mercenaries, and, although he did not shrink from cruelty to gain his ends, he afterwards showed himself a mild and popular "tyrant."
He gave citizenship both to mercenaries and to settlers from Greece, and added to the population the inhabitants of other cities conquered by him, so that Syracuse became a city of mixed population, in which the new citizens had the advantage.
In this revolution Thrasybulus and his mercenaries held the fortified quarters of Ortygia and Achradina; the revolted people held the unwalled suburbs, already, it is plain, thickly inhabited.
The mercenaries were at last got rid of in 461.
He next, by another trick, procured from a military assembly at Leontini a vote of a bodyguard; he hired mercenaries and in 406-405 came back to Syracuse as tyrant of the city (Diod.
It was shortly after this revolution, in 317, that Agathocles with a body of mercenaries from Campania and a host of exiles from the Greek cities, backed up by the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was in friendly relations with the Syracusan oligarchy, became a tyrant or despot of the city, assuming subsequently, on the strength of his successes against Carthage, the title of king.
All hope for the city being now at an end, the Syracusans threw themselves on the mercy of Marcellus; but Achradina and the island still held out for a brief space under the Syracusan mercenaries, till one of their officers, a Spaniard, betrayed the latter position to the enemy, and at the same time Achradina was carried and taken.
Egypt had already recovered its independence (660 B.C.) with the help of mercenaries sent by Gyges of Lydia, who had vainly solicited aid from Assyria against his Cimmerian enemies.
Italy, Piero de' Medici, encouraged by the league, enlisted a number of mercenaries and marched on Florence, but the citizens, fired by Savonarola's enthusiasm, flew to arms and prepared for an energetic resistance; owing to Piero's incapacity and the exhaustion of his funds the expedition came to nothing.
Pherae called in the help of the Phocian mercenaries, who had profaned Delphi, and Philip met with a check.
The Phocian mercenaries at Thermopylae were bought off and Philip crossed into central Greece.
He and his bastard brother, Alexander, were joined by the former favourite, Georges de la Tremoille, John V., duke of Brittany, who allied himself with the English, the duke of Alencon, the count of Vendome, and captains of mercenaries like Antoine de Chabannes, or Jean de la Roche.
Y P Here he began to denounce the abuses in the Church, as well as the traffic in mercenaries which had so long been a blot upon his country's honour.
Only where the cities were held by garrisons in the Persian service, garrisons composed mainly of Greek mercenaries, was the liberator likely to meet with any resistance.
Says that as soon as peace is made all foreign mercenaries are to be banished.
They were all-powerful with the people, but Hyrcanus with his mercenaries was independent of the people, and the wealthy belonged to the sect of the Sadducees.
He was expelled in 1311 by his Catalonian mercenaries; the mutineers bestowed the duchy " of Athens and Neopatras " on their leader, Roger Deslaur, and, in the following year, on Frederick of Aragon, king of Sicily.
It was with a small force of mercenaries, raised at his own expense, that the young king won his first Turkish victories, and expelled the Czechs from his northern and the Habsburgs from his western provinces.
Subsequently Greek mercenaries became indispensable not only to the king but also to the satraps, who thereby gained the means for attempting successful rebellions, into which they were provoked by the weakness of the king, and by the continuous intrigues between the Persian magnates.
Margaret of Parma meanwhile, with the aid of a considerable body of German mercenaries, had inflicted exemplary punishment upon the iconoclasts and Calvinist sectaries.
But Matthias, who began by deposing Garai and dismissing Szilagyi, and then proceeded to levy a tax, without the consent of the Diet, in order to hire mercenaries, easily prevailed.
He joined the Pompeian party, and organized bands of mercenaries and gladiators to support the cause by public violence in opposition to P. Clodius, who gave similar support to the democratic cause.
During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.
And the counts of Cilli, flooded northern and western Hungary with Hussite mercenaries, one of whom, Jan Giszkra, she made her captain-general, while Wladislaus held the central and south-eastern parts of the realm.
The nucleus of the new army he found in the Czech mercenaries, seasoned veterans who readily transferred their services to the best payer.
In 238 B.C. the Carthaginian mercenaries revolted, and the Romans took advantage of the fact to demand that the island should be given period.
Alexander summoned his mercenaries, and 6000 Jews were killed before he set out on his disastrous campaign against an Arabian king.
After Agathocles' death, his mercenaries, the Mamertines, treacherously seized the town about 282 B.C. and held it.
And a few months later he crossed the frontier with a large force of Poles, Russian exiles, German mercenaries and Cossacks from the Dnieper and the Don.