Mental-retardation sentence example

mental-retardation
  • Then McBride said his research showed that Debendox was also responsible for causing mental retardation.
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  • At the same time the employers and fellow employees become sensitized to individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation.
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  • Subsequently, five further families have been identified, some of which also include individuals with X-linked mental retardation without infantile spasms 48-52.
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  • Other research areas include dyslexia and dynamic assessment in persons with severe mental retardation.
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  • For pupils with mental retardation there are nearly no changes.
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  • Affected children have marked developmental and motor delays in the form of cerebral palsy and mental retardation may also be present.
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  • Surviving infants with CMV may suffer from hearing problems (15%) or mental retardation (30%).
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  • Severe infections lead to seizure disorders, neurological disorders, abnormal muscle tone, deafness, partial or complete blindness caused by a condition called chorioretinitis, and mental retardation.
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  • Afflicted children die in infancy or suffer damage to their central nervous systems that can result in physical and mental retardation.
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  • According to statistics made available by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the 1990s, mental retardation occurs in 2.5 to 3 percent of the general population.
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  • A diagnosis of mental retardation is made if an individual has an intellectual functioning level well below average and significant limitations in two or more adaptive skill areas.
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  • Symptoms of mental retardation may appear at birth or later in childhood.
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  • Some cases of mild mental retardation are not diagnosed before the child enters preschool.
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  • The American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) has developed another widely accepted diagnostic classification system for mental retardation.
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  • For children, the mental retardation rate is 11.4 per 1,000 and varies approximately nine fold, ranging from 3.2 in New Jersey to 31.4 in Alabama.
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  • Low educational attainment was the most important correlate of mental retardation rates among adults.
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  • Low IQ scores and limitations in adaptive skills are the hallmarks of mental retardation.
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  • In about 35 percent of cases, the cause of mental retardation cannot be found.
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  • Biological and environmental factors that can cause mental retardation include genetics, prenatal illnesses and issues, childhood illnesses and injuries, and environmental factors.
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  • About 5 percent of mental retardation is caused by hereditary factors.
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  • Fragile X, a defect in the chromosome that determines sex, is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation.
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  • Single gene defects such as phenylketonuria (PKU) and other inborn errors of metabolism may also cause mental retardation if they are not found and treated early.
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  • It is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation.
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  • Drug abuse and cigarette smoking during pregnancy have also been linked to mental retardation.
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  • Maternal infections and illnesses such as glandular disorders, rubella, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus infection may cause mental retardation.
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  • When the mother has high blood pressure (hypertension) or blood poisoning (toxemia), the flow of oxygen to the fetus may be reduced, causing brain damage and mental retardation.
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  • Birth defects that cause physical deformities of the head, brain, and central nervous system frequently cause mental retardation.
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  • Hyperthyroidism, whooping cough, chickenpox, measles, and Hib disease (a bacterial infection) may cause mental retardation if they are not treated adequately.
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  • An infection of the membrane covering the brain (meningitis) or an inflammation of the brain itself (encephalitis) cause swelling that in turn may cause brain damage and mental retardation.
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  • Traumatic brain injury caused by a blow or a violent shake to the head may also cause brain damage and mental retardation in children.
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  • Exposure to lead can also cause mental retardation.
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  • If mental retardation is suspected, a comprehensive physical examination and medical history should be done immediately to discover any organic cause of symptoms.
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  • The symptoms of mental retardation are usually evident by a child's first or second year.
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  • However, as of 2004, there is no cure for mental retardation.
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  • A promising but controversial treatment for mental retardation involves stem cell research.
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  • In the early 2000s scientists are exploring the potential of adult stem cells in treating mental retardation.
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  • They have transplanted bone marrow cells into living embryos in the uteri of animals to approach congenital diseases, birth defects, and mental retardation.
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  • Individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation are frequently able to achieve some self-sufficiency and to lead happy and fulfilling lives.
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  • Immunization against diseases such as measles and Hib prevents many of the illnesses that can cause mental retardation.
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  • The sooner the diagnosis of mental retardation is made, the more the child can be helped.
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  • Children with Down syndrome have varying degrees of mental retardation and may have heart defects.
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  • Inborn errors of metabolism can cause brain damage and mental retardation if left untreated.
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  • As a result, phenylalanine builds up in the body causing mental retardation and other neurological problems.
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  • Early symptoms include loss of vision and physical coordination, seizures, and mental retardation.
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  • Children with A-T usually have normal or above normal intelligence, but some cases of mental retardation have been reported.
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  • Canavan disease-A serious genetic disease more common in the Eastern European Jewish population that causes mental retardation and early death.
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  • Long-term problems following recovery from measles encephalitis may include seizures and mental retardation.
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  • In addition to retarding growth, it can cause mental retardation if thyroid hormones are not administered in the first months of an infant's life.
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  • A form of severe malnutrition called marasmus retards growth in all parts of the body, including the head (causing mental retardation as well).
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  • Specific language impairment describes a condition of markedly delayed language development in the absence of any apparent handicapping conditions such as deafness, autism, or mental retardation.
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  • The severe form of MPS II is associated with progressive mental retardation and physical disability, with most individuals dying before age 15.
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  • Many children with MPS III develop seizures, sleeplessness, thicker skin, joint contractures, enlarged tongues, cardiomyopathy, behavior problems, and mental retardation.
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  • In childhood, blood lead levels above 80 mg/dL generally indicate lead poisoning; however, significantly lower levels ( 30 mg/dL) can cause mental retardation and other cognitive and behavioral problems in affected children.
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  • Although most individuals with spina bifida have normal intellectual function, learning disabilities or mental retardation occur in a minority.
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  • The most common birth defects resulting from congenital rubella infection are eye defects such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness; deafness; congenital heart defects; and mental retardation.
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  • Learning disabilities or mental retardation may be diagnosed during this time.
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  • Traditionally, IQ scores of 90-109 are considered average; scores below 70 indicate mental retardation.
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  • According to the U.S. Department of Education, about 11 percent of school-aged children were enrolled in special education programs for students with mental retardation.
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  • It is the most common form of inherited mental retardation.
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  • There is no cure for autism or mental retardation.
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  • Zinc deficiency has been associated with reduced growth and mental retardation.
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  • Less than 1 percent of the non-autistic population, including those with mental retardation and other developmental disorders, have savant syndrome.
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  • Language delay is usually more severe than other developmental delays in retarded children, and it is often the first noticeable symptom of mental retardation.
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  • In general the severity of language delay depends on the severity of the mental retardation.
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  • Generalized delay in all developmental milestones suggests mental retardation.
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  • Fragile X syndrome, a genetic condition involving changes in the long arm of the X chromosome, is the most common form of inherited mental retardation.
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  • Generally, males are affected with moderate mental retardation (since they only have one X chromosome) and females with mild mental retardation.
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  • Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in the United States.
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  • Females who inherit the full mutation have an approximately 30-50 percent risk of mental impairment, ranging from mild learning disability to mental retardation and behavioral problems.
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  • The severity of mental impairment ranges from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation.
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  • In females who carry a full mutation, the physical and behavioral features and mental retardation tend to be less severe.
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  • Behavioral and developmental problems may indicate fragile X syndrome, particularly if there is a family history of mental retardation.
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  • Hemoglobin H symptoms can also be a part of a unique condition called alpha thalassemia mental retardation syndrome.
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  • Children who survive infancy have profound mental retardation and may experience seizures.
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  • Autistic disorder, also referred to as autism, is characterized by moderate to severe communication, socialization, and behavioral problems, and in some children, mental retardation.
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  • Congenital myotonic dystrophy is marked by severe weakness, poor sucking and swallowing responses, respiratory difficulty, delayed motor development, and mental retardation.
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  • Individuals with mental retardation who function at or below an approximate cognitive level of 18 months may also be exempt from this diagnosis.
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  • A subtype, called Fukuyama CMD, also involves mental retardation.
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  • In contrast, children with Fukuyama CMD are rarely able to walk and have severe mental retardation.
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  • Untreated PKU patients develop a broad range of symptoms related to severely impaired cognitive function, sometimes referred to as mental retardation.
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  • In the early 1950s, researchers first demonstrated that phenylalanine-restricted diets could eliminate most of the typical PKU symptoms-except for mental retardation.
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  • It causes major physical abnormalities and severe mental retardation.
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  • Treatment within the first few months of life can prevent mental retardation and physical abnormalities.
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  • Cretinism-Severe hypothyroidism that is present at birth and characterized by severe mental retardation.
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  • The Son-Rise program was created by Barry and Samahria Lyte Kaufman in the 1970s, as a means to teach their own son, who was diagnosed with autism and mental retardation.
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  • The most common congenital defects are cataracts, heart disease, deafness, and mental retardation.
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  • Down syndrome is a condition that includes mental retardation and a distinctive physical appearance linked to an abnormality of chromosome 21 (called trisomy 21).
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  • Unfortunately, about 20 percent later develop severe hearing impairments and mental retardation.
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  • They also have unusual facial features, poor muscle tone (hypotonia), small head size (microcephaly), and mental retardation.
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  • Infants with cri du chat may also have congenital heart defects, language difficulties, delayed motor skill development, scoliosis, and varying degrees of mental retardation.
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  • Mental retardation is present in all children with cri du chat, but the degree of mental retardation varies between children.
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  • The extent of mental retardation and other symptoms depends on the site of the chromosomal deletions, with larger deletions resulting in more serious symptoms.
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  • Before routine vaccination, Hib was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis and responsible for most of the cases of acquired mental retardation in the United States.
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  • Untreated Menkes' disease is associated with mental retardation and death before three years of age.
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  • Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in cretinism in newborns, involving mental retardation and a large tongue.
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  • The body's immune system is often weakened, behavioral development is slow, and mental retardation may occur.
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  • Some children recover completely, while others may have a variety of lifelong impairments, including an inability to properly absorb nutrients in the intestines, as well as mental retardation.
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  • Children with a diagnosis of mental retardation often have mixed or global development delays.
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  • Children with a specific learning disability, like children with severe mental retardation or autism, may present with dissociation in developmental skills.
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  • Continued feeding of milk products to the infant will lead to cirrhosis, cataracts, kidney failure, and mental retardation.
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  • Isotretinoin can cause serious birth defects, including mental retardation and physical deformities.
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  • Babies who survive pregnancy may develop kernicterus, which can lead to deafness, speech problems, cerebral palsy, or mental retardation.
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  • Down syndrome is the most common cause of mental retardation and malformation in a newborn.
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  • The level of mental retardation is considered to be mild-to-moderate in Down syndrome.
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  • Over the long term, lead poisoning in a child can lead to learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and even mental retardation.
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  • Toxoplasma can cause birth defects including blindness, hearing loss, and mental retardation.
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  • Other neurological problems can include seizures, hyperactivity, and mental retardation.
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  • Only a small percent of these children are affected by a disability like autism or mental retardation.
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  • Congress reported that in cases where African-American children are a minority, a higher percentage of African-American children are identified with mental retardation and emotional disturbance than white students.
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  • Individuals with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome usually are of average or above average intelligence, whereas other forms of autism can include mental retardation.
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  • Cognitive effects in females with Fragile X tend to be less severe, with only about one third having an IQ score that indicates mental retardation.
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  • Men with a history of mental retardation in their family may be more likely to display the gene.
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  • Estimates in the percentage of people with autism meet the criteria for mental retardation range from 25 to 70 percent; while others show little or no problems with cognitive functioning.
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  • Just as drinking alcohol during pregnancy can result in mental retardation and physical delays, other substances may result in changes to the amygdala and temporal lobe.
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  • Teaching adolescents with mild mental retardation to make decisions in leisure through the use of self-control techniques.
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