Mental sentence example

mental
  • This question absorbed all his mental powers.
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  • He had a mental list of what they should take when they left.
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  • She awoke in a mental institution.
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  • The world was falling apart around them, and he couldn't risk either of their mental states in a relationship that may not see both of them surviving.
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  • She is a thorough woman, but with none of the pettinesses, subterfuges, and mental reservations of her sex; she loves wide vistas and boundless horizons and instinctively seeks them out; she is concerned for universal happiness and takes thought for the improvement of mankind - thelastinfirmity and most innocent mania of generous souls.
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  • A mental picture of Cade shopping for such items brought a smile to her lips.
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  • The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.
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  • He distinctly stated that "the advance of European civilization is characterized by a diminishing influence of physical laws and an increasing influence of mental laws," and "the measure of civilization is the triumph of mind over external agents."
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  • Ralph Waldo was the fourth child in a family of eight, of whom at least three gave evidence of extraordinary mental powers.
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  • Those early compositions were mental gymnastics.
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  • It was an interesting mental exercise and said much about the desires of the participants.
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  • "Just a mental mess?" she prodded.
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  • As a mind manipulator, she'd have more sensitive mental receptors.
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  • But even in this crowning triumph the cramping egotism of his nature - a mental vice which now grew on him rapidly - fatally narrowed his outlook and led him to commit an irretrievable blunder.
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  • The course of the ensuing campaigns was to reveal the hardening of his mental powers.
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  • He gradually became interested in these books, and a mental struggle began.
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  • He builds up, from birth onwards, his own mental mechanisms, and forms more of them, that is to say, is more " educable," and takes longer in doing so, that is to say, in growing up and maturing his experience, than any other animal.
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  • The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.
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  • The lower jaw projects more or less beyond the upper, the mental barble is small, sometimes rudimentary, the vent is below the posterior half of the first dorsal fin, and there is a dark spot in the axil of the pectoral fin.
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  • There is in truth a something crude, unsympathetic, cynical in his mental attitude toward human nature, for which, even after the lapse of more than three centuries, we find it difficult to make allowance.
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  • By this time, twenty years of solitary confinement had disturbed Ivan's mental equilibrium, though he does not seem to have been actually insane.
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  • For special cases - infectious, massage, mental and maternity - nurses on a fixed salary usually, receive extra pay.
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  • It is extremely difficult to avoid the subjective element in dealing with matters of fact, and the religious treatment of history is influenced, however unconsciously, by the mental environment of the writers.
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  • He suffered at different times from mental attacks, of which.
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  • (3) A judgment is a unitary mental act, dividing not itself but its object into the object itself and itself as determined, and signifying that it is so determined.
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  • What knowledge do we get by sense, memory and experience, the first mental causes of judgment?
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  • - Judgment in general is the mental act of believing that something is (or is not) determined.
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  • His father, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, the youngest of a family to which the mother had brought the germs of mental malady, was a man of strong will and originality, and so proud of the independence of his native town that when Danzig in 1793 surrendered to the Prussians he and his whole establishment withdrew to Hamburg.
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  • 1 Known as the lei mental, because it was supposed to fulfil the intention which John I.
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  • Anthero de Quental, the chief of the Coimbrans, enshrined his metaphysical neo-Buddhistic ideas overshadowed by extreme pessimism, and marked the stages of his mental evolution, in a sequence of finely-wrought sonnets.
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  • In 1872 grief for the death of his mother occasioned a mental malady, which led to the resignation of his professorship. After his complete and permanent recovery he built himself a villa on the bank of his native river, the Astichello, and lived there in tranquillity until his death on the 17th of May 1888.
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  • They are of a superior physical and mental type, and have made noteworthy progress toward civilization.
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  • He seems to have been freed for a time from the pangs of gout only to be afflicted with a species of mental alienation bordering on insanity.
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  • Soon after his resignation a renewed attack of gout freed Chatham from the mental disease under which he had so long suffered.
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  • His father Nicon, from whom he received his early education, is described as remarkable both for excellence of natural disposition and for mental culture; his mother, on the other hand, appears to have been a second Xanthippe.
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  • The central point of primitive Buddhism was the doctrine of "Arahatship " - a system of ethical and mental self-culture, in which deliverance was found from all the mysteries and sorrows of life in a change of heart to be reached The here on earth.
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  • By thus laying stress upon Bodhisatship, rather than upon Arahatship, the new school, though they doubtless merely thought themselves to be carrying the older orthodox doctrines to their I logical conclusion, were really changing the central point of Buddhism, and were altering the direction of their mental vision.
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  • Suffrage requirements are citizenship in the United States, registration and residence in the state for six months and in the county for thirty days immediately before election, but mental deficiency, conviction of infamous crimes (without restoration to rights of citizenship), bribery or attempt at bribery, bigamy, living in " what is known as patriarchal, plural or celestial marriage," or teaching its validity or belonging to any organization which teaches polygamy,' are disqualifications.
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  • In 1600 the mental condition of Rudolph became so seriously impaired that the princes of the house of Habsburg thought it necessary to consider the future of the state, particularly as Rudolph had no legitimate descendants.
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  • This was due to a growing scepticism, which caused him much mental unrest and which gradually gave way to mysticism.
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  • The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Ali - who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness, - Abbas succeeded to the pashalik.
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  • (A) Autoscopic methods depend on (i.) sensory or (ii.) motor automatisms, or (iii.) mental impressions, for their results.
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  • (iii.) Another method of divination is by the aid of mental impressions; observation seems to show that by some process of this sort, akin to clairvoyance, fortunes are told successfully by means of palmistry or by laying the cards; for the same "lie" of the cards may be diversely interpreted to meet different cases.
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  • What he achieved for the modern world was not merely to bequeath to his Italian imitators masterpieces of lyrical art unrivalled for perfection of workmanship, but also, and far more, to open out for Europe a new sphere of mental activity.
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  • Hence in education the teacher should fully acquaint himself with the mental development of the pupil, in order that he may make full use of what the pupil already knows.
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  • Apperception is thus a general term for all mental processes in which a presentation is brought into connexion with an already existent and systematized mental conception, and thereby is classified, explained or, in a word, understood; e.g.
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  • Exemption may, however, be claimed on the ground of age, physical or mental incapacity, previous service, or payment of the fine within five years, or on the ground that the claimant was nominated without his consent.
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  • When the Tubingen School turn their attention to the Apocryphal Acts and Martyrdoms, the image of Paul still obsesses their mental gaze.
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  • They are a branch of the Esquimauan family, but differ greatly from the Eskimo of the mainland in language, habits, disposition and mental ability.
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  • Much more is to be said for the view that man's larger and more highly organized brain accounts for those mental powers in which he so absolutely surpasses the brutes.
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  • As the brains of the vertebrate animals form an ascending scale, more and more approaching man's in their arrangement, the fact here finds its explanation, that lower animals perform mental processes corresponding in their nature to our own, though of generally less power and complexity.
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  • The full evidence of this correspondence will be found in such works as Brehm's Thierleben; and some of the salient points are set forth by Charles Darwin, in the chapter on " Mental Powers," in his Descent of Man.
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  • In order to write one must have something to write about, and having something to write about requires some mental preparation.
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  • "I know your outlook," said the Mason, "and the view of life you mention, and which you think is the result of your own mental efforts, is the one held by the majority of people, and is the invariable fruit of pride, indolence, and ignorance.
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  • Pierre repeated, and a mental image of his future activity in this direction rose in his mind.
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  • Indeed, there is a further implication, when the term intuition is borrowed for mental vision; you see at a glance that things must be so.
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  • It is a mental " impotence " that makes us believe in such a law as Cause and Effect.
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  • It is also described as a bifurcation of two twigs, mental and bodily creation out of a common root.
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  • The elementary parts of existence are the minima, or monads, which are at once material and mental.
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  • Descartes's account of the mind and its passions is thoroughly materialistic, and to this extent he works in the direction of a materialistic explanation of the origin of mental life.
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  • First of all, his genetic method as applied to the mind's ideas - which laid the foundations of English analytical psychology - was a step in the direction of a conception of mental life as a gradual evolution.
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  • Man's mental faculties are viewed as related to his organization, and as developed under the pressure of the necessities of life.3 Kant.
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  • In the first place, his peculiar system of subjective idealism, involving the idea that time is but a mental form to which there corresponds nothing in the sphere of noiimenal reality, serves to give a peculiar philosophical interpretation to every doctrine of cosmic evolution.
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  • Otto's mental gifts were considerable, and were so carefully cultivated by Bernward, afterwards bishop of Hildesheim, and by Gerbert of Aurillac, archbishop of Reims, that he was called "the wonder of the world."
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  • Soon after his time, however, this conception was clearly established, and with so large a generalization the mental horizon was widened to conceive of a geography which was a science.
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  • In this way also the position of geography, at the point where physical science meets and mingles with mental science, is explained and justified.
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  • The mental process by which this idea is obtained is called abstraction.
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  • Strictly, however, it is contrasted with "perception," and implies the mental reconstruction and combination of sensegiven data.
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  • It should be noticed that this (very common) psychological interpretation of "conception" differs from the metaphysical or general philosophical definition given above, in so far as it includes mental presentations in which the universal is not specifically distinguished from the particulars.
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  • Some psychologists prefer to restrict the term to the narrower use which excludes all mental states in which particulars are cognized, even though the universal be present also.
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  • Their mental and social standard is high among Pacific peoples; they are simple, honourable, generous and hospitable, but brave fighters.
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  • From the sense of having full vigour, living or lively qualities or movements, the word, got its chief current meaning of possessing rapidity or speed of movement, mental or physical.
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  • His examination for mathematical honours exhibited some of the peculiarities of his character and mental powers.
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  • He died on the 13th of November 1640 at the age of about 103, preserving his bodily and mental faculties to the end.
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  • He died of consumption and of mental strain on the 2nd of December 1892, his fortune at that time being estimated at $72,000,000; all of this he left to his own family.
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  • As far as any common mental characteristic can be assigned it is also somewhat negative, namely, that Asiatics have not the same sentiment of independence and freedom as Europeans.
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  • But the mental constitution of Asiatics is less easily modified than their institutions, and even Japan has assimilated European methods rather than European ideas.
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  • The familiar charge, repeated in Shakespeare, of having written Ego et meus rex, while true in fact, is false in intention, because no Latin scholar could put the words in any other order; but it reflects faithfully enough Wolsey's mental attitude.
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  • In mental power they are much superior to the indigenous races around them.
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  • While thus engaged no topic is too large for his mental grasp, none too small for his notice; and, what is still rarer, every topic is seen in its due relation to the rest.
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  • Philip certainly possessed more energy, both mental and physical, than his father.
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  • About this work he said little in the Autobiography, probably because his main concern there was to expound the influences that effected his moral and mental development.
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  • She was a confirmed invalid, and lived in the country, where Mill visited her regularly for twenty years, with the full consent of her husband, a man of limited mental powers, but of high character and unselfishness.
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  • Armenia returned to allegiance, the capital of Media was recolonized as Epiphanea, and Antiochus was pursuing his plans in the east when he died at Tabae in Persis, after exhibiting some sort of mental derangement (winter 164/3).
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  • Ricardo's works, in fact, do not explain a theoretical system, but contain the matured reflections, more or less closely reasoned, of a man of great mental power looking out on the world as it appeared to a business man experienced in affairs.
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  • The plea of the last named on behalf of Corsica served to enlist the sympathy of Napoleon in his wider speculations, and so helped to bring about that mental transformation which merged Buonaparte the Corsican in Bonaparte the Jacobin and Napoleon the First Consul and Emperor.
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  • The Spartans were happy, said the writer, because they had plenty of good, suitable clothing and lodging, robust women, and were able to meet their requirements both physical and mental.
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  • He himself lost his nerve, stammered, nearly fainted, and was dragged out by the soldiers in a state of mental and physical collapse.
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  • In our survey of the career of Napoleon, we have now reached the time of the Consulate (November 1799 - May 1804), which marks the zenith of his mental powers and creative activity.
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  • He ultimately sank into a condition of mental stupor, and became the obedient slave of the upstart Struensee (q.v.).
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  • " Life may be something not only ultra-terrestrial, but even immaterial, something outside our present categories of matter and energy; as real as they are, but different, and utilizing them for its own purpose " (Life and Matter, p. 198), The theory of psychophysical parallelism recognizes that while there is a correspondence between mental and material phenomena, changes in the mind and changes in the brain, the former cannot be explained by the latter, as the transition from the one to the other is unthinkable.
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  • There, as throughout life, the simplicity of his personal appearance and the oddity of his manners attracted notice, but still more, his great industry and mental power.
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  • The clear, bracing air, according to ancient writers, fostered the intellectual and aesthetic character of the people and endowed them with mental and physical energy.
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  • Their importance will never be comparable to that of his music; but, just as the reaction against Ruskin's ascendancy as an art-critic has coincided with an increased respect for his ethical and sociological thought, so the rebellious forces that are compelling Wagnerism to grant music a constitution coincide with a growing admiration of his general mental powers.
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  • He was a type of the French revolutionists, excitable, warm-hearted, half-educated, who lost their mental and moral balance in the chaos of the revolutionary period.
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  • They would never have died out, however, had not circumstances altered, and a new mental attitude been taken up. The spirit of philosophical and theological speculation and of ethical reflection, which began to spread through the churches, did not know what to make of the old hopes of the future.
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  • The case of James Nayler (1617?-1660), who, in spite of Fox's grave warning, allowed Messianic homage to be paid to him, is the best known of these instances; they are to be explained partly by mental disturbance, resulting from the undue prominence of a single idea, and partly by the general religious excitement of the time and the rudeness of manners prevailing in the classes of society from which many of these individuals came.
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  • He still retained a small quantum of intuitive beliefs, and did not appear to see that the very existence of these could not be explained by his theory of mental action.
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  • Moreover, it was one thing to issue orders, but quite another to ensure that they were obeyed, for they entailed a complete transformation in the mental attitude of the French soldier towards all that he had been taught to consider his duties in the field.
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  • Admitting Kant's hypothesis that by inner sense we are conscious of mental states only, he holds that this consciousness constitutes a knowledge of the "thing-in-itself" - which Kant denies.
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  • As all intellectual phenomena have by experimentalists been reduced to sensation, so all emotion has been and is regarded as reducible to simple mental affection, the element of which all emotional manifestations are ultimately composed.
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  • Here his strength rapidly ebbed away, but his mental faculties remained brilliant to the last.
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  • The latter prince was dethroned, and, being in a state of mental derangement, was during his lifetime confined by Fateh Mahommed, a native of Sind, who continued, with a short interval (in which the party of the legal heir, Bhaiji Bawa, gained the ascendancy), to rule the country until his death in 1813.
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  • The natives, who are Micronesian hybrids of finer physique than their kinsmen of the Pelew Islands, have a comparatively high mental standard, being careful agriculturists, and peculiarly clever boatbuilders and navigators.
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  • The Michigan school for the deaf, established in 1854, and the Oak Grove hospital (private) for the treatment of mental and nervous diseases, are here.
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  • It is no more than a " mental concept signifying univocally several singulars."
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  • It is a natural sign representing these singulars, but it has no reality beyond that of the mental act by which it is produced and that of the singulars of which it is predicated.
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  • There are grave objections to an arbitrary rule of this kind, the chief being the useless waste of mental energy in remembering it.
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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
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  • No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
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  • A more instructive subdivision must be one which corresponds to the separate currents of thought and mental preoccupation which have been historically manifested in western Europe in the gradual evolution of what is to-day the great river of zoological doctrine to which they have all been rendered contributory.
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  • Man, The compared with other animals, has the fewest inherited mental mechanisms or instincts and at the same time of the the largest cerebrum in proportion to the size of his Past.
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  • Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.
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  • In mental diseases little of first-rate importance has been done.
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  • Sufferers from mental disease are still regarded too much as troublesome persons to be hidden away in humane keeping, rather than as cases of manifold and obscure disease, to be studied and treated by the undivided attention of physicians of the highest skill.
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  • The general scope of the polytechnics is to give instruction both in general knowledge and special crafts or trades by means of classes, lectures and laboratories, instructive entertainments and exhibitions, and facilities for bodily and mental exercise (gymnasia, libraries, &c.).
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  • In 1759 Ferguson was appointed professor of natural philosophy in the university of Edinburgh, and in 1764 was transferred to the chair of "pneumatics" (mental philosophy) "and moral philosophy."
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  • He was much influenced by Lotze, whose Outlines of Philosophy he translated (6 vols., 1877), and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of experi mental psychology into America, the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him.
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  • The knowledge of the presence of the parasite adversely affects nervous people and may lead to mental depression and hypochondria.
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  • Accustomed from her infancy to the monastic seclusion of the terem, or women's quarter, Eudoxia's mental horizon did not extend much beyond her embroidery-frame or her illuminated service-book.
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  • But from the fact that the bulk of the Tunisian population belongs to the Iberian section of the Berbers, and to this being no doubt the fundamental stock of most Italian peoples, the intermixture of the Italianized Berber with his African brother has not much affected the physique of the people, though it may have slightly tinged their mental characteristics.
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  • This blow probably decided his career; but he endured two years of misery and mental conflict before resolving to abandon his medical studies and become a monk.
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  • This mental attitude, combined with a certain lack of initiative and the weakness of his health, probably prevented him from doing full justice to his splendid powers of experimental research.
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  • Fortunately he was rescued, and the shock did not stay his return to mental soundness.
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  • His place in German literature has already been indicated in tracing his mental development.
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  • Its main argument is that speech is a necessary outcome of that special arrangement of mental forces which distinguishes man, and more particularly from his habits of reflection.
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  • The writer does not make that use of the fact of man's superior organic endowments which one might expect from his general conception of the relation of the physical and the mental in human development.
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  • With respect to his attacks on the critical philosophy in the Metakritik (1799), it is easy to understand how his concrete mind, ever alive to the unity of things, instinctively rebelled against that analytic separation of the mental processes which Kant attempted.
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  • The three years 1847, 1848, 1849 were for Gladstone a period of mental growth, of transition, of development.
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  • The theory of emanation, which had its source in certain moral and religious ideas, aims first of all at explaining the origin of mental or spiritual existence as an effluence from the divine and absolute spirit.
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  • In certain theories known as doctrines of emanation, only mental existence is referred to the absolute source, while matter is viewed as eternal and distinct from the divine nature.
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  • The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
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  • In 1840 he was appointed professor of mental and moral philosophy and political economy in Manchester New College, the seminary in which he had himself been educated, and which had now removed from York to the city after which it was named.
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  • Martineau's mental qualities fitted him to fulfil these high interpretative functions.
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  • And he admits (§ 63) that if we were compelled to choose between translating mental phenomena into physical and its converse, the latter would be preferable, seeing that the ideas of matter and motion, merely symbolic of unknowable realities, are complex states of consciousness built out of units of feeling.
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  • The character of Defoe, both mental and moral, is very clearly indicated in his works.
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  • Constitutional symptoms appear as a rule in less than fifteen minutes: prostration, staggering, cold sweats, vomiting, feeble and quick pulse, dilatation of the pupil, and slight mental disturbance.
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  • Without a mental groove; the ends of the pterygoids are free, not reaching the quadrate.
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  • He was a man of singularly handsome presence, not without mental qualities of a high order; he was devoted to the arts - Beethoven and Mozart enjoyed his patronage and his private orchestra had a European reputation.
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  • A further deed poll providing for the removal of a General in the contingency of "mental incapacity" or other "unfitness," and for the election of a successor, was executed by Booth in July 1904.
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  • They had a mental deficiency of which they were unconscious, and, naturally enough, supposed that those who affirmed they were possessed of it were romancing."
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  • If every other contemporary record of the crusades perished, we should still be able by aid of this to understand and realize what the mental attitude of crusaders, of Teutonic knights, and the rest was, and without this we should lack the earliest, the most undoubtedly genuine, and the most characteristic of all such records.
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  • The personal contact between Luther and Zwingli led to no mental rapprochement between the two; but in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.
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  • From the point of view implied by such words as these, it is only necessary to recall the mental attitude of our grandfathers to appreciate in some measure the revolution in thought that has been wrought in this field within the last half-century, largely through the instrumentality of Oriental archaeology.
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  • At the end of his school career he entered the university of Edinburgh at the age of fourteen, and four years later graduated with first-class honours in mental philosophy, with prizes in every department of the faculty of Arts.
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  • Lastly, when we once have freed ourselves from the antipathy engendered by his severance of ethics from the field of politics, when we have once made proper allowance for his peculiar use of phrases like frodi onorevoli or scelleratezze gloriose, nothing is left but admiration for his mental attitude.
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  • He does not seem to have been a man of great mental capacity."
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  • At a very early age the boy showed remarkable mental vigour and moral independence.
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  • If matter is extended and fills space, the same mental operation by which we recognize the divisibility of space may be applied, in imagination at least, to the matter which occupies space.
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  • Aristotle himself used "dialectic," as opposed to "science," for that department of mental activity which examines the presuppositions lying at the back of all the particular sciences.
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  • Debarred from election to the second National Assembly (known as the Legislative) by the self-denying ordinance passed by the "constituents," Talleyrand, at the close of 1791, sought to enter the sphere of diplomacy for which his mental qualities and his clerical training furnished him with an admirable equipment.
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  • He combined the principle of pure living with that of free thinking, and held that instruction must have regard to the mental capacity of the hearer.
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  • His college career was distinguished, especially in mental philosophy, mathematics and physics.
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  • Accordingly in 1868, he published his Manual of Mental and Moral Science, mainly a condensed form of his treatises, with the doctrines re-stated, and in many instances freshly illustrated, and with many important additions.
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  • At one with Johannes Muller in the conviction psychologus nemo nisi physiologus, he was the first in Great Britain during the 19th century to apply physiology in a thoroughgoing fashion to the elucidation of mental states.
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  • He accepted the rectory of Elton in Huntingdonshire, but soon after went again to the continent, in order to study the methods of the Roman Catholic Church; and after a prolonged mental struggle he joined the Roman Catholic communion in November 1845.
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  • One of the oldest of this large family of predictive systems is that of palmistry, whereby the various irregularities and flexion-folds of the skin of the hand are interpreted as being associated with mental or moral dispositions and powers, as well as with the current of future events in the life of the individual.
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  • The commission appoints a board of experts to examine all immigrants suspected of insanity or allied mental disorders in order to prevent the admission of the insane into the country.
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  • The compulsory education law as amended in 1907 and 1909 requires the full attendance at a public school, or at a school which is an approximate equivalent, of all children who are between seven and fourteen years of age, are in the proper physical and mental condition, and reside in a city or school district having a population of 5000 or more and employing a superintendent of schools; in such a city or district children between fourteen and sixteen years must attend school unless they obtain an employment certificate and are regularly engaged in some useful employment or service; and outside of such a city or district all children between the ages of eight and fourteen years and those between fourteen and sixteen years who are not regularly employed must attend school on all school days from October to June.
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  • All children between eight and fifteen years of age, and all between fifteen and sixteen years of age who are not regularly employed in some useful or remunerative occupation, must attend the public school all the time it is in session or a private school for the same time unless excused by the city or the county superintendent because of mental or physical disability or because of proficiency in the branches taught in the first eight grades.
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  • If, however, the pipe is blown strongly, the funda mental dies away, and the first overtone is predominant.
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  • He had been the target of constant attack during his life, and his personal foibles, careless dress and mental eccentricities were the theme of endless ridicule.
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  • Personally of great physical and mental vigour, his work was done at high pressure and he had the faculty of inspiring his colleagues or his subordinates with his own enthusiasm for doing things.
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  • His sole object, the author says, is to leave for his friends and relations a mental portrait of himself, defects and all; he cares neither for utility nor for fame.
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  • Waitz is often spoken of as the chief disciple of Ranke, though perhaps in general characteristics and mental attitude he has more affinity with Pertz or Dahlmann.
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  • Julie, ou La Nouvelle Heloise, is a novel written in letters describing the loves of a man of low position and a girl of rank, her subsequent marriage to a respectable freethinker of her own station, the mental agonies of her lover, and the partial appeasing of the distresses of the lovers by the influence of noble sentiment and the good offices of a philanthropic Englishman.
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  • The Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland holds examinations and grants certificates in mental nursing; candidates must undergo three years' regular training, with instruction by lectures, &c., which may be obtained in a large number of public asylums by arrangement with the Association; one county asylum (Northampton) gives its own certificates after a three years' course.
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  • His life was also happy, for he had pleasure in his work, he loved and was loved by his wife and children; he had a strong constitution, and retained his bodily and mental powers to the last; his faith in the religion of his youth was unshaken to the end; and he lived throughout his long life with the consciousness of rectitude.
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  • The appalling austerities, however, to which she was allowed to subject herself quickly affected her mental and bodily health.
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  • His day was thus one of incessant mental activity; but hard work was so far from breeding a distaste for his occupation, that reading and writing grew ever more delightful to him (literarum assiduitas non modo mihi fastidium non pant, sed voluptatem; crescit scribendo scribendi studium).
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  • From the beginning to the end of his career he remained true to the purpose of his life, which was to fight the battle of sound learning and plain common sense against the powers of ignorance and superstition, and amid all the convulsions of that period he never once lost his mental balance."
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  • He thus, to a certain extent, agrees with the Scottish school, but he differs from them in rejecting altogether the doctrine of mental faculties.
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  • (2) His doctrine of perception, which is, in brief, that "the perception of external things through the organs of sense is a direct mental act or phenomenon of consciousness not susceptible of being resolved into anything else," and the reality of which can be neither proved nor disproved, is not worked out in detail, but is supported by elaborate and sometimes subtle criticisms of all other theories.
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  • (4) In the theory of morals, Bailey is an advocate of utilitarianism (though he objects to the term "utility" as being narrow and, to the unthinking, of sordid content), and works out with great skill the steps in the formation of the "complex" mental facts involved in the recognition of duty, obligation, right.
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  • Mental imperturbability (arapaEia) was the result to be attained by cultivating such a frame of mind.
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  • Even Hume, in various passages of his Treatise, speaks of himself as recovering cheerfulness and mental tone only by forgetfulness of his own arguments.
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  • It is not a real relation in objects, but rather a mental habit of belief engendered by frequent repetititon or custom.
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  • Nothing was more alien to his mental temperament than the spinning of hypotheses.
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  • Young Dbllinger was first educated in the gymnasium at Wiirzburg, and then began to study natural philosophy at the university in that city, where his father now held a professorship. In 1817 he began the study of mental philosophy and philology, and in 1818 turned to the study of theology, which he believed to lie beneath every other science.
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  • On the other hand attempts have been made to separate hedonism, as the search for a continuous series of physical pleasures, from eudaemonism, a condition of enduring mental satisfaction.
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  • Such a distinction involves the assumptions that bodily pleasures are generically different from mental ones, and that there is in practice a clearly marked dividing line, - both of which hypotheses are frequently denied.
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  • The fundametal difficulty which confronts those who would distinguish between pleasure and eudaemonia is that all pleasure is ultimately a mental phenomenon, whether it be roused by food, music, doing a moral action or committing a theft.
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  • The purpose of the work is to exhibit social phenomena, not to demonstrate their source in the mental constitution of the individual.
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  • In his lectures he excluded mental philosophy and included the whole sphere of moral obligation, dealing with man's duty to God and to his fellow-men in the light of Christian teaching.
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  • The promise of a constitution, which in the excitement of the War of Liberation he had made to his people, remained unfulfilled partly owing to this mental attitude, partly, however, to the all but insuperable difficulties in the way of its execution.
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  • All children between the ages of eight and fourteen and those between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who cannot read and write English are required to attend either a public or an approved private school for the full term unless excused by the school board on account of physical or mental infirmity.
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  • A vacancy among the fellows is filled up by the provost and a select number of the fellows, after examination comprised in five principal courses, mathematics, experimental science, classics, mental and moral science and Hebrew.
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  • The savage attributes to animals the same ideas, the same mental processes as himself, and at the same time vastly greater power and cunning.
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  • Bodily infirmity, combined with mental aptitude, were eventually considered to indicate a theological vocation; he was, in 1584, placed at the seminary of Adelberg, and thence removed, two years later, to that of Maulbronn.
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  • Thus certain physical changes in the brain result in a given action; the concomitant mental desire or volition is in no sense causally connected with, or prior to, the physical change.
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  • Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical parallelism, or the "double aspect theory" according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called "mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.
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  • How otherwise, we wonder, could one man writing alone and with so few predecessors compose the first systematic treatises on the psychology of the mental powers and on the logic of reasoning, the first natural history of animals, and the first civil history of one hundred and fifty-eight constitutions, in addition to authoritative treatises on metaphysics, biology, ethics, politics, rhetoric and poetry; in all penetrating to the very essence of the subject, and, what is most wonderful, describing more facts than any other man has ever done on so many subjects ?
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  • The Aristotelian answer is - " Yes, all things are substances, but not all supernatural, nor all mental; for some are natural substances, or bodies "; and by that answer Aristotelianism stands or falls.
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  • He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, and, after a period of mental struggle which he has described in Souvenirs de ma jeunesse, he was ordained priest in 1832.
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  • The necessity and universality of the judgments of causality and substantiality are taken for granted; and there is no investigation of the place held by these notions in the mental constitution.
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  • In this theory there can strictly be no "causation"; one thing is observed to succeed another, but observations cannot assert that it is "caused" by that thing; it is post hoc, but not propter hoc. The idea of necessary connexion is a purely mental idea, an a priori conception, in which observation of empirical data takes no part; empiricism in ethics likewise does away with the idea of the absolute authority of the moral law as conceived by the intuitionalists.
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  • The fundamental objection to empiricism is that it fails to give an accurate explanation of experience; individual impressions as such are momentary, and their connexion into a body of coherent knowledge presupposes mental action distinct from mere receptivity.
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  • In Germany, moreover, the military service is designed not only to make the recruit a good soldier, but also to give him a healthy physical, moral and mental training.
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  • Metaphysical idealism is the view that everything known is mind, or some mental state or other, which some idealists suppose to require a substantial soul, others not; while all agree that body has no different being apart from mind.
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  • But, under the influence of Trendelenburg's attempt to reconcile thought and being by assigning motion to both, his Wirklichkeitsphilosophie, in a similar effort after a unity of being, lands him in the contention that matter is absolute being, the support of all reality underlying all bodily and mental states.
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  • He holds that we pass without break from the phenomena of bodily life to the phenomena of mental life, that consciousness arises in the course of the living being's adaptation to its environment, and that there is a continuous evolution from reflex action through instinct and memory up to reason.
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  • He throws out the brilliant suggestion that the experience of the race is in a sense inherited by the individual; which is true in the sense that animal organisms become hereditarily better adapted to perform mental operations, though no proof that any elements of knowledge become a priori.
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  • Now, Spencer has clearly, though unconsciously, changed the meaning of the term " phenomenon " from subjective affection of consciousness to any fact of nature, in regarding all this evolution, cosmic, organic, mental, social and ethical, as an evolution of phenomena.
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  • He also admits himself that mental evolution exemplifies integration of matter and dissipation of motion only indirectly.
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  • The close dependency of all mental operations on brain also tempts them to the conclusion that brain is not only an organ, but the whole organ of conscious mind.'
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  • Up to this point, then, Leibnitz opened one of the chief avenues to metaphysical idealism, the resolution of the material into the immaterial, the analysis of bodies into mental elements.
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  • According to this alternative, then, there is nothing but mental monads and mental phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical idealist.
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  • Known nature is a mental construction in part, according to Kant.
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  • Kant first deduced that from the experience of mental phenomena all logical use of reason is limited to mental phenomena, and then maintained that to explain moral responsibility practical reason postulates the existence of real noumena.
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  • But as soon as the thing in itself is converted into something mental, metaphysical idealists must either say that there are as many suns as minds, or that there is one mind and therefore one sun.
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  • The Spinozistic parallelism of extension and thought, and the Leibnitzian parallelism of bodily motion and mental action, incited Schelling and Fechner.
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  • He carried metaphysical idealism to its height, by not only resolving the bodily into the mental, but also elevating the action of mind into absolute mental construction; not inferring things in themselves beyond, but originating things from within, mind itself.
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  • - Noumenal Idealism In Germany Noumenal idealism is the metaphysics of those who suppose that all known things are indeed mental, but not all are phenomenal in the Kantian sense, because a noumenon is knowable so long as by a noumenon we mean some mental being or other which we somehow can discover beyond phenomena.
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  • The noumenal idealists of Germany assumed, like all psychological idealists, the unproved hypothesis that there is no sense of body, but there is a sense of sensations; and they usually accepted Kant's point, that to get from such sensations to knowledge there is a synthesis contributing mental elements beyond the mental data of sense.
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  • They saw also the logic of Kant's deduction, that all we can know from such mental data and mental categories must also be mental.
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  • But they disagreed with Kant, and agreed with Fichte about things in themselves or noumena, and contended that the mental things we know are not mere phenomena of sense, but noumena, precisely because noumena are as mental as phenomena, and therefore can be known from similar data: this was the central point of their noumenal idealism.
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  • Their real founder was Fichte, on account of his definite reduction of the noumenal to a mental world.
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  • This was indeed the very point - the knowability of a noumenal mental world.
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  • Starting from Fichte's " Wissenschaftslehre," Schelling accepted the whole process of mental construction, and the deduction that noumena are knowable products of universal reason, the Absolute Ego.
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  • If things different but similar have the same attributes, and are thereby the same, then in the first place the Kantian categories, though thoughts of mental origin and therefore confined to mind, are nevertheless applicable to things, because things, though different from, are the same as, thoughts, and have the categories of thoughts; in the second place, the Fichtian Ego of mankind is not the Absolute Reason of God, and yet is the same Absolute Reason; in the third place, the Schellingian Nature is the "other " of Spirit, and yet, being a mere reflex of the Idea of Nature, is identical with Spirit; and as this Spirit is everywhere the same in God and men, Nature is also identical with our Spirit, or rather with the Infinite Spirit, or Absolute Reason, which alone exists.
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  • He got the hint of a noumenal will from Kant; but in regarding the noumenal as knowable, because mental, as well as in the emphasis he laid on the activity of will, he resembled Fichte.
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  • Following, however, in the footsteps of Schelling, he idealizes the one extended and thinking substance into one mental being; but he thinks that its essence consists in unconscious intelligence and will, of which all individual intelligent wills are only activities.
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  • As with his master, his reasons for this view are derived, not from a direct proof that unconscious Nature has the mental attributes supposed, but from human psychology and epistemology.
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  • Agreeing, then, with Kant that primary qualities are as mental as secondary, he agreed also with Kant that all the Nature we know as a system of bodies moving in time and space is sensible phenomena.
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  • He rightly argued against the old theory that the continuity of nervous processes in the brain is interrupted by mental processes of thought and will: there is a nervous process for every mental process.
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  • He admits, indeed, Kant's hypothesis that by inner sense we are conscious only of mental states, but he contends that this very consciousness is a knowledge of a thing in itself.
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  • He agrees with Fechner and Wundt that there is no substantial soul, and that soul is nothing but the mental states, or rather their unity--thus identifying it with Kant's synthetic unity.
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  • On this assumption he deduces that in being conscious of our mental states we are conscious of soul not merely as it appears, but as it is in itself, and therefore can infer similar souls, other psychical unities, which are also things in themselves.
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  • Here he appeals to Schopenhauer's doctrine that will of some sort is the fundamental fact of mental life.
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  • All these systems of metaphysics, differ as they may, agree that things are known to exist beyond sensible phenomena, but yet are mental realities of some kind.
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  • Phenomenal Idealism In Germany Phenomenal idealism is the metaphysics which deduces that, as we begin by perceiving nothing but mental phenomena of sense, so all we know at last from these data is also phenomena of sense, actual or possible.
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  • Now, Kant and his followers start from this second and narrower meaning, and usually narrow it still more by assuming that what appears to the senses is as mental as the sensation, being undistinguishable from it or from the idea of it, and that an appearance is a mental idea(Vorstellung) of sense; and then they conclude that we can know by inference nothing but such mental appearances, actual and possible, and therefore nothing beyond sensory experience.
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  • A priori forms, according to Kant, are contributions of the mental powers of sense, understanding, and reason; but, according to Lange, they are rooted in " the physico-psychical organization."
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  • Hence he deduced that whatever we know from sensations arranged in such a priori forms are objects of our own experience and mental phenomena.
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  • Yes, rejoins Lange, but Kant has proved that material are merely mental phenomena; so that the more the materialist proves his case the more surely he is playing into the hands of the idealist - an answer which would be complete if it did not turn on the equivocation of the word " phenomenon," which in science means any positive fact, and not a mere appearance, much less a mental appearance, to sense and sensory experience.
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  • Having, however, made a deduction, which is at all events consistent, that on Kantian assumptions all we know is mental phenomena, Lange proceeded to reduce the rest of Kantism to consistency.
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  • But his ardent love of consistency led him far away from Kant in the end; for he proceeded consistently from the assumption, that whatever we think beyond mental phenomena is ideal, to the logical conclusion that in practical matters our moral responsibility cannot prove the reality of a noumenal freedom, because, as on Kant's assumption we know ourselves from inner sense only as phenomena, we can prove only our phenomenal freedom.
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  • Lange thus transmuted inconsistent Kantism into a consistent Neo-Kantism, consisting of these reformed positions: (1) we start with sensations in a priori forms; (2) all things known from these data are mental phenomena of experience; (3) everything beyond is idea, without any corresponding reality being knowable.
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  • Its essence, as stated by Kant, was to reduce the logical use of reason to mental phenomena of experience in speculation, in order to extend the practical use of reason to the real noumena, or things in themselves, required for morality.
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  • Its consistency, as deduced by Lange, was to reduce all use of reason, speculative and practical, to its logical use of proceeding from the assumed mental data of outer and inner sense, arranged a priori, to mental phenomena of experience, beyond which we can conceive ideas but postulate nothing.
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  • Riehl elaborates this bare suggestion into the metaphysical theory that the single basis of physical and psychical phenomena is neither bodily nor mental, nor yet space and motion.
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  • For what does it matter to metaphysics whether by association sensations suggest ideas, and so give rise to ideas of substance and causation a posteriori, or synthetic unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori notions of substance and causation into objects which are merely mental phenomena of experience, when it is at once allowed by the followers of Hume and Kant alike that reason in any logical use has no power of inferring things beyond the experience of the reasoner?
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  • Inference, according to him, is merely mental completion of sensations; and this mental completion has two characteristics: it only forms ideas, and it proceeds by an " economy of thought."
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  • According to him, whatever inferences we make, certain or uncertain, are mere economies of thought, adapting ideas to sensations, and filling out the gaps of experience by ideas; whatever we infer, whether bodies, or molecules, or atoms, or space of more than three dimensions, are all without distinction equally provisional conceptions, things of thought; and " bodies or things are compendious mental symbols for groups of sensations - symbols which do not exist outside thought."
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  • Again he agrees with the reaction both to Hume and to Kant in limiting knowledge to mental phenomena, and has affinities with Mach as well as with Lange.
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  • His philosophy is the best exposition of the method and argument of modern idealism - that we perceive the mental and, therefore, all we know and conceive is the mental.
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  • His metaphysical deduction from this psychological view is that all we know is mental phenomena, " the whole outer world exists for us only in our ideas," and all that our reason can logically do beyond these phenomena is to frame transcendent " ideals."
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  • He does not mean that will is the only mental operation; for he recognizes idea derived from sensation, and feeling, as well as will.
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  • It is not necessary for him to follow Schopenhauer, Hartmann and Fechner in endowing the material universe with will or any other mental operation, because his phenomenalism already reduces inorganic nature to mere objects of experiencing subjects.
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  • According to him, that which acts in all organisms, that which acts in all thinking, that which divides unitary experience into subject and object, the source of self-consciousness, the unity of our mental life, " the most proper being of the individual subject is will."
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  • Taking substance entirely in the sense of substrate, he argues that there is no evidence of a substantial substrate beneath mental operations; that there is nothing except unitary experience consisting of ideas, feelings, volitions, and their unity of will; and that soul in short is not substantia, but actus.
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  • If, then, these mental operations were merely actuality, they would be actuality of a man's bodily substance.
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  • Wundt is confined by his starting-point to his deduction that what we know is mental phenomena, ideas regarded as objects and subjects of experience.
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  • Secondly, when Wundt comes to the psychical, he naturally infers from his narrow Kantian definition of substance that there is no proof of a substrate over and above all mental operations, and falsely thinks that he has proved that there is no substance mentally operating in the Aristotelian sense.
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  • But as with Kant, so with Wundt, this world will be only the richer, not the wider, for these notions of understanding; because they are only contributed to the original experience, and, being mentally contributed, only the more surely confine knowledge to experience of mental phenomena.
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  • - Realism is the view that some known things are bodily, and some are mental.
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  • Fechner, Wundt and Paulsen have fixed the conclusion in psychology that soul is not substance but unity of mental life; and Wundt concludes from the modern history of the term that substance or " substrate " is only a secondary conception to that of causality, and that, while there is a physical causality distinct from that of substance, psychical causality requires no substance at all.
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  • The result of this confusion is that the moderns have no name at all for a distinct thing, and, being mere slaves of abstract terms, constantly speak of mere attributes, such as activity, life, will, actuality, unity of mental operations, as if they were distinct things.
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  • This is the method which, as we have seen, has led from psychological to metaphysical idealism, by the argument that what we begin by perceiving is mental, and, therefore, what we end by knowing is mental.
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  • He must ask what are known things, and especially what has been discovered in the sciences; in mechanics, in order to find the essence of bodies which is neglected by idealism; in mental science, in order to understand consciousness which is neglected by materialism.
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  • The three evidences, which are fatal to intuitive realism, do not prove hypothetical realism, or the hypothesis that we perceive something mental, but infer something bodily.
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  • On this quite new assumption of a sense of sensations he deduces that, from a perception of these mental facts, we could not infer material facts, e.g.
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  • He thirdly assumes an appendix to the second assumption: he assumes that sense perceives mental sensations with succession but without causality, because no kind of cause is open to observation.
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  • The situation was altered by the mental derangement of the king, and the birth of his son in 1453.
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  • Notices of Price's ethical system occur in Mackintosh's Progress of Ethical Philosophy, Jouffroy's Introduction to Ethics, Whewell's History of Moral Philosophy in England; Bain's Mental and Moral Sciences.
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  • The process, maybe, from the point of view of those outside, was to make a mental wilderness and call it peace; but from the papal point of view it had a double advantage: it attracted those in search of religious certainty, it facilitated the maintenance of its hold over the Catholic democracy.
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  • When at length he found his memory failing and his mental powers declining, he gave up, without ostentation or complaint, whatever parts of his work he could no longer carry on according to his own standard of efficiency.
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  • His opinion with respect to the relation between his science and his religion is expressed in a lecture on mental education delivered in 1854, and printed at the end of his Researches in Chemistry and Physics.
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  • I believe that the truth of that future cannot be brought to his knowledge by any exertion of his mental powers, however exalted they may be; that it is made known to him by other teaching than his own, and is received through simple belief of the testimony given.
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  • I shall be reproached with the weakness of refusing to apply those mental operations which I think good in respect of high things to the very highest.
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  • He had many struggles to pass through in early life, which tended to discipline his character and to form the habits of severe study and the mental independence for which he came to be distinguished.
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  • The experi mental curve of solubility is shown in fig.
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  • If there is anything of interest in my story, it is as a story of mental development" (Memoirs, pp. 2).
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  • (6) If the mental disposition and proneness to action are inherited by children from their parents, it may be that the facility in, and disposition towards, certain forms of expression are in like manner matters of heredity.
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  • Pizzoli's Tavolo Psicoscopico for examining the mental qualities of the pupils is of interest.
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  • For the successful completion of this great road his strong will and mental grasp were largely responsible, and he it was who not only controlled but steadily extended its operations during the lean years which followed.
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  • Here he manifested those great gifts which ultimately raised him to high office; a powerful grasp of mental, moral and political problems, combined with eloquence of a high order, and illuminated with brilliant flashes of wit.
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  • Moreover, if we remain faithful to the fundamental conception that the contents of the mind are merely matters of experience, it is evident in the first place that as impressions are strictly individual, ideas also must be strictly particular, and in the second place that the faculties of combining, discriminating, abstracting and judging, which Locke had admitted, are merely expressions for particular modes of having mental experience, i.e.
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  • These external relations are, in fact, what Hume describes as the natural bonds of connexion among ideas, and, regarded subjectively as principles of association among the facts of mental experience, they form the substitute he offers for the synthesis implied in knowledge.
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  • " points " or several mental states, and the impressions themselves, which disguise the full significance of his conclusion, we find Hume reduced to the following as his theory of space and time.
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  • All impressions and all ideas are received, or form parts of a mental experience only when received, in a certain order, the order of succession.
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  • The ease and rapidity of the mental transition is the sole ground for the supposed necessity of the causal connexion between portions of experience.
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  • Besides the qualifications required of a presentee by canon law, such as being of the canonical age, and in priest's orders before admission, sufficient learning and proper orthodoxy or morals, the Benefices Act requires that a year shall have elapsed since a transfer of the right of patronage, unless it can be shown that such transfer was not made in view of a probable vacancy; that the presentee has been a deacon for three years; and that he is not unfit for the discharge of his duties by reason of physical or mental infirmity or incapacity, grave pecuniary embarrassment, grave misconduct or neglect of duty in an ecclesiastical office, evil life, or conduct causing grave scandal concerning his moral character since his ordination, or being party to an illegal agreement with regard to the presentation; that notice of the presentation has been given to the parish of the benefice.
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  • Even in his motives and his impulses, in his mental attitude towards outward surroundings, in his appetites and aversions, inherited tendency and environment have been found to play a very large part; indeed many thinkers hold that the whole of a man's development, mental as well.
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  • His mental qualities were - a quick analytic perception, strong logical powers, a tenacious memory, a liberal estimate and tolerance of the opinions of others, ready intuition of human nature; and perhaps his most valuable faculty was rare ability to divest himself of all feeling or passion in weighing motives of persons or problems of state.
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  • Book Trade.T his branch of industry, from the important position it has gradually acquired since the time of the Reformation, is to be regarded as at once a cause and a result of the mental culture of Germany.
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  • This peace was concluded not by Rudolph, but by his brother, the archduke Matthias, who owing to the emperors mental incapacity had just been declared by his kinsman the head of the house of Habsburg.
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  • Soon after this, the mental condition of the king made it necessary that his duties should be undertaken.
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  • Mill had a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Latin literature, general history, political, mental and moral philosophy.
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  • One may say that this is another mark of the Prophet's want of mental training, and incapacity for introspective criticism.
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  • To exhibit the importance of the sacred book for the whole mental life of the Moslems would be simply to write the history of that life itself; for there is no department in which its all-pervading, but unfortunately not always salutary, influence has not been felt.
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  • Nobody can now read his verses, but his prose writings have a certain calm simplicity and dignity, without, however, giving evidence of the splendid mental qualities which he revealed in practical life.
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  • 2 Pragmatism, as a general philosophic doctrine or mental attitude, can only be understood as part of a reaction against the intellectualistic speculation which has characterized most of modern metaphysics.
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  • The whole functioning of our mental apparatus is directed upon yielding the right response to the stimulations of the environment, and is valuable if and in so far as it does this.
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  • How the mental faculties are blunted by scholasticism and mere memory work must be seen to be believed; such an education is enough to spoil the best head.
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  • But though he attained a fair practice at the bar, and was recognized as a lawyer of unusual mental distinction and clarity, his forensic success was not nearly so conspicuous as that of some of his contemporaries.
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  • The previous treatment of the motion of a rigid body had in every case been purely analytical, and so gave no aid to the formation of a mental picture of the body's motion; and the great value of this work lies in the fact that, as Poinsot himself says in the introduction, it enables us to represent to ourselves the motion of a rigid body as clearly as that of a moving point.
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  • The strict psychological use of the term "image" is by analogy from the physiological for a purely mental idea which is taken as being observed by the eye of the mind.
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  • These images are created or produced not by an external stimulus, such as is necessary for a visual image (even the after-image is due to the continued excitement of the same organ), but by a mental act of reproduction.
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  • This is characteristic of all mental images.
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  • He believed that behind the natural world lay a spiritual world, irruptions from which had disturbed the natural sequence of causation, certainly in the production of the higher emotional and mental qualities of man, probably in the appearance of self-consciousness, and possibly in the first origin of life.
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  • In the higher classes there is a continually rising series of mental qualities also.
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  • The Four Intoxications are the mental intoxication arising respectively from (1) Bodily passions, (2) Becoming, (3) Delusion, (4) Ignorance.
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  • Thus in the story of the good layman Citta, it is an aspiration expressed on the deathbed; 2 in the dialogue on the subject, it is a thought dwelt on during life, 3 in the numerous stories in the Peta and Vimana V atthus it is usually some isolated act, in the discussions in the Dhamma Sangani it is some mental disposition, which is the Karma (doing or action) in the one life determining the position of the individual in the next.
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  • It is the grasping, the craving, still existing at the death of the one body that causes the new set of Skandhas, that is, the new body with its mental tendencies and capacities, to arise.
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  • The states of Rapture are called Conditions of Bliss, and they are regarded as useful for the help they give towards the removal of the mental obstacles to the attainment of Arahatship.6 Of the thirty-seven constituent parts of Arahatship they enter into one group of four.
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  • From that time to the present day the record of the Hungarian capital has been one of uninterrupted advance, not merely in externals, such as the removal of slums, the reconstruction of the town, the development of communications, industry and trade, and the erection of important public buildings, but also in the mental, moral and physical elevation of the inhabitants; besides another important gain from the point of view of the Hungarian statesman, namely, the progressive increase and improvement of status of the Magyar element of the population.
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  • The others were the State Psychopathic Institute at Kankakee (established in 1907 as part of the insane service) for systematic study of mental and nervous diseases; one at Lincoln having charge of feebleminded children; two institutions for the blind - a school at Jacksonville and an industrial home at Marshall Boulevard and 19th Street, Chicago; a home for soldiers and sailors (Quincy), one for soldiers' orphans (Normal), and one for soldiers' widows (Wilmington); a school for the deaf (Jacksonville), and an eye and ear infirmary (Chicago).
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  • Gaiseric was a cruel and cunning man, possessing great military talents and superior mental gifts.
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  • On what is perhaps the vital problem of modern education, the question of ancient versus modern languages, he pronounced that the latter "are indispensable accomplishments, but they do not form a high mental training" - an opinion entitled to peculiar respect as coming from a president of the Modern Language Association.
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  • The question of the mental fatigue produced by examinations has been studied by certain German observers, but has not yet been fully investigated.
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  • Lack of the power of brain concentration and severe inability to undergo the mental strain of arduous work are often the penalty which white races pay.
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  • At the school of Libanius the sophist he gave early indications of his mental powers, and would have been the successor of his heathen master, had he not been stolen away, to use the expression of his teacher, to a life of piety (like Augustine, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Theodoret) by the influence of his pious mother Anthusa.
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  • He compiled a systematic account of the fiscal system of the canton Bern, but the main factor in his mental growth came from his study of Christianity.
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  • Reason convinced that the world and the soul are alike rational observes the external world, mental phenomena, and specially the nervous organism, as the meeting ground of body and mind.
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  • At the basis of all reality, whether material or mental, there is thought.
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  • Nobody seems to have even suspected at the time that serious mental derangement lay at the root of Gustavus's abnormal piety.
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  • In Luther's time Erfurt was the intellectual centre of Germany and its students were exposed to a variety of influences which could not fail to stimulate young men of mental ability.
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  • Thus after two years of indescribable mental conflicts Luther found peace.
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  • They are addressed to a people whose mental processes and philosophy were primitive; and since teaching, in order to be communicable, must adapt itself to current beliefs of God, man and nature - and the inveterate conservatism of man must be born in mind - the trend of ideas must not be confused with the average standard of thought. ?
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  • The notion of a Yahweh scarcely less limited in power than man, the naïve views of supernatural beings and their nearness to man, and the persistence of features which stand relatively low in the scale of mental culture, only serve to enhance the reality of the spirit which inspired the endeavour to reform.
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  • Hort died on the 30th of November 1892, worn out by intense mental labour.
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  • Horrible mental depression and melancholia are present, and there may be hallucinations of vision and hearing passing into violent delirium.
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  • Pelagius himself desired to avoid controversy, and with mental reservations denied these statements of his friend; but he did not escape suspicion, and his condemnation in 418 was the signal for a literary polemic, which lasted ten years, and in which Julian of Eklanum was the most brilliant but reckless combatant on the side of Pelagius.
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  • Cloistered seclusion is an artificial condition quite at variance with human instincts and habits, and the treatment, long continued, has proved injurious to health, inducing mental breakdown.
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  • These three classes begin with cellular confinement, but for varying periods; the first for three months, the second six months and the third for nine months, in all cases subject to a medical report upon mental and physical condition.
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  • The expression indicates quick intelligence rather than force and mental calibre.
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  • It is that mental operation which proceeds by combining two premises so as to cause a consequent conclusion.
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  • In each of these kinds of inference there are three mental judgments capable of being expressed as above in three linguistic propositions; and the two first are the premises which are combined, while the third is the conclusion which is consequent on their combination.
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  • Some noOlogists suppose a mental power of forming necessary principles of deduction a priori; but fail to show how we can apply principles of mind to things beyond mind.
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  • In Greece he became more and more reflective and conscious of himself, of his body and soul, his manners and morals, his mental operations and especially his reason.
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  • On its mental side, as reason it meant combination of thoughts.
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  • One would expect, then, an analysis of mental reasoning into mental judgments as premises and conclusion.
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  • Others have devoted themselves to the mental analysis of reasoning, and have narrowed logic into a science of conception, judgment and reasoning.
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  • But we must first consider the mental analysis of inference, and this brings us to conceptual and formal logic.
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  • But the same passage relegates conceptions and their combinations to the De Anima, and confines the De Inter pretatione to names and propositions in conformity with the linguistic analysis which pervades the logical treatises of Aristotle, who neither brought his psychological distinction between conceptions and their combinations into his logic, nor advanced the combinations of conceptions as a definition of judgment (Kcp16cs), nor employed the mental distinction between conceptions and judgments as an analysis of inference, or reasoning, or syllogism: he was no conceptual logician.
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  • The history of logic shows that the linguistic distinction between terms and propositions was the sole analysis of reasoning in the logical treatises of Aristotle; that the mental distinction between conceptions (g vvocac) and judgments (a uiwara in a wide sense) was imported into logic by the Stoics; and that this mental distinction became the logical analysis of reasoning under the authority of St Thomas Aquinas.
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  • The great merit of conceptual logic was the demand for a mental analysis of mental reasoning, and the direct analysis of reasoning into judgments which are the sole premises and conclusions of reasoning and of all mental inferences.
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  • Aristotle had fallen into the paradox of resolving a mental act into verbal elements.
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  • It was natural enough that the originators of conceptual logic, seeing that judgments can be expressed by propositions, and conceptions by terms, should fall into the error of supposing that, as propositions consist of terms, so judgments consist of conceptions, and that there is a triple mental order - conception, judgment, reasoning - parallel to the triple linguistic order - term, proposition, discourse.
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  • Paradoxical as it may sound, the truth seems to be that primary judgment, beginning as it does with the simplest feeling and sensation, is not a combination of two mental elements into one, but is a division of one sensible thing into the thing itself and its existence and the belief that it is determined as existing, e.g.
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  • Such a judgment has a cause, namely sense, but no mental elements.
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  • But however complicated these mental causes, there still remain these points common to all judgment: - (i) The mental causes of judgment are sense, memory, experience and inference; while conception is a condition of some judgments.
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  • But why spoil the further mental analysis of inference by supposing that conceptions are constituents of judgment and therefore of inference, which thus becomes merely a complex combination of conceptions, an extension of ideas?
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  • Lastly, the science of inference is not indeed the science of sensation, memory and experience, but at the same time it is the science of using those mental operations as data of inference; and, if logic does not show how analogical and inductive inferences directly, and deductive inferences indirectly, arise from experience, it becomes a science of mere thinking without knowledge.
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  • Psychology is the science of mind in general, and therefore of the mental operations, of which inference is one.
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  • The real point is their interdependence, which is so intimate that one sign of great philosophy is a consistent metaphysics, psychology and logic. If the world of things is known to be partly material and partly mental, then the mind must have powers of sense and inference enabling it to know these things, and there must be processes of inference carrying us from and beyond the sensible to the insensible world of matter and mind.
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  • It is clear then that a man's metaphysics and psychology must colour his logic. It is accordingly necessary to the logician to know beforehand the general distinctions and principles of things in metaphysics, and the mental operations of sense, conception, memory and experience in psychology, so as to discover the processes of inference from experience about things in logic.
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  • Psychologists, seeing that inference is a mental operation, often extemporize a theory of inference to the neglect of logic. But we have a double consciousness of inference.
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  • To a certain extent this second consciousness applies to other operations: for example, we are conscious of the process of association by which various mental causes recall ideas in the imagination.
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  • The fact is that our primary consciousness of all mental operations is hardly equal to our secondary consciousness of the processes of the one operation of inference from premises to conclusions permeating long trains and pervading whole sciences.
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  • But it is not the whole method of logic, which also and rightly considers the mental process necessary to language, without substituting linguistic for mental distinctions.
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  • Thirdly, there is a determination to reveal the psychological basis of logical processes, and not merely to describe them as they are in adult reasoning, but to explain also how they arise from simpler mental operations and primarily from sense.
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  • - The emphasis now laid on judgment, the recovery from Hume's confusion of beliefs with ideas and the association of ideas, and the distinction of the mental act of judging from its verbal expression in a proposition, are all healthy signs in recent logic. The most fundamental question, before proceeding to the investigation of inference, is not what we say but what we think in making the judgments which, whether we express them in propositions or not, are both the premises and the conclusion of inference; and, as this question has been diligently studied of late, but has been variously answered, it will be well to give a list of the more important theories of judgment as follows: a.
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  • Finally, the great difficulty of the logic of judgment is to find the mental act behind the linguistic expression, to ascribe to it exactly what is thought, neither more nor less, and to apply the judgment thought to the logical proposition, without expecting to find it in ordinary propositions.
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  • We may now then reassert two points about inference against Bradley's logic: the first, that it is a process from similar to similar, and not a process of identification, because two different things are not at all the same thing; the second, that it is the mental process from judgments to judgment rather than the linguistic process from propositions to proposition, because, besides the judgments expressed in propositions, it requires judgments which are not always expressed, and are sometimes even unconscious.
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  • Distinct alike from thing and mental happening, it seems to correspond to " meaning " as it is used as a technical phrase now-a-days.
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  • It is Locke's initial attribution of the primary role in mental process to the simple ideas of sensation that precludes him from the development of the conception of another sort of ideas, or mental contents that he notes, which are produced by reflection on " the operations of our own mind within us."
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  • The exponents of psychological atomism, on the other hand, with the association of ideas for their one principle of agglutination had come to mean by experience the mental phantasmagoria of the individual.
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  • Some indication of the way in which he would hypothetically and speculatively mitigate the antithesis is perhaps afforded by the reflection that the distinction of the mental and what appears as material is an external distinction in which the one appears outside to the other.
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  • Although there is not much to justify such a proposition, it may perhaps be conceded that she was in many respects abnormal and that some of her work is characteristic of a process known to modern psychologists as "automatism," or in other words that it is the result of a spasmodic uprush to the surface of sub-conscious mental activities.
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  • Broadly speaking, it is the sum of an individual's bodily, mental and spiritual growth; having its roots, as it were, spread over many lives, past and future.
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  • Ceremonial and sacrificial observances of all kinds are held to be useless in themselves, but operative for good or ill indirectly by their effect upon the mental attitude of those who practise them.
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  • Fresh knowledge, new forces and faculties, have to be acquired by positive and strenuous efforts, while, on the other hand, delusions and superstitions are to be abandoned by an attitude of conscious neglect; or to use the phraseology of the Hindus, Avidyd, nescience - the mental state of the unenlightened - through which the individual energies are scattered and dissipated in futile effort, is gradually replaced by Vidyd, the higher wisdom which dispels the darkness of the mind, awakens our latent faculties and concentrates our efforts in the direction of that harmonious union, which ultimately results in Nirvana.
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  • Modern scientific research has vividly illustrated the stereotyped nature of the human mind; there is a general similarity in the effect of similar phenomena upon people at a similar stage of mental growth; there is an almost inherent or unconscious belief which has been transmitted through the countless ages of man's history.
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  • This is possible to some because the situation in its sharp antithesis is not present to their minds: by making certain compromises on the one side and on the other, and by framing private interpretations of important dogmas, they can retain their faith in both and yet preserve their mental integrity.
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  • The schools are open nine months in the year, and all children between eight and fourteen years of age are required to attend some public, private or parochial school during these months unless excused because of some physical or mental disability.
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  • The size and shape, the complicated spinning motion which it is seen to execute, the internal strains and vibrations which doubtless take place, are all sacrificed in the mental picture in order that attention may be concentrated on those features of the phenomenon which are in the first place most interesting to us.
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  • He explained, for instance, when a man was strictly bound to tell the truth; when he might avail himself of the mild licence of an equivocation; and when the Church placed at his service the greater indulgence of a mental reservation.
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  • Not only was faith made independent of reason, but it was considered all the purer, the less it owed to any kind of mental process.
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  • The Revival of Learning must be regarded as a function of that vital energy, an organ of that mental evolution, which brought into existence the modern world, with its new conceptions of philosophy and religion, its reawakened arts and sciences, its firmer grasp on the realities of human nature and the world, its manifold inventions and discoveries, its altered political systems, its expansive and progressive forces.
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  • That rediscovery of the classic past restored the confidence in their own faculties to men striving after spiritual freedom; revealed the continuity of history and the identity of human nature in spite of diverse creeds and different customs; held up for emulation masterworks of literature, philosophy and art; provoked inquiry; encouraged criticism; shattered the narrow mental barriers imposed by medieval orthodoxy.
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  • English youths who spend their time at Eton between athletic sports and Latin verses, and who take an Ireland with a first class in "Greats" at Oxford, are pursuing the same course of physical and mental discipline as the princes of Gonzaga or Montefeltro in the 15th century.
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  • The doctors of the universities were too wedded to their antiquated manuals and methods, too satisfied with dullness, too proud of titles and diplomas, too anxious to preserve ecclesiastical discipline and to repress mental activity, for a genial spirit of humanism to spread freely.
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  • It was due to their specific qualities, and to the diverse circumstances of their external development, that the re-birth of Europe took this form of duplex action on the lines of intellectual and moral progress, followed by reaction against mental freedom.
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  • The Renaissance closed the middle ages and opened the modern era, - not merely because the mental and moral ideas which then sprang into activity and owed their force in large measure to the revival of classical learning were opposed to medieval modes of thinking and feeling, but also because the political and international relations specific to it as an age were at variance with fundamental theories of the past.
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  • In ethics the term is used, like indeterminism, to denote the theory that mental change cannot always be ascribed to previously ascertained psychological states, and that volition is not causally related to the motives involved.
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  • In the fragment De Interpretation Naturae Prooemium (written probably about 1603) Bacon analyses his own mental character and lays before us the objects he had in view when he entered on public life.
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  • If we add to this account that he seems to have been of an unusually amiable disposition we have a fairly complete picture of his mental character at this critical period of his life.
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  • The second kind are the Idola Specus, idols of the cave, or errors incident to the peculiar mental or bodily constitution of each individual, for according to the state of the individual's mind is his view of things.
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  • If the foregoing examples are held sufficient to establish the influence of Bacon on the intellectual development of his immediate successors, it follows that the whole trend of typically English thought, not only in natural science, but also in mental, moral and political philosophy, is the logical fulfilment of Baconian principles.
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  • Lastly, there are many who, being competent in some other branch of science, but having small acquaintance with the scientific study of human culture, are inclined to explain primitive ideas and institutions from without, namely by reference to various external conditions of the mental life of peoples, such as race, climate, food-supply and so on.
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  • We are on firmer ground when simply describing the phenomena of primitive religion than when seeking to account for these in terms of natural law - in whatever sense the conception of natural law be applicable to the facts of the mental life of man.
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  • The outstanding feature of the mental life of savages known to psychologists as " primitive credulity " is doubtless chiefly due to sheer want of diversity of suggestiveness in their intellectual surroundings.
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  • "The conflict," he wrote, "such as it is, is one of opinion and tendencies, not of persons; it is the result of mental and moral necessities created by the antitheses with which the Church is wrestling in this period of transition."
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  • See Laura Frost, Johanna Schopenhauer: symptoms of mental alienation, fell or threw himself into the canal.
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  • He writes like a man whose view is distorted by physical or mental pain.
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  • In 1866 he was elected professor of logic and mental and moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy in Owens college.
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  • Thus a very strong heart, although it may be useful to its possessor for many years, driving the blood rapidly through the vessels, and supplying all his tissues with such abundant nutriment as to enable him to endure great exertion, mental or bodily, may in the end cause death by bursting a vessel in the brain, which might have resisted the pressure of a feebler circulation for years longer.
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  • On the other hand, when it becomes atrophied the circulation becomes feeble, the face heavy and dull, the patient suffers from cold, the features glow lumpish, mental processes become sluggish, and bodily vigour diminishes.
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  • The nature of this is not very easy to analyse, but as mental depression is closely associated with irritation of the vagus nerve and weakening of the circulation, it seems not at all unlikely that mountain air acts by accelerating the pulse and quickening the circulation, and thus creating a sense of well-being.
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  • The essence of this cure is to give to the patient rest, bodily and mental, by confinement to bed and isolation from the outside world.
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  • In his words it was intended "to insure a more natural union between intellectual and manual labour than now exists; to combine the thinker and the worker, as far as possible, in the same individual; to guarantee the highest mental freedom by providing all with labour adapted to their tastes and talents, and securing to them the fruits of their industry; to do away with the necessity of menial services by opening the benefits of education and the profits of labour to all; and thus to prepare a society of liberal, intelligent and cultivated persons whose relations with each other would permit a more simple and wholesome life than can be led amidst the pressure of our competitive institutions."
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  • In short, its aim was to bring about the best conditions for an ideal civilization, reducing to a minimum the labour necessary for mere existence, and by this and by the simplicity of its social machinery saving the !maximum of time for mental and spiritual education and development.
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  • Any strain upon the nervous system, such as mental overwork or anxiety, is a potent cause; or exposure to cold and damp, which seems to excite irritation in a nerve already predisposed to suffer.
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  • Of all the seven Ionian islands Cephalonia and Zante are most purely Greek, and the inhabitants display great mental activity.
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  • In 1788 he was appointed solicitor-general, and was knighted, and at the close of this year he attracted attention by his speeches in support of Pitt's resolutions on the state of the king (George III., who then laboured under a mental malady) and the delegation of his authority.
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  • Zeno compared sensation to the outstretched hand, flat and open; bending the fingers was assent; the clenched fist was " simple apprehension," the mental grasp of an object; knowledge was the clenched fist tightly held in the other hand.
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  • Dr Prichard here puts forward distinctly the time-honoured doctrine which refers the mental faculties to the operation of the soul.
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  • The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man..
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  • A primary mental similarity of all branches of the human race is evidenced by their common faculty of speech, while at the same time secondary diversities of race-character and history are marked by difference of grammatical structure and of vocabularies.
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  • Still, the lower animals make no approach to the human system of natural utterance by gesturesigns and emotional-imitative sounds, while the practical identity of this human system among races physically so unlike as the Englishman and the native of the Australian bush indicates extreme closeness of mental similarity throughout the human species.
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  • The question then arises, how far the employment of different vocabularies, and that to a great extent on different grammatical principles, is compatible with similarity of the speakers' minds, or how far does diversity of speech indicate diversity of mental nature?
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  • The obvious answer is, that the power of using words as signs to express thoughts with which their sound does not directly connect them, in fact as arbitrary symbols, is the highest grade of the special human faculty in language, the presence of which binds together all races of mankind in substantial mental unity.
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  • American man, for example, need not necessarily owe the minutest portion of his mental, religious, social or industrial development to remote contact with Asia or Europe, though he were proved to possess identical usages.
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  • He dedicated nine years to the study of Arabic, and in 1275 showed such signs of mental exaltation that, at the request of his wife and family, an official was appointed to administer his estate.
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  • The state supports a Mental Hospital (1884, with provision for feeble-minded and non-insane epileptics since 1907) at Provo, a state Industrial School (1889) at Ogden and a state prison (1850) at Salt Lake City.
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  • The term, however, is a relic of an early period of Kant's mental development.
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  • After the other, it was the bitterest possible experience that could befall him, nor, in the state of mental desolation into which it plunged him, could he find any comfort from being soon again set free.
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  • Holloway; in the neighbourhood is the sanatorium of the same founder (1885) for the treatment of mental ailments, accommodating about 250 patients.
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  • His mother, a daughter of the Rev. Solomon Stoddard, of Northampton, Mass., seems to have been a woman of unusual mental gifts and independence of character.
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  • During his college course he kept note books labelled " The Mind," " Natural Science " (containing a discussion of the atomic theory, &c.), " The Scriptures " and " Miscellanies," had a grand plan for a work on natural and mental philosophy, and drew up for himself rules for its composition.
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  • Instead of making the motive to choice a factor within the concrete process of volition, he regards it as a cause antecedent to the exercise of a special mental faculty.
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  • But he continues to use the terms "philosophy," "metaphysics," and "mental science" as synonymous.
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  • The introduction of the term "regulative" or "normative" is intended to differentiate the science from psychology as the science of mental processes or events.
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  • In this reference logic does not tell us how our intellections connect themselves as mental phenomena, but how we ought to connect our thoughts if they are to realize truth (either as consistency with what we thought before or as agreement with observed facts).
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  • To what peculiar excitation of our bodily or mental organism, it is asked, are the emotions due which make us declare an object beautiful or sublime?
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  • The particulars of his case have been investigated by Dr Bucknill and Sir William Wilde, who have proved that he suffered from nothing that could be called mental derangement until the "labyrinthine vertigo" from which he had suffered all his life, and which he erroneously attributed to a surfeit of fruit, produced paralysis, "a symptom of which was the not uncommon one of aphasia, or the automatic utterance of words ungoverned by intention.
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  • Few men of so much mental force have had so little genius for speculation, and he is constantly dominated by fierce instincts which he mistakes for reasons.
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  • Hence bromide of potassium - or bromide of sodium, which is possibly somewhat safer still though not quite so certain in its action - is used as a hypnotic, as the standard anaphrodisiac, as a sedative in mania and all forms of morbid mental excitement, and in hyperaesthesia of all kinds.
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  • Oxford he did not find wholly congenial to his intensely earnest spirit, but he read hard, and, as he afterwards said, "Plato, Aristotle, Butler, Thucydides, Sterne, Jonathan Edwards, passed like the iron atoms of the blood into my mental constitution."
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  • The crisis of his mental conflict had just been passed in Tirol, and he was now beginning to let his creed grow again from the one fixed point which nothing had availed to shift: "The one great certainty to which, in the midst of the darkest doubt, I never ceased to cling - the entire symmetry and loveliness and the unequalled nobleness of the humanity of the Son of Man."
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  • After this mental revolution he felt unable to return to Cheltenham, but after doing duty for two months at St Ebbe's, Oxford, he entered in August 1847 on his famous ministry at Trinity Chapel, Brighton.
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  • Goods are of three sorts - mental, bodily, external; but of all goods virtue is incomparably the greatest.
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  • As he grew older his mental conflicts became still more violent.
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  • The Buddha says: "Those indeed are conquerors who, as I have now, have conquered the intoxications (the mental intoxication arising from ignorance, sensuality or craving after future life).
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  • Amblyopia and some loss of hearing also occurred, as well as mental failure.
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  • The rules which he laid down for himself, and which are still extant in his handwriting, prescribe sixteen hours a day of close application, and prove, not only the great mental power, but also the extraordinary physical strength he must have possessed, and for which indeed, during his residence at the university, he had been remarkable.
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  • In other words, the denary scale, though adopted in notation and in numeration, does not arise in the corresponding mental concept until we get beyond too.
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  • His teaching, though strictly trinitarian, shows considerable freedom and originality of thought; in many points his mental and spiritual affinities with Origen show themselves with advantage, as in his doctrine of airoKariwrao-ts or final restoration.
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  • Apparently he had made a wrong interpretation of the primates mental attitude, and thought him desirous of a truce, if not ready for a compromise.
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  • Few men, if any, have ever acquired a settled mental habit of surveying human affairs broadly, of watching the play of passion, interest, circumstance, in all its comprehensiveness, and of applying the instruments of general conceptions and wide principles to its interpretation with respectable constancy, unless they have at some early period of their manhood resolved the greater problems of society in independence and isolation.
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  • The refusal of the council to accept the recommendation of the senate, that they should appoint an eminent Unitarian minister to the professorship of logic and mental philosophy, revived all De Morgan's sensitiveness on the subject of sectarian freedom; and, though his feelings were doubtless excessive, there is no doubt that gloom was thrown over his life, intensified in 1867 by the loss of his son George Campbell De Morgan, a young man of the highest scientific promise, whose name, as De Morgan expressly wished, will long be connected with the London Mathematical Society, of which he was one of the founders.
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  • For these inferences there is indeed no actual physical evidence: infinity is a mental concept.
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  • His speeches carry us but a little way beyond the mental range; his novels rather baffle than instruct.
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  • On the ground of secular history and secular evidence both might reasonably meet, as regards the facts, though not perhaps as to their interpretation; but the reason why they ultimately differ is to be found simply in the difference of their mental attitude towards the nature of "knowledge" - itself a difference of opinion as to the nature of man.
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  • Although the second book is a sort of inventory of our ideas, as distinguished from the certainty and boundaries of our knowledge, Locke even here makes the assumption that the " simple ideas " of the five senses are practically qualities of things which exist without us, and that the mental " operations " discovered by " reflection " are those of a person continuously existing.
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  • Why man must remain in this mental predicament, Locke did not inquire.
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  • Similarly the modern attempt upon the part of psychology to analyse (under whatever limitations and with whatever object of inquiry) all the forms and processes of human consciousness has inevitably led to an examination of the consciousness of human freedom: while the postulate of most modern psychologists that conscious processes are not to be considered as removed from the sphere of those necessary causal sequences with which science deals, produces, if the consciousness of freedom be admitted as a fact of mental history, the old metaphysical difficulty in a new and highly specialized form.
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  • No physiologist has ever claimed the power to prophesy with any approach to accuracy the future mental states of any individual from an examination of his brain.
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  • No matter to what extent the unphilosophical thinker may be under the influence of materialistic presuppositions, he always recoils from the conclusion that the facts of his mental life have no influence upon his physical movements.
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  • The determinist presuppositions of psy chology (determinist because they involve the applica tion of the causal conceptions of modern science to mental phenomena) have in many instances in no way retarded the utilization of new information concerning mental processes in order to prove the reality of freedom.
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  • But, nevertheless, the new light thrown upon the unity of the self and the more careful and accurate scrutiny made by recent psychologists of the phenomena of decision have rendered it no longer possible either for determinists to deny the fact of choice (whatever be their theory as to its nature) or for libertarians to regard the self or the will as isolated from and unaffected by other mental constituents and antecedents, and hence, by an appeal to wholly fictitious entities, to prove the truth of freedom.
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  • The libertarian is not pledged to the belief that acts which alone exhibit real freedom are isolated acts which depend upon a complete change of character, a change which is in no sense continuous with, and is in no kind of relation to, the series of successive changes which make up an individual's mental and moral history.
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  • Bodily pleasures and pains Aristippus held to be the keenest, though he does not seem to have maintained this on any materialistic theory, as he admitted the existence of purely mental pleasures, such as joy in the prosperity of one's native land.
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  • Similarly, though like other men he will be subject to bodily pain, this will not cause him mental grief or disquiet, as his worst agonies will not disturb his clear conviction that it is really indifferent to his true reasonable self.
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  • When further he teaches that the attainment of happiness depends almost entirely upon insight and right calculation, fortune having very little to do with it; that the pleasures and pains of the mind are far more important than those of the body, owing to the accumulation of feeling caused by memory and anticipation; and that an indispensable condition of mental happiness lies in relieving the mind of all superstitions, which can be effected only by a thorough knowledge of the physical universe - he introduces an ample area for the exercise of the philosophic intellect.
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  • Hobbes's psychology is in the first place materialistic; he holds, that is, that in any of the psychophysical phenomena of human nature the reality is a material process of which the mental feeling is a mere " appearance."
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  • That the divine will is expressed by it, Cumberland, " not being so fortunate as to possess innate ideas," tries to prove by a long inductive examination of the evidences of man's essential sociality exhibited in his physical and mental constitution.
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  • With a little straining these are made to correspond to five chief divisions of Jus, - personal security (benevolence being opposed to the ill-will that commonly causes personal injuries), property, contract, marriage and government; while the first, second and fourth, again, regulate respectively the three chief classes of human motives, - affections, mental desires and appetites.
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  • Hartley, too, was the first to conceive association as producing, instead of mere cohesion of mental phenomena, a quasi-chemical combination of these into a compound apparently different from its elements.
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  • He was a man of vast physical energy, of inexhaustible mental activity, of quick passions and violent appetites; vain, restless, greedy of gold and pleasure and fame; unable to stay quiet in one place, and perpetually engaged in quarrels with his compeers.
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  • No satisfied with these outlets for his mental energy, Filelfo went on translating from the Greek, and prosecuted a paper warfare with his enemies in Florence.
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  • It was from his mother that he inherited both his feeble frame and his many rich mental endowments.
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