Membrane Sentence Examples
Alex pulled the membrane from the foal's nose and stepped back.
Those organisms which possess the latter are a little higher in the scale of life than those which remain unclothed by it, but a comparison of the behaviour of the two quickly enables us to say that the membrane is of but secondary importance, and that for those which possess it, it is nothing more than a protective covering for the living substance.
The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
HaberIandt has shown that in plant cells, when any new formation of membrane is to take place in a given spot, the nucleus is found in its immediate vicinity; and Klebs found that only that portion of the protoplasm of a cell which contains the nucleus is capable of forming a cell-wall; whilst Townsend has further shown that if the non-nucleated mass is connected by strands of protoplasm to the nucleated mass, either of the same cell or of a neighboring cell, it retains the power of forming a cell-membrane.
The nymph of a thrips-insect (Thysanoptera) is sluggish, its legs and wings being sheathed by a delicate membrane, while the nymph of the male scaleinsect rests enclosed beneath a waxy covering.Advertisement
In Carinella, Cephalothrix and Polia, as well as in all Metanemertines, the basement membrane of the skin already alluded to is particularly strong and immediately applied upon the muscular layers.
When the connecting string is held taut and sounds, such as those of ordinary speech, are produced in front of one of the membranes, pulses corresponding to the fluctuations of the atmospheric pressure are transmitted along the string and communicated to the other membrane, which in its turn communicates them to the air, thus reproducing the sound.
Birds possess an ear-muscle which at least acts as a tensor tympani; it arises near the occipital condyle, passes through a hole into the tympanic cavity, and its tendon is, in various ways, attached to the inside of the membrane and the neighbouring extracolumellar processes.
The apex of the cochlea is turned towards, and almost reaches the anterior wall of the occipital condyle; at most it makes but half a twist or turn; it possesses both Reissner's membrane and the organ of Corti.
In Pteromys the tail is cylindrical and comparatively thin, while in Sciuropterus it is broad, flat and laterally expanded, so as to compensate for the absence of the interfemoral membrane by acting as a supplementary parachute.Advertisement
In some polyps the tentacles are webbed at the base, and it was supposed that a medusa was a polyp of this kind set free, the umbrella being a greatly developed web or membrane extending between the tentacles.
But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.
Coincident with these changes the nuclear membrane disappears and a spindle-shaped or barrelshaped group of threads makes its appearance in.
Cell Membrane.The membrane which surrounds the protoplasts in the majority of plants is typically composed of cellulose, together with a number of other substances which are known as pectic compounds.
The olfactory perceptive membrane is restricted to the posterior innermost region of the nasal chamber, where it covers a slight bulging-out prominence on the nasal wall.Advertisement
Their numbers vary from one pair to seven, and they are inserted either upon the middle portion of the bronchial semi-rings (Mesomyodi), or upon the ends of these semi-rings where these pass into the inner tympaniform membrane (Acromyodi).
The connective tissue of the integument and basement membrane imperceptibly merges into that which surrounds the muscular bundles as they are united into denser and definite layers, and this is especially marked in those forms (Akrostomum) where the density of the muscular body-wall has considerably diminished, and the connective tissue has thus become much more prominent.
Correlated with the presence of the genital pleurae there is a pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyngeal region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the free border of the genital pleurae.
The "epitheca" noticed above is in this case the persistent frontal membrane.
Venovenous (V-V) bypass-The type of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation that provides lung support only, using a tube inserted into the jugular vein.Advertisement
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Gore-Tex is basically a waterproof breathable membrane that inhibits moisture both from collecting and arriving.
The Alpha is a waterproof boot of full-grain leather with a waterproof membrane, sympatex lining, removable molded ortholite footbed and the Hummer exclusive all-terrain tire tread interlocking log pattern outsole.
The envelope is double, consisting of an external chitinous stratified shell, and an internal thin elastic membrane.
In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.Advertisement
This arises from the nasal surface of the ball, and its tendon passes into the somewhat imperfectly transparent nictitating membrane.
The difference in the appearance of the basement membrane - sometimes wholly homogeneous, sometimes eminently fibrillar = can more especially be observed in differently preserved specimens of the genus Polia.
At the end of each twig is a membrane pierced by pores, and a number of cilia depend into the lumen of the tube; these cilia maintain a constant motion.
A movable membranous j oint between the prosoma and the opisthosoma, the generative aperture opening upon the ventral side of the membrane.
It is a colourless liquid, with a very pungent smell, and attacks the mucous membrane very rapidly.
The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
The daughter nuclei may have arrived at the anaphase stage, and have even gone the length of forming a nuclear membrane, without an equatorial depression having shown itself in the cell-body.
The free fatty acid radicle then unites with an alkali, and becomes transformed into a soluble soap which is then readily absorbed in this fluid condition by the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane.
The body, or " strobila," consists of a usually minute organ of attachment (scolex or its representative) which is imbedded in the intestinal membrane, and of a series of segments that arise from the base of the scolex and increase in size distally.
A small metal disk was attached to the centre of the membrane and connected to earth by a fine wire.
The receiving apparatus had what we may term a personal equation, for the break of contact could only take place when the membrane travelled some finite distance, exceedingly small no doubt, from the contact-piece.
At a station more than 13 kilometres away a sort of big ear-trumpet, closed by a membrane, was placed with the membrane under water, the tube rising above the surface.
Scott (Comptes rendus, 1861, 53, p. 108) any sound whatever may be made to record its trace on the paper by means of a large parabolic cavity resembling a speaking-trumpet, which is freely open at the wider extremity, but is closed at the other end by a thin stretched membrane.
To the centre of this membrane is attached a small feather-fibre, which, when the reflector is suitably placed, touches lightly the surface of the revolving cylinder.
Any sound (such as that of the human voice) transmitting its rays into the reflector, and communicating vibratory motion to the membrane, will cause the feather to trace a sinuous line on the paper.
The membrane vibrates, and alternately checks and increases the gas supply, and the flame jumps up and down with the frequency of the source.
When the wire was heated by an electric current a fine line of vapour descended from each drop. The pipe was closed at the centre by a membrane which prevented a through draught, yet permitted the vibrations, as it was at a node.
This resulted in an inflammation of the upper membrane of the brain, delirium and death.
After middle life he suffered from the stone, not to mention the common plague of studious men, an irritable mucous membrane.
Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous membrane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs of a subacute type and is given in doses of io grains half an hour before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity.
But these are only surmises, based upon the fact that in various dry caves limbs still surrounded by the mummified flesh and skin, feathers, and even eggs with the inner membrane, have been found.
They are said to diminish the secretion of the bronchial mucous membrane.
In 1764 Leonhard Euler employed the functions of both zero and integral orders in an analysis into the vibrations of a stretched membrane; an investigation which has been considerably developed by Lord Rayleigh, who has also shown (1878) that Bessel's functions are particular cases of Laplace's functions.
The stomach is generally large; its wall consists of a layer of very large ciliated cells, which often contain fat globules and yellowish-green or brown particles, and outside these a connective tissue membrane; muscular fibrillae have also been described.
H If the flagellar border splits, the membrane doubtless divides also; but where the flagellum is a new formation the membrane will be too.
E - H shows the formation of the myonemes and the flagellar border (flagellum) of the undulating membrane, by means of a greatly elongated nuclear-spindle.
The point of insertion of the attached (posterior) flagellum into the body, and, consequently, the commencement of the undulating membrane may be almost anywhere in the anterior half of the body, but is usually near the extremity.
The body is probably not limited by any distinct membrane.
Since then many other workers have obtained similar stages [see Leishman and Statham (38), Christophers (7)]; but however slender and Trypanosomelike the flagelliform parasites may appear, up till now no indications of an undulating membrane have been seen, and the kinetonuclear element is never far from the insertion of the flagellum.
Its continued employment may, indeed, so injure the mucous membrane of the stomach as to interfere with digestion and so cause a morbid and dangerous reduction in weight.
In size they may be compared with cats; the long slender limbs are connected by a broad fold of skin extending outwards from the sides of the neck and body, the fingers and toes are webbed, and the hind-limbs joined by an outer membrane as in bats.
These filaments are so fine and are set so closely together that they appear to form a continuous membrane until examined with a lens.
The canal of the cervix is about an inch long, and is spindle-shaped when looked at from in front; its anterior and posterior walls are in contact, and its lining mucous membrane is raised into a pattern which, from its likeness to a cypress twig, is called the arbor vitae.
The vagina is a dilatable muscular passage, lined with mucous membrane, which leads from the uterus to the external generative organs; its direction is, from the uterus, downward and forward, and its anterior and posterior walls are in contact, so that in a horizontal section it appears as a transverse slit.
The mucous membrane is raised into a series of transverse folds or rugae, and between it and the muscular wall are plexuses of veins forming erectile tissue.
The labia minora are two folds of skin containing no fat, which are usually hidden by the labia majora and above enclose the clitoris, they are of a pinkish colour and look like mucous membrane.
The hymen is a fold of mucous membrane which surrounds the orifice of the vagina and is usually only seen in the virgin.
As each genital gland enlarges it remains attached to the rest of the intermediate cell mass by a constricted fold of the coelomic membrane, known as the mesorchium in the male, and the mesovarium in the female.
After forming the prepuce the skin is reflected over the .glans and here looks like mucbus membrane.
The teeth are secreted by a small number of cells at the closed end of the caecum, the basal membrane by a transverse row of cells in front of these.
The most remarkable feature of the genus is, however, the extraordinary development of the zygomatic arches of the skull, which are enormously expanded vertically, forming great convex bony capsules on the sides of the face, enclosing on each side a large cavity lined with mucous membrane internally, and communicating by a small opening with the mouth.
The yolk prepared by the latter is conducted by one or more specialized ducts to the oviduct and the point of union is distinguished by the opening of a " shell-gland " which secretes a membrane around the conjoined mass of ovum and yolk.
The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells.
About 1850 Thomas Graham published his famous experiments on diffusion, both with and without a separating membrane.
Pfeffer, made known the phenomena of the osmotic pressure which is set up by the passage of solvent through a membrane impermeable to the dissolved substance or solute.
The conception of a semi-permeable membrane, permeable to the solvent only, was used by van't Hoff as a means of applying the principles of thermodynamics to the theory of solution.
It was found, too, when water was placed on one side of such a membrane, and a sugar solution in a confined space on the other, that water entered the solution till a certain pressure was set up when equilibrium resulted.
By evaporation and condensation, then, the solvent can pass through this perforated partition, which thus acts as a perfect semi-permeable membrane.
They merely show that, in the conditions of the particular experiments, the thermodynamic equilibrium value of the osmotic pressure cannot be reached - the thermodynamic or theoretical osmotic pressure (which must be independent of the nature of the membrane provided it is truly semi-permeable) is a different thing from the equilibrium pressure actually reached in a given experiment, which measures the balance of ingress and egress of solvent through an imperfect semi-permeable membrane.
The osmotic pressure (defined as the difference in the hydrostatic pressures of the solution and solvent when their vapour pressures are equal and they are consequently in equilibrium through a perfect semi-permeable membrane) may also depend on the absolute values of the hydrostatic pressures, as may the vapour pressure of the liquids.
From this equation the osmotic pressure Po required to keep a solution in equilibrium as regards its vapour and through a semi-permeable membrane with its solvent, when that solvent is under its own vapour pressure, may be calculated from the results of observations on vapour pressure of solvent and solution at ordinary low hydrostatic pressures.
The first to make systematic experiments on the free diffusion of dissolved substances with no separating membrane was Thomas Graham (1804-1869), who immersed in a large volume of water a wide-mouthed bottle containing a solution, and after some time measured the quantity of substance which had diffused into the water.
These spines are sharp and connected by a black membrane which projects, when the fish is disturbed, as a danger singal, it is believed, above the surface of the sand in which the fishes lie hid awaiting prey.
Calcium oxalate is a very common substance, especially in crustaceous lichens; fatty oil in the form of drops or as an infiltration in the membrane is also common; it sometimes occurs in special cells and in extreme cases may represent 90% of the dry substance as in Verrucaria calciseda, Biatora immersa.
Marshall Ward showed that the hyphae of Botrytis pierce the cell-walls of a lily by secreting a cytase and dissolving a hole through the membrane.
If a thin cellulose membrane is interposed between the lamellae, the hyphae nevertheless turn chemotropically from the one lamella to the other and pierce the cellulose membrane in the process.
If the membrane is of some impermeable substance, like gold leaf, the hyphae cannot dissolve its way through, but the tip finds the most minute pore and traverses the barrier by means of it, as it does a stoma on a leaf, We may hence conclude that a parasitic hyphae pierces some plants or their stomata and refuses to enter others, because in the former case there are chemotropically attractive substances present which are absent from the latter, or are there replaced by repellent poisonous or protective substances such as enzymes or antitoxins.
The power of hearing is acute, and so is the sight, the eyes being protected by upper and lower lids and by a nictitating membrane.
Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus.
Protoplasmic continuity has been observed in the delicate membrane closing the pit.
There is, however, considerable variation in the nature of the membrane in different species; thus the cell-wall of Oedogonium, treated with sulphuric acid and iodine, turns a bright blue, while the colour is very faint in the case of Spirogyra, the wall of which is said to consist for the most part of pectose.
For this reason it is used to remove corneal opacities, deafness due to thickening of the membrane, stricture of the oesophagus and hypertrophy of the pylorus, it has also been successful in the treatment of adhesive parametritis.
Benzoic acid is also excreted by the bronchi and tends to disinfect and stimulate the bronchial mucous membrane.
It has the same moderately long, plump body, with a low dorsal crest, the continuation of the membrane bordering the strongly compressed tail; a large thick head with small eyes without lids and with a large pendent upper lip; two pairs of well-developed limbs, with free digits; and above all, as the most characteristic feature, three large appendages on each side of the back of the head, fringed with filaments which, in their fullest development, remind one of black ostrich feathers.
The vapourmolecules of the solvent are free to pass through the semi-permeable membrane, and will continue to condense in the solution until the hydrostatic pressure is so raised as to produce equality of vapour-pressure.
The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.
These are suspended to the muscular bodywall by a double membrane, called the ligamentum denticulatum, which forms at once the roof of the atrial chamber and the floor of a persistent portion of the original body-cavity or coelom (the dorsal coelomic canal on each side of the pharynx).
While still within the egg-membrane the epiblastic cells become flagellated, and the gastrula rotates within the membrane.
About the eighth hour after commencement of development the membrane ruptures and the oval embryo escapes, swimming by means of its flagella at the surface of the sea for another twenty-four hours, during which the principal organs are laid down, although the mouth does not open until the close of this period.
The membrane, or rind, becoming loose is a sign of their being sufficiently macerated.
In this process the anode solution had to be kept separate from the cathode solution, and the membrane which had in consequence to be used, was liable to become torn, and so to cause trouble by permitting the two solutions to mix.
In medicine copper sulphate was employed as an emetic, but its employment for this purpose is now very rare, as it is exceedingly depressant, and if it fails to act, may seriously damage the gastric mucous membrane.
Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.
Poisons formed by microbes are partly eliminated by the kidneys, partly by the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, and possibly also by the skin.
Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.
In the same way, the reflex act of coughing is useful in removing either foreign bodies or excessive secretion from the air passages; but when the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is irritated and inflamed, it produces a feeling of tickling and a desire to cough sometimes very violently; yet the coughing simply tends to exhaust the patient, because there is really little or nothing to bring up. The same is the case in inflammation of the lung substance itself.
The treatment of inflammation of mucous membrane is based upon the same principles as inflammation of the skin, and there too we usually associate means (I) for removing microbes, (2) for destroying them, (3) for lessening the irritation they produce, and (4) for repairing any mischief they have done.
For inflammation of the mouth a similar combination is used as a mouth wash, in the throat as a gargle, and in the nose as a wash and sometimes as an ointment or spray, the ointment possessing the advantage of protecting the delicate nasal mucous membrane from irritation by stopping the entrance of irritant dust into the nasal cavities.
After the irritant has been removed either from the stomach or intestine, a feeling of irritation of the mucous membrane may remain, and sickness, diarrhoea or pain may continue in the stomach and intestine although the irritant is no longer present within them, just as the flow of tears and desire to rub may remain in the eye after the piece of grit which has occasioned it may have been removed.
The strength of the astringent application and the mode of its administration are varied according to the delicacy and position of the mucous membrane affected.
This latter cause is chiefly observed when the tissues are of a very unyielding character; for example, when the inflammation occurs in a bone or under a thick fibrous and unyielding membrane.
This disease depends upon the presence of a bacillus which grows rapidly at the back of the throat and in the airpassages specially of children, causing the formation of a membrane which, by plugging the windpipe, causes suffocation and death.
In cases where diarrhoea is very obstinate and lasts for weeks, sulphuric acid is sometimes more efficacious than alkalis; and in chronic colics it may be necessary to treat the mucous membrane by local application of astringent solutions.
Thus as it passes out by the bronchial mucous membrane it increases the amount of secretion and so acts as an expectorant.
In like manner we may by experiment ascertain the general fact that the surface of a liquid is in a state of tension similar to that of a membrane stretched equally in all directions, and prove that this tension depends only on the nature and temperature of the liquid and not on its form, and from this as a secondary physical principle we may deduce all the phenomena of capillary action.
This occurs as a membrane on the surface of the medium, or as irregular clumps or branched masses (sometimes several inches across) submerged in it, and consists of more or less gelatinous matrix enclosing innumerable " cocci," " bacteria," or other elements of the Schizomycete concerned.
C. Zoogloea stage of a Micrococcus, forming a close membrane on infusion - Pasteur's Mycoderma.
The membrane may be relatively thick, and even exhibit shells or strata.
The process begins with the formation of brilliant granules (A, B); these increase, and the brilliant substance gradually balls together (C) and forms the spores (D), one in each segment, which soon acquire a membrane and ripen (E).
In the case of diphtheria Sidney Martin obtained toxic albumoses in the spleen, which he considered were due to the digestive action of an enzyme formed by the bacillus in the membrane and absorbed into the circulation.
Thus in cholera the bacteria are practically confined to the intestine, in diphtheria to the region of the false membrane, in tetanus to some wound.
Kanthack and Cobbett, that in certain instances the toxin can be made to pass through a gelatine membrane, whereas the antitoxin cannot, its molecules being of larger size.
The wings are thus constructed on the same plan as those of a bat, but instead of four fingers, only one is elongated to bear the membrane.
In Rhamphorhynchus there is also a rhomboidal expansion of membrane at the end of the tail.
The body becomes in shape like a vase or urn attached by a narrow stalk, round which a chitinous membrane is secreted.
Three series are distinguished, podobranchiae, attached to the proximal segments of the appendages, pleurobranchiae, springing from the body-wall, and an intermediate series, arthrobranchiae, inserted on the articular membrane of the joint between the limb and the body.
Adaptations for aerial respiration are found in some of the landcrabs, where the lining membrane of the gill-chamber is beset with vascular papillae and acts as a lung.
Further, a definite cuticular membrane is frequently formed and shed at this stage, which corresponds to the nauplius-stage of larval development.
A membrane so constructed will, according to him, be fit for flight.
Its physiological effects are much more persistent and injurious than sulphuretted hydrogen, producing temporary paralysis of the olfactory nerves and inflammation of the mucous membrane.
This induces a reflex secretion from the salivary and gastric glands, which is followed or accompanied by increased vascularity of the gastric mucous membrane, and by some degree of activity on the part of the muscular wall of the stomach.
In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.
The egg of the pilchard is very easily distinguished from other pelagic eggs by the unusually large space separating the vitelline membrane from the contained ovum.
Oxidizing agents, such as arsenic acid, convert it into ellagic acid, C 14 H 8 0 9 +H 2 0, probably a fluorene derivative, a substance which occurs in gall-nuts, in the external membrane of the episperm of the walnut, and prob ably in many plants, and composes the "bezoar stones" found in the intestines of Persian wild goats.
The buccal mucous membrane will be greyish, brown or black in colour, due to the corrosive effects of the acid.
The central layer is usually thick and marked by lines of growth; but in Glossograptus and Lasiograptus it is thinned down to a fine membrane stretched upon a skeleton framework of lists and fibres,.
The anterior part of the palate is composed of mucous membrane tightly stretched over the flat or slightly concave bony layer which separates the mouth from the nasal passages, and is generally raised into a series of transverse ridges, which sometimes, as in ruminants, attain a considerable development.
Besides the crypts of Lieberkiihn found throughout the intestinal canal, and the glands of Brunner confined to the duodenum, there are other structures in the mucous membrane, about the nature of which there is still much uncertainty, called " solitary " and " agminated " glands, the latter more commonly known by the name of " Peyer's patches."
If iron be given in excess, or if the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice be deficient, iron acts directly as an astringent upon the mucous membrane of the stomach wall.
The second theory is that there is no absorption of iron given by the mouth, but it acts as a local stimulant to the mucous membrane, and so improves anaemia by increasing the digestion of the food.
More usually, by an infolding of the layer of cells in development, we get three layers under the lens; the front layer is the corneagen layer, and is separated by a membrane from the other two which, more or less, fuse and contain the nerve-end-cells (retinal layer).
The matters passed from the bowels, which at first resemble those of ordinary diarrhoea, soon change their character, becoming scanty, mucous or slimy, and subsequently mixed with, or consisting wholly of, blood, along with shreds of exudation thrown off from the mucous membrane of the intestine.
In the milder forms of the disease there is simply a congested or inflamed condition of the mucous membrane, with perhaps some inflammatory exudation on its surface, which is passed off by the discharges from the bowels.
But in the more severe forms ulceration of the mucous membrane takes place.
The arsines and arsine chlorides are liquids of overpowering smell, and in some cases exert an extremely irritating action on the mucous membrane.
This effect is the same however the drug be administered, as, even after subcutaneous injection, the arsenic is excreted into the stomach after absorption, and thus sets up gastritis in its passage through the mucous membrane.
After acute poisoning, the stomach at a post-mortem presents signs of intense inflammation, parts or the whole of its mucous membrane being of a colour varying from dark red to bright vermilion and of ten corrugated.
Each consists in essence of a tightly stretched membrane or drum which is thrown into a state of rapid vibration by a powerful muscle attached to its inner surface and passing thence downwards to the floor of the thoracic cavity.
The lips are flexible and prehensile; and the membrane that lines them and the cheeks smooth.
Between the mucous membrane and the bone of the hard palate is a dense vascular and nervous plexus.
The membrane lining the jaws is soft and corrugated.
The upper ones are the largest, and are continuous anteriorly with the labial glands, the ducts of which open on the mucous membrane of the upper lip.
The interior is divided by the character of the lining membrane into two distinct portions, right and left.
Over the right part the mucous membrane has a greyish-red colour and a velvety appearance, and contains numerous peptic glands, which are wanting in the cardiac portion.
The small intestine is of great length (80 to 90 ft.), its mucous membrane being covered with numerous fine villi.
It is lined by mucous membrane continuous with that of the nasal passage; its use is not apparent.
The eye is provided with a nictitating membrane or third eyelid, at the base of which open the ducts of the Harderian gland.
In all the Australasian species the egg is large and heavily charged with foodyolk, and is surrounded by a tough membrane.
In the Cape species the eggs are smaller, though still of considerable size; the yolk is much less developed, and the egg membrane is thinner though dense.
Ova large, with much yolk and thick membrane, like those of Australasian species; embryos with slit-like blastopore and of very different ages in the same uterus, probably born all the year round.
In Narcissus the appendages are united to form a crown, consisting of a membrane similar to that which unites the stamens in Pancratium.
In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears in the form of a scale; and in many Pentstemons it is reduced to a filament with hairs or a shrivelled membrane at the apex.
Occasionally the membrane of the mother-cell is not completely absorbed, and traces of it are detected in a viscid matter surrounding the pollen-grains, as in Onagraceae.
The extine is a firm membrane, which defines the figure of the pollen-grain, and gives colour to it.
The surface of the pollen-grain is either uniform and homogeneous, or it is marked by folds formed by thinnings of the membrane.
There are also rounded portions of the membrane or pores visible in the pollengrain; these vary in number from one to fifty, and through one FIG.
Sometimes at the place where they exist, the outer membrane, in place of being thin and transparent, is separated in the form of a lid, thus becoming operculate, as in the passionflower and gourd.
One of the most startling discoveries of the decade 1890-1900 was the fact that a number of forms are devoid of both gills and lungs, and breathe merely by the skin and the buccal mucose membrane (20).
In some the notochord remains for a long time exposed along the ventral surface, and, owing to the absence of cartilaginous formation around it, disappears without ever becoming invested otherwise than by a thin elastic membrane; it can be easily stripped off below the vertebrae in larval specimens on the point of metamorphosing.
Although the lungs are present in such forms as preserve the gills throughout life, it is highly remarkable that quite a number of abranchiate salamanders, belonging mostly to the subfamilies Desmognathinae and Plethodontinae, are devoid of lungs and breathe entirely by the skin and by the bucco-pharyngeal mucose membrane (20).
They therefore remain for the most part in the intestine, and as they attract and retain large quantities of water, and at the same time slightly stimulate the mucous membrane, they come to have a purgative action and form the well-known group of saline cathartics.
The large number of vegetable substances used as purgatives owe their action to an irritating effect upon the mucous membrane and the neuro-muscular apparatus of the bowel, whereby the secretions and peristalsis are more or less increased, as the result of which diarrhoea ensues.
On a mucous membrane or a delicate skin it exerts an irritant action, which occurs more quickly than on a thickened epidermis, such as the scalp, and according to the strength and period of application there may result redness, a blister, or an ulcer.
When swallowed in small doses they slightly irritate the mouth and gastric mucous membrane, increasing the secretions and producing a feeling of warmth.
The extensive conjunctival defect, involving one-half of the bulbar conjunctiva, was reconstructed with an amniotic membrane allograft.
This hapten can conveniently be coupled to carriers such as soluble proteins, cell membrane proteins or to membrane soluble lipid anchors.
Each newsletter will be centered around a topical theme and this quarter's theme is membrane biophysics.
Membrane protein biophysics, including structure, function, and folding.
X c is a measure of the volume of the cell membrane capacitance and an indirect measure of intracellular fluid volume.
Another extension of the lining spans from the anterior membrane to insert into the cricoid cartilage, forming the vocal cords.
Other kinases at the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane then catalyze phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B, activating it.
Too high a concentration of calcium can kill brain cells, so these pumps in the cell membrane push the calcium out quickly.
Malaria parasite antigens exposed on the surface of the infected red blood cell membrane.
Dr. Baguant, ENT specialist comments, " Cotton buds can cause the formation of cerumen plugs by pushing cerumen toward the tympanic membrane.
Dr. Baguant, ENT specialist comments, " Cotton buds can cause the formation of cerumen plugs by pushing cerumen plugs by pushing cerumen toward the tympanic membrane.
Each operon has some genes which encode cytoplasmic rather than membrane spanning chemoreceptors.
The bulb consists of several small egg-shaped cloves, enclosed in a white membrane.
Human membrane cofactor protein (CD46) acts as a cellular receptor for measles virus.
To minimize condensation a breather membrane was used behind the cladding.
Binding of GABA opens an integral chloride channel, producing an increase in membrane conductance that results in inhibition of neuronal activity.
Mucous membrane graft to the upper lid tarsal conjunctiva can be useful.
As well as the endothelium and underlying basement membrane, there is a small layer of loose connective tissue and some adipose tissue.
Transplantation of preserved human amniotic membrane for surface reconstruction in severely damaged rabbit corneas.
All cells contain cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Select your answer ----------------- cell wall nucleus cytoplasm cell membrane 5 Which of the following types of cell is a plant cell?
The tortoise also lacks a muscular diaphragm, having only a thin membrane to separate the lungs from the rest of the body cavity.
These membranes are called the meninges, the outermost membrane is called the dura mater, then the arachnoid and then the pia mater.
The tough cover includes a membrane covered earpiece which gives good volume without setting your ' phone to its maximum volume.
The stimulating electrodes cause the membrane potential to change a little.
Low temperature cells The proton exchange membrane (a.k.a. polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell uses a polymeric electrolyte.
We are also studying the ion channels that regulate calcium movements across the cell membrane using patch clamp electrophysiology.
The outer membrane is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
This causes the membrane potential to become more negative and results in muscle and nerve cells becoming less excitable.
Budding of Rous sarcoma virus and vesicular stomatitis virus from localized lipid regions in the plasma membrane of chicken embryo fibroblasts.
There are currently two main models for explaining membrane fusion.
Both receptor binding and membrane fusion processes are mediated by the Haemagglutinin virus membrane glycoprotein.
By contrast PrPc, the normal prion, is ubiquitous; a cell membrane glycoprotein found on and in all cells studied.
These enzymes pump protons across the inner membrane, building up a proton gradient.
This may involve the application of damp Hessian or more usually a spray applied curing membrane.
Aeromonas salmonicida possesses two genes encoding homologues of the major outer membrane protein, OmpA.
From bacterial to human models The majority of membrane protein structures are of bacterial homologues of membrane proteins.
Many signal proteins bind via lipid anchors and/or pleckstrin homology domains to the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane.
At high hydrogen concentrations the microorganism would allow hydrogen ions to leak through the cell membrane.
The largely hydrophobic R-groups of a membrane-spanning a -helix contact the hydrophobic membrane core, while the more polar peptide backbone is buried.
It is a progressive, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the membrane lining in joints.
This membrane confuses me, because I hear that there is no fertilization membrane in Hydrozoa, to which freshwater jellyfish belongs.
Programming of parameters is easily effected by means of the membrane keypad on the front of the unit.
Abstract The nuclear lamina is a filamentous structure composed of lamins that supports the inner nuclear membrane.
A membrane lipid or protein is tagged with a fluorescent dye.
Other posterior segment complications included macular edema (four) and epiretinal membrane involving the macula (two ).
In the rest of the bowel the lining is a delicate mucous membrane or mucosa.
Two carrier proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane are required for this metabolic cycle.
Firstly, to simulate the asymmetry of the hair cell response, the motion of the basilar membrane is half wave rectified.
This generates a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane.
Applied research From the outset we have sought to protect our basic research activity with a " permeable membrane " of applied research.
The Center has a major program of structural and functional studies on several classes of membrane proteins, including membrane transporters and ion channels.
Cell or plasma membrane The outside wall or coating of the neuron.
The basement membrane is an example of extracellular matrix, the subject of the next lecture.
The cell membrane reforms between the two groups, thus forming two new ' daughter ' cells.
We have used laser microsurgery to dissect single cells to gain access to the plasma membrane for patch clamp recording.
Transfer of the fatty acid moiety across the inner mitochondrial membrane involves carnitine.
All living organisms consist of cells; spherical aggregates of biological molecules surrounded by a thin membrane.
For example, your stomach is lined with a layer of mucous membrane called the stomach mucosa.
It irritates the mucous membrane of the respiratory system, causing coughing, choking and impaired lung function and exacerbating asthma symptoms.
Nasal cleansing with Emcur The Emcur Nasal Cleansing System is a medical product for moistening and cleansing the nasal mucous membrane.
The author demonstrated a positive reaction of the oral mucous membrane to Primula on himself (Helmke 1937 ).
Closer inspection revealed an underlying choroidal nevus and no choroidal neovascular membrane.
It acts on specific plasma membrane receptors which share common signaling pathways to insulin.
All the controls were active comparisons, tho these included potato peelings and amniotic membrane as well as conventional treatments.
When it rains, water percolates through the patio and boxes beneath and is trapped by the membrane.
Bones are covered by a connective tissue membrane called the periosteum.
Nystatin however, binds to ergosterol and alters membrane permeability and hence allows leakage of intracellular contents.
A partially permeable membrane is just one with small holes in it.
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is a major membrane phospholipid, and is a precursor to two other abundant membrane.
Cells cannot function without the ability to traffick proteins, carbohydrates and fats across the external membrane, called the plasma membrane.
T tubules are invaginations of muscle cell plasma membrane.
In most cases, specific membrane staining as well as a weak cytoplasmic positivity of tumor cells were seen.
If however an electric field is applied it has the effect of depolarizing the membrane and thereby preventing ATP synthesis.
These enzymes pump protons across the inner membrane, building up a protons across the inner membrane, building up a proton gradient.
The 100 N-terminal residues are found to be necessary for transport through the membrane to be effected.
Endoplasmic reticulum - a system of inner cell membranes which is continuous with the nuclear membrane.
The membrane around the egg also becomes very rubbery during this soaking in vinegar.
Expectant management of women with prelabour rupture of the membranes at term should not exceed 96 hours following membrane rupture.
A nerve cell contains a high concentration of potassium salt whilst the chemical composition outside the cell membrane is higher in sodium salt.
The brine shrimp embryo also requires less energy to break through a hatching membrane than a thick outer shell.
If the template and the target belong to different families within the Membrane all-alpha superfamily, the model is judged as ' false ' .
Density of newly synthesized plasma membrane proteins in intracellular membranes.
In particular, we have studied by DFS the role of tryptophan residues in membrane protein anchoring using synthetic WALP peptides.
Infrared tympanic thermometers (ITT's) measure the frequency of infrared light emitted by the tympanic membrane.
How is this large complex then translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane?
Gram negative bacteria have evolved a number of different protein translocation pathways across the outer membrane.
The DNA was blotted onto a nylon membrane and the probe to the transposon was allowed to hybridize to those fragments containing the transposon.
The mucous membrane of the inferior turbinates may become thickened in patients with rhinitis.
Infrared tympanic thermometers (ITT's) measure the frequency of infrared light emitted by the tympanic thermometers (ITT's) measure the frequency of infrared light emitted by the tympanic membrane.
The plasma membrane envelopes the particle and buds off to form an intracellular vesicle, the phagosome.
Lysosomes - small membrane bound vesicles in the cytoplasm of cells which contain toxic enzymes.
The vacuole may then become a secretory vesicle that moves to the plasma membrane, where the contents can be discharged from the cell.
However, membrane vesicles need not be present at the beginning of translation.
Without a specific waterproof membrane, no leather boot can be guaranteed to be waterproof membrane, no leather boot can be guaranteed to be waterproof.
The parachute is supported by a cartilage attached to the wrist or carpus; in addition to the lateral membrane, there is a narrow one from the cheek along the front of each shoulder to the wrist, and in the larger species a third (interfemoral) connecting the hind-limbs with the base of the long tail.
The head is usually b, Membrane between clypeus and quadrangular in form with small labrum.
To the opposite side of the frame an electromagnet I was fixed with its axis in line with the tube T, and between the end of the electromagnet and the membrane a hinged armature A was arranged in such a way that its motion could be controlled by the membrane.
The general ectoderm covering the surface of the body has entirely lost the cilia present in the earlier larval stages (planula), and may be naked, or clothed in a cuticle or exoskeleton, the perisarc (ps), which in its simplest condition is a chitinous membrane secreted by the ectoderm.
The inner membrane is continuous with the wall of the hollow thread at a spot immediately below the aperture in the outer wall, so that the thread itself (f) is simply a hollow prolongation of the wall of the inner capsule inverted and pushed into its cavity.
Thus an organized individual (tout organise) " is a composite body consisting of the original, or elementary, parts and of the matters which have been associated with them by the aid of nutrition "; so that, if these matters could be extracted from the individual (tout), it would, so to speak, become concentrated in a point, and would thus be restored to its primitive condition of a germ; " just as, by extracting from a bone the calcareous substance which is the source of its hardness, it is reduced to its primitive state of gristle or membrane."2 " Evolution " and " development " are, for Bonnet, synonymous terms; and since by " evolution " he means simply the expansion of that which was invisible into visibility, he was naturally led to the conclusion, at which Leibnitz had arrived by a different line of reasoning, that no such thing as generation, in the proper sense of the word exists in nature.
In other cases the two nuclei place themselves side by side, the nuclear membrane between them disappears, and the contents fuse togethernuclear thread with nuclear thread, and nucleolus with nucleolusso completely that the separate constituents of the nuclei are not visible.
Their transverse dorsal connexion is the posterior commissure; otherwise the whole roof portion of the midbrain is reduced to a thin membrane, continuous with that which covers the Sylvian aqueduct, and this ventricle sends a lateral cavity into each optic lobe, as is the case in reptiles.
All birds have, like most reptiles, a welldeveloped third lid or " nictitating membrane," which moves from the inner canthus obliquely upwards and backwards over the cornea.
The secretions of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, and a pair of naso-lacrymal glands (not to be confounded with the Harderian and the lacrymal glands), moisten and clean the chamber.
A wing is an outgrowth from the dorsal and pleural regions of the thoracic segment that bears it, and microscopic examination shows it to consist of a double layer of cuticularized skin, the two layers being in contact except where they are thickened and folded to form the firm tubular nervures, which serve as a supporting framework for the wing membrane, enclose air-tubes, and convey blood.
On this view Wheeler, however, compares with the " dorsal organ " the peculiar the entire food-canal in most Hexapoda must be regarded as of extra embryonic membrane or indusium which he has observed ectodermal origin, the " endoblast " represents mesoderm only, between serosa and amnion in the embryo of the grasshopper and the median furrow whence it arises can be no longer compared Xiphidium.
Helix hibernates in a torpid condition for about four months, and during this period the aperture of the shell is closed by a calcareous membrane secreted by the foot.
Paper, parchment, or any other thin membrane stretched over a square, circular, &c., frame, when in the vicinity of a sufficiently powerful vibrating body, will, through the medium of the air, be itself made to vibrate in unison, and, by using sand, as in previous instances, the nodal lines will be depicted to the eye, and seen to vary in form, number and position with the tension of the plate and the pitch of the originating sound.
It includes Sciuropterus, represented by small species from the northern parts of both hemispheres; Pteromys, comprising large flying-squirrels, ranging from India and the Malay countries to Japan, characterized by the long cylindrical tail and large inter-femoral membrane; and Eupetaurus, represented by one very large dark grey, long-tailed and longhaired species from Astor and Gilgit, which differs from all other members of the family by its tall-crowned cheek-teeth (see Flying Squirrel).
On this view, the function of the solvent is to give space for the solute to diffuse, and the pressure on a semi-permeable membrane is due to the excess of solvent molecules entering over those leaving in consequence of the smaller number which impinge on the membrane from the side of the solution; the defect in the number must be proportional, roughly at any rate, to the number of solute molecules, present, that is, to the strength of the solution.
The forelimbs are always a pair of wings, the fifth digit or "little" finger being enormously elongated for the support of a smooth flying membrane (seen in specimens from the lithographic stone of Bavaria).
In mammals both caecum and colon are often sacculated, a disposition caused by the arrangement of the longitudinal bands of muscular tissue in their walls; but the small intestine is always smooth and simple-walled externally, though its lining membrane often exhibits contrivances for increasing the absorbing surface without adding to the general bulk of the organ, such as the numerous small tags, or " villi," by which it is everywhere beset, and the more obvious transverse, longitudinal, or reticulating folds projecting into the interior, met with in many animals, of which the " valvulae conniventes " of man form well-known examples.
The sublingual is represented by a mass of glands lying just beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth on the side of the tongue, causing a distinct ridge, extending from the fraenum backwards, the numerous ducts opening separately along the summit of the ridge.
In direct contrast, perfect replication of the membrane structure was achieved at low reagent concentrations.
The buccal mucous membrane graft is sutured to the sclera bounded by the insertion of the rectus muscles to create a new ocular surface.
The key to the resonator guitar sound is the membrane in the top of the guitar body.
Reverse Osmosis works using water pressure, water is forced through a semi permeable fabric, also known as the membrane.
The commitment is to recycle at least 50% of the collectible, available quantity of roofing membrane by 2005.
Formation of membrane domains created during the budding of vesicular stomatitis virus.
Their striated appearance is due to the many long folds of the cell membrane.
If the template and the target belong to different families within the Membrane all-alpha superfamily, the model is judged as ' false '.
Infrared tympanic thermometers (ITT 's) measure the frequency of infrared light emitted by the tympanic membrane.
At the same time, the protein pumps protons across the membrane generating a transmembrane gradient.
Without taking steps to equalize pressure, the tympanic membrane could rupture, causing hearing loss.
Tympanic membrane Tympanic membrane temperature accurately mirrors oesophageal temperature and is a good indicator of core and brain temperature.
Triton also offers a further BBA approved membrane for walls - Plaster Base - which has an undercut stud design for direct plastering.
Vasopressin cells display phasic discharge patterning that reflects bistability in the mechanisms governing membrane excitability.
Searches for host cell receptors to which virion membrane proteins bind.
The bubbles then rest within a viscous fluid encased in a tough, flexible membrane.
The viral vectors carrying the GFP were injected into the space between the egg and its protective vitelline membrane.
After drying the waterproofing membrane is sprayed under pressure to a thickness of approximately 2mm.
Without a specific waterproof membrane, no leather boot can be guaranteed to be waterproof.
Add to this the water resistant and windproof membrane and you have reliable protection.
The zoospore plasma membrane is continuous with the flagellar membrane (F) but only part of the flagellum is seen in this section.
Low-slope materials have a watertight membrane, while steep slope are water shedding.
They are called phytoesterol and make up the cell membrane of certain plants.
You will notice that the fruit has ridges down the side, or some white membrane.
Most professionals recommend adding a polythene membrane between the compound and the flooring to hold back any moisture if you are using wood laminate.
If you don't have a waterproof underlayment, like sheet vinyl, you may want to consider adding an impermeable membrane or sealer.
Gore-Tex hunting pants include a membrane, or layer, of fabric beneath the pants.
The chemicals used to make up this membrane have pores that are smaller than water droplets to keep water from penetrating the membrane to get into the pants, even if the wearer is standing in rapidly-flowing waters.
The membrane's pores are larger than water vapor, and thus allow sweat to escape.
This membrane solves one of the major complaints of hunters, allowing them to stay dry without feeling suffocated by the closeness of the fabric.
Instead of designing the pants themselves of the membrane, the people at Gore-Tex did something a bit more innovative.
They discovered a way to attach the membrane, through an industrial lamination process, to the inside of various types of fabrics.
This lamination gives the consumer more variety because the membrane can attach to different types of material instead of being designed with only one fabric in mind.
Customers should note, however, that this "guarantee" does not cover the exterior of the pants. the membrane is what Gore-Tex promotes as waterproof.
Because of the membrane design, the company is able to make all different types of pants, catering to different types of hunters.
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome-An immune disorder that occurs when the body recognizes phospholipids (part of a cell's membrane) as foreign and produces abnormal antibodies against them.
Pericardium-The thin, sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
Conjunctivitis-Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the white part of the eye (sclera) and lining the inside of the eyelids also called pinkeye.
Subarachnoid-Referring to the space underneath the arachnoid membrane, the middle of the three membranes that sheath the spinal cord and brain.
A tube composed of cartilage and membrane that extends from below the voice box into the chest where it splits into two branches, the bronchi, that lead to each lung.
Its most striking feature is the formation of a grayish membrane covering the tonsils and upper part of the throat.
The dura is the tough, fibrous outermost membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord.
The conjunctiva is the clear mucous membrane that lines the inside of the eyelid and covers the white part (sclera) of the eye.
An infection of the membrane covering the brain (meningitis) or an inflammation of the brain itself (encephalitis) cause swelling that in turn may cause brain damage and mental retardation.
Allergic conjunctivitis-Inflammation of the membrane lining the eyelid and covering the eyeball; congestion of the conjunctiva, with mucus secretion.
Oral lesions-A single infected sore in the skin around the mouth or mucus membrane inside of the oral cavity.
A serosa is a serous (fluid-producing) membrane that can be found inside the abdominal cavity (peritoneum), around the lungs (pleura), around the heart (pericardium), and inside the joints (synovium).
Pericarditis, an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, would also be felt as chest pain.
Pleuritis-Inflammation of the pleura, the membrane surrounding the lungs.
Serositis-Inflammation of a serosal membrane (any membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open to the outside of the body).