Her skin felt like it was melting, and she sighed deeply.
His strength was the kind she could almost imagine herself melting into.
Martha listened, her initial disappointment melting away.
It had stirred before, but not with the warm tingle melting its icy cage.
They released the heartache they had been holding in and were filled with unencumbered passion, melting into each other as they had the first time, but now neither held any secrets, and neither needed to maintain control.
The warm wind assisted the sun in melting the snow and most of it was already gone, leaving a trail of sloppy mud to the barn.
The highway to Pagosa Springs followed the San Juan River up the pass to the top of the Rocky Mountains while side streams, arush with melting snow, ice cold to the touch, cascaded down from the roof of the sky, thousands of feet above.
This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.
The death dealer didn't challenge her, instead melting back into the forest shadows.
He felt as if they were melting in to each other, and rather than anticipating what could come next, he was content to just stay in this moment.
He looked up at the sweet voice, his anger melting at the sight of Hannah.s pretty face.
Soul power rippled through him and with it, the sensation of the invisible shackles he'd worn his entire adult life melting away.
Fogs and rains and warmer suns are gradually melting the snow; the days have grown sensibly longer; and I see how I shall get through the winter without adding to my wood-pile, for large fires are no longer necessary.
When the stream became visible, the flow was light, a far cry from the raging torrent Dean remembered from late spring when the melting snow increased the flow of the Uncompahgre a hundred fold.
Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes.` It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime.
On the fifteenth, when young Rostov, in his dressing gown, looked out of the window, he saw it was an unsurpassable morning for hunting: it was as if the sky were melting and sinking to the earth without any wind.
Then looking more closely at the trees around, they saw that the treasure was all melting away, and that much of it was already spread over the leaves of the oak trees and maples, which were shining with their gorgeous dress of gold and bronze, crimson and emerald.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
The picrate, which is easily soluble in benzene, crystallizes in long red needles melting at 222°.
He did not, however, infer that since the heat could not have been supplied by the ice, for ice absorbs heat in melting, this experiment afforded conclusive proof against the substantial nature of heat.
Thus the furnace may be said to have four zones, those of (1) deoxidation, (2) heating, (3) melting, and (4) collecting, though of course the heating is really going on in all four of them.
In fact, the molten iron is heated so far above its melting point that, instead of being run at once into pigs as is usual, it may, without solidifying, be carried even several miles in large clay-lined ladles to the mill where it is to be converted into steel.
The fuel has, in addition to its duties of deoxidizing and carburizing the iron and yielding the heat needed for melting both the iron and slag, the further task of desulphurizing the iron, probably by the reaction FeS+CaO+C=Fe+CaS+CO.
This usefulness iron owes in part, indeed, to its abundance, through which it has led us in the last few thousands of years to adapt our ways to its; but still in chief part first to the single qualities in which it very weak; conducting heat and electricity easily, and again offering great resistance to their passage; here welding readily, there incapable of welding; here very infusible, there melting with relative ease.
The third period has for its great distinction the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which are like Huntsman's crucible process in that their essence is their freeing wrought iron and low carbon steel from mechanically entangled cinder, by developing the hitherto unattainable temperature, rising to above 1500Ã‚° C., needed for melting these relatively infusible products.
24 along the slopes of the higher mountains, on which the rain falls more abundantly, or the melting snow supplies streams for irrigation.
It crystallizes in colourless plates melting at 20°C. and boiling at 202°C.; it is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in the ordinary organic solvents.
Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.
Walden is melting apace.
The deposits of the Post-Glacial period are represented throughout Russia, Poland and Finland, as also throughout Siberia and Central Asia, by very thick lacustrine deposits, which show that, after the melting of the ice-sheet, the country was covered with immense lakes, connected by broad channels (the fjarden of the Swedes), which later on gave rise to the actual rivers.
The rapid melting of the snow at the same time causes the rivers to swell, and renders a.
With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.
Heated above its melting point it polymerizes to di-cyandiamide (CN2H2)2, which at 150° C. is transformed into the polymer n-tri-cyantriamide or melamine (CN 2 H 2) 3, the mass solidifying.
15) employed for melting glass are usually heated with gas on the " Siemens," or some similar system of regenerative heating.
Electrical furnaces have not as yet been employed for ordinary glass-making on a commercial scale, but the electrical plants which have been erected for melting and moulding quartz suggest the possibility of electric heating being employed for the manufacture of glass.
For melting the leadless glasses, open, bowl-shaped crucibles are used, ranging from 12 to 40 in.
The heat passes from the melting furnace into the annealing kiln.
The proportions in which these ingredients are mixed vary according to the exact quality of glass required and with the form and temperature of the melting furnace employed.
Thus the dimensions of the largest glass tanks greatly exceed those of the largest steel furnaces; glass furnaces containing up to 250 tons of molten sible to work glass-tanks continuously for many months together; on the other hand, glass is not readily freed from foreign bodies that may become admixed with it, so that the absence of detachable particles is much more essential in glass than in steel melting.
In some works, the older method of melting the glass in large pots or crucibles is still adhered to, although the old-fashioned coal-fired furnaces have nearly everywhere given place to the use of producer gas and regenerators.
In general, only old coin, ingots resulting from the melting of coin, and " fine " ingots are received.
Not only do they direct rain water away from the home, they help direct melting snow and ice away as well.
These three groups traveling together--the cavalry stores, the convoy of prisoners, and Junot's baggage train--still constituted a separate and united whole, though each of the groups was rapidly melting away.
Many chemical ice melting products are harmful to animals and plants.
It forms white plates, melting at 132°, readily soluble in water, and subliming without decomposition.
It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43° C.; it boils at 210° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.
At least it wasn't a cold wind, and the snow was melting.
- Several interesting phenomena are witnessed when sulphur is heated above its melting point.
The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
Acetaldoxime, CH 3 CH: NOH, crystallizes in needles which melt at 47° C. On continued fusion the melting point gradually sinks to about 13° C., probably owing to conversion into a polymeric form.
It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.
When liquefied it boils at -89.8° C., and by further cooling may be solidified, the solid melting at -102.3° C. (W.
It is a reddish-yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water and melting at 178° C. It explodes readily when melted or subjected to shock.
At first it becomes more coarse-grained, like the Firn Schnee of the Alps, and is moist by melting during the summer.
Nearer the coast, where the melting on the surface is more considerable, the wet snow freezes hard during the winter and is more or less transformed into ice, on the surface of which rivers and lakes are formed, the water of which, however, soon finds its way through crevasses and holes in the ice down to its under surface, and reaches the sea as a sub-glacial river.
to the surface of the ice from the ice-bare coast-land and partly the dust of the atmosphere brought down by the falling snow and accumulated on the surface of the glacier's covering by the melting during the summer.
The drainage of the interior of Greenland is thus partly given off in the solid form of icebergs, partly by the melting of the snow and ice on the surface of the ice-cap, especially near its western margin, and to some slight extent also by the melting produced on its under side by the interior heat of the earth.
In June the waters of the Mekong, swollen by the rains and the melting of the Tibetan snows, rise to a height of 40 to 45 ft.
In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.
As a preliminary to the melting process, the "browse" left in the preceding operation (half-fused and imperfectly reduced ore) is introduced with some peat and coal, and heated with the help of the blast.
At the same time small bars of argentiferous lead, inserted at the back, are slowly pushed forward, so that in melting down they may replace the oxidized lead.
It crystallizes in glistening rhombohedra, melting at 70°-80° C., and boiling at Ioo° C. It is completely resolved into its components when warmed with dilute acids.
The orthocompound melts at Io 5° C. and boils at 218° C., the para-compound melts at 54° C. and boils at 230° C. Meta-nitrotoluene (melting at 16° C.) is obtained by nitrating acetparatoluidide and then replacing the amino group by hydrogen.
It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84° C.) is precipitated.
Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.
The metal is dimorphous: by cooling molten tin at ordinary air temperature tetragonal crystals are obtained, while by cooling at a temperature just below the melting point rhombic forms are produced, When exposed for a sufficient time to very low temperatures (to - 39° C. for 14 hours), tin becomes so brittle that it falls into a grey powder, termed the grey modification, under a pestle; it indeed sometimes crumbles into powder spontaneously.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
Swollen by the melting of the winter snows and by heavy rains in the mountains, it is frequently a torrent, and is thus, except in the last few miles, unnavigable for either boats or rafts.
The crucible with the semi-solid glass which it contains is now allowed to cool considerably in the melting furnace, or it may be removed to another slightly heated furnace.
The actual composition, however, of a mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be directly calculated from these figures and the known composition of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, particularly of alkali, occur during melting.
Melting and working are carried on continuously.
Tanks and pots are both used for melting the glass.
For this reason every piece of pressed glass-ware, as soon as it is liberated from the mould, is exposed to a sharp heat in a small subsidiary furnace in order that the ruffled surface may be removed by melting.
Nearly every specimen shows traces of the pressure of a tool on the outside of the neck, as well as signs of the base having been closed by melting.
Simultaneously with the issue of this patent the use of wood for melting glass was prohibited, and it was made illegal to import glass from abroad.
Silicon tetraphenyl, Si(C6H5)4, a solid melting at 231° C., is obtained by the action of chlorobenzene on silicon tetrachloride in the presence of sodium.
As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
It has in general one value for the powdery metal as obtained by reduction of the oxide in hydrogen below the melting point of the metal, another for the metal in the state which it assumes spontaneously on freezing, and this latter value, in general, is modified by hammering, rolling, drawing, &c. These mechanical operations do not necessarily add to the density; stamping, it is true, does so necessarily, but rolling or drawing occasionally causes a diminution of the density.
Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
They consist of tanks or cisterns fitted with " heads " from which a number of bags of specially woven cloth are suspended in a suitable manner, and into which the melted sugar or liquor to be filtered flows from the melting pans.
This weak solution, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melting the raw sugar, or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus to 27° Beaume density, passed through the char filter, and cooked in the vacuum pan like the other liquors.
A redistilled zinc, from an ordinarily pure commercial zinc, is often called chemically pure, but redistillation is seldom practised except for the recovery of zinc from galvanizer's dross and from the skimmings and bottoms of the melting furnaces of zinc rolling mills.
Owing to the fact that at temperatures between its melting and boiling point zinc has a strong affinity for iron, it is often contaminated by the scraper while being drawn from the condenser, as is shown by the fact that the scraper wears away rapidly.
When the furnace with this well-known regulating device was to be used, say, for the melting of metals or other conductors of electricity, the fragments of metal were placed in the crucible and the positive electrode was brought near them.
It is traversed by several rivers, fed by the melting snows of the Andes and discharging into the swamps and lagoons in the S.E.
In the district on the east of the main island the snowfall is insignificant, seldom attaining a depth of more than four or five inches and generally melting in a few days, while bright, sunny skies are usual.
Thus far the Ganges has been little more than a series of broad shoals, long deep pools and rapids, except, of course, during the melting of the snows and throughout the rainy season.
00H3)2, which is prepared in a similar manner, is a solid melting at 54° C. It is used in the preparation of pure methyl alcohol.
It is a crystalline powder difficultly soluble in water and melting at 210° C. (with decomposition).
alligare, to combine), a term generally applied to the intimate mixtures obtained by melting together two or more metals, and allowing the mass to solidify.
The mixture C has a lower freezing or melting point than that of any other mixture; it is called the eutectic mixture.
The extraction from ores in which the bismuth is present in the metallic condition may be accomplished by a simple liquation, or melting, in which the temperature is just sufficient to melt the bismuth, or by a complete fusion of the ore.
Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.
It is a white substance, melting at 225 0 -230° and boiling at 435 °-44 1 °.
Nataloin, 2C17H1807ï¿½H20, forms bright yellow scales, melting at 212°-222°; barbaloin, C 17 H 18 0 7, forms yellow prismatic crystals.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
The flask was then brought to o° by immersion in melting ice, the pressure of the gas taken, and the stop-cock closed.
These are hollow glass beads of variable density; they may be prepared by melting off pieces of very thin capillary tubing, and determining the density in each case by the method just previously described.
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at o° C., and on further cooling, it solidifies, the solid melting at -48° C. Many tellurides of metals have been examined by C. A.
Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.
Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.
The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.
Troost produced crystallized zirconium by fusing the double fluoride with aluminium in a graphite crucible at the temperature of melting iron, and extracting the aluminium from the melt with hydrochloric acid.
The ingots are valued by weighing and assaying, and a calculation is made as to the amount of copper required for melting with them to produce the standard alloy.
The operations employed in the manufacture of gold and silver coin are as follow: (1) Melting the metal and casting it into bars.
Formerly bullion was melted in crucibles made of refractory clay, but they are liable to crack and require careful handling These were succeeded by iron crucibles, especially for melting silver, and these have now been generally replaced by graphite (plumbago) crucibles made of a mixture of clay and graphite.
Gas is used as fuel for the melting furnaces at Philadelphia.
The melting losses amount to about 0.2 per moo of gold and o 6 per loon of silver in the Royal Mint.
The scissel, which amounts to about 30% of the metal operated on, is returned in bundles to the melting house.
The driving power is applied by shafting through a number of cams. In the Royal Mint both light and heavy coins are returned to the melting pot.
Of clay and earthenware there were many varieties of domestic dishes, cups and pipkins, and crucibles or melting pots made of clay and horse dung and still retaining the drossy coating of the melted bronze.
It is a strong base, melting at 104° and boiling at 145°-146°.
It may be obtained crystallized in the quadratic system by melting in a sealed tube containing hydrogen, allowed to cool partially, and then pouring off the still liquid portion by inverting the tube.
A suboxide, Na 3 0, appears to be formed as a grey mass when a clean surface of the metal is exposed to air, or when pure air is passed through the metal just above its melting point (De Forcrand, Compt.
It may be obtained crystallized in quadratic octahedra of a greenish-blue colour, by melting in a sealed tube containing an inert gas, and inverting the tube when the metal has partially solidified.
Soc., 1862, p. 267) recommends melting the metal in a flask filled with nitrogen and gradually displacing this gas by oxygen; the first formed grey film on the metal changes to a deep blue, and then the gas is rapidly absorbed, the film becoming white and afterwards yellow.
The climate is so dry, and the rains are so scarce, that an absence of forests and Alpine meadows is characteristic of the ridge; but when heavy rain falls simultaneously with the melting of the snows in the mountains, the watercourses become filled with furious torrents, which create great havoc. The main glaciers (12) are on the north slope, but none creeps below io,000 to 12,000 ft.
The junction of the edges of the silver and copper-blend was treated with a flux of borax and the whole was submitted to the heat of a furnace until the silver was seen to be melting, when it was instantly removed, care being taken to avoid pressing upon the upper or lower surfaces, as the liquid silver in that case would have been squeezed out from between the two enclosing plates and the operation ruined.
The length of the metre is independent of the thermometer so far that it has its length at a definite physical point, the temperature of melting ice (0° C.), but there is the practical difficulty that for ordinary purposes measurements cannot be always carried out at 0° C.
Cinnamic acid crystallizes in needles or prisms, melting at 133° C.; on reduction it gives phenyl propionic acid, C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 2 000H.
It readily liquefies at 0° C. under a pressure of four atmospheres, the liquefied acid boiling at -34.1 4° C. (730.4 mm.); it can also be obtained as a solid melting at -50 8° C. It is readily soluble in water, one volume of water at To° C. dissolving 425 volumes of the acid.
It exists in two different crystalline forms, the more stable or a form melting at 27.2° C., and the less stable or /3 form melting at 13.9° C. It is readily decomposed by water.
Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.
33 28, 3329 (1901)] prepare sodium cyanamide by melting sodium with carbons or some hydrocarbon, and passing ammonia over the melt at from 400 0 -600° C. The temperature is then raised to 700°-800° C., and the sodium cyanamide in contact with the residual carbon forms sodium cyanide.
They are mostly colourless liquids which boil without decomposition, or solids of low melting point.
It is obtained by hydrolysing cocaine with acids or alkalis, and crystallizes with one molecule of water, the crystals melting at 198° to 199° C. It is laevo-rotatory, and on warming with alkalis gives iso-ecgonine, which is dextro-rotatory.
Certain extraordinary features were produced when the retreat of the ice sheet had progressed so far as to open an eastward outlet for the marginal lakes along the depression between the northward slope of the Appalachian plateau in west-central New York and the southward slope of the melting ice sheet; for when this eastward outlet came to be lower than the south-westward outlet across the height of land to the Ohio or Mississippi river, the discharge of the marginal lakes was changed from the Mississippi system to the Hudson system.
The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.
Every year there are, normally, two distinct periods of high water; one an early freshet due mainly to the heavy winter rainfall on the lower river, when the upper river is still frozen hard; the other in the late spring, due to the setting in of rains along the upper courses also, and to the melting of the snow in the mountains.
Para-nitrobenzaldehyde crystallizes in prisms melting at 107° C. and is prepared by the action of chromium oxychloride on para-nitrotoluene, or by oxidizing para-nitrocinnamic acid.
Some thought they slid like solids; others that they flowed like liquids; others that they crawled by alternate expansion and contraction, or by alternate freezing and melting; others, again, that they broke and mended.
In the mountain region and in the vicinity of Lake Erie there is often a fall of several inches of snow during the winter months and the rapid melting of this produces floods on the Delaware, Susquehanna and Ohio rivers and some of their tributaries.
If the two substances are soluble in each other in all proportions at all temperatures above their melting points we get a diagram reduced to the two fusion curves cutting each other at a nonvariant point.
At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?
addition of salt lowers the melting point again, till at D we obtain another non-variant point.
As we have seen, the maxima of the various curve-branches at C, E, G, and J correspond with the melting points of the various hydrates at 37°, 32.5°, 56° and 73.5° respectively; and at these points melting or solidification of the whole mass can occur at constant temperature.
Thus in two ways at least a constant melting point can be obtained in a two-component system.
Again, it will be seen that the addition of a small quantity of one component, say B, to the other, A, does not necessarily lower the melting point, as it does with systems with no solid solutions; it is quite as likely to cause it to rise.
The freezing and melting point curves are exactly similar to theoretical curves of fig.
The acid solidifies when strongly cooled, the solid melting at - 47° C. Concentrated nitric acid forms with water a constant boiling mixture which boils at 120.5° C., contains 68% of acid and possesses a specific gravity of 1.414 (15.5° C.).
So obtained, it is a white crystalline solid, which slowly sublimes just below its melting point 094 0).
It forms colourless crystals, melting at 90°, and boiling at 265°-270°.
It forms colourless crystals, melting at 185°, and boiling at 360°.
In the glades are bunch-grass and a variety of flowering plants; buttercups, daisies, forget-me-nots and other wild flowers may be found near melting snow-banks in August.
denticornis, swarm in the ice-cold waters of the highest alpine tarns throughout the entire chain; and the former of these is also a characteristic inhabitant of pools formed from melting snow in the extreme north.
About 1740 Benjamin Huntsman introduced the " crucible process " of melting steel in small crucibles, and thus freeing it from the slag, or rich iron silicate, with which it, like wrought iron, was mechanically mixed, whether it was made in the old forge or in the puddling furnace.
The third period has for its great distinction the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which are like Huntsman's crucible process in that their essence is their freeing wrought iron and low carbon steel from mechanically entangled cinder, by developing the hitherto unattainable temperature, rising to above 1500° C., needed for melting these relatively infusible products.
The second period, by converting the metal into the fusible cast iron and melting this, for the first time removed the gangue of the ore; the third period by giving a temperature high enough to melt the most infusible forms of iron, liberated the slag formed in deriving them from cast iron.
Knowing this, and having in the Siemens regenerative gas furnace an independent means of generating this temperature, the Martin brothers of Sireuil in France in 1864 developed the open-hearth process of making steel of any desired carbon-content by melting together in this furnace cast and wrought iron.
Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.
These two things are done simultaneously by heating and melting the ore in contact with coke, charcoal or anthracite, in the iron blast furnace, from which issue intermittently two molten streams, the iron now deoxidized and incidentally carburized by the fuel with which it has been in contact, and the mineral matter, now called " slag."
The shaping processes include the mechanical ones, such as rolling, forging and wire-drawing, and the remelting ones such as the crucible process of melting wrought iron or steel in crucibles and casting it in ingots for the manufacture of the best kinds of tool steel.
holes or " tuyeres " near the bottom or " hearth," and through the melting away, by the heat thus generated, both of the iron itself which has been deoxidized in its descent, and of the other minerals of the ore, called the " gangue," which unite with the FIG.
But immediately above this level the charge is relatively viscous, because here the temperature has fallen so far that it is now at the melting or formation point of the slag, which therefore is pasty, liable to weld the whole mass together es so much tar would, and thus to obstruct the descent of the charge, or in short to " scaffold."
To this objection it may in turn be answered that, though this degree of freedom of descent may suffice for a slowrunning furnace, particularly if the slag is given such a composition that it passes quickly from the solid state to one of decided fluidity, yet it is not enough for swift-running ones, especially if the composition of the slag is such that, in melting, it remains long in a very sticky condition.
In the hearth of the blast furnace the heat made latent by the fusion of the iron and slag must of course be supplied by some body which is itself at a temperature above the melting point of these bodies, which for simplicity of exposition we may call the critical temperature of the blast-furnace process, because heat will flow only from a hotter to a cooler object.
(5) In that carburizing lowers the melting point of the iron greatly, it lowers somewhat the temperature to which the mineral matter of the ore has to be raised in order that the iron may be separated from it, because this separation requires that both iron and slag shall be very fluid.
As the melting point of the metal is gradually raised by the progressive decarburization, it at length passes above the temperature of the furnace, about 1400° C., with the consequence that the metal, now below its melting point, solidifies in pasty grains, or " comes to nature."
The coke thus at once supplies by its combustion the heat needed for melting the iron and keeping it hot, and by itself dissolving in the molten metal returns carbon to it as fast as this element is burnt out by the blast, so that the " refined " cast iron which results, though still rich in carbon and therefore easy to melt in the puddling process, has relatively little silicon.
The two great essential discoveries were first that the rapid passage of air through molten cast iron raised its temperature above the melting point of low-carbon steel, or as it was then called " malleable iron," and second that this low-carbon steel, which Bessemer was the first to make in important quantities, was in fact an extraordinarily valuable substance when made under proper conditions.
But in the crucible and the open-hearth processes the temperature attainable is limited by the danger of melting the furnace itself, both because some essential parts of it, which, unfortunately, are of a destructible shape, are placed most unfavourably in that they are surrounded by the heat on all sides, and because the furnace is necessarily hotter than the steel made within it.
Thus in the Westphalian pig and scrap practice, scrap usually forms 75 or even 80% of the charge, and pig only from 20 to 25%, indeed only enough to supply the carbon inevitably burnt out in melting the charge and heating it up to a proper casting temperature; and here the charge lasts only about 6 hours.
The oxygenated metal is prepared by melting cast iron diluted with as much scrap steel as is available, and oxidizing it with the flame and with iron ore as it lies in a thin molten layer, on the hearth of a large open-hearth furnace; the thinness of the layer hastens the oxidation, and the large size of the furnace permits considerable frothing.
at the end of the melting down, dephosphorization is then impeded by the temporary acidity of the slag, as just explained.
The crucible process consists essentially in melting one or another variety of iron or steel in small 80-lb.
charges in closed crucibles, and then casting it into ingots or other castings, though in addition the metal while melting may be carburized.
In the United States the charge usually consists chiefly of wrought iron, and in melting in the crucible it is carburized by mixing with it either charcoal or " washed metal," a very pure cast iron made by the Bell-Krupp process (§ 107).
Huntsman showed that the mere act of freeing these slag-bearing steels from their slag by melting them in closed crucibles greatly improved them.
He could make only high-carbon steel, because he could not develop within his closed crucibles the temperature needed for melting low-carbon steel.
This slag is formed by melting lime and iron oxide, with a little silica sand if need be.
Next the metal is covered with a very basic slag, made by melting lime with a little silica and fluor spar.
In addition to this work of purification, the furnace may be used for melting down the initial charge of cold metal, and for beginning the purification - in short not only for finishing but also for roughing.
The melting can be done much more cheaply in a cupola or open-hearth furnace, and the first part of the purification much more cheaply in a Bessemer converter or open-hearth furnace.
- Kjellin Induction Electric Steel Melting Furnace.
the Kjellin, can be used to replace the crucible melting process (§ 106), chiefly because their work is cheaper for two reasons.
But this ancient furnace does its fourfold work of deoxidizing, melting, removing the gangue and desulphurizing, so very economically that it is not likely to be driven out in other places until the exhaustion of our coal-fields shall have gone so far as to increase the cost of coke greatly.
the manufacture of castings of cast iron, consists essentially in pouring the molten cast iron into, moulds, and, as preparatory steps, melting the cast iron itself and preparing the moulds.
These technical difficulties are due chiefly to the very high melting point of the metal, nearly 1500° C. (2732° F.), and to the consequent great contraction which it undergoes in cooling through the long range between this temperature and that of the room.
By diazotizing para-chloraniline and adding a cold solution of potassium cyanide, a salt (melting at 29° C.) is obtained, which readily loses nitrogen, and forms parachlorbenzonitrile on the addition of copper powder.
By dissolving this diazocyanide in alcohol and reprecipitating it by water, it is converted into the isomeric diazocyanide (melting at 105-106° C.), which does not yield para-chlorbenzonitrile when treated with copper powder.
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -252.68° C. to -252.84°C., and it has also been solidified, the solid melting at -264° C. (J.
The study of polymorphism has been especially pursued by Otto Lehmann, who proved that it is an almost general property; the variety of forms which a given substance may show is often great, ammonium nitrate, for instance, showing at least four of them before melting.
The phenomena were first observed without mutual transformation, aldehyde melting at - 118°, paraldehyde at 13°, the only mutual influence being a lowering of melting-point, with a minimum at - 120° in the eutectic point.
The contraction corresponding to the melting of i gramme of ice was assumed to be.
On some occasions, owing to the sudden melting of a surface layer of ice and snow, a large quantity of cold water, percolating rapidly, gave for a short time values of the diffusivity as high as.
Under the existing system the fluctuating requirements of the currency are met without the expense of alternately minting and melting down.
By crystallization from alcohol it is obtained as colourless needles, melting at 115°.
Prinsep prepared a series of alloys of silver and gold, and of gold and platinum, whose melting points, as determined by accurate instruments, covered a range of temperature from 9540 to 1775°, at intervals of from 25° to 30°.
Carnelley and Williams employed certain salts of known melting point; whilst the Seger's cones, employed in porcelain manufacture, depend on the fusion of small cones made of clay.
Fluoranthene crystallizes in large slender needles or monoclinic tables, melting at 109-110° C. and boiling at 250-251° C. (60 mm.).
argent en plate, vessel d'argent, &c."; and apparently it is connected with bouillon, the sense of "boiling" being transferred in English to the melting of metal, so that bullion in the passage quoted meant "melting-house" or "mint."
It crystallizes in needles, melting at 42°C., and boiling at 360 C. It is insoluble in water but readily soluble in alcohol and ether.
It is a colourless liquid of very unpleasant smell, which boils at 198° C., and solidifies in a freezing mixture, the crystals obtained melting at -1° C. It shows all the characteristic properties of an acid chloride.
It is a thick oil which sets at - 20° C. to a mass of crystals of melting point o C, and boiling point 236-237°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into chlorcymol.
Ann., 18 74, 1 5 1, 449) obtained a crystalline variety by melting sulphur with anhydrous manganous sulphate and dry potassium carbonate, extracting the residue and drying it in a current of hydrogen.
Among its characteristic features is a cataract fed by melting snows, which descends 1500 ft.
part of the great central plateau is arid and has a very light rainfall; it has no streams, therefore, except from melting snows, and the higher elevations which receive the impact of the easterly winds.
The metal has somewhat the appearance of iron, and has a specific gravity of 6.628, which, after melting, is increased to 6.728.
- The metals and alloys which are neither malleable nor ductile can only be worked into required shapes by melting and casting in moulds.
Pure alizarin crystallizes in red prisms melting at 290° C. It is insoluble in water, and not very soluble in alcohol.
FUSIBLE METAL, a term applied to certain alloys, generally composed of bismuth, lead and tin, which possess the property of melting at comparatively low temperatures.
These melt between 91° and 95° C. The addition of cadmium gives still greater fusibility; in Wood's metal, for instance, which is Darcet's metal with half the tin replaced by cadmium, the melting point is lowered to 66°-71° C.; while another described by Lipowitz and containing 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium, softens at about 55° and is completely liquid a little above 60°.
By the addition of mercury to Darcet's metal the melting point may be reduced so low as 45°.
By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°.
The coastal zone is traversed by the Tumbes, Chira and Piura rivers, which have their sources in the melting snows of the higher Andes and flow westward across the desert to the coast.
It forms very deliquescent long white needles melting at 75.5° C. and boiling at 215-220° C. The bromide, iodide and sulphate are known, as is also gallium ammonium alum.
Triphenylmethane is a white crystalline solid, melting at 9 2° and boiling at 358°.
In the practical use of the instrument it is not necessary to know both the latent heat of fusion of ice and the change of volume which occurs on melting; it is sufficient to determine the change of volume per calorie, or the quantity of mercury which is drawn into the bulb of the apparatus per unit of heat added.
Considering The Wide Variations In The Physical Condition And Melting Points, The Comparatively Close Agreement Of The Atomic Heats Of The Metals At Ordinary Temperatures, Known As Dulong And Petit'S Law, Is Very Remarkable.
A pentasulphide, Rb 2 S 5, which crystallizes in red prisms melting at 223° C., is also obtained by the direct union of the normal sulphide with sulphur.
On the eastern side of both rivers are various important tributaries, fed by the more abundant rains and melting snows of the western flank of the Sierra; but these streams also shrink greatly in the dry season.
it is almost wholly in the form of snow; and this snow, melting in summer, is of immense importance to the state, supplying water once for placer mining and now for irrigation.
Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
It is the melting of the snows on the Rocky Mountains, and not the rainy season, that produces the floods of the Rio Grande.
In "autogenous soldering" two pieces of metal are united by the melting of the opposing surfaces, without the use of a separate fusible alloy or solder as a cementing material.
1908, 41, P 594): At ordinary temperatures it is a gas, but it may be condensed to a liquid and finally solidified, the solid melting at -151 ° C. It is characterized by its penetrating smell.
With the melting of the great ice-sheet the climate became milder, and the southern part of Sweden was covered with shrubs and plants now found only in the northern and alpine parts of the country (Salix polaris, Dryas octopetala, Betula nana, &c.).
This region is rainless, barren and inhospitable, absolutely destitute of vegetation except in some small river valleys where irrigation is possible, and on the slopes of some of the snow-covered peaks where the water from the melting snows nourishes a scanty and coarse vege tation before it disappears in the thirsty sands.
They are fed from the melting snows and periodical storms of the higher Andes, and most of them are completely dry part of the year.
The first is an arid desert absolutely barren along part of the coast, between Tacna and Copiapo, but with a coarse scanty vegetation near the Cordilleras along watercourses and on the slopes where moisture from the melting snows above percolates through the sand.
1610; 1019 A.H.), who wrote the charming romance of a Hindu princess who burned herself in Akbars reign with her deceased husband on the funeral pile, called Suz u Gudaz, or Burning and Melting, &c. Among the immediate predecessors of Uafi~ in the 8th century of the Hegira, in which also Ibn Yamin, the great l~ita-writer,i flourished, the highest fame was gained by the two poets of Delhi, Amir IJasan and AmIr Khosrau.
Crystals of ordinary borax swell up to a very great extent on heating, losing their water of crystallization and melting to a clear white glass.
It is a nearly colourless fuming liquid of unpleasant smell, which can be solidified to a mass of crystals melting at-6° C. It dissociates into the trichloride and chlorine when heated.
The tri-iodide forms red-coloured crystals of specific gravity 4.848 (26°), melting at 165° to 167° C. and boiling at 401° C. By the action of water they give oxybromides and oxyiodides SbOBr, Sb 4 O 5 Br 21 SbOI.
Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.
The remains are found not only round the mouths of the great rivers, but embedded in the frozen soil in such circumstances as to indicate that the animals lived not far from the localities in which they are found; and they are exposed either by the melting of the ice in warm summers or the washing away of the sea-cliffs or river-banks.
It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.
It is a dimorphous substance existing in two enantiotropic forms, one melting at 26° C. and the other at 48° C. (Th.
Many derivatives are known, thus ortho-amino-benzophenone, melting at 106° C., can be obtained by reduction of the corresponding nitro compound; it condenses under the influence of heated lead monoxide to an acridine derivative and with acetone in presence of caustic soda it gives a quinoline.
Tetramethyl-diamido-benzophenone or Michler's ketone, CO[C6H4N (CH3)2]2, melting at 173°, is of technical importance, as by condensation with various substances it can be made to yield dye-stuffs.
Thebaine forms silvery plates, melting at 193°.
Oleic acid is a colourless, odourless solid, melting at 14° and boiling at 223° (Io mm.).
The crude phosphorus is purified by melting under water and then filtering through animal black and afterwards through chamois leather, or by treating it, when molten, with chromic acid or a mixture of potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid; this causes the impurities to rise to the surface as a scum which can be skimmed off.
The acid forms a white crystalline mass, melting at 17.4° and having a strong acid reaction.
Phosphoryl tribromide, POBr 3, is a solid, melting at 45° and boiling„at 195°.
Ortho-xylene is obtained from ortho-bromtoluene, methyl iodide and sodium as a colourless mobile liquid boiling at 142°, melting at - 28°, and having a specific gravity of 0.8932 at o°.
They are both crystalline solids, the former melting when anhydrous at 199-200°, and the latter at 52° C. ' Of the homologues of quinoline, the most important are quinaldine, lepidine, -y-phenylquinoline, and flavoline.
It freezes to a colourless crystalline mass, melting at 10 5°.
By mixing the d- and 1- forms, a racemic variety melting at 253° C. is.
His Tabula Quantitatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire.
In accurate comparisons, therefore, it is necessary that the coils to be compared should be immersed in melting ice, and that sufficient time should be allowed to elapse between the measurements for the heat generated in the coil to be removed.
King ~~d1~t rdin Edward, hurrying south to oppose the invader, found exne~ his army melting away from his banner, and hastily took ship at Lynn and fled to Holland.
The free base is a colourless, odourless, crystalline solid, melting at about 30 C., and boiling at 58° C. (under a pressure of 22 mm.).
The lower section of the Don is subject to two annual floods, of which the earlier, known as the "cold water," is caused by the melting of the snow in the country of the Don Cossacks, and the later, or the "warm water," is due to the same process taking place in the region drained by the upper parts of the stream.
In April the snow is melting from the branches; spring comes in May; spring flowers are in blossom, and grain is sown.
July is quite warm; the great rivers come down full from the melting snows in the mountains.
The glacial deposits profoundly modified the surface of the country, whether they resulted from the melting of the ice-sheets of the time of maximum glaciation, or from the movements of local glaciers.
It liquefies when heated under pressure, and its melting point lies between 446° C. and 457° C. The vapour of arsenic is of a golden yellow colour, and has a garlic odour.
As water expands on freezing, so conversely ice contracts on melting; and the ice-cold water thus formed continues to contract when heated until it has reached its point of maximum density, the temperature at which this occurs being about 39° Fahr.
This succession of melting and freezing, with their accompanying thermal effects, goes on until the two blocks are cemented into one.
It forms white crystals, melting at 213° with decomposition into water and phthalic anhydride; the latter forms long white needles, melting at 128° and boiling at 284°.
Phthalyl chloride with phosphorus pentachloride gives two phthalylene tetrachlorides, one melting at 88° and the other at 47°.
Terephthalic acid, formed by oxidizing para-diderivatives of benzene, or best by oxidizing caraway oil, a mixture of cymene and cuminol, with chromic acid, as almost insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; it sublimes without melting when heated.
At the same time the combs were preserved for refilling by the bees, in lieu of melting them down for wax.
It crystallizes in prisms, containing one molecule of water of crystallization, the anhydrous form melting at 234-235° C. Nitrous acid converts it into malic acid, [[Hooc Choh Ch 2 Cooh]].
Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless, melting at - 8° and boiling at 184° C. On exposure to air it absorbs oxygen and resinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame.
Indium is a soft malleable metal, melting at 155° C. Its specific gravity is 7.421 and its specific heat 0.05695 (R.
Oils and fats have no distinct melting or solidifying point.
This is not only due to the fact that they are mixtures of several glycerides, but also that even pure glycerides, such as tristearin, exhibit two melting-points, a so-called "double melting-point," the triglycerides melting at a certain temperature, then solidifying at a higher temperature to melt again on further heating.
by melting the blubber over a free fire, the process of rendering is fast becoming obsolete, the modern practice being to deliver the blubber in as fresh a state as possible to the "whaling establishments," where the oil is rendered by methods closely resembling those worked in the enormous rendering establishments (for tallow, lard, bone fat) in the United States and in South America.
By distillation of the ammonium salt glutarimide, CH 2 (CH 2 CP) 2 NH, is obtained; it forms small crystals melting at 151° to 152° C. and sublimes unchanged.
It crystallizes in plates (from alcohol) melting at 70-71° C. and boiling at 2 54°C. It is oxidized by chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution to benzoic acid, dilute nitric acid and chromic acid mixture being without effect.
When solutions of gum arabic and gelatin are mixed, oily drops of a compound of the two are precipitated, which on standing form a nearly colourless jelly, melting at 25° C., or by the heat of the hand.
During the seasons of rain and melting snow the river is very full, and liable to freshets.
According to the purposes to which they are applied, reverberatory furnaces may be classed into two groups, namely, fusion or melting furnaces, and calcining or wasting furnaces, also called calciners.
In some processes of lead-smelting, where the minerals treated contain sand, the long calciner is provided with a melting bottom close to the fire-place, so that the desulphurized ore leaves the furnace as a glassy slag or silicate, which is subsequently reduced to the metallic state by fusion with fluxes in blast furnaces.
These are known as muffle or chamber furnaces; and by supposing the crucibles or retorts to represent similar chambers of only temporary duration, the ordinary pot melting air furnaces, and those for the reduction of zinc ores or the manufacture of coal gas, may be included in the same category.
Among the chief localities are the neighbourhood of Stourbridge in Worcestershire and Stannington near Sheffield, which supply most of the materials for crucibles used in steel and brass melting, and the pots for glass houses; Newcastle-on-Tyne and Glenboig near Glasgow, where heavy blast furnace and other firebricks, gas retorts, &c., are made in large quantities.
They are intended for use at the extreme temperatures obtainable in steel furnaces, or for the melting of platinum before the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
The former may be used as a bed for melting platinum in the same way as lime or magnesia, without affecting the quality of the metal.
In this way the metal, owing to its high conductivity and low specific heat as compared to that of water, is kept at a temperature far below its melting point if the water is renewed quickly enough.
Furnaces of this kind may be used for melting cast iron or bronze in small quantities, and were employed by H.
Sefstrom's blast furnace, used in Sweden for the assay of iron ores, is a convenient form of portable furnace applied to melting in crucibles.
He didn't even mind the rooster tail spray of water from his back tire, the product of the run off from melting snow.
She wavered on her feet and leaned into him, the tension melting from her as it did when he drew her blood earlier.
Electrically conductive adhesives with low melting points could provide many users with an acceptable solder replacement for these assemblies.
Wet snow avalanches During periods of warm weather, water from melting surface snow can permeate through the snowpack to a weak layer.
From New Scientist: THE world's largest frozen peat bog is melting.
Each holder is made from melting two recycled beer bottles.
brightened up a bit too, the midday sun melting some of the frost.
Due to its high melting point, silicon carbide can only be processed in powder form.
cauldron stirring the caldron, not the melting pot, said some.
THE Capital has become an increasingly cosmopolitan melting pot, with nearly a quarter of the city's population not native to Scotland.
cruciate ligament injury to Ben Burgess now thrown the ' new striker ' targets back into the melting pot?
The water usually comes from two sources: rainfall or the melting of snow and ice by hot volcanic debris.
Singapore's popular hawker stalls are actually serving up a melting pot of culinary delights forged by Singapore's unique multi-cultural heritage.
so musical, so melting, so ethereal, and so damn good!
Many other alloys shown in Table 1 have much higher melting points than tin-lead eutectic.
eutectic point is the lowest possible melting point (equilibrium freezing point) that a mixture of solutes may have.
Partial melting and the formation of granulite facies assemblages in Namaqualand, South Africa.
The Efco Melting Pot The Efco melting pot looks like a small deep fat fryer.
Arc furnace A steel melting furnace in which heat is generated by an arc between graphite electrodes and the metal.
Each ton of glass returned to the melting furnaces reduces our demand on raw materials by 1.2 tons.
glacier melting: Like other aspects of climate change, some authorities deny that it is happening.
Water from a melting glacier may be the source of a river.
It is this accelerated melting which is considered by many scientists to be evidence of greater global warming brought on by humans.
gratify gratified to see visitors tasting the melting ice cream.
melting polar ice, shrinking glaciers, oceans turning to acid.
ice caps melting but the hearts of men are too.
ice shelfthe melting of sea ice or the floating ice shelves along coasts, the melting of ice on land raises sea level.
incongruent melting are concentrated in the mobilizates, and are not distributed through the rock.
interatomic separation was used to assess the degree of melting.
You will notice that: the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the CIS isomer has the higher boiling point.
The ozone layer has been torn apart & the polar ice caps are melting.
limpid eyes that you could get lost in, melting expression, black pigment.
Magmas that form island arcs are produced by the partial melting of the descending plate and/or the overlying oceanic lithosphere.
It half melts, half cuts as its going along, but the melting is extremely localized.
The Japanese islands have been formed from the molten magma released by the melting Philippines Plate.
melting pot of acoustic music.
melting in the hot sun.
melting of ice caps - the sea level would rise.
This placed it at the forefront of technology and the Camborne, Redruth and Hayle area in particular became a melting pot of inventiveness.
For the younger generation Europe has long been a cultural melting pot.
They think that equal opportunities is all about putting people in a big melting pot.
Tel: Rockall 2323 Wanted great big melting pot.
The argument is sometimes tritely made - look at the success of the American melting pot - why cannot we do the same.
The Costa del Sol is an international melting pot and flesh pot with a broad appeal.
molten magma released by the melting Philippines Plate.
One of the most mouthwatering of these has to be Cold War: Melting Point.
mutated strain will come from the viral melting pots that we and our porcine friends are.
Add Salt and 5 2. Meanwhile, make the beurre noisette (browned Butter) by melting the butter in a saucepan.
The sands and gravels of the alluvial plain originated as glacial outwash from the melting glaciers inland.
ozone layer has been torn apart & the polar ice caps are melting.
Perhaps the most fascinating result of melting permafrost has been the appearance of ancient relics from Arctic peoples.
Global warming and the melting of vast areas of Siberian permafrost has been in the news recently.
Think melting mushrooms, sticky ribs, grilled pineapple with chili syrup...
polarizew melting points of most liquid crystals make them easy to study under the polarizing microscope.
But does the melting together of national economies require a world polity?
polymeric liquid being cooled toward its melting temperature.
Circle III is a melting pot of acoustic music.
America, long called " the melting pot ", finds its best blend of cultures in its music.
praline recipe is made by melting 30g caster sugar over a low heat in a heavy based saucepan until melted.
radiated, he was radiating heat; she couldn't get close enough, she was melting Two fingers.
Down the group, the metals get more reactive, and the melting points and boiling points decrease.
This latest embarrassing setback follows news last month that well testing at another Siberian field would be delayed due to melting permafrost.
shelfike the melting of sea ice or the floating ice shelves along coasts, the melting of ice on land raises sea level.
Comes with a Lifetime Guarantee as it's made from special formulation silicone rubber that is resistant to burning and melting.
The steep muddy roads are lined with melting ice, empty beer cans and old plastic sledges.
Red Buildings: home to lots of first years as well as a rather sorry melting snowman in this photo.
Take care to clear up all the shattered pieces - they become very soggy on melting!
The results show that the wetting of the lead-free alloys broadly follows that of tin-lead solder if allowance is made for the melting point.
This is increasingly the case, as lead-free soldering is beginning to be introduced to the industry with its accompanying higher melting point solders.
Now we are finally in a position to see what effect a non-volatile solute has on the melting and freezing points of the solution.
The skeletons made their way through the astonished spectators, eventually melting into the crowd, still shouting slogans against a long-dead president.
strideof the slowly melting smoke a figure emerged, striding purposefully toward the main exit.
Put them in in the morning and by tea time they are really succulent and melting in the mouth.
tabulated at intervals of 10 K in the range from the melting point to 0.8 of the critical temperature.
Unless the metal is sufficiently viscous at its melting temperature, the foam will collapse before solidification.
writhed in agony, the flames melting their skin, the smoke filling their lungs.
The resulting surface is usually duller and less lustrous than that obtained by the use of molten zinc. Another method of forming a coating of zinc, known as "sherardizing," was invented by Sherard CowperColes, who found that metals embedded in zinc dust (a product obtained in zinc manufacture and consisting of metallic zinc mixed with a certain amount of zinc oxide) and heated to temperatures well below the melting point of zinc, become coated with a layer of that metal.
The expression of his eyes had something "liquid and melting" (TOW oÃ¯¿½Ã¯¿½arwv Tip) Sc aXvaiv Kai iypbrfra), and the hair which stood up over his forehead gave the suggestion of a lion.
It forms white plates, melting at 132Ã‚°, readily soluble in water, and subliming without decomposition.
It is a white crystalline solid of melting point 43Ã‚° C.; it boils at 210Ã‚° C., and it can be distilled without decomposition.
It forms grey coloured octahedra of specific gravity 5.49 6 at 20Ã‚° C., melting at 900Ã‚° C.; it burns at a red heat, is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, but dissolves in aqua regia, and is also soluble in molten alkalis.
rend., 1888, 106, p. 1357.) The gas may be liquefied by a pressure of about 17 atmospheres, the liquid so obtained boiling at - 61.8Ã‚° C.; and by further cooling it yields a solid, the melting point of which is given by various observers as - 82Ã‚° to - 86Ã‚° C. (see Ladenburg, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 6 37).
The picrate, which is easily soluble in benzene, crystallizes in long red needles melting at 222Ã‚°.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5Ã‚° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below looÃ‚° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
Acetaldoxime, CH 3 CH: NOH, crystallizes in needles which melt at 47Ã‚° C. On continued fusion the melting point gradually sinks to about 13Ã‚° C., probably owing to conversion into a polymeric form.
It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39Ã‚° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98Ã‚° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.
When liquefied it boils at -89.8Ã‚° C., and by further cooling may be solidified, the solid melting at -102.3Ã‚° C. (W.
Chem., 1904, 41, p. 85) obtained blue crystals of the trioxide (melting at -103Ã‚° C.) on saturating liquid nitrogen peroxide with nitric oxide and cooling the mixture.
It is a reddish-yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water and melting at 178Ã‚° C. It explodes readily when melted or subjected to shock.
It crystallizes in colourless plates melting at 20Ã‚°C. and boiling at 202Ã‚°C.; it is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in the ordinary organic solvents.
On the addition of phenylhydrazine it gives a phenylhydrazone, and with hydroxylamine furnishes an oxime C6H5.CH3.C=N.OH melting at S9Ã‚°C. This oxime undergoes a peculiar rearrangement when it is dissolved in ether and phosphorus pentachloride is added to the ethereal solution, the excess of ether distilled off and water added to the residue being converted into the isomeric substance acetanilide, C6H5NHCOCH3, a behaviour shown by many ketoximes and known as the Beckmann change (see Berichte, 1886, 19, p. 988).
This product melts at 86Ã‚° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110Ã‚° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146Ã‚°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35Ã‚°.
Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190Ã‚° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160Ã‚° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.
It crystallizes in glistening rhombohedra, melting at 70Ã‚°-80Ã‚° C., and boiling at IooÃ‚° C. It is completely resolved into its components when warmed with dilute acids.
The orthocompound melts at Io 5Ã‚° C. and boils at 218Ã‚° C., the para-compound melts at 54Ã‚° C. and boils at 230Ã‚° C. Meta-nitrotoluene (melting at 16Ã‚° C.) is obtained by nitrating acetparatoluidide and then replacing the amino group by hydrogen.
It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84Ã‚° C.) is precipitated.
The metal is dimorphous: by cooling molten tin at ordinary air temperature tetragonal crystals are obtained, while by cooling at a temperature just below the melting point rhombic forms are produced, When exposed for a sufficient time to very low temperatures (to - 39Ã‚° C. for 14 hours), tin becomes so brittle that it falls into a grey powder, termed the grey modification, under a pestle; it indeed sometimes crumbles into powder spontaneously.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33Ã‚° and boiling at 201Ã‚°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
Heated above its melting point it polymerizes to di-cyandiamide (CN2H2)2, which at 150Ã‚° C. is transformed into the polymer n-tri-cyantriamide or melamine (CN 2 H 2) 3, the mass solidifying.
Silicon tetraphenyl, Si(C6H5)4, a solid melting at 231Ã‚° C., is obtained by the action of chlorobenzene on silicon tetrachloride in the presence of sodium.
Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27Ã‚° to 28Ã‚° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
In this process the raw sugar is mixed with a small amount of syrup so as to form a suitable magma, and is then run into a continuous centrifugal, where it is sufficiently washed, and from which it runs out, comparatively clean, into the melting pans described above.
This weak solution, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melting the raw sugar, or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus to 27Ã‚° Beaume density, passed through the char filter, and cooked in the vacuum pan like the other liquors.
But the quantity of water carried seawards varies within wide limits; for whereas, during the rainy season in summer and while the snows of winter are melting in spring, great volumes of water sweep down from the mountains, these broad rivers dwindle at other times to petty rivulets trickling among a waste of pebbles and boulders.
00H3)2, which is prepared in a similar manner, is a solid melting at 54Ã‚° C. It is used in the preparation of pure methyl alcohol.
It is a crystalline powder difficultly soluble in water and melting at 210Ã‚° C. (with decomposition).
It is a white substance, melting at 225 0 -230Ã‚° and boiling at 435 Ã‚°-44 1 Ã‚°.
Nataloin, 2C17H1807Ã¯¿½H20, forms bright yellow scales, melting at 212Ã‚°-222Ã‚°; barbaloin, C 17 H 18 0 7, forms yellow prismatic crystals.
The flask was then brought to oÃ‚° by immersion in melting ice, the pressure of the gas taken, and the stop-cock closed.
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at oÃ‚° C., and on further cooling, it solidifies, the solid melting at -48Ã‚° C. Many tellurides of metals have been examined by C. A.
It is a strong base, melting at 104Ã‚° and boiling at 145Ã‚°-146Ã‚°.
have adopted as a normal thermometric scale the Centigrade scale of the hydrogen thermometer, having for fixed points the temperature of pure melting ice (0Ã‚°C) and that of the vapour of boiling distilled water (100Ã‚°C), under a normal atmospheric pressure; hydrogen being taken under an initial manometric pressure of 1 metre, that is to say, at 1000/750 = 1.3158 times the normal atmospheric pressure.
The length of the metre is independent of the thermometer so far that it has its length at a definite physical point, the temperature of melting ice (0Ã‚° C.), but there is the practical difficulty that for ordinary purposes measurements cannot be always carried out at 0Ã‚° C.
Cinnamic acid crystallizes in needles or prisms, melting at 133Ã‚° C.; on reduction it gives phenyl propionic acid, C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 2 000H.
It readily liquefies at 0Ã‚° C. under a pressure of four atmospheres, the liquefied acid boiling at -34.1 4Ã‚° C. (730.4 mm.); it can also be obtained as a solid melting at -50 8Ã‚° C. It is readily soluble in water, one volume of water at ToÃ‚° C. dissolving 425 volumes of the acid.
It exists in two different crystalline forms, the more stable or a form melting at 27.2Ã‚° C., and the less stable or /3 form melting at 13.9Ã‚° C. It is readily decomposed by water.
Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7Ã‚° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.
33 28, 3329 (1901)] prepare sodium cyanamide by melting sodium with carbons or some hydrocarbon, and passing ammonia over the melt at from 400 0 -600Ã‚° C. The temperature is then raised to 700Ã‚°-800Ã‚° C., and the sodium cyanamide in contact with the residual carbon forms sodium cyanide.
It is obtained by hydrolysing cocaine with acids or alkalis, and crystallizes with one molecule of water, the crystals melting at 198Ã‚° to 199Ã‚° C. It is laevo-rotatory, and on warming with alkalis gives iso-ecgonine, which is dextro-rotatory.
The general conception of a resin is a noncrystalline body, insoluble in water, mostly soluble in alcohol, essential oils, ether and hot fatty oils, softening and melting under the influence of heat, not capable of sublimation, and burning with a bright but smoky flame.
Para-nitrobenzaldehyde crystallizes in prisms melting at 107Ã‚° C. and is prepared by the action of chromium oxychloride on para-nitrotoluene, or by oxidizing para-nitrocinnamic acid.
At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55Ã‚° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?
As we have seen, the maxima of the various curve-branches at C, E, G, and J correspond with the melting points of the various hydrates at 37Ã‚°, 32.5Ã‚°, 56Ã‚° and 73.5Ã‚° respectively; and at these points melting or solidification of the whole mass can occur at constant temperature.
The acid solidifies when strongly cooled, the solid melting at - 47Ã‚° C. Concentrated nitric acid forms with water a constant boiling mixture which boils at 120.5Ã‚° C., contains 68% of acid and possesses a specific gravity of 1.414 (15.5Ã‚° C.).
It forms colourless crystals, melting at 90Ã‚°, and boiling at 265Ã‚°-270Ã‚°.
It forms colourless crystals, melting at 185Ã‚°, and boiling at 360Ã‚°.
As the melting point of the metal is gradually raised by the progressive decarburization, it at length passes above the temperature of the furnace, about 1400Ã‚° C., with the consequence that the metal, now below its melting point, solidifies in pasty grains, or " comes to nature."
In the Bessemer or " pneumatic" process, which indeed might be called the " fuel-less " process, molten pig iron is converted into steel by having its carbon, silicon and manganese, and often its phosphorus and sulphur, oxidized and thus removed by air forced through it in so many fine streams and hence so rapidly that the heat generated by the oxidation of these impurities suffices in and by itself, unaided by burning any other fuel, not only to keep the iron molten, but even to raise its temperature from a point initially but little above the melting point of cast iron, say 1150 to 1250Ã‚° C., to one well above the melting point of the resultant steel, say i soo C. The " Bessemer converter " or " vessel " (fig.
These technical difficulties are due chiefly to the very high melting point of the metal, nearly 1500Ã‚° C. (2732Ã‚° F.), and to the consequent great contraction which it undergoes in cooling through the long range between this temperature and that of the room.
By diazotizing para-chloraniline and adding a cold solution of potassium cyanide, a salt (melting at 29Ã‚° C.) is obtained, which readily loses nitrogen, and forms parachlorbenzonitrile on the addition of copper powder.
By dissolving this diazocyanide in alcohol and reprecipitating it by water, it is converted into the isomeric diazocyanide (melting at 105-106Ã‚° C.), which does not yield para-chlorbenzonitrile when treated with copper powder.
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -252.68Ã‚° C. to -252.84Ã‚°C., and it has also been solidified, the solid melting at -264Ã‚° C. (J.
The phenomena were first observed without mutual transformation, aldehyde melting at - 118Ã‚°, paraldehyde at 13Ã‚°, the only mutual influence being a lowering of melting-point, with a minimum at - 120Ã‚° in the eutectic point.
By crystallization from alcohol it is obtained as colourless needles, melting at 115Ã‚°.
Prinsep prepared a series of alloys of silver and gold, and of gold and platinum, whose melting points, as determined by accurate instruments, covered a range of temperature from 9540 to 1775Ã‚°, at intervals of from 25Ã‚° to 30Ã‚°.
Fluoranthene crystallizes in large slender needles or monoclinic tables, melting at 109-110Ã‚° C. and boiling at 250-251Ã‚° C. (60 mm.).
It crystallizes in needles, melting at 42Ã‚°C., and boiling at 360 C. It is insoluble in water but readily soluble in alcohol and ether.
It is a colourless liquid of very unpleasant smell, which boils at 198Ã‚° C., and solidifies in a freezing mixture, the crystals obtained melting at -1Ã‚° C. It shows all the characteristic properties of an acid chloride.
It is a thick oil which sets at - 20Ã‚° C. to a mass of crystals of melting point o C, and boiling point 236-237Ã‚°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into chlorcymol.
Pure alizarin crystallizes in red prisms melting at 290Ã‚° C. It is insoluble in water, and not very soluble in alcohol.
These melt between 91Ã‚° and 95Ã‚° C. The addition of cadmium gives still greater fusibility; in Wood's metal, for instance, which is Darcet's metal with half the tin replaced by cadmium, the melting point is lowered to 66Ã‚°-71Ã‚° C.; while another described by Lipowitz and containing 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium, softens at about 55Ã‚° and is completely liquid a little above 60Ã‚°.
By the addition of mercury to Darcet's metal the melting point may be reduced so low as 45Ã‚°.
By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123Ã‚°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172Ã‚°.
It forms very deliquescent long white needles melting at 75.5Ã‚° C. and boiling at 215-220Ã‚° C. The bromide, iodide and sulphate are known, as is also gallium ammonium alum.
Triphenylmethane is a white crystalline solid, melting at 9 2Ã‚° and boiling at 358Ã‚°.
A pentasulphide, Rb 2 S 5, which crystallizes in red prisms melting at 223Ã‚° C., is also obtained by the direct union of the normal sulphide with sulphur.
It is a colourless gas, which can be condensed by cold and pressure to a liquid boiling at - 83.7Ã‚° C., and can also be solidified, the solid melting at - 112.5Ã‚° C. (K.
1908, 41, P 594): At ordinary temperatures it is a gas, but it may be condensed to a liquid and finally solidified, the solid melting at -151 Ã‚° C. It is characterized by its penetrating smell.
It crystallizes from water in yellow plates melting at 122.5Ã‚° C., which sublime on careful heating, but explode when rapidly heated.
Meyer, Berichte, 1889, 22, p. 725), so that the antimony molecule is less complex than the molecules of the elements phosphorus and arsenic. An amorphous modification of antimony can be prepared by heating the metal in a stream of nitrogen, when it condenses in the cool part of the apparatus as a grey powder of specific gravity 6.22, melting at 614Ã‚° C. and containing 98-99% of antimony (F.
It is a nearly colourless fuming liquid of unpleasant smell, which can be solidified to a mass of crystals melting at-6Ã‚° C. It dissociates into the trichloride and chlorine when heated.
The tribromide is a colourless crystalline mass of specific gravity 4.148 (23Ã‚°), melting at 90Ã‚° to 94Ã‚° C. and boiling at 2 75.4Ã‚° C. (H.
The tri-iodide forms red-coloured crystals of specific gravity 4.848 (26Ã‚°), melting at 165Ã‚° to 167Ã‚° C. and boiling at 401Ã‚° C. By the action of water they give oxybromides and oxyiodides SbOBr, Sb 4 O 5 Br 21 SbOI.
Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130Ã‚° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78Ã‚° to 79Ã‚° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.
It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113Ã‚° and boiling at 293-295Ã‚° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260Ã‚° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.
It is a dimorphous substance existing in two enantiotropic forms, one melting at 26Ã‚° C. and the other at 48Ã‚° C. (Th.
Many derivatives are known, thus ortho-amino-benzophenone, melting at 106Ã‚° C., can be obtained by reduction of the corresponding nitro compound; it condenses under the influence of heated lead monoxide to an acridine derivative and with acetone in presence of caustic soda it gives a quinoline.
Tetramethyl-diamido-benzophenone or Michler's ketone, CO[C6H4N (CH3)2]2, melting at 173Ã‚°, is of technical importance, as by condensation with various substances it can be made to yield dye-stuffs.
Thebaine forms silvery plates, melting at 193Ã‚°.
Oleic acid is a colourless, odourless solid, melting at 14Ã‚° and boiling at 223Ã‚° (Io mm.).
It combines violently with sulphur at 160Ã‚° to form phosphorus sulphoxide, P406S4, which forms highly lustrous tetragonal plates (after sublimation), melting at 102Ã‚° and boiling at 295Ã‚°; it is decomposed by water .into sulphuretted hydrogen and metaphosphoric acid, the latter changing on standing into orthophosphoric acid.
The acid forms a white crystalline mass, melting at 17.4Ã‚° and having a strong acid reaction.