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melanchthon

melanchthon

melanchthon Sentence Examples

  • Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 152 4 became professor of Greek at the university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from 1526.

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  • Melanchthon was a lecturer here (1512-1518).

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  • He was twice married, and had several sons, of whom Eusebius held a chair of philosophy at Wittenberg, and married Melanchthon's grand-daughter, Anna Sabinus.

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  • Its starting-point was a dispute with Melanchthon in 1527 as to the relation between repentance and faith.

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  • Agricola was apparently satisfied in conference with Luther and Melanchthon at Torgau, December 1527.

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  • His works were studied and _learned by heart by the great Latin writers of the Renaissance, such as Erasmus and Melanchthon; and Casaubon, in his anxiety that his son should write a pure Latin style, inculcates on him the constant study of Terence.

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  • ZACHARIAS URSINUS (1534-1583), German theologian, and one of the authors of the Heidelberg Catechism, was born at Breslau on the 18th of July 1534, and became a disciple of Melanchthon at Wittenberg.

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  • Here he heard Luther preach, but was more attracted by Melanchthon, who interested him in mathematics and astrology.

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  • Melanchthon gave him (1547) an introduction to his son-in-law, Georg Sabinus, at Konigsberg, where he was tutor to some Polish youths, and rector (1548) of the Kneiphof school.

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  • As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.

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  • At Bologna he read Melanchthon's Loci communes theologiae and was so impressed by it that in 1549 he went to Wittenberg to see the author, and shortly afterwards became a Protestant.

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  • He made his headquarters at Wittenberg until the death of Melanchthon in 1560, although during that period, as well as throughout the rest of his life, he travelled extensively in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Sweden, and even Finland and Lapland.

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  • The Confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon, revised by Luther, and presented to the emperor Charles V.

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  • An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.

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  • After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.

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  • Melanchthon, who in the tension which prevailed at the synod had shown himself inclined to negotiation, became suspicious on his return, and endeavoured to influence the elector of Saxony and Luther in accordance with his views.

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  • The proceedings opened on the 1st of October with conferences between Luther and Oecolampadius, and Melanchthon and Zwingli: then on the two following days the discussion proper - confined almost entirely to Luther and Zwingli - was held before the landgrave and his guest Duke Ulrich of Wurttemberg, in the presence of more than fifty persons.

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  • These articles were signed by the ten official members of the colloquy: Luther, Jonas, Melanchthon, Osiander, Agricola, Brenz, Oecolampadius, Bucer, Hedio and Zwingli.

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  • At Wittenberg the crypto-Calvinist controversy was then at its height, and he took the side of Melanchthon and the crypto-Calvinists.

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  • (Hanover, 1878); Phillipp Melanchthon (Berlin, 1897).

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  • Melanchthon writes " Servetum multum lego."

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  • Spiess (Wiesbaden, 1892-1895); the last section Apologia to Melanchthon, is given in the original Latin.

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  • He urged the separation of the High Lutheran party from Melanchthon (1557), got the Saxon dukes to oppose the Frankfort Recess (1558) and continued to fight for the purity of Lutheran doctrine.

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  • BERTHOLD HALLER (1492-1536), Swiss reformer, was born at Aldingen in Wurttemberg, and after studying at Pforzheim, where he met Melanchthon, and at Cologne, taught in the gymnasium at Bern.

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  • A few of the humanists became Protestants - Melanchthon, Bucer, Oecolampadius and others - but the great majority of them, even if attracted for the moment by Luther's denunciation of scholasticism, speedily repudiated the movement.

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  • Melanchthon, who was for a moment carried away by the movement, partook, with several of his students, of the communion under both kinds, and on Christmas Eve a crowd invaded the church of All Saints, broke the lamps, threatened the priests and made sport of the venerable ritual.

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  • The confession was drafted by Melanchthon,.

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  • The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Protestant literature.

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  • - For three years Calvin sojourned in Germany; he signed the Augsburg Confession, gained the friendship of Melanchthon and other leading reformers, and took part in the religious conferences of the period.

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  • Supported by the estates of the electorate, and relying upon the recess of the diet of Regensburg in 1541, he encouraged Bucer to press on with the work of reform, and in 1543 invited Melanchthon to his.

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  • The new view of faith is bracketed with the old, and practically neutralized by it; as was already the case in Melanchthon's theological definitions in the 1552-1553 edition of Loci Communes, also printed in other works by him.

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  • Philip Melanchthon's preface to his Loci communes (ed.

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  • Next the writings of Luther and Melanchthon appealed to him.

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  • Appointed teacher (1522) in the cloister school of Cappel, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes (1521).

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  • "Is it for this," he writes to Melanchthon xix.

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  • The variata edition was signed by Calvin, in the meaning, he said, of its author Melanchthon.

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  • Melanchthon and many Lutherans accepted the theory of Calvin, and alleged that Luther before his death had approved of it.

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  • The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon.

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  • Giving himself up to preaching and polemics, he aided the Reformation by his gift as a translator, turning Luther's and Melanchthon's works into German or Latin as the case might be, thus becoming a sort of double of both.

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  • It was in Paris that his younger contemporary Reuchlin acquired part of that proficiency in Greek which attracted the notice of Argyropulus, whose admiration of Reuchlin is twice recorded by Melanchthon, who soon afterwards was pre-eminent as the " praeceptor " of Germany.

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  • (B) THE Study Of The Classics In Secondary Education After the Revival of Learning the study of the classics owed much to the influence and example of Vittorino da Feltre, Budaeus, Erasmus and Melanchthon, who were among the leading representatives of that revival in Italy, France, England and Germany.

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  • Joannes (Vratislaviensis; 1517-1568), the younger brother of Andreas, was born at Breslau on the 30th of January 1517, and educated at Wittenberg, where he formed a close and lasting friendship with Melanchthon.

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  • as different aspects of the same church, and Melanchthon was even more explicit.'

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  • Luther, Justus Jonas, Melanchthon and Johann Bugenhagen were appointed to draw up a statement of the Saxon position.

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  • Melanchthon, however, soon found that, owing to attacks by Johann Eck of Ingolstadt ("404 Articles"), Saxony must state its position in doctrinal matters as well.

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  • In answer, Melanchthon was ordered to prepare an Apology of the Confession, which the emperor refused to receive; so Melanchthon enlarged it and published the editio princeps of both Confession and Apology in 1531.

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  • Dogmatic changes in this seem to have drawn forth no protest from Luther or Brenz, so Melanchthon made fresh alterations in 1542.

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  • Their Latin text, that of Melanchthon's editio princeps, is more nearly accurate.

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  • As head of the Protestant party the young elector Maurice of Saxony negotiated with Melanchthon and others, and at Leipzig, on the 22nd of December 1548, secured their acceptance of the Interim as regards adiaphora (things indifferent), points neither enjoined nor forbidden in Scripture.

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  • Passionate opposition was led by Melanchthon's colleague, Matth.

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  • So keen was his opposition to the new learning that his oration on the occasion of taking his degree of bachelor of divinity was devoted to an attack on the opinions of Melanchthon.

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  • In the interior of the church are the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise, by Peter Vischer the elder (1527), and John the Constant, by Hans Vischer; also portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the younger.

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  • In opposition to the strict Lutheran orthodoxy of Jean it represented the more moderate doctrines of Melanchthon.

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  • Melanchthon's house and the house of Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553), who was burgomaster of Wittenberg, are also pointed out.

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  • Statues of Luther (by Schadow), Melanchthon and Bugenhagen embellish the town.

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  • Among Reuchlin's own pupils were Melanchthon, Oecolampadius and Cellarius, while Sebastian Munster in Heidelberg (afterwards professor at Basel), and Buchlein (Fagius) at Isny, Strasburg and Cambridge, were pupils of the liberal Jewish scholar Elias Levita.

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  • PAUL EBER (1511-1569), German theologian, was born at Kitzingen in Franconia, and was educated at Nuremberg and Wittenberg, where he became the close friend of Philip Melanchthon.

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  • Guided by Luther and Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of the reformers prevailedelectoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and Augsburgbegan to carry out measures of church reform.

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  • Drawn up by Melanchthon, this pronouncement was intended to widen the breach between the Lutherans and the Zwinglians, and to narrow that between the Lutherans and the Romanists; from this time it was regarded as the chief standard of the Lutheran faith.

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  • The distinction of a permanent and a transitory element in the law of the Sabbath is found, not only in Luther and Melanchthon, but in Calvin and other theologians of the Reformed church.

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  • He took a genuine interest in learning; was a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther and Melanchthon to professorships.

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  • In copper-engraving Diirer's work during the same years was confined entirely to portraits, those of the cardinal-elector of Mainz ("The Great Cardinal"), Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Willibald Pirkheimer, Melanchthon and Erasmus.

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  • PHILIPP MELANCHTHON (1497-1560), German theologian and reformer, was born at Bretten in Baden on the 16th of February 1497.

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  • Reuchlin took an interest in him, and, following a contemporary custom, named him Melanchthon (the Greek form of Schwartzerd, black earth).

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  • (For Melanchthon's Latin version of the saying see Corpus reformatorum, x.

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  • 469.) This appointment marked an epoch in German university education; Wittenberg became the school of the nation; the scholastic methods of instruction were set aside, and in a Discourse on Reforming the Studies of Youth Melanchthon gave proof, not only that he had caught the Renaissance spirit, but that he was fitted to become one of its foremost leaders.

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  • Luther received a fresh impulse towards the study of Greek, and his translation of the Scriptures, begun as early as 1517, now made rapid progress, Melanchthon helping to collate the Greek versions and revising Luther's translation.

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  • Melanchthon felt the spell of Luther's personality and spiritual depth, and seems to have been prepared on his first arrival at Wittenberg to accept the new theology, which as yet existed mainly in subjective form in the person of Luther.

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  • To reduce it to an objective system, to exhibit it dialectically, the calmer mind of Melanchthon was requisite.

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  • Melanchthon was first drawn into the arena of the Reformation controversy through the Leipzig Disputation (June 27 - July 8, 1519), at which he was present.

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  • Melanchthon replied in a brief and moderately worded treatise, setting forth Luther's first principle of the supreme authority of Scripture in opposition to the patristic writings on which Eck relied.

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  • In 1521, during Luther's confinement in the Wartburg, Melanchthon was leader of the Reformation cause at the university.

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  • After the first Diet of Spires (1526), where a precarious peace was patched up for the reformed faith, Melanchthon was deputed as one of twenty-eight commissioners to visit the reformed states and regulate the constitution of churches, he having just published a famous treatise called the Libellus visitatorius, a directory for the use of the commissioners.

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  • At the Marburg conference (1529) between the German and Swiss reformers, Luther was pitted against Oecolampadius and Melanchthon against Zwingli in the discussion regarding the real presence in the sacrament.

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  • How far the normally conciliatory spirit of Melanchthon was here biased by Luther's intolerance is evident from the exaggerated accounts of the conference written by the former to the elector of Saxony.

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  • At the Diet of Augsburg (1530) Melanchthon was the leading representative of the reformation, and it was he who prepared for that diet the seventeen articles of the Evangelical faith, which are known as the "Augsburg Confession."

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  • conference further attempts were made to settle the Reformation controversy by a compromise, and Melanchthon, from his conciliatory spirit and facility of access, appeared to the defenders of the old faith the fittest of the reformers to deal with.

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  • In 1537, when the Protestant divines signed the Lutheran Articles of Schmalkalden, Melanchthon appended to his signature the reservation that he would admit of a pope provided he allowed the gospel and did not claim to rule by divine right.

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  • Melanchthon, on being referred to, declared that, though the Interim was inadmissible, yet so far as matters of indifference (adiaphora) were concerned it might be received.

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  • The fact is that Melanchthon sought, not to minimize differences, but to veil them under an intentional obscurity of expression.

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  • Luther, though he had probably uttered in private certain expressions of dissatisfaction with Melanchthon, maintained unbroken friendship with him; but after Luther's death certain smaller men formed a party emphasizing the extremest points of his doctrine.'

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  • Hence the later years of Melanchthon were occupied with controversies within the Evangelical church, and fruitless conferences with his Romanist adversaries.

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  • At first Luther's cardinal doctrine of grace appeared to Melanchthon inconsistent with any view of free will; and, following Luther, he renounced Aristotle and philosophy in general, since "philosophers attribute everything to human power, while the sacred writings represent all moral power as lost by the fall."

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  • Melanchthon's doctrine of the three concurrent causes in conversion, viz.

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  • Melanchthon, however, for whom ethics possessed a special interest, laid more stress on the law.

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  • In the Loci of 1535 Melanchthon sought to put the fact of the co-existence of justification and good works in the believer on a secure basis by declaring the latter necessary to eternal life, though the believer's destiny thereto is already fully guaranteed in his justification, In the Loci of 1543 he did not retain the doctrine of the necessity of good works in order to salvation, and to this he added, in the Leipzig Interim, "that this in no way countenances the error that eternal life is merited by the worthiness of our own works."

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  • Melanchthon was led to lay more and more stress upon the law and moral ideas; but the basis of the relation of faith and good works was never clearly brought out by him, and he at length fell back on his original position, that we have justification and inheritance of bliss in and by Christ alone, and that good works are necessary by reason of immutable Divine command.

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  • The principal works of Melanchthon, with the bulk of his correspondence, are contained in the Corpus reformatorum (vols.

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  • Melanchthon's earliest and best biographer was his friend Joachim Camerarius (1566), a new annotated edition of which is much needed.

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  • The celebration in 1897 of the 400th anniversary of Melanchthon's birth produced many short biographies and Festreden, among them works by J.

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  • The most learned of modern Melanchthon scholars was probably Karl Hartfelder, who wrote Philipp Melanchthon als Praeceptor Germaniae (Berlin, 18 99); Melanchthoniana paedagogica (Leipzig, 1892), giving in the first named two full bibliographies, one of all works written on Melanchthon, the other of all works written by him (in chronological order).

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  • Melanchthon was on his way to the Council of Trent as delegate of the elector of Saxony and the cardinal had offered to meet him at Dillingen.

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  • Melanchthon, powerless against the enthusiasts with whom his co-reformer Carlstadt sympathized, appealed to Luther, still concealed in the Wartburg.

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  • He had written to the Waldenses that it is better not to baptize at all than to baptize little children; now he was cautious, would not condemn the new prophecy off-hand; but advised Melanchthon to treat them gently and to prove their spirits, less they be of God.

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  • 1643); Ranke's History of the Reformation; Melanchthon, Die Historie von Th.

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  • Melanchthon felt himself powerless to restrain the tumult.

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  • Melanchthon took his place as leader.

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  • The document sanctioning the bigamy of the landgrave was signed by Martin Bucer, Luther and Melanchthon, and is a humiliating paper.

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  • He repeatedly expressed an admiration for Calvin's writings on the subject of the sacrament; and Melanchthon believed that if the Swiss accepted Calvin's theory of the Supper, the Wittenberg Concord could be extended to include them.

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  • The form of Lutheranism taught in electoral Saxony was that of Melanchthon, and many of its teachers and adherents, who were afterwards called Crypto-Calvinists, were favoured by the elector.

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  • In the centre the colossal statue of Luther rises, on a pedestal at the base of which are sitting figures of Peter Waldo, Wycliffe, Hus and Savonarola, the heralds of the Reformation; at the corners of the platform, on lower pedestals, are statues of Luther's contemporaries, Melanchthon, Reuchlin, Philip of Hesse, and Frederick the Wise of Saxony, between which are allegorical figures of Magdeburg (mourning), Spires (protesting) and Augsburg (confessing).

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  • Like Italian men of letters, these pioneers of humanism gave a classic turn to their patronymics; unfamiliar names, Crotus Rubeanus and Pierius Graecus, Capnion and Lupambulus Ganymedes, Oecolampadius and Melanchthon, resounded on the Rhine.

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  • In Holland and Germany, with Erasmus, Reuchlin and Melanchthon, it developed types of character, urbane, reflective, pointedly or gently critical, which, left to themselves, would not have plunged the north of Europe into the whirlpool of belligerent reform.

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  • There are statues of Dürer, Sachs, Melanchthon, the reputed founder of the grammar-school, the navigator Martin Behaim, and Peter Henlein, the inventor of the watch; and the streets are further embellished with several fountains, the most noteworthy of which are the Schöne Brunnen, 1385-1396, in the form of a large Gothic pyramid, adorned with statues of the seven electors, the "nine worthies," and Moses and the prophets; and the GÃnsemÃnnchen or goose-mannikin, a clever little bronze figure by Pankratz Labenwolf.

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  • are noteworthy: Melanchthon's Enarratio epist.

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  • It has a Gothic parish church, a palace - Schloss Wilhelmsburgwith an interesting chapel and a collection of antiquities, and possesses a Gothic town hall in which the important Protestant League of Schmalkalden, or Smalkald, was concluded in 1531, and also the house in which the articles of Schmalkalden were drawn up in 1537 by Luther, Melanchthon and other reformers.

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  • Some of the Reformers, notably Melanchthon, expected to effect a reunion of Christendom by means of the Easterns, cherishing the same hopes as the modern Old Catholic divines and their English sympathizers.

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  • Melanchthon himself sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Joasaph, patriarch of Constantinople, and some years afterwards Jacob Andreae and Martin Crusius began a correspondence with Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, in which they asked an official expression of his opinions about.

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  • Melanchthon modified his earlier view in the direction of synergism, the theory of a co-operation of divine grace and human freedom.

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  • In 1538 he entered the university of Wittenberg, studying as pauper gratis under Melanchthon.

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  • A Greek by birth, adopted son of Jacob Heraklides, despot of Paros, Samos and other Aegean islands, acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, and master of most European languages; appearing alternately as a student of astronomy at Wittenberg, whither he had been invited by Count Mansfeld, as a correspondent of Melanchthon, and as a writer of historical works which he dedicated to Philip II.

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  • The elector was a great hunter and a hard drinker, whose brave and dignified bearing in a time of misfortune won for him his surname of Magnanimous, and drew eulogies from Roger Ascham and Melanchthon.

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  • The empirical individualism of the work, tending necessarily to limit the province of reason and extend that of faith, together with scattered utterances on special points, which gained for Biel the title of Papista Antipapista, had considerable influence in giving form to the doctrines of Luther and Melanchthon.

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  • Luther was no systematic thinker; Melanchthon, the theologian of the Lutheran Church, gave his system, the loose form of Loci communes, and went back more and more in successive editions to the traditional lines of doctrinal theory - a course which could not be followed without bringing back much of the older substance along with the familiar forms of thought.

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  • To find the distinctive technicalities of Lutheranism we have to leave Melanchthon's system (and his great Reformation creed, the Augsburg Confession) for the Formula of Concord and the lesser men of that later period.

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  • We notice in him resolute Predestinarianism - as in Luther, and at first in Melanchthon too; the vehicle of revived Augustinian piety - and resolute depotentiation of sacraments, with their definite reduction to two (admittedly the two chief sacraments) - baptism and the Lord's Supper.

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  • Lutheranism seeks to add, in a sense, a third sacrament, Penance (so even Melanchthon).

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  • Zwingli and Calvin, developing a hint of Hus, introduce a distinction between the visible and the invisible Church which Melanchthon repudiates but later Lutheranism adopts.

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  • Later editions of Melanchthon's Loci Communes, generously protected by Luther, drop out or tone down Luther's favourite doctrine of predestination.

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  • All the Protestant re - formers are of theological importance - Luther, Melanchthon and 1 " Mystical Theology " is described in Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary as a " branch " of Moral Theology.

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  • He was present also at the diet at Regensburg, where he deepened his acquaintance with Melanchthon, and formed with him a friendship which lasted through life.

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  • When, however, it is remembered that the unanimous decision of the Swiss churches and of the Swiss state governments was that Servetus deserved to die; that the general voice of Christendom was in favour of this; that even such a man as Melanchthon affirmed the justice of the sentence; 3 that an eminent English divine of the next age should declare the process against him "just and honourable," 4 and that only a few voices here and there were at the time raised against it, many will be ready to accept the judgment of Coleridge, that the death of Servetus was not "Calvin's guilt especially, but the common opprobrium of all European Christendom."

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  • - Melanchthon to Calvin, 14th Oct.

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  • Opposite its main entrance is the Reformation monument, with bronze statues of Luther and Melanchthon, by Johann Schilling, unveiled in 1883.

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  • He had here the good fortune to attract the attention of Luther and Melanchthon, and subsequently became one of Luther's most active helpers in the Reformation.

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  • His principal work, De Motu Stellarum, was published at Nuremberg in 1537 by Melanchthon, in a blundering Latin translation by Plato Tiburtinus (fl.

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  • He was a schoolfellow with Melanchthon at Pforzheim, whence he went to the university of Vienna, distinguishing himself there as a Latinist and Grecian.

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  • Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 152 4 became professor of Greek at the university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from 1526.

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  • Melanchthon was a lecturer here (1512-1518).

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  • In 1521 he went to Wittenberg, where he formed a close friendship with Luther and Melanchthon, and in 1522 he married.

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  • At this time, in association with the keen humanists Conrad Mutian, Crotus Rubeanus and Eoban Hess, he was of sceptical tendency; moving to Wittenberg in 1519, he became evangelical under the teaching of Melanchthon and the preaching of Luther.

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  • He was twice married, and had several sons, of whom Eusebius held a chair of philosophy at Wittenberg, and married Melanchthon's grand-daughter, Anna Sabinus.

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  • Its starting-point was a dispute with Melanchthon in 1527 as to the relation between repentance and faith.

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  • Melanchthon urged that repentance must precede faith, and that knowledge of the moral law is needed to produce repentance.

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  • Agricola was apparently satisfied in conference with Luther and Melanchthon at Torgau, December 1527.

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  • His works were studied and _learned by heart by the great Latin writers of the Renaissance, such as Erasmus and Melanchthon; and Casaubon, in his anxiety that his son should write a pure Latin style, inculcates on him the constant study of Terence.

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  • Osiander's divergence from Luther's doctrine of justification by faith involved him in a violent quarrel with Melanchthon, who had adherents in Konigsberg, and these theological disputes soon created an uproar in the town.

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  • ZACHARIAS URSINUS (1534-1583), German theologian, and one of the authors of the Heidelberg Catechism, was born at Breslau on the 18th of July 1534, and became a disciple of Melanchthon at Wittenberg.

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  • Here he heard Luther preach, but was more attracted by Melanchthon, who interested him in mathematics and astrology.

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  • Melanchthon gave him (1547) an introduction to his son-in-law, Georg Sabinus, at Konigsberg, where he was tutor to some Polish youths, and rector (1548) of the Kneiphof school.

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  • As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.

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  • At Bologna he read Melanchthon's Loci communes theologiae and was so impressed by it that in 1549 he went to Wittenberg to see the author, and shortly afterwards became a Protestant.

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  • He made his headquarters at Wittenberg until the death of Melanchthon in 1560, although during that period, as well as throughout the rest of his life, he travelled extensively in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Sweden, and even Finland and Lapland.

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  • The Confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon, revised by Luther, and presented to the emperor Charles V.

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  • An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.

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  • After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.

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  • Melanchthon, who in the tension which prevailed at the synod had shown himself inclined to negotiation, became suspicious on his return, and endeavoured to influence the elector of Saxony and Luther in accordance with his views.

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  • The proceedings opened on the 1st of October with conferences between Luther and Oecolampadius, and Melanchthon and Zwingli: then on the two following days the discussion proper - confined almost entirely to Luther and Zwingli - was held before the landgrave and his guest Duke Ulrich of Wurttemberg, in the presence of more than fifty persons.

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  • These articles were signed by the ten official members of the colloquy: Luther, Jonas, Melanchthon, Osiander, Agricola, Brenz, Oecolampadius, Bucer, Hedio and Zwingli.

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  • At Wittenberg the crypto-Calvinist controversy was then at its height, and he took the side of Melanchthon and the crypto-Calvinists.

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  • (Hanover, 1878); Phillipp Melanchthon (Berlin, 1897).

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  • Melanchthon writes " Servetum multum lego."

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  • Spiess (Wiesbaden, 1892-1895); the last section Apologia to Melanchthon, is given in the original Latin.

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  • He urged the separation of the High Lutheran party from Melanchthon (1557), got the Saxon dukes to oppose the Frankfort Recess (1558) and continued to fight for the purity of Lutheran doctrine.

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  • BERTHOLD HALLER (1492-1536), Swiss reformer, was born at Aldingen in Wurttemberg, and after studying at Pforzheim, where he met Melanchthon, and at Cologne, taught in the gymnasium at Bern.

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  • A few of the humanists became Protestants - Melanchthon, Bucer, Oecolampadius and others - but the great majority of them, even if attracted for the moment by Luther's denunciation of scholasticism, speedily repudiated the movement.

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  • Melanchthon, who was for a moment carried away by the movement, partook, with several of his students, of the communion under both kinds, and on Christmas Eve a crowd invaded the church of All Saints, broke the lamps, threatened the priests and made sport of the venerable ritual.

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  • The confession was drafted by Melanchthon,.

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  • The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Protestant literature.

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  • - For three years Calvin sojourned in Germany; he signed the Augsburg Confession, gained the friendship of Melanchthon and other leading reformers, and took part in the religious conferences of the period.

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  • Supported by the estates of the electorate, and relying upon the recess of the diet of Regensburg in 1541, he encouraged Bucer to press on with the work of reform, and in 1543 invited Melanchthon to his.

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  • The new view of faith is bracketed with the old, and practically neutralized by it; as was already the case in Melanchthon's theological definitions in the 1552-1553 edition of Loci Communes, also printed in other works by him.

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  • Philip Melanchthon's preface to his Loci communes (ed.

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  • Next the writings of Luther and Melanchthon appealed to him.

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  • Appointed teacher (1522) in the cloister school of Cappel, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes (1521).

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  • "Is it for this," he writes to Melanchthon xix.

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  • The variata edition was signed by Calvin, in the meaning, he said, of its author Melanchthon.

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  • Melanchthon and many Lutherans accepted the theory of Calvin, and alleged that Luther before his death had approved of it.

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  • The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon.

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  • Giving himself up to preaching and polemics, he aided the Reformation by his gift as a translator, turning Luther's and Melanchthon's works into German or Latin as the case might be, thus becoming a sort of double of both.

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  • It was in Paris that his younger contemporary Reuchlin acquired part of that proficiency in Greek which attracted the notice of Argyropulus, whose admiration of Reuchlin is twice recorded by Melanchthon, who soon afterwards was pre-eminent as the " praeceptor " of Germany.

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  • (B) THE Study Of The Classics In Secondary Education After the Revival of Learning the study of the classics owed much to the influence and example of Vittorino da Feltre, Budaeus, Erasmus and Melanchthon, who were among the leading representatives of that revival in Italy, France, England and Germany.

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  • Such a fate was, however, averted by the intervention of Melanchthon (d.

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  • Joannes (Vratislaviensis; 1517-1568), the younger brother of Andreas, was born at Breslau on the 30th of January 1517, and educated at Wittenberg, where he formed a close and lasting friendship with Melanchthon.

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  • as different aspects of the same church, and Melanchthon was even more explicit.'

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  • Luther, Justus Jonas, Melanchthon and Johann Bugenhagen were appointed to draw up a statement of the Saxon position.

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  • Melanchthon, however, soon found that, owing to attacks by Johann Eck of Ingolstadt ("404 Articles"), Saxony must state its position in doctrinal matters as well.

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  • In answer, Melanchthon was ordered to prepare an Apology of the Confession, which the emperor refused to receive; so Melanchthon enlarged it and published the editio princeps of both Confession and Apology in 1531.

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  • Dogmatic changes in this seem to have drawn forth no protest from Luther or Brenz, so Melanchthon made fresh alterations in 1542.

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  • Their Latin text, that of Melanchthon's editio princeps, is more nearly accurate.

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  • As head of the Protestant party the young elector Maurice of Saxony negotiated with Melanchthon and others, and at Leipzig, on the 22nd of December 1548, secured their acceptance of the Interim as regards adiaphora (things indifferent), points neither enjoined nor forbidden in Scripture.

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  • Passionate opposition was led by Melanchthon's colleague, Matth.

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  • So keen was his opposition to the new learning that his oration on the occasion of taking his degree of bachelor of divinity was devoted to an attack on the opinions of Melanchthon.

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  • In the interior of the church are the tombs of Luther and Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise, by Peter Vischer the elder (1527), and John the Constant, by Hans Vischer; also portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the younger.

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  • In opposition to the strict Lutheran orthodoxy of Jean it represented the more moderate doctrines of Melanchthon.

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  • Melanchthon's house and the house of Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553), who was burgomaster of Wittenberg, are also pointed out.

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  • Statues of Luther (by Schadow), Melanchthon and Bugenhagen embellish the town.

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  • Among Reuchlin's own pupils were Melanchthon, Oecolampadius and Cellarius, while Sebastian Munster in Heidelberg (afterwards professor at Basel), and Buchlein (Fagius) at Isny, Strasburg and Cambridge, were pupils of the liberal Jewish scholar Elias Levita.

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  • PAUL EBER (1511-1569), German theologian, was born at Kitzingen in Franconia, and was educated at Nuremberg and Wittenberg, where he became the close friend of Philip Melanchthon.

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  • Guided by Luther and Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of the reformers prevailedelectoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and Augsburgbegan to carry out measures of church reform.

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  • Drawn up by Melanchthon, this pronouncement was intended to widen the breach between the Lutherans and the Zwinglians, and to narrow that between the Lutherans and the Romanists; from this time it was regarded as the chief standard of the Lutheran faith.

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  • The distinction of a permanent and a transitory element in the law of the Sabbath is found, not only in Luther and Melanchthon, but in Calvin and other theologians of the Reformed church.

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  • He took a genuine interest in learning; was a friend of Georg Spalatin; and in 1502 founded the university of Wittenberg, where he appointed Luther and Melanchthon to professorships.

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  • In copper-engraving Diirer's work during the same years was confined entirely to portraits, those of the cardinal-elector of Mainz ("The Great Cardinal"), Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Willibald Pirkheimer, Melanchthon and Erasmus.

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  • PHILIPP MELANCHTHON (1497-1560), German theologian and reformer, was born at Bretten in Baden on the 16th of February 1497.

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  • Reuchlin took an interest in him, and, following a contemporary custom, named him Melanchthon (the Greek form of Schwartzerd, black earth).

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  • At Tubingen he lived as student and teacher for six years, until on Reuchlin's advice, the elector of Saxony called him to Wittenberg as professor of Greek in 1518.1 Her character is evidenced by the familiar proverb Wer mehr will verzehren Denn sein Pflug kann erehren, Der muss zuletzt verderben Und vielleicht am Galgen sterben of which Melanchthon said to his students "Didici hoc a mea matre, vos etiam observate."

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  • (For Melanchthon's Latin version of the saying see Corpus reformatorum, x.

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  • 469.) This appointment marked an epoch in German university education; Wittenberg became the school of the nation; the scholastic methods of instruction were set aside, and in a Discourse on Reforming the Studies of Youth Melanchthon gave proof, not only that he had caught the Renaissance spirit, but that he was fitted to become one of its foremost leaders.

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  • Luther received a fresh impulse towards the study of Greek, and his translation of the Scriptures, begun as early as 1517, now made rapid progress, Melanchthon helping to collate the Greek versions and revising Luther's translation.

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  • Melanchthon felt the spell of Luther's personality and spiritual depth, and seems to have been prepared on his first arrival at Wittenberg to accept the new theology, which as yet existed mainly in subjective form in the person of Luther.

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  • To reduce it to an objective system, to exhibit it dialectically, the calmer mind of Melanchthon was requisite.

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  • Melanchthon was first drawn into the arena of the Reformation controversy through the Leipzig Disputation (June 27 - July 8, 1519), at which he was present.

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  • Melanchthon replied in a brief and moderately worded treatise, setting forth Luther's first principle of the supreme authority of Scripture in opposition to the patristic writings on which Eck relied.

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  • In 1521, during Luther's confinement in the Wartburg, Melanchthon was leader of the Reformation cause at the university.

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  • After the first Diet of Spires (1526), where a precarious peace was patched up for the reformed faith, Melanchthon was deputed as one of twenty-eight commissioners to visit the reformed states and regulate the constitution of churches, he having just published a famous treatise called the Libellus visitatorius, a directory for the use of the commissioners.

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  • At the Marburg conference (1529) between the German and Swiss reformers, Luther was pitted against Oecolampadius and Melanchthon against Zwingli in the discussion regarding the real presence in the sacrament.

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  • How far the normally conciliatory spirit of Melanchthon was here biased by Luther's intolerance is evident from the exaggerated accounts of the conference written by the former to the elector of Saxony.

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  • At the Diet of Augsburg (1530) Melanchthon was the leading representative of the reformation, and it was he who prepared for that diet the seventeen articles of the Evangelical faith, which are known as the "Augsburg Confession."

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  • conference further attempts were made to settle the Reformation controversy by a compromise, and Melanchthon, from his conciliatory spirit and facility of access, appeared to the defenders of the old faith the fittest of the reformers to deal with.

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  • In 1537, when the Protestant divines signed the Lutheran Articles of Schmalkalden, Melanchthon appended to his signature the reservation that he would admit of a pope provided he allowed the gospel and did not claim to rule by divine right.

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  • Melanchthon, on being referred to, declared that, though the Interim was inadmissible, yet so far as matters of indifference (adiaphora) were concerned it might be received.

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  • The fact is that Melanchthon sought, not to minimize differences, but to veil them under an intentional obscurity of expression.

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  • Luther, though he had probably uttered in private certain expressions of dissatisfaction with Melanchthon, maintained unbroken friendship with him; but after Luther's death certain smaller men formed a party emphasizing the extremest points of his doctrine.'

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  • Hence the later years of Melanchthon were occupied with controversies within the Evangelical church, and fruitless conferences with his Romanist adversaries.

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  • At first Luther's cardinal doctrine of grace appeared to Melanchthon inconsistent with any view of free will; and, following Luther, he renounced Aristotle and philosophy in general, since "philosophers attribute everything to human power, while the sacred writings represent all moral power as lost by the fall."

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  • Melanchthon's doctrine of the three concurrent causes in conversion, viz.

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  • Melanchthon, however, for whom ethics possessed a special interest, laid more stress on the law.

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  • In the Loci of 1535 Melanchthon sought to put the fact of the co-existence of justification and good works in the believer on a secure basis by declaring the latter necessary to eternal life, though the believer's destiny thereto is already fully guaranteed in his justification, In the Loci of 1543 he did not retain the doctrine of the necessity of good works in order to salvation, and to this he added, in the Leipzig Interim, "that this in no way countenances the error that eternal life is merited by the worthiness of our own works."

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  • Melanchthon was led to lay more and more stress upon the law and moral ideas; but the basis of the relation of faith and good works was never clearly brought out by him, and he at length fell back on his original position, that we have justification and inheritance of bliss in and by Christ alone, and that good works are necessary by reason of immutable Divine command.

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  • The principal works of Melanchthon, with the bulk of his correspondence, are contained in the Corpus reformatorum (vols.

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  • Melanchthon's earliest and best biographer was his friend Joachim Camerarius (1566), a new annotated edition of which is much needed.

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  • The celebration in 1897 of the 400th anniversary of Melanchthon's birth produced many short biographies and Festreden, among them works by J.

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  • The most learned of modern Melanchthon scholars was probably Karl Hartfelder, who wrote Philipp Melanchthon als Praeceptor Germaniae (Berlin, 18 99); Melanchthoniana paedagogica (Leipzig, 1892), giving in the first named two full bibliographies, one of all works written on Melanchthon, the other of all works written by him (in chronological order).

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  • Melanchthon was on his way to the Council of Trent as delegate of the elector of Saxony and the cardinal had offered to meet him at Dillingen.

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  • Melanchthon, powerless against the enthusiasts with whom his co-reformer Carlstadt sympathized, appealed to Luther, still concealed in the Wartburg.

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  • He had written to the Waldenses that it is better not to baptize at all than to baptize little children; now he was cautious, would not condemn the new prophecy off-hand; but advised Melanchthon to treat them gently and to prove their spirits, less they be of God.

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  • 1643); Ranke's History of the Reformation; Melanchthon, Die Historie von Th.

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  • Melanchthon felt himself powerless to restrain the tumult.

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  • Melanchthon took his place as leader.

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  • The document sanctioning the bigamy of the landgrave was signed by Martin Bucer, Luther and Melanchthon, and is a humiliating paper.

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  • He repeatedly expressed an admiration for Calvin's writings on the subject of the sacrament; and Melanchthon believed that if the Swiss accepted Calvin's theory of the Supper, the Wittenberg Concord could be extended to include them.

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  • - (a) For Luther's life as a whole: Melanchthon, "Historia de vita et actis Lutheri" (Wittenberg, 1545), in the Corpus Reformatorum, vi.; Mathesius, Historien von.

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  • When in 1540 Philip the Magnanimous, the reforming Landgrave of Hesse, determined (with his wife's approval, she being a confirmed invalid) to marry a second wife, Luther and Melanchthon approved "as his personal friends, though not as doctors of theology"; while Martin Bucer assisted at the marriage.

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  • The form of Lutheranism taught in electoral Saxony was that of Melanchthon, and many of its teachers and adherents, who were afterwards called Crypto-Calvinists, were favoured by the elector.

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  • In the centre the colossal statue of Luther rises, on a pedestal at the base of which are sitting figures of Peter Waldo, Wycliffe, Hus and Savonarola, the heralds of the Reformation; at the corners of the platform, on lower pedestals, are statues of Luther's contemporaries, Melanchthon, Reuchlin, Philip of Hesse, and Frederick the Wise of Saxony, between which are allegorical figures of Magdeburg (mourning), Spires (protesting) and Augsburg (confessing).

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  • Like Italian men of letters, these pioneers of humanism gave a classic turn to their patronymics; unfamiliar names, Crotus Rubeanus and Pierius Graecus, Capnion and Lupambulus Ganymedes, Oecolampadius and Melanchthon, resounded on the Rhine.

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  • Reuchlin was no less learned than Pico; Melanchthon no less humane than Ficino; Erasmus no less witty, and far more trenchant, than Petrarch; Ulrich von Hutten no less humorous than Folengo; Paracelsus no less fantastically learned than Cardano.

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  • In Holland and Germany, with Erasmus, Reuchlin and Melanchthon, it developed types of character, urbane, reflective, pointedly or gently critical, which, left to themselves, would not have plunged the north of Europe into the whirlpool of belligerent reform.

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  • There are statues of Dürer, Sachs, Melanchthon, the reputed founder of the grammar-school, the navigator Martin Behaim, and Peter Henlein, the inventor of the watch; and the streets are further embellished with several fountains, the most noteworthy of which are the Schöne Brunnen, 1385-1396, in the form of a large Gothic pyramid, adorned with statues of the seven electors, the "nine worthies," and Moses and the prophets; and the GÃnsemÃnnchen or goose-mannikin, a clever little bronze figure by Pankratz Labenwolf.

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  • are noteworthy: Melanchthon's Enarratio epist.

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  • It has a Gothic parish church, a palace - Schloss Wilhelmsburgwith an interesting chapel and a collection of antiquities, and possesses a Gothic town hall in which the important Protestant League of Schmalkalden, or Smalkald, was concluded in 1531, and also the house in which the articles of Schmalkalden were drawn up in 1537 by Luther, Melanchthon and other reformers.

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  • Some of the Reformers, notably Melanchthon, expected to effect a reunion of Christendom by means of the Easterns, cherishing the same hopes as the modern Old Catholic divines and their English sympathizers.

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  • Melanchthon himself sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Joasaph, patriarch of Constantinople, and some years afterwards Jacob Andreae and Martin Crusius began a correspondence with Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, in which they asked an official expression of his opinions about.

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  • Melanchthon modified his earlier view in the direction of synergism, the theory of a co-operation of divine grace and human freedom.

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  • In 1538 he entered the university of Wittenberg, studying as pauper gratis under Melanchthon.

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  • A Greek by birth, adopted son of Jacob Heraklides, despot of Paros, Samos and other Aegean islands, acquainted with Greek and Latin literature, and master of most European languages; appearing alternately as a student of astronomy at Wittenberg, whither he had been invited by Count Mansfeld, as a correspondent of Melanchthon, and as a writer of historical works which he dedicated to Philip II.

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  • The Lutheran Church had, in continuing Melanchthon's attempt to construct the evangelical faith as a doctrinal system, by the 17th century become a creed-bound theological and sacramentarian institution, which orthodox theologians like Johann Gerhard of Jena (d.

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  • The elector was a great hunter and a hard drinker, whose brave and dignified bearing in a time of misfortune won for him his surname of Magnanimous, and drew eulogies from Roger Ascham and Melanchthon.

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  • The empirical individualism of the work, tending necessarily to limit the province of reason and extend that of faith, together with scattered utterances on special points, which gained for Biel the title of Papista Antipapista, had considerable influence in giving form to the doctrines of Luther and Melanchthon.

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  • Luther was no systematic thinker; Melanchthon, the theologian of the Lutheran Church, gave his system, the loose form of Loci communes, and went back more and more in successive editions to the traditional lines of doctrinal theory - a course which could not be followed without bringing back much of the older substance along with the familiar forms of thought.

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  • To find the distinctive technicalities of Lutheranism we have to leave Melanchthon's system (and his great Reformation creed, the Augsburg Confession) for the Formula of Concord and the lesser men of that later period.

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  • We notice in him resolute Predestinarianism - as in Luther, and at first in Melanchthon too; the vehicle of revived Augustinian piety - and resolute depotentiation of sacraments, with their definite reduction to two (admittedly the two chief sacraments) - baptism and the Lord's Supper.

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  • Lutheranism seeks to add, in a sense, a third sacrament, Penance (so even Melanchthon).

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  • Zwingli and Calvin, developing a hint of Hus, introduce a distinction between the visible and the invisible Church which Melanchthon repudiates but later Lutheranism adopts.

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  • Later editions of Melanchthon's Loci Communes, generously protected by Luther, drop out or tone down Luther's favourite doctrine of predestination.

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  • All the Protestant re - formers are of theological importance - Luther, Melanchthon and 1 " Mystical Theology " is described in Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary as a " branch " of Moral Theology.

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  • He was present also at the diet at Regensburg, where he deepened his acquaintance with Melanchthon, and formed with him a friendship which lasted through life.

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  • When, however, it is remembered that the unanimous decision of the Swiss churches and of the Swiss state governments was that Servetus deserved to die; that the general voice of Christendom was in favour of this; that even such a man as Melanchthon affirmed the justice of the sentence; 3 that an eminent English divine of the next age should declare the process against him "just and honourable," 4 and that only a few voices here and there were at the time raised against it, many will be ready to accept the judgment of Coleridge, that the death of Servetus was not "Calvin's guilt especially, but the common opprobrium of all European Christendom."

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  • - Melanchthon to Calvin, 14th Oct.

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  • Opposite its main entrance is the Reformation monument, with bronze statues of Luther and Melanchthon, by Johann Schilling, unveiled in 1883.

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  • He had here the good fortune to attract the attention of Luther and Melanchthon, and subsequently became one of Luther's most active helpers in the Reformation.

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  • His principal work, De Motu Stellarum, was published at Nuremberg in 1537 by Melanchthon, in a blundering Latin translation by Plato Tiburtinus (fl.

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