The translator was Tsubouchi Shyo, one of the greatest writers of the Meiji era.
He also brought out the first literary periodical published in Japan, namely, the Waseda Bungaku, so called because Tsubouchi was professor of literature in the Waseda University, an institution founded by Count Okuma, whose name cannot be omitted from any history of Meiji literature, not as an author but as a patron.
Japanese journalistic writing in these early years of Meiji was marred by extreme and pedantic classicism.
Thus, in the early years of the Meiji era, there was a period of complete prostitution.
These compilations together with the Nikon Gwaishi (History of Japan Outside the Court), written by Rai Sanyo and published in I827~ constituted the chief sources of historical knowledge before the Meiji era.
This departure from established canons must be traced to the influence of the short-lived academy of Italian art established by the Japanese government early in the Meiji era.
During the first 40 years of the Meiji era numerous meteorological stations were established.
But it was not until the Meiji era that history, in the modern sense of the tei~m, began to be written.
As illustrating the rapid development of familiarity with foreign authors, a Japanese retrospect of the Meiji era notes that whereas Macaulays Esfays were ii the curriculum of the Imperial University in 1881-1882, they were studied, five or six years later, in secondary schools, and pupils of the latter were able to read with understanding the works of Goldsmith, Tennyson and Thackeray.
But the Meiji era has had its Zeshin, and it had in 1909 Shirayama Fukumatsu, Kawanabe ltchO, Ogawa ShOmin, Uematsu HOmin, Shibayama SOichi, Morishita Morihachi and other lesser experts, all masters in designing and execution.
The only branch of the lacquerers art that can be said to have shown any marked development in the Meiji era is that in which parts of the decorative scheme consist of objects in gold, silver, shakudo, shibuichi, iron, or, above all, ivory or mother- N
Prince Iwakura, one of the leaders of the Meiji statesmen, persuaded the feudatories to employ a part of the bonds as capital for railway construction, and thus the first private railway company was formed in Japan under the name Nippon tetsudo kaisha (Japan railway company), the treasury guaranteeing 8% on the paid-up capital for a period of 15 years.
But with the advent of the new regimen in Meiji days there arose a desire for social plays depicting the life of the modern generation, and as these croppy dramas (zampatsumono)so called in allusion to the European method of cutting the hair closewere not included in the repertoire of the orthodox theatre, amateur troupes (known as sOshi-yakusha) were organized to fill the void.
They are charmingly simple and graceful, and they have been rendered into English again and again since the beginning of the Meiji era.
But this failed against the modern army of Emperor Meiji and Sago committed seppuku (suicide) once defeat was in sight.
Up to Tsubouchis time the Meiji literature was all in the literary language, but there was then formed a society calling itself Kenyusha, some of whose associates-as BimyOsaiused the colloquial language in their works, while othersas Kayo, Rohan, &c.went back to the classical diction of the Genroku era (1655-1703).
During the first twenty-five years of the Meiji era, the Owari potters sought to compensate the technical and artistic defects of their pieces by giving them magnificent dimensions; but at the Tokyo industrial exhibition (1891) they were able to contribute some specimens showing decorative, plastic and graving skill of no mean order.
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