Mehemet sentence example

mehemet
  • He was of better education than most of his contemporaries, and had married a daughter of Colonel Seves the French non-commissioned officer who became Soliman Pasha under Mehemet Ali.
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  • About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
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  • Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.
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  • The result of the war was to make Russia supreme at Constantinople; and before long an opportunity of further increasing her influence was created by Mehemet Ali, the ambitious pasha of Egypt, who in November 1831 began a war with his sovereign in Syria, gained a series of victories over the Turkish forces in Asia Minor and threatened Constantinople.
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  • England and France protested energetically and the treaty remained a dead letter, but the question came up again in 1840, after Mahmud's renewed attempt to crush Mehemet Ali had ended in the utter defeat of the Turks by Ibrahim at Nezib (June 24, 1839).
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  • The sultan then invoked the assistance of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, who despatched 7000 Albanians to the island.
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  • This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.
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  • In 1840 Crete was again taken from Mehemet Ali, and replaced under the dominion of the Turks, but fortunately Mustafa still retained his governorship until he left for Constantinople to become grand vizier in 1852.
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  • At first in a high position in the gendarmerie, he was soon transferred to Mehemet's staff, and thence took over the command of a division of infantry.
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  • The industry was actively promoted by a Frenchman named Jumel, in the service of Mehemet Ali, from 1820 onwards with great success.
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  • When the other branches and the Alexandria canal silted up, Rosetta prospered like its sister port of Damietta on the eastern branch; the main trade of the overland route to India passed through it until Mehemet Ali cut a new canal joining Alexandria to the Nile.
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  • From the landing-stage, by the customs house, roads lead to the Place Mehemet Ali, the centre of the life of the city and the starting-point of the electric tramways.
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  • Here, overlooking the harbour, is the khedivial yacht club (built 1903) and the palace, also called Ras et-Tin, built by Mehemet Ali, a large but not otherwise noteworthy building.
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  • There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.
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  • Much favoured by the earlier viceroys of Mehemet Ali's house, and removed from the Mameluke troubles, Alexandria was the real capital of Egypt till Said Pasha died there in 1863 and Ismail came into power.
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  • In Egypt Mehemet Ali had succeeded in establishing himself as quasi independent ruler of the country.
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  • Meanwhile Mahmud, realizing the impossibility of crushing the Greek revolt unaided, had bent his pride to ask the help of Mehemet Ali, who was to receive as his reward Crete, the Morea and the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus.
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  • In July 1828 France had been commissioned to oust Ibrahim from the Morea; and though by a convention, concluded on the 9th of August by Codrington with Mehemet Ali, the principle of evacuation by the Egyptian troops had already been settled before the arrival of the French expedition, the Morea remained for the time in French occupation.
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  • An account of the collapse of the Turkish power before Mehemet Ali, and of the complicated diplomatic developments that followed, is given in the article Mehemet Ali.
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  • The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
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  • By his concert with the other powers in the affair of Mehemet Ali, the tsar had abdicated his claim to a unique influence at Constantinople, and he began to revive the idea of ending the Ottoman rule in Europe, an idea which he had only unwillingly abandoned in 1829 in response to the unanimous opinion of his advisers.
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  • Taraba, according to John Lewis Burckhardt, is a considerable town, surrounded by palm groves and gardens, and watered by numerous rivulets, and famous for its long resistance to Mehemet Ali's forces in 1815.
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  • Here Mehemet Ali's army, amounting to 12,000 men, found sufficient provisions to supply it during a fortnight's halt.
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  • Since the beginning of the 19th century they have been bigoted Wahhabis, though previously regarded by their neighbours as very lax Mahommedans; during Mehemet Ali's occupation of Nejd their constant raids on the Egyptian communications compelled him to send several punitive expeditions into the district, which, however, met with little success.
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  • It not only made the efforts of the Turks to suppress the Greek revolt hopeless, but it made a breach difficult to heal in the traditional friendship between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its effect during the critical period of the struggle between Mehemet Ali and the Porte (1831-1841).
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  • It precipitated the RussoTurkish war of 1828-1829, and, by annihilating the Ottoman navy, weakened the resisting power of Turkey to Russia and later to Mehemet Ali.
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  • After practising for a time at Marseilles he was made chief surgeon to Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt.
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  • More cholera in 1827 and 18 3 2 and another earthquake in 1830 had left the place a wreck, with only half its former population, when Mehemet Ali of Cairo invaded and took Syria.
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  • During his visit to Egypt he had an interview with Mehemet Ali, of whose character as a reforming monarch he did not bring away a very favourable impression.
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  • Cleopatra's Needle, an ancient Egyptian monument, was presented to the government by Mehemet Ali in 1819, brought from Alexandria in 1878, and erected on the Victoria embankment on a pedestal of grey granite.
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  • From 1833 to 1840 Cilicia formed part of the territories administered by Mehemet Ali of Cairo, who was compelled to evacuate it by the allied powers.
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  • The ambitions of Mehemet Ali of Egypt were not yet fully revealed; but Ali of Jannina, who had marched to the aid of the sultan against the rebellious pasha Pasvan Oglu of Widdin, soon began to show his hand, and it needed the concentration of all the forces of the Turkish empire to effect his overthrow and death (1822).
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  • Mahmud was under no illusion as to the position in which the latter placed him towards Russia; but his fear of Mehemet Ali and his desire to be revenged upon him outweighed all other considerations.
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  • Burckhardt landed in Jidda in July 1814, when Mehemet Ali had already driven the Wahhabi invaders out of Hejaz, and was preparing for his farther advance against their stronghold in Nejd.
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  • Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.
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  • But Turkey was herself fully occupied by affairs in Europe, and to Mehemet Ali, then pasha of Egypt, was deputed the task of bringing the Wahhabis into subjection.
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  • In 1813 Mehemet Ali was compelled to take the field himself with fresh troops, but was unable to achieve any decisive success, and in 1814 Tusun was again defeated beyond Taif.
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  • In May 1814 Saud died, and his son,Abdallah, attempted to negotiate, but Mehemet Ali refused all overtures, and in January 1815 advanced into Nejd, defeated the Wahhabi army and occupied Ras, then the chief town in Kasim.
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  • The Wahhabi leader was soon after sent to Constantinople, where, in spite of Mehemet Ali's intercession, he and the companions who had followed him in his captivity were condemned to death, and after being paraded through the city with ignominy for three days were finally beheaded.
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  • Mehemet Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha were, however, now committed to their conflict with Turkey for Syria and Asia Minor, and had no troops to spare for the thankless task of holding the Arabian deserts; the garrisons were gradually withdrawn, and in 1842 Fesal, who had escaped from his prison at Cairo reappeared and was everywhere recognized as amir.
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  • He set himself to work to establish law and order throughout the state, to arrange its finances, and to encourage the settlement in Hail of artificers and merchants from abroad; the building of the citadel and palace commenced by Mehemet Ali, and continued by Abdallah Ibn Rashid, was completed by Taal.
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  • The Hejaz coast and some of the Yemen ports were still held by Mehemet Ali, as viceroy of Egypt, but on his final withdrawal from Arabia in 1845, Hejaz came under direct Turkish rule, and the conquest of Yemen in 1872 placed the whole Red Sea littoral (with the exception of the Midian coast, ceded by Egypt on the accession of Abbas Hilmi Pasha)under Ottoman administration.
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  • Sultan Mahmud, despairing of suppressing the insurrection by his own power, had reluctantly summoned to his aid Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, whose well-equipped fleet and disciplined army were now Interven- thrown into the scale against the Greeks.
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  • Already, tion of in June 1823, the pasha's son-in-law Hussein Bey Mehemet had landed in Crete, and by April of the following All.
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  • While in Egypt in 1827, Abd-el-Kader is stated to have been impressed, by the reforms then being carried out by Mehemet Ali, with the value of European civilization, and the knowledge he then gained affected his career.
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  • At length, in 1598, Baki Mehemet Khan, of the Astrakhan branch of the Timur family, mounted the throne, and thus introduced the dynasty of the Ashtarkhanides.
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  • His brother Vali Mehemet, who succeeded in 1605, soon alienated his subjects, and was supplanted by his nephew Imamkuli.
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  • After a highly prosperous reign this prince resigned in favour of his brother, Nazr Mehemet, under whom the country was greatly troubled by the rebellion of his sons, who continued to quarrel with each other after their father's death.
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  • His efforts to destroy the ships of Mehemet Ali at Alexandria in 1825 were defeated by contrary winds.
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  • Mehemet Ali after the conquest of the Sudan leased Suakin from Turkey.
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  • In 1821 Kordofan was conquered by Mahommed Bey the defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt.
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  • Broken in 1840 during the affair of Mehemet Ali the entente was patched up in 1841 by the Straits Convention and re-cemented by visits paid by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to the Château d'Eu in 1843 and 1845 and of Louis Philippe to Windsor in 1844, only to be irretrievably wrecked by the affair of the "Spanish marriages," a deliberate attempt to revive the traditional Bourbon policy of French predominance in Spain.
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  • No other was known in the Nile Valley until the country fell, early in the r9th century, under the vigorous rule of Mehemet Ali Pasha.
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  • Mehemet Ali began by deepening the canals of Lower Egypt by this amount, a gigantic and futile task; for as they had been laid out on no scientific principles, the deep channels became filled with mud during the first flood, and all the excavation had to be done over again, year after year.
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  • When the Egyptians invaded the Sudan in 1820 Shendi, then a place of considerable size, submitted to Ismail Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt.
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  • At Bulak are the arsenal, foundry and railway works, a paper manufactory and the government printing press, founded by Mehemet Ali.
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  • The citadel or El-Kala was built by Saladin about 1166, but it has since undergone frequent alteration, and now contains a palace erected by Mehemet Ali, and a mosque of Oriental alabaster (based on the model of the mosques at Constantinople) founded by the same pasha on the site of " Joseph's Hall," so named after the prenomen of Saladin.
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  • Beyond the eastern wall of the city are the splendid mausolea erroneously known to Europeans as the tombs of the caliphs; they really are tombs of the Circassian or Burji Mamelukes, a race extinguished by Mehemet Ali.
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  • Near the imam's mosque is a family burial-place built by Mehemet Ali.
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  • In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.
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  • Mehemet Ali, originally the Turkish viceroy, by his massacre of the Mamelukes in 1811, in a narrow street leading to the citadel, made himself master of the country, and Cairo again became the capital of a virtually independent kingdom.
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  • Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.
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  • In the middle ages, when Alexandria was in decay, these two towns were busy ports; with the revival of Alexandria under Mehemet Ali and the foundation of Port Said (c. 1860), their trade declined.
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  • This basin system is of immemorial use in Egypt, and it was not until the time of Mehemet Ali (c. 1820) that perennial irrigation began.
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  • Then Mehemet Ali, a small tobacconist of Kavala, Macedonia, coming with Albanian mercenaries, made himself governor, and later (1811), by massacring the Mamelukes, became the actual master of the country, and after seven years war brought Arabia under Egypts rule.
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  • These died so rapidly in Egypt from pneumonia1 that Mehemet Ali conscripted over 250,000 fellahin, and in so arbitrary a fashion.
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  • In the cavalry and artillery many of the privates were foreigners, numbers of the janissaries who escaped the massacre at Stamboul (1832) having joined Mehemet Alis army.
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  • In the reign of Abbas, who succeeded Mehemet Ali, the Egyptian troops were driven from Nejd, and the Wahhabi state recovered its independence.
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  • Black soldiers served in the army of Mehemet Ali, but their fighting value was not then duly appreciated.
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  • Thereafter Mehemet Ali threw Egypt freely open to Europeans, and a busy traffic in antiquities began, chiefly through the agency of the consuls of different powers.
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  • As early as 1835 Mehemet Ali had given orders for a museum to be formed; little however, was accomplished before the whole of the resulting collection was given away to the Archduke Maximilian of Austria in 1855.
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  • This revolt marks the beginning in Egypt of the breach between the Albanians and Turks, which ultimately led to the expulsion of the latter, and of the rise to power of the Albanian Mehemet All (q.v.), who was destined to rule the country for nearly forty years and be the cause of serious European complications.
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  • He refused the appear- pay of certain of the Turkish troops, and was immediance of ately assassinated A desperate conflict ensued between Mehemet the Albanians and Turks; and the palace was set on fire and plundered.
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  • Mehemet Ali, then in command of an Albanian regiment, became the head of the former, hut his party was the weaker, and he therefore entered into an alliance with the Mameluke leaders Ibrahim Bey and Osmn Bey al-BardisI.
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  • A certain Ahmed Pasha, who was about to proceed to a province in Arabia, of which he had been appointed governor, was raised to the important post of pasha of Egypt, through the influence of the Turks and the favor of the sheiks; but Mehemet Ali, who with his Albanians held the citadel, refused to assent to their choice; the Mamelukes moved over from El-Giza, whither they had been invited by Thir Pasha, and Ahmed Paslia betook himself to the mosque of al-Zflhir, which the French had converted into a fortress.
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  • Mehemet Ali and al-Bardisi therefore descended to Rosetta, which had fallen into the hands of a brother of All Pasha, and having captured the town and its commander, alBardisi purposed to proceed against Alexandria; but the troops demanded arrears of pay which it was not in his power to give, and the pasha had cut the dyke between the lakes of Aboukir and Mareotis, thus rendering the approach to Aleicandria more difficult.
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  • Al-BardIsi and Mehemet Ali therefore returned to Cairo.
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  • The Albanians, alarmed for their safety, assured the populace that they would not allow the order to be executed; and Mehemet Ali himself caused a proclamation to be made to that effect.
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  • The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
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  • These Mehemet Ali speedily retook by night with 4000 infantry and cavalry; but the enterprise was only partially successful.
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  • Thither the pasha despatched three su@cessive expeditions (one of which was commanded by Mehemet Au), and many battles were fought, but without decisive result.
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  • Their arrival immediately recalled Mehemet Ali and his party from the war, and instead of aiding KhorshId was the proximate cause of his overthrow.
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  • At this juncture a firmgn arrived from Constantinople conferring on Mehemet Ali the pashalic of Jedda; but the occurrences of a few days raised him to that of Egypt.
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  • Mehemet Au seemed to hesitate, and then complied, and was at once invested.
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  • Mehemet Alis great strength lay in the devotion of the citizens of Cairo, who looked on him as a deliverer from their afflictions; and great numbers armed themselves, advising constantly with Mehemet Ali, having the sayyid Omar and the sheiks at their head, and guarding the town at night.
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  • On the 19th of the same month Mehemet Ali began to besiege Khorshld.
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  • The envoy brought a firmn confirming Mehemet Ali and ordering Khorshid to go to Alexandria, there to await further orders; but this he refused to do, on the ground that hI 1, he had been appointed by a hatt-i-sherff.
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  • Mehemet Ali now possessed the title of Governor of Egypt, but beyond the walls of Cairo his authority was everywhere disputed by the beys, who were joined by the army of the silhdr of Khorshid; and many Albanians deserted from his ranks.
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  • On the 17th of August 1805 the dam of the canal of Cairo was to be cut, and some chiefs of Mehemet Alis party wrote, informing them that he would go forth early on that morning with most of his troops to witness the ceremony, inviting them to enter and seize the city, and, to deceive them, stipulating for a certain sum of money as a reward.
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  • Among them were four beys, one of whom, driven to madness by Mehemet Alls mockery, asked for a drink of water; his hands were untied that he might take the bottle, but he snatched a dagger from one of the soldiers, rushed at the pasha, and fell covered with wounds.
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  • Thus ended Mehemet Alis first massacre of his too confiding enemies.
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  • At length, in consequence of the remonstrances of the English, and a promise made by al-Alfi of 1500 purses, the Porte consented to reinstate the twenty-four beys and to place al-Alfi at their head; but this measure met with the opposition of Mehemet Ali and the determined resistance of the majority of the Mamelukes, who, rather than have al-AlfI at their head, preferred their present condition; for the enmity of al-Bardisi had not subsided, and he commanded the voice of most of the other beys.
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  • In pursuance of the above plan, a squadron under SAlih Pasha, shortly before appointed high admiral, arrived at Alexandria on the 1st of July 1806 with 3000 regular troops and a successor to Mehemet Ali, who was to receive the pashalik of Salonica.
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  • Al-Alfi and his partisans were unable to pay the sum promised to the Porte; Salih Pasha received plenipotentiary powers from Consta,ntinople, in consequence of the letter from the ulema; and, on the condition of Mehemet Alls paying 4000 purses to the Porte, it was decided that he should continue in his post, and the reinstatement of the beys was abandoned.
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  • Mackenzie Fraser; and the place, The being disaffected towards Mehemet Ali, opened its British gates to them.
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  • Mehemet Ali, meanwhile, was conducting an expedition against the beys in Upper Egypt, and he had defeated them near Assiut, when he heard of the arrival of the British.
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  • Early in the year I 811, the preparations for an expedition against the Wahhbis in Arabia being complete, all the Mameluke beys then in Cairo were invited to the ceremony of investing Mehemet Alis favorite son, TUslin, with a pelisse and the command of the army.
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  • In the year following the massacre the unfortunate exiles were attacked by Ibrahim Pasha, the eldest son of Mehemet Au, in the fortified town of Ibrim, in Nubia.
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  • But some mishaps followed, and Mehemet Ali, who had determined to conduct the war in person, left Egypt for that purpose in the summer of 1813.
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  • By this revolutionary method of land nationalization Mehemet Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt, an iniquitous measure against which the Egyptians had no remedy.
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  • Ihe revolt was reduced by presents to the chiefs of the insurgents, md Mehemet Ali ordered that the sufferers by the disturbances;hould receive compensation from the treasury.
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  • Mehemet Au, lissatisfied with the treaty concluded with the Wahhabis, and vith the non-fulfilment of certain of its clauses, determined to end another army to Arabia, and to include in it the soldiers who had recently proved unruly.
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  • Abdullah, their chief, was made prisoner, and with his treasurer and secretary was sent to Constantinople, where, in spite of Ibrahims promise of safety, and of Mehemet Alis intercession in their favor, they were put to death.
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  • The cotton grown had been brought from the Sudan by Maho Bey, and the organization of the new industryfrom which in a few years Mehemet Ali was enabled to extract considerable revenueswas entrusted to a Frenchman named Jumel.
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  • In 1820 Mehemet Ali ordered the conquest of the eastern Sudan to be undertaken.
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  • The forces destined for this service were led by Ismail, then the youngest son of Mehemet Ali; they consisted of between 4000 and 5000 men, Turks and Arabs, and left Cairo in July 1820.
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  • Mahommed Bey, the defterdgr, with another force of about the same strength, was then sent by Mehemet Ali against Kordofan with a like result, but not without a hard-fought engagement.
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  • The insurrection was crushed by Mehemet All, and about onefourth of Ahmads followers perished, but he himself escaped and was never, after heard of.
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  • This continued until Mehemet Ali became viceroy in 1805.
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  • The picture of Egypt under Mehemet Ali is nevertheless not complete without regard being had to the beneficent side of his rule.
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  • To European merchants, on whom he was dependent for the sale of his exports, Mehemet All showed much favor, and under his influence the port of Alexandria again rose into importance.
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  • It was also under Mehemet Alls encouragement that the overland transit of goods from Europe to India via Egypt was resumed.
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  • Mehemet Ali was fully conscious that the empire which he had so laboriously built up might at any time have to be defended by force of arms against his master Sultan Mahmud II., whose whole policy had been directed to curbing the power of his too ambitious valis, and who was under tha influence of the personal enemies of the pasha of Egypt, notably of Khosrev, the grand vizier, who had never forgiven his humiliation in Egypt in 1803.
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  • Mahmud also was already planning reforms borrowed from the West, and Mehemet Ali, who had had plenty of opportunity of observing the superiority of European.
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  • But, f or the action of European powers the intervention of Mehemet Ali would have I The work was carried out under the supervision of the Frenchman, Colonel Sbve, who had turned Mahommedan and was known in Islam as Suleiman Pasha.
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  • The effectiveness of the new force was first tried in the suppression of a revolt of the Albanians in Cairo (1823) by six disciplined Sudanese regiments; after which Mehemet Ali was no more troubled with military emeutes.
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  • Before the final establishment of the new kingdom of Greece, the Eastern question had late in 1831 entered into a new and more perilous phase, owing to the revolt of Mehemet The Syrian .
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  • The diplomatic and military history of this period will be found sketched in the article on Mehemet Ali.
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  • Mehemet Ali now ruled over a virtually independent empire, subject only to a moderate tribute, stretching from the Sudan to the Taurus Mountains.
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  • The government 0 the pashalik of Egypt was made hereditary in the family of Mehemet Ali.i A map showing the boundaries of Egypt accompanied the firman granting Mehemet Ali the pashalik, a duplicate copy being retained by the Porte.
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  • Various restrictions were laid upon Mehemet Ali, emphasizing his position of vassalage.
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  • He was forbidden to maintain a fleet and his Mehemet army was not to exceed 18,000 men.
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  • Mehemet Ali, who had been granted the honorary rank of grand vizier in 1842, paid a visit to Stamboul in 1846, where he became reconciled to his old enemy Khosrev Pasha, whom he had not seen since he spared his life at Cairo in 1803.
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  • In 1847 Mehemet Ali laid the foundation stone of the great barrage across the Nile at the beginning of the Delta.
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  • In September 1848 Ibrahim was acknowledged by the Porte as ruler of the pashalik, but he died in the November (i.) Mehemet Ali, b.
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  • Mehemet Ali survived another eight months, dying on the 2nd of August 1849, aged eighty.
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  • He was succeeded by his uncle Said Pasha, the favorite son of Mehemet Ali, who lacked the strength of mind or physical health needed to execute the beneficent projects which he conceived.
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  • Ismail re-established and improved the administrative system organized by Mehemet Au, and which had fallen into decay under Abbass indolent rule; he caused a thorough remodelling of the customs system, which was in an anarchic state, to be made by English officials; in 1865 he established the Egyptian post office; he reorganized the military schools of his grandfather, and gave some support to the cause of education.
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  • Mehemet Ali was said to have appointed as mudir or governor in a turbulent district a young and inexperienced Turk, who asked, But how am I to govern these people?
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  • Mehemet Ali and his successors up to and including Tewfik had not only administered the Sinai peninsula but certain posts on the Hejaz or Arabian side of the gulf of Akaba.
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  • Egyptian sovereignty in the Sudan dates from 1820, when Mehemet Ali sent a large force into the country, and ultimately established his authority over Sennar and Kordofan.
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  • He called for the intervention of Mehemet Ali, governor of Egypt; the latter settled the dispute, but Abdullah then refused to discharge the claims of Mehemet Ali.
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  • Mehemet Ali proved 1 When this French colony was established is uncertain; Maundrell found them there at the end of the 17th century.
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  • D own to the time of Mehemet Ali the only foreigners permanently resident in the country were the members of various monastic orders, and a few traders, such as the French merchants of Acre.
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  • The ten years' crisis (1831-1841) evoked by the revolt of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, thus resolved itself into a diplomatic struggle between Russia and the other powers to maintain or to recover influence at Constantinople.
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  • In the troubled years that followed, Mehemet Ali, leader of a compact body of Albanian clansmen, was in the best position to draw advantage from the struggle for power between the Mamelukes and the representatives of the Porte.
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  • The disastrous British expedition of 1807 followed; and while at Constantinople the prestige of the sultan was being undermined by the series of revolutions which in 1808 brought Mahmud to the throne, that of Mehemet Ali was enhanced by the exhibition at Cairo of British prisoners and an avenue of stakes decorated with the heads of British slain.
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  • In 1811 the massacre of the Mamelukes left Mehemet Ali without a rival in Egypt, while the foundations of his empire beyond were laid by the war against the Wahhabis and the conquest of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
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  • By this time Mehemet Ali was the possessor of a powerful fleet and of an army of veterans disciplined and drilled by European officers.
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  • The inherent viciousness of these expedients had, however, not as yet been revealed by their inevitable results, and Mehemet Ali in the eyes of the world was at once the most enlightened and the most powerful of the sultan's valis.
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  • To Mahmud II., whose whole policy was directed to strengthening the authority of the central power, this fact would have sufficed to make him distrust the pasha and desire his overthrow; and it was sorely against his will that, in 1822, the ill-success of his arms against the insurgent Greeks forced him to summon Mehemet Ali to his aid.
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  • The immediate price was the pashalik of Crete; in the event of the victory of the Egyptian arms the pashaliks of Syria and Damascus were to fall to Mehemet Ali, that of the Morea to his son Ibrahim.
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  • The sultan's policy had been consistently directed to crushing the overgrown power of his vassals; in the spring of 1831 two rebellious pashas, Hussein of Bosnia and Mustafa of Scutari, had succumbed to his arms; and, since he was surrounded and counselled by the personal enemies of the pasha of Egypt, it was likely that, so soon as he should feel himself strong enough, he would deal in like manner with Mehemet Ali.
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  • The stubborn resistance of the garrison delayed Ibrahim's progress; and, meanwhile, wild rumours went abroad as to Mehemet Ali's intentions.
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  • Voices urged him to come to terms with Mehemet Ali, secure peace in Islam, and turn a united face of defiance against Europe; and for a while he harboured the idea.
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  • In the end, however, his pride prevailed; in April 1833 the Turkish commander-in-chief Hussein Pasha left Constantinople for the front; and in the third week in May the ban of outlawry was launched against Mehemet Ali.
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  • Palmerston, however, did not share Canning's belief in the possible regeneration of Turkey; he held that an isolated intervention of Great Britain would mortally offend not only Russia but France, and that Mehemet Ali, disappointed of his ambitions, would find in France a support that would make him doubly dangerous.1 In the autumn Sultan Mahmud, as a last independent effort, despatched against Ibrahim the army which, under Reshid Pasha, had been engaged in pacifying Albania.
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  • Ottoman agents, backed by letters from the French charge d'affaires, were sent to Mehemet Ali and to Ibrahim, to point out the imminence of Russian intervention and to offer modified terms. Muraviev himself went to Alexandria, where, backed by the Austrian agent, Count Prokesch-Osten, he announced to the pasha the tsar's immutable hatred of rebels.
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  • Mehemet Ali merely protested the complete loyalty of his intentions; Ibrahim, declaring that as a soldier he had no choice but to obey his father's orders, advanced to Afium-Karahissar and Kutaiah, whence he wrote to the sultan asking his gracious permission to advance to Brusa.
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  • The new French ambassador, Admiral Roussin, had arrived on the 17th; he now, with the full concurrence of Mandeville, the British charge d'affaires, persuaded the Porte to invite the Russians to withdraw, undertaking that France would secure the acceptance by Mehemet Ali of the sultan's terms. A period of suspense followed.
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  • Meanwhile, Mehemet Ali had scornfully rejected the offers of the Porte; he would be content with nothing but the concession of his full demands - Syria, Icheli, Aleppo, Damascus and Adana.
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  • To achieve this one end had, indeed, become the overmastering passion of Mahmud's life, to defeat it the object of all Mehemet Ali's policy.
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  • So early as 1834 it seemed as though the struggle would be renewed; for Mehemet Ali had extended to his new pashaliks his system of monopolies and conscription, and the Syrians, finding that they had exchanged Turkish whips for Egyptian scorpions, rose in a passion of revolt.
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  • It needed the intervention of Mehemet Ali in person before, in the following year, they were finally subdued.
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  • The threats of Great Britain and France, the failure of Russia to back him up, induced him to refrain; but sooner or later a renewal of the war was inevitable; for the sultan, with but one end in view, was reorganizing his army, and Mehemet Ali, who in the autumn of 1834 had assumed the style of viceroy and sounded the powers as to their attitude in the event of his declaring his complete independence, refused to continue to pay tribute which he knew would be used against himself.
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  • Mehemet Ali, too, had small reason for postponing the conflict.
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  • To complete the desperateness of the situation the news reached the capital that Ahmed Pasha, the Ottoman admiral-in-chief, had sailed to Alexandria and surrendered his fleet to Mehemet Ali, on the pretext that the sultan's advisers were sold to the Russians.
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  • Mehemet Ali was now absolute master of the situation.
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  • Mehemet Ali replied diplomatically; for, though these offers fell far short of his ambitions, a studious moderation was essential in view of the doubtful attitude of the European powers.
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  • In France Mehemet Ali had become a popular hero; under him French civilization had gained a foothold in Egypt; he was regarded as invincible; and it was hoped that in alliance with him French influence in the Mediterranean would be supreme.
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  • Palmerston, on the other hand, believed that the Ottoman empire would never be secure until "the desert had been placed between" the pasha of Egypt and the sultan; and the view that the coalition should be directed against Mehemet Ali was shared by the other powers.
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  • For nearly a year the diplomatic pourparlers continued without an agreement being reached; France insisted on Mehemet Ali's receiving the hereditary pashalik of Syria as well as that of Egypt, a proposition to which Palmerston, though sincerely anxious to preserve the Anglo-French entente, refused to agree.
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  • The diplomacy of Guizot, backed now by Austria and Prussia, had succeeded in persuading Palmerston to concede the principle of allowing Mehemet Ali to receive, besides Egypt, the pashalik of Acre as far as the frontiers of Tripoli and Damascus (May 7).
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  • The opportunity for this arose from a change in the situation at Constantinople, where the dismissal of Khusrev Pasha had, in Mehemet Ali's view, removed the main obstacle to his reconciliation with the sultan.
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  • In the circumstances the proper course for Thiers to have pursued would have been to have communicated to the powers, to whom he was bound by the moral engagement of the 2 7th of July 1839, the new conditions arising out of Mehemet Ali's offer.
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  • By this instrument it was agreed that the terms to be offered to Mehemet Ali having been concerted with the Porte, the signatory powers would unite their forces in order to compel the pasha to accept the settlement.
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  • As to the terms to be offered, it was arranged that, in the event of Mehemet Ali yielding within ten days, he should receive the hereditary pashalik of Egypt and the administration for life of southern Syria, with the title of Pasha of Acre and the possession of the fortress of St Jean d'Acre.
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  • The immediate effect was that Mehemet Ali, confident of French assistance, maintained a defiant attitude.
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  • Mehemet Ali's power in Syria had collapsed like a pricked bubble; and with it had gone for ever the myth of his humane and enlightened rule.
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  • On the 15th of September the sultan, who had broken off all negotiations with Mehemet Ali on receipt of the news of the Syrian revolt, acting on the advice of Lord Ponsonby, declared the pasha deposed, on the ground that the term allowed by the Convention of London had expired, and nominated his successor.
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  • Mehemet Ali received the news with his accustomed sang-froid, observing to the consuls of the four powers, who had come to notify their own removal, that "such denunciations were nothing new to him; that this was the fourth, and that he hoped to get over it as well as he had done the other three, with the help of God and the Prophet."
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  • The news of the events in Syria and especially of the deprivation of Mehemet Ali had produced in France what appeared to be an exceedingly dangerous temper; the French government declared that it regarded the maintenance of Mehemet Ali in Egypt as essential to the European balance of power; and Louis Philippe sought to make it clear to the British government, through the king of the Belgians, that, whatever might be his own desire to maintain peace, in certain events to do so would be to risk his throne.
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  • Palmerston, indeed, who did not believe that under the Bourgeois Monarchy France would translate her brave words into action, was in favour of settling the Turco-Egyptian question once for all by depriving Mehemet Ali of Egypt as well.
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  • When therefore, on the 8th of October, Guizot, in an interview with Palmerston, presented what was practically an ultimatum on the part of France, "it was determined that this intimation should be met in a friendly spirit, and that Lord Palmerston should see the Ministers of the other powers and agree with them to acquaint the French that they with England would use their good offices to induce the Porte not to insist on the deprivation of Mehemet Ali so far as Egypt is concerned."
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  • In accordance with this Palmerston instructed Ponsonby to press upon the sultan, in the event of Mehemet Ali's speedy submission, not only to withdraw the sentence of deprivation but to confer upon him the hereditary pashalik of Egypt.
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  • Nine days earlier Sir Charles Napier had appeared with a British squadron off Alexandria and, partly by persuasion, partly by threats, had induced Mehemet Ali to submit to the sultan and to send back the Ottoman fleet, in return for a guarantee of the hereditary pashalik of Egypt.
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  • By a second firman of the same date Mehemet Ali was invested with the government of Nubia, Darfur, Khordofan and Sennaar, with their dependencies.
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  • Thus ended the phase of the Egyptian Question with which the name of Mehemet Ali is specially bound up. The threatened European conflict had been averted, and presently the wounded susceptibilities of France were healed by the invitation extended to her to take part in the Straits Convention.
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  • As for Mehemet Ali himself, he now passes off the stage of history.
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  • Probably no Oriental ruler, not even excepting Ali of Iannina, has ever stirred up so much interest among his contemporaries as Mehemet Ali.
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  • Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.
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  • At the very time his father died, the news was on its way to Constantinople that the Turkish army had been signally defeated at Nezib by that of the rebel Egyptian viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and the Turkish fleet was at the same time on its way to Alexandria, where it was handed over by its commander, Ahmed Pasha, to the same enemy, on the pretext that the young sultan's advisers were sold to Russia.
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  • But through the intervention of the European Powers Mehemet Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Ottoman empire was saved.
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  • Every facility was granted by Mehemet Ali, who in 1825 appointed him one of a commission to examine the district of Sennaar; but Brocchi, unfortunately for science, fell a victim to the climate, and died at Khartum on the 25th of September 1826.
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  • The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Ali - who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness, - Abbas succeeded to the pashalik.
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  • He regarded the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi which Russia extorted from the Porte in 1832, when she came to the relief of the sultan after the battle of Konieh, with great jealousy; and, when the power of Mehemet Ali in Egypt appeared to threaten the existence of the Ottoman dynasty, he succeeded in effecting a combination of all the powers,who signed the celebrated collective note of the 27th of July 1839, pledging them to maintain the independence and integrity of the Turkish Empire as a security for the peace of Europe.
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  • The moment was critical, for Mehemet Ali had occupied Syria and won the battle of Nezib against the Turkish forces, and on the 1st of July 1839 the sultan Mohammed expired.
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  • The bombardment of Beira, the fall of Acre, and the total collapse of the boasted power of Mehemet Ali followed in rapid succession, and before the close of the year Lord Palmerston's policy, which had convulsed and terrified Europe, was triumphant, and the author of it was regarded as one of the most powerful statesmen of the age.
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  • Gondokoro was first visited by Europeans in 1841-1842, when expeditions sent out by Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt, ascended the Nile as far as the foot of the rapids above Gondokoro.
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  • This was his policy during the revolt of Mehemet Ali, and it was Nesselrode who inspired the terms of the famous treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (1833).
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  • Mehemet Ali was born here in 1769, and founded a Turkish school which still exists.
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  • Falling out with Jezzar, Beshir fled to Cairo in 1805, attached himself to Mehemet Ali, and returned to take up the reins.
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  • The invasion of Syria by Mehemet Ali in 1831 caused Beshir to desert Abdallah and throw in his lot with Ibrahim Pasha; but he was not cordially followed by the Druses in general, and had good excuse for revolt in 1839, and intrigue with the British admiral in 1840.
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  • The northern part of the district was first visited by Europeans in 1841-1842, when the Nile was ascended by an expedition despatched by Mehemet Ali to the foot of the rapids at Bedden.
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  • Not only did certain newspapers, such as the Capitole and the Journal du Commerce, and clubs, such as the Culottes de peau carry it on zealously; but the diplomatic humiliation of France in the affair of Mehemet Ali in 1840, with the outburst of patriotism which accompanied it, followed by the concessions made by the government to public opinion, such as, for example, the bringing back of the ashes of Napoleon I., all helped to revive revolutionary and Napoleonic memories.
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  • When Mehemet Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Wahhabis in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command in Upper Egypt.
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  • Mehemet Ali had already begun to introduce European discipline into his army, and Ibrahim had probably received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his later operations.
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  • When in 1824 Mehemet Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by the sultan, who desired his help against the insurgent Greeks, he sent Ibrahim with a squadron and an army of 17,000 men.
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  • The convention of Kutaiah on the 6th of May left Syria for a time in the hands of Mehemet Ali.
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  • Mehemet Ali never stated the reasons which led him to order the occupation of the country, but his leading motive was, probably, the desire to obtain possession of the mines of gold and precious stones which he believed the Sudan contained.
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  • Mehemet Ali gave the command of the army sent to Nubia to his son Ismail, who at the head of some 4000 men left Wadi Halfa in October 1820.
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  • This army was commanded by Mahommed Bey, the Defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali.
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  • Having conquered Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan the Egyptians set up a civil government, placing at the head of the administration a governor-general with practically unlimited power.2 About this period Mehemet Ali leased from the sultan of Turkey the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa, and by this means got into his hands all the trade routes of the eastern Sudan.
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  • The successors of Mehemet Ali, in an endeavour to make the country more profitable, extended their conquests to the south, and in 1853 and subsequent years trading posts were established on the Upper Nile, the pioneer European merchant being John Petherick, British consular agent at Khartum.'
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  • He obtained (1865) from the sultan of Turkey a firman assigning to him the administration of Suakin and Massawa; the lease which Mehemet Ali had of these ports having lapsed after the death cf that pasha.
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  • Both Baker and ' The government monopoly in trade ceased after the death of Mehemet Ali in 3849.
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  • Deherain's Le Soudan egyptien sous Mehemet Ali (Paris, 1898).
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  • When Echmiadzin passed to Russia, in 1828, the Catholicus began to claim spiritual jurisdiction over the whole Armenian Church, and the submission of the patriarch of Constantinople was obtained by Russia when she helped the sultan against Mehemet Ali.
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  • In the second volume of his essays he gives some recollections of his experiences in the East, including an account of Mehemet Ali, and a (not very friendly) sketch of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe.
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  • By the treaty of Adrianople in 1829 Turkey seemed to become little better than a vassal state of the tsar, a relation intensified, after the first revolt of Mehemet Ali, by the treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi in 1833 (see Mehemet Ali).
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  • The viceroy therefore welcomed Ferdinand affectionately, while Said Pacha, Mehemet's son, began those friendly relations that he did not forget later, when he gave him the concession for making the Suez Canal.
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  • This time Mehemet Ali was supported by the French government, which aimed at establishing predominant influence in Egypt, but he was successfully opposed by a coalition of Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia, which checkmated the aggressive designs of France by the convention of London (July 15, 1840) (see Mehemet Ali and Turkey).
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  • The results of the enterprise of Mehemet Ali and Jumel in Egypt prove such an idea to be not altogether fanciful, and warn us also against hastily arguing that the plan is too artificial to succeed on a large scale.
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  • Here it must suffice to say that the recognition of Mehemet Ali's claims, forced on the sultan by France and Great Britain, was followed in 1833 by the signature of the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, which seemed to place Turkey wholly in the power of Russia, after which Sultan Mahmud concentrated his energies on creating a force strong enough to crush his rebellious vassal.
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  • The story of the diplomatic negotiations that followed is told elsewhere (see Mehemet ALl).
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  • Here it may suffice to say that the desire of the emperor Nicholas to break the entente between Great Britain and France led him to waive his special claims under the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, and that in the ultimate concert by which the question was settled France, which throughout supported Mehemet Ali, had no part.
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  • Belzoni was desirous of laying before Mehemet Ali a hydraulic machine of his own invention for raising the waters of the Nile.
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  • In 1832 Mehemet Ali gave him the dignity of bey without requiring him to abjure his religion; and in 1836 he received the rank of general, and was appointed head of the medical administration of the country.
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  • After three abortive campaigns Mahmud was compelled, infinitely against his will, to summon to his assistance the already too powerful pasha of Egypt, Mehemet Ali, whom he had already employed to suppress the rebellious Wahhabis in Arabia.
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  • Of this hatred he was fully conscious; he knew that his subjects, even many of his own ministers, regarded Mehemet Ali as the champion of Islam against the " infidel sultan;" he suspected the pasha, already master of the sacred cities, of an intention to proclaim himself caliph in his stead.
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  • He was astute enough to take advantage of the offence given to the powers by Mehemet Ali's system of monopolies, and in 1838 signed with Great Britain, and afterwards with others, a commercial treaty which cut at the root of the pasha's system.
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  • Broken in 1840 during the affair of Mehemet Ali the entente was patched up in 1841 by the Straits Convention and re-cemented by visits paid by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to the Château d'Eu in 1843 and 1845 and of Louis Philippe to Windsor in 1844, only to be irretrievably wrecked by the affair of the "Spanish marriages," a deliberate attempt to revive the traditional Bourbon policy of French predominance in Spain.
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  • As the result of endless discussions between the representatives of the powers, the Porte and the pasha, the convention of Kutaya was signed on the i4th of May 1833, by which the sultan agreed to bestow on Mehemet All the pashaliks of Syria, Damascus, Aleppo and Itcheli, together with the district of Adana.
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  • Their intervention was prompt; and the dubious attitude of France, which led to her exclusion from the concert and encouraged Mehemet Ali to resist, only led to his obtaining less favorable terms. (See MEHEMET Au.)
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  • The Quai Mehemet Ali, which lies along the canal for upwards of a mile, contains the chalet occupied by Ferdinand de Lesseps during the building of the canal.
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  • This disappointment of his ambition would not perhaps in itself have sufficed to stir Mehemet Ali to revolt against his master; but it was ominous of perils to come, which the astute pasha thought it wise to forestall.
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  • He was conscious of his own intense unpopularity, the outcome of his efforts at reform; he knew that in popular opinion Mehemet Ali was the champion of Islam against the infidel caliph, and that the issue of a struggle with him was more than doubtful.
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  • Months of suspense followed; for the powers had threatened to cast their weight into the scale against whichever side should prove the aggressor, and Mehemet Ali was too astute to make the first move.
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  • This principle was elaborated in the firman, issued on the 13th of February, by which the sultan conferred on Mehemet Ali and his heirs by direct descent the pashalik of Egypt, the greatest care being taken not to bestow any rank and authority greater than that enjoyed by other viziers of the empire.
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  • Then followed the wars of the Wahhabis (see Arabia and WAHHABis) and the restoration of Turkish rule by the troops of Mehemet `Ali.
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  • Mehemet Ali also wished to crush the remnant of the Mamelukes who in 1812 had established themselves at Dongola, and at the same time to find employment for the numerous Albanians and Turks in his army, of whose fidelity he was doubtful.
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  • This is the explanation of those concessions in the Eastern Question which ended in the Quadruple Alliance of 1840 and the humiliation of Louis Philippe's government (see Mehemet Ali).
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