Mediterranean sentence example

mediterranean
  • That's a true Mediterranean sky.
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  • The principal rivers entering the Mediterranean directly are the Nile from Africa, and the Po, Rhone and Ebro from Europe.
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  • The "Mediterranean region," as a geographical unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean Sea.
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  • His station, Philippeville, is close to the shores of the Mediterranean, and sea breezes persisted during the day.
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  • The Mediterranean is all that remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe along a line of latitude.
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  • The physical divisions of the Mediterranean given above hold good in describing the form of the sea-bed.
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  • The black-haired woman had dark Mediterranean skin and tattoos down her back and across her shoulders.
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  • There is little definite circulation of water within the Mediterranean itself.
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  • The small independent river, the Var, drains that portion of the Alps which fringes the Mediterranean.
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  • It gave the naval power of the Turks a blow from which it never recovered, and put a stop to their aggression in the Eastern Mediterranean.
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  • The expansion of Levantine trade which ensued in the Hellenistic age brought especial profit to Rhodes, whose standard of coinage and maritime law became widely accepted in the Mediterranean.
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  • His ambition, however, was boundless, and he set himself to realize the dream of his father - a Burgundian kingdom stretching from the North Sea to the Mediterranean.
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  • Suber, the bark of which yields cork (q.v.), is a native of the west Mediterranean area.
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  • In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.
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  • The pax Babylonica is so assured that private individuals do not hesitate to ride in their carriage from Babylon to the coast of the Mediterranean.
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  • Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-1816, and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 23rd of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.
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  • Thus the great plain of northern Italy is chilled by the cold winds from the Alps, while the damp warm winds from the Mediterranean are to a great extent intercepted by the Ligurian Apennines.
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  • Most of the fishing boats, properly so called, start from the Adriatic coast, the coral boats from the western Mediterranean coast, and the sponge boats from the western Mediterranean and Sicilian coasts.
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  • In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
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  • Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
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  • A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in 1198, which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the Italians in the Mediterranean.
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  • The Mediterranean was left to be fought for by Genoa and Venice, while Guelph Florence grew still more powerful in Tuscany.
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  • After this, for thirty years, between 1352 and 1381, Venice and Genoa contested the supremacy of the Mediterranean.
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  • A British fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court to adopt a spirited policy.
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  • The peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1807) enabled Napoleon to press on his projects for securing the command of the Mediterranean, thenceforth a fundamental axiom of his policy.
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  • Already, in the negotiations with England during the summer of 1806, the emperor had shown his sense of the extreme importance of gaining possession of that island, which indeed caused the breakdown of the peace proposals then being considered; and now he ordered French squadrons into the Mediterranean in order to secure Corfu and Sicily.
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  • Replying on the 9th of April 1878 to interpellations by Visconti-Venosta and other deputies on the impending Congress of Berlin, he appeared free from apprehension lest I Italy, isolated, might find herself face to face with a change of the balance of power in the Mediterranean, and declared that in the event of serious complications Italy would be too much sought after rather than too niuch forgotten.
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  • Had the blow thus struck at Italian influence in the Mediterranean induced politicians to sink for a while their personal differences and to unite in presenting a firm front to foreign nations, the crisis in regard to Tunisia might not have been wholly unproductive of good.
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  • These words, which revealed the absence of any stipulation in regard to the protection of Italian interests in the Mediterranean, created lively dissatisfaction in Italy and corresponding satisfaction in France.
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  • This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.
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  • On the 6th of March 1885 parliament finally sanctioned the conventions by which state railways were farmed out to three private companiesthe Mediterranean, Adriatic and Sicilian.
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  • In the Armenian question Italy seconded with energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a demonstration off the Syrian.
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  • The outset of his administration was marked by Franco-Italian fetes at Toulon (10th to I4th April 1901), when the Italian fleet returned a visit paid by the French Mediterranean squadron to Cagliari in April 1899; and by the despatch of three Italian warships to Prevesa to obtain satisfaction for damage done to Italian subjects by Turkish officials.
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  • On the 4th of January 1902, the employees of the Mediterranean railway advanced these demands at a meeting at Turin, and threatened to strike if they were not satisfied.
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  • Pennaria, with a free medusa known as Globiceps, is a common Mediterranean form.
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  • Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.
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  • Thus in the Mediterranean region the large groups of palms, figs, myrtles and laurels are each only represented by single surviving species.
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  • Extensions of the flora occur southwards of the high mountains of tropical Africa; A denocaf pus, a characteristic Mediterranean genus, has been found on Kilimanjaro and 2000 m.
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  • The Mediterranean, however, has apparently been a barrier to the southward passage of the arcto-alpine flora which is totally wanting on the Atlas.
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  • Elsewhere it is only represented by P. occidentalis, the largest tree of the Atlantic forests from Maine to Oregon, and by P. oriental is in the eastern Mediterranean.
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  • The characteristic genus Pelargonium has a few Mediterranean representatives, and one even occurs in Asia Minor.
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  • At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
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  • The Phoenicians are the earliest Mediterranean people in the consecutive chain of geographical discovery which joins prehistoric time with the present.
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  • From Sidon, and later from its more famous rival Tyre, the merchant adventurers of Phoenicia explored and colonized the coasts of the Mediterranean and fared forth into the ocean beyond.
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  • Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.
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  • During this or a second voyage Pytheas entered the Baltic, discovered the coasts where amber is obtained and returned to the Mediterranean.
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  • The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
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  • After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
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  • In the height of their power the Romans had surveyed and explored all the coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Spain, Gaul, western Germany and southern Britain.
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  • The remarkable line of volcanoes around the whole coast of the Pacific and along the margin of the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas is one of the most conspicuous features of the globe.
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  • These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
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  • We distinguish between a Siberian, Mongolian, Mediterranean and European province, none of which can be well defined.
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  • The islands of the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores belong to the Mediterranean province, and offer some peculiarities of great interest.
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  • The Turkish government also levies taxes on the inhabitants of the river valley, and for this purpose, and to maintain a caravan route from the Mediterranean coast to Bagdad, maintains stations of a few zaptiehs or gens d'armes, at intervals of about 8 hours (caravan time), occupying in general the stations of the old Persian post road.
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  • Chesney was sent out at the head of an expedition with instructions to transport two steamers from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and, after putting them together at Birejik, to attempt the descent of the river to the sea.
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  • Agrippa made the fine natural harbour into the main naval station of the Mediterranean fleet, and founded a colony there probably in 31 B.C. The emperor Tiberius died in his villa here.
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  • The second, the Periplus of the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and Tiberius.
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  • He was afterwards attached to the administration of the railway from Lyons to the Mediterranean.
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  • These two conquests, wrought in the great island of the Ocean and in the great island of the Mediterranean, were the main works of the Normans after they had fully put on the character of a Christian and French-speaking people, in other words, after they had changed from Northmen into Normans.
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  • Norman warriors had long before helped the Christians of Spain in their warfare with the Saracens of the Peninsula, and in Sicily it was from the same enemy that they won the great Mediterranean island.
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  • The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
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  • The Black Sea, the fauna of which appears to be very rich, belongs to the Mediterranean region, slightly modified, while the Caspian partakes of the characteristic fauna inhabiting the lakes and seas of the Aral-Caspian depression.
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  • The south-western Baltic was a Danish Mediterranean, and Danish territory extended from the Elbe to lake Peipus.
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  • The common cypress has been well known throughout the Mediterranean region since classic times; it may have been introduced from western Asia where it is found wild.
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  • Between this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of Marmarice, noted in modern times as one of the finest harbours of the Mediterranean.
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  • It has, moreover, been remarked that almost all the animals mentioned were at home in the Egypt of those days, or at least, like the elephant, were to be seen there occasionally, whereas the structure of the hedgehog, for instance, is explained by a reference to the sea-porcupine, better known to fish-buyers on the Mediterranean.
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  • The land was traversed by old-established trade routes and possessed important harbours on the Gulf of `Akaba and on the Mediterranean coast, the latter exposing it to the influence of the Levantine culture.
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  • But the dispersion of the Jews was proceeding in directions which carried masses from the Asiatic inland to the Mediterranean coasts and to Europe.
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  • Crete thus forms the natural limit between the Mediterranean and the Archipelago.
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  • The appearance of ships on some of the most important seal-impressions is not needed, however, to show how widely Minoan influence made itself felt in the neighbouring Mediterranean regions.
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  • The southern and south-western face follows the coast closely up the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Indus, and is formed farther west by the mountain scarp, which, rising in many points to 10,000 ft., flanks the Tigris and the Mesopotamian plains, and extends along Kurdistan and Armenia nearly to the 40th meridian; beyond which it turns along the Taurus range, and the north - eastern angle of the Mediterranean.
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  • West of Ararat high hills extend along the Black Sea, between which and the Taurus range lies the plateau of Asia Minor, reaching to the Aegean Sea; the mountains along the Black Sea, on which are the Olympus and Ida of the ancients, rise to 6000 or 7000 ft.; the Taurus is more lofty, reaching 8000 and 10,000 ft.; both ranges decline in altitude as they approach the Mediterranean.
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  • This great plateau, extending from the Mediterranean to the Indus, has a length of about 2500 m.
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  • Suess; the southern, of which the Indian peninsula is but a fragment, is called Gondwanaland by Neumayr, Suess and others; while the intervening sea is the central Mediterranean sea of Neumayr and the Tethys of Suess.
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  • A similar affinity exists between the life of the southern parts of Europe and that in the zone of Asia extending from the Mediterranean across to the Himalaya and northern China.
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  • Along the warm temperate zone, from the Mediterranean to the Himalaya, extends a flora essentially European in character.
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  • Among the more mountainous regions of the south-western part of Arabia, known as Arabia Felix, the summits of which rise to 6000 or 7000 ft., the rainfall is sufficient to develop a more luxuriant vegetation, and the valleys have a flora like that of similarly situated parts of southern Persia, and the less elevated parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, partaking of the characters of that of the hotter Mediterranean region.
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  • The Stromateidae, or pomfrets, resemble the dory, a Mediterranean form, and extend to China and the Pacific. The sword fishes, Xiphiidae, the lancet fishes, Acanthuridae, and the scabbard fishes, Trichuridae, are distributed through the seas of south Asia.
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  • The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.
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  • A juster view of early history is probably obtained by thinking of the countries round the Mediterranean as interacting on one another than by separating Palestine and Asia Minor as Asiatic.
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  • One hypothesis supposes that the shores of the Mediterranean were originally inhabited by a homogeneous race neither Aryan nor Semitic.
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  • The harbour of Elche is Santa Pola (pop. 4100), situated 6 m.E.S.E.,where the Vinalapo enters the Mediterranean,.
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  • In Europe on the whole the so-called pessimistic attitude was commoner in the Teutonic north than in the Mediterranean basin.
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  • Of these, 115 species are Mediterranean, 30 are common to the Caspian Sea, and the remaining species are peculiar to the Black Sea.
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  • The possession of Syria gave him an opening to the Mediterranean, and he immediately founded here the new city of Antioch upon the Orontes as his chief seat of government.
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  • The best-known dipterous pests are the Hessian fly (Cecidosnyia destructor), the pear midge (Diplosis pyrivora), the fruit flies (Tephritis Tyroni of Queensland and Halterophora capitata or the Mediterranean fruit fly), the onion fly (Phorbia cepetorum), and numerous corn pests, such as the gout fly (Chloropstaeniopus) and the frit fly (Oscinis frit).
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  • The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom.
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  • As the British fleet had abandoned the Mediterranean since November 1796 and had recently been disorganized by two serious mutinies, Bonaparte's plan of conquering Egypt was .by no means so rash as has sometimes been represented.
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  • Nelson's capture of Malta (5th of September 1800) also secured for the time a sure base for British fleets in the Mediterranean.
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  • She further agreed to evacuate the papal states, Taranto and other towns in the Mediterranean coasts which she had occupied.
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  • An equally significant hint, that the Ionian Isles might easily be regained by France, further helped to open the eyes of the purblind Addington ministry to the resolve of Napoleon to make the Mediterranean a French lake.
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  • Evidently then the Spanish dockyards and warships (when vigorously organized) were to count for much in the schemes for assuring complete supremacy in the Mediterranean and the ultimate overthrow of the British and Turkish empires, which he then had closely at heart.
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  • The truth was indeed obscured for a time by persistent prejudices in favour of certain alien Mediterranean races long known to have been in relation with the Aegean area in prehistoric times, e.g.
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  • Commerce with Egypt, for example, has increased in a marked degree, and Aegean objects or imitations of them are found to have begun to penetrate into Syria, inland Asia Minor, and the central and western Mediterranean lands, e.g.
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  • Others again cite the old-established power and productivity of Crete; the immense advantage it derived from insularity, natural fertility and geographical relation to the wider area of east Mediterranean civilizations; and the absence of evidence elsewhere for the gradual growth of a culture powerful enough to dominate the Aegean.
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  • He announced a complete reorganization of the navy, which was to be grouped in four fleets, three being for home defence, based on home ports (the third being the Atlantic fleet previously based on Gibraltar), and the fourth, based on Gibraltar, to operate either in home waters or in the Mediterranean.
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  • The German battle cruiser " Goeben " eluded the British Mediterranean fleet and got safely into the Sea of Marmora; three British cruisers were sunk by submarines in the North Sea; and a British squadron under Adml.
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  • Ethiopian forms invade the Mediterranean area.
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  • The centre of her worship was Cydonia, whence it extended to Sparta and Aegina (where she was known as Aphaea) and the islands of the Mediterranean.
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  • A range of low hills intervenes between Felanitx and the Mediterranean; upon one summit, the Puig de San Sebastian, stands a Moorish castle with a remarkable series of subterranean vaults.
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  • Genoa never recovered from the blow, and Venice remained undisputed mistress of the Mediterranean and the Levant trade.
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  • The defeat of Genoa and the establishment of Venetian supremacy in the Mediterranean brought the state to a further step in its development.
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  • Exhausting as the Turkish wars were to the Venetian treasury, her trade was still so flourishing that she might have survived the strain had not the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies cut the tap-root of her commercial prosperity by diverting the stream of traffic from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. When Diaz rounded the Cape in 1486 a fatal blow was struck at Venetian commercial supremacy.
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  • The home of the common mackerel (to which the following remarks refer) is the North Atlantic, from the Canary Islands to the Orkneys, and from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and the coasts of Norway to the United States.
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  • The site of Nisibis, on the great road between the Tigris and the Mediterranean, and commanding alike the mountain country to the north and the then fertile plain to the south, gave it an importance which began during the Assyrian period and continued under the Seleucid empire.
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  • A Mr Clegg, who afterwards interested himself keenly in the activities of the Cotton Supply Association reported that in the course of a tour in 1855 through the Eastern countries bordering on the Mediterranean he had found none of the gins presented by the British government at work or workable.
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  • The city is connected with Barcelona and Valencia by the coast railway, and with Saragossa by the Ebro valley line; it is also the terminus of a railway to San Carlos de la Rapita on the Mediterranean.
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  • In the centre of the Mediterranean the fight between Christian and Mahommedan had been long, but was finally inclining in favour of the Christian.
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  • Then came the reconquest of the Mediterranean islands near Italy.
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  • There was, for instance, the ambition of the adventurer prince, the younger son, eager to carve a principality in the far East, of whom Bohemund is the type; there was the interest of Italian towns, anxious to acquire the products of the East more directly and cheaply, by erecting their own emporia in the eastern Mediterranean.
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  • Two distinct floral regions meet in Syria, that of the Mediterranean and that of the west Asian steppe-land.
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  • At a very early period - as early probably as the 16th century B.C.- Syria became the meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian elements, resulting in a type of western Asiatic culture peculiar to itself, which through the commerce of the Phoenicians was carried to the western lands of the Mediterranean basin.
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  • The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
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  • One has hitherto supposed that he was related to the Mediterraneans, the race to which the Bronze Age Greeks and Italians belonged; but this supposed connexion may well break down in the matter of skull form, as the Hittite skull, like that of the modern Anatolian, probably inclined to be brachycephalic. whereas that of the Mediterranean inclined in the other direction, And now the Bohemian Assyriologist Prof. Hrozny has brought forward evidence s that the cuneiform script adopted by the Hittites from the Mesopotamians expressed an Indo-European tongue, nearly akin to Latin!
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  • The voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates was intended to link India by a waterway with the Mediterranean lands.
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  • For the next loo years these are the three great powers of the eastern Mediterranean.
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  • An alternative route went from the Indian ports to the Persian Gulf, and thence found the Mediterranean by caravan across Arabia from the country of Gerrha to Gaza; and to control it was no doubt a motive in the long struggle of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid houses for Palestine, as well as in the attempt of Antiochus III.
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  • The rabbit is believed to be a native of the western half of the Mediterranean basin, and still abounds in Spain, Sardinia, southern Italy, Sicily, Greece, Tunis and Algeria;.
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  • Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.
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  • The extent to which the more correct proportion would have affected the delineation of the Mediterranean is illustrated by fig.
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  • The Mediterranean occupies nearly half the inhabited world in longitude, and the east coast of Africa is shown as if it extended due east.
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  • The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.
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  • None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
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  • On these old charts the Mediterranean is delineated with surprising fidelity.
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  • Wagner, to the inexperience of the cartographers who first combined the charts of the separate basins of the Mediterranean so as to produce a chart of the whole.
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  • These maps were originally intended for the use of seamen navigating the Mediterranean and the coasts of the Atlantic, but in the course of time they were extended to the mainland and ultimately developed into maps of the whole world as then known.
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  • The author followed Ptolemy not only in Asia, but also in the Mediterranean.
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  • Ghat is an important centre of the caravan trade between the Nigerian states and the seaports of the Mediterranean.
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  • Its chief centre is the Mediterranean region, whence it extends over central 2.
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  • Of herbaceous plants the kissenia, the sole representative of the order Loasaceae, which is common in America but very rare elsewhere, is found in Somaliland, which also possesses forms belonging to the eastern Mediterranean flora.
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  • Captives were brought thence to the slave market of Kuka in Bornu, where, after being bought by dealers, they were, to the number of about 10,000 annually, marched across the Sahara to Murzuk in Fezzan, from which place they were distributed to the northern and eastern Mediterranean coasts.
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  • At Geneva are three large collections - Augustin Pyrame de Candolle's, containing the typical specimens of the Prodromus, a large series of monographs of the families of flowering plants, Benjamin Delessert's fine series at the Botanic Garden, and the Boissier Herbarium, which is rich in Mediterranean and Oriental plants.
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  • Southward its range is more limited than that of the dolphin, as, though common on the Atlantic coasts of France, it is not known to enter the Mediterranean.
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  • The northern boundary is broken at Kertch by a strait entering into the Sea of Azov, and at the junction of the western and southern boundary is the Bosporus, which unites the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles.
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  • The conditions that prevail in the Black Sea are very different from those of the Mediterranean or any other sea.
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  • The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.
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  • Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
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  • The Sea of Marmora may be looked upon as an arm of the Aegean Sea and thus part of the Mediterranean proper.
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  • Its salinity is comparable to that of the eastern basin of the Mediterranean, which is greater than that of the Black Sea, viz.
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  • It freezes more readily and is not affected by the Mediterranean current.
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  • Towards Egypt the frontier is a line drawn from Akaba at the head of the Gulf of Akaba north-westwards to the little port of El Arish on the Mediterranean.
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  • Elsewhere Asiatic Turkey enjoys the advantage of a sea frontage, being washed in the north-west and west by the Euxine, Aegean and Mediterranean, in the south-west by the Red Sea, and in the south-east by the Persian Gulf.
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  • After capturing Algiers, an attack by this famous admiral on Tunis was repulsed with the aid of Spain, but in the Mediterranean he maintained a hotlycontested struggle with Charles's admiral, Andrea Doria.
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  • After spending some time as a Genoese galley-slave, he turned corsair and became the terror of the Mediterranean coasts.
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  • Of these the most remarkable was Piri Reis, nephew of Kamil Reis, the famous corsair who, under Bayezid II., had swept the Aegean and Mediterranean.
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  • Russia having thus lost all the advantage gained by the peace of Karlowitz, Venice was next taken in hand, she having invaded the Bosnian frontier and incited the Montenegrins to revolt, besides capturing Turkish ships in the Mediterranean.
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  • Commerce and navigation in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean were free to both countries.
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  • After the Greek revolution the system of manning the navy from the Christian natives of the archipelago and the Mediterranean littoral was abandoned, and recruits for the navy are now selected under the ordinary law.
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  • Some (pseudo-Orpheus) supposed that the Argonauts had sailed up the river Tanais, passed into another river, and by it reached the North Sea, returning to the Mediterranean by the Pillars of Hercules.
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  • The "Argo" was now carried twelve days and twelve nights to the Hesperides, and thence to lake Tritonis (where the seer Mopsus died), whence Triton conducted them to the Mediterranean.
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  • Abandoned by almost all his adherents Benedict found refuge in the castle of Peniscola on an impregnable rock overlooking the Mediterranean, and remained intractable.
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  • He sailed on the 23rd of January 1801, entered the Mediterranean and, his squadron being in a bad condition, steered for Toulon, which he reached on the 18th of February.
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  • Bagdad also lies on a natural line of communication between Persia and the west, the ancient caravan route from Khorasan debouching from the mountains at this point, while another natural caravan route led up the Euphrates to Syria and the Mediterranean and still another up the Tigris to Armenia and the Black Sea.
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  • In 1903 there was considerable discussion as to the placing of the line under international control, and the question aroused special interest in England in view of the short route which the line would provide to India, in connexion with fast steamship services in the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf.
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  • The father was secretary in one of the numerous factories erected on the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean by the warlike and enterprising merchants of Pisa.
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  • Leonardo was educated at Bugia, and afterwards toured the Mediterranean.
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  • Both in the east (at Batna) and the west (at Ain Sefra) the mountains are traversed by railways, which, starting from Mediterranean seaports, take the traveller into the Sahara.
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  • As the war went on the naval power of the Greeks diminished, partly owing to the penury of their treasury, and partly to the growth of piracy in the general anarchy of the Eastern Mediterranean.
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  • It is admitted, however, by all competent botanists that the almond is wild in the hotter and drier parts of the Mediterranean and Levantine regions.
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  • An entirely new project was an international survey of the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, from the fishery and oceanographical standpoints, by France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, but in 1921 no definite programme had been put in operation.
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  • In 1803 he was in command of the "Enterprise," which formed part of Commodore Preble's squadron in the Mediterranean, and in February 1804 led a daring expedition into the harbour of Tripoli for the purpose of burning the U.S. frigate "Philadelphia" which had fallen into Tripolitan hands.
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  • Subsequently he commanded in the Mediterranean against the corsairs of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli with great success.
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  • The tree has also been introduced along the Mediterranean shores of Europe; but as its fruit does not ripen so far north, the European plants are only used to supply leaves for the festival of Palm Sunday among Christians, and for the celebration of the Passover by Jews.
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  • On leaving the Mediterranean he seems to have returned home.
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  • Sir Edward Codrington, then commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, received the treaty and his instructions on the night of the loth/11th of August at Smyrna, and proceeded at once to Nauplia to communicate them to the Greeks.
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  • Next to Toulon, Bizerta is the most important naval port of France in the Mediterranean.
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  • The town is built on the shores of the Mediterranean at the point where the Lake of Bizerta enters the sea through a natural channel, the mouth of which has been canalized.
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  • It is also a road centre, the roads from the Mediterranean to Bagdad by way of Aleppo and Damascus respectively meeting here.
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  • On the reorganization of the war office and the higher commands in 1904, the duke was appointed to the new office of inspector-general to the forces, from which he retired in 1907, being then given the new post of commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, stationed at Malta, which he held until 1909.
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  • Asphodelus (asphodel) is a Mediterranean genus; Simethis, a slender herb with grassy radical leaves, is a native of west and southern Europe extending into south Ireland.
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  • Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
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  • He has ever been the patron saint of Mediterranean sailors, who regard St Elmo's fire as the visible sign of his guardianship. The phenomenon was known to the ancient Greeks, and Pliny in his Natural History states that when there were two lights sailors called them Castor and Pollux and invoked them as gods.
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  • The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits.
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  • Convolvulus has about tso to 200 species, mainly in temperate climates; the genus is principally developed in the Mediterranean area and western Asia.
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  • The first successful attempt to revive the study of algebra in Christendom was due to Leonardo of Pisa, an Italian merchant trading in the Mediterranean.
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  • One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
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  • At fifteen he went to sea, and made several voyages to the Baltic and Mediterranean.
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  • Certain departmental details were despatched to South Africa to form a working nucleus for military bases, and early in September the cabinet sanctioned the despatch to Natal from India of a mixed force, 5600 strong, while two battalions were ordered to South Africa from the Mediterranean.
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  • By common consent the prince was ultimately entrusted to Pope Innocent VIII., who used him not only to extract an annual tribute out of the sultan, but to prevent the execution of Bayezid's ambitious designs in the Mediterranean.
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  • On the outbreak of the revolutionary war he was sent to the Mediterranean as commander-in-chief.
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  • It is a widelydistributed species, being found throughout the northern and temperate seas of Europe, Asia and America, extending as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediterranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 50 fathoms deep, where it always feeds close to the bottom.
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  • The fleet of Dionysius was the most powerful in the Mediterranean.
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  • It has a very wide range, which nearly coincides with that of the cod, although of a somewhat more southern character, as it extends to both east and west coasts of the North Atlantic, and is occasionally found in the Mediterranean.
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  • Its waters, as stated above, mingle with those of the Victoria Nile, their united volume flowing north towards the Mediterranean.
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  • It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
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  • The consequence was that the feasibility of forcing a way from the Mediterranean up into the Sea of Marmora as a purely naval undertaking came to be examined afresh in London.
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  • This was by now active, four other seagoing boats having followed U21 from the North Sea, and it is claimed that 50,000 tons of shipping were sunk in the Mediterranean and Aegean during Sept.
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  • Submarine activity in the open Mediterranean and Aegean had no small influence in determining the final abandonment of the Gallipoli enterprise and in preventing its resumption in the later stages of the war.
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  • In 1135 and 1137 it was taken by the Pisans, and rapidly declined in importance, though its maritime code, known as the Tavole Amalfitane, was recognized in the Mediterranean until 1570.
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  • The vessels of later date which have been found in considerable quantities, principally in the coast towns and islands of the Mediterranean, are amphorae and alabastra, also decorated with zigzag lines.
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  • In a long inscription which he caused to be engraved on hundreds of stone vases dedicated to El-lil of Nippur, he declares that his kingdom extended " from the Lower Sea of the Tigris and Euphrates," or Persian Gulf, to " the Upper Sea " or Mediterranean.
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  • Images of himself were erected on the shores of the Mediterranean in token of his victories, and cities and palaces were built at home out of the spoils of the conquered lands.
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  • Their power extended to the Mediterranean, and we possess a large number of contemporaneous monuments in the shape of contracts and similar business documents, as well as chronological tables, which belong to their reigns.
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  • A great literary revival followed the recovery of Babylonian independence, and the rule of Babylon was obeyed as far as the shores of the Mediterranean.
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  • Samas-sum-yukin became more Babylonian than his subjects; the viceroy claimed to be the successor of the monarchs whose empire had once stretched to the Mediterranean; even the Sumerian language was revived as the official tongue, and a revolt broke out which shook the Assyrian empire to its foundations.
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  • The plant is a native of the Mediterranean region, and was formerly cultivated as a pot-herb.
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  • The best known and longest cultivated species is the old-world grape-vine, Vitis vinifera; a variety of this, silvestris, occurs wild in the Mediterranean region, spreading eastwards towards the Caucasus and northwards into southern Germany, and may be regarded as the parent of the cultivated vine.
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  • The disease was first noticed in England in 1845; in 1848 it appeared at Versailles; by 1851 it had spread through all the wine-producing countries of Europe, being specially virulent in the lands bordering on the Mediterranean; and in the following year it made its appearance in Madeira.
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  • Neither of these, however, can be the author of the Periplus of the Mediterranean, which has come down to us under the name of Scylax of Caryanda.
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  • This work is little more than a sailor's handbook of places and distances all round the coast of the Mediterranean and its branches, and then along the outer Libyan coast as far as the Carthaginians traded.
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  • The greater part drains to the Mediterranean, from which the land rises gradually to the summit of the Tih plateau.
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  • Besides farming and fishing, the inhabitants carry on a coasting trade with various Mediterranean ports.
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  • Oxycedrus, a common plant in the Mediterranean region, forming a shrub or low tree with spreading branches and short, stiff, prickly leaves.
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  • The survival of the non-Aryan language among the Basques around the west Pyrenees has suggested the attempt to interpret by its means a large class of similarsounding place-names of ancient Spain, some of which are authenticated by their occurrence on the inscribed coins, and to link it with other traces of non-Aryan speech round the shores of the Western Mediterranean and on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe.
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  • Whether this type is more conveniently designated by the word Iberian, or by some other name (" Eur-african," " Mediterranean," &c.) is a matter of comparative indifference, provided that there is no misunderstanding as to the steps by which the term Iberian attained its meaning in modern anthropology.
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  • Gabes lies at the head of the shat country of Tunisia and is intimately connected with the scheme of Commandant Roudaire to create a Saharan sea by making a channel from the Mediterranean to these shats (large salt lakes below the level of the sea).
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  • The Gulf of Gabes, the Syrtis Minor of the ancients, is a semicircular shallow indentation of the Mediterranean, about 50 m.
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  • They stretch with only two short breaks in a line from the Mediterranean at the Gulf of Gabes to the Algerian frontier, which they penetrate for a considerable distance.
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  • They are smooth depressed areas (in the case of the largest, the Shat el Jerid, lying a few feet below the level of the Mediterranean), which for more than half the year are expanses of dried mud covered with a thick incrustation of white or grey salt.
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  • It would seem probable that at one time these shats (at any rate the Shat el Jerid) were an inlet of the Mediterranean, which by the elevation of a narrow strip of land on the Gulf of Gabes has been cut off from them.
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  • They are, as a rule, common to the south Mediterranean region.
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  • Some nine or ten other species of snakes are present, together with an abundance of lizards, including the Varanus, and most species of Mediterranean tortoises are represented.
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  • It is considered that these nomads will be gently pushed back towards the Sahara, leaving cultivable Tunisia to the settled Berber stock, a stock fundamentally one with the peoples of Mediterranean Europe.
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  • It may be noted, however, as a general condition that the native towns and villages of Tunisia, where they have not been spoiled by the shocking tastelessness of Mediterranean Europe, are exceedingly picturesque, and offer exceptional attractions to the painter.
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  • New and direct services were started to East Africa, Central America and Mexico; the service to India and the Far East, as well as that to the Mediterranean ports, was much improved; and lastly, Trieste was made the centre of the large emigration from Austria to America by the inauguration (June 1904) of a direct emigrant service to New York.
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  • Its most important trade by land, besides Austria, is done with Germany, Trieste being the entrepot for Germany's commerce with India and the Mediterranean countries.
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  • This overthrow of Byzantium was a great loss to the empire, since it might have served as a protection against the Goths, who afterwards sailed past it into the Mediterranean.
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  • Towards the south this starfish disappears, it seems, completely; for it is not yet known with certainty to exist either in the Mediterranean or in the southern parts of the Atlantic Ocean.
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  • The Spaniards replied by appealing to Holland, who sent a fleet under Ruyter into the Mediterranean.
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  • The western slope of Lebanon has the common characteristics of the flora of the Mediterranean coast, but the Anti-Lebanon belongs to the poorer region of the steppes, and the Mediterranean species are met with only sporadically along the water-courses.
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  • The great mass of the vegetation, however, is of the low-growing type (maquis or garrigue of the western Mediterranean), with small and stiff leaves, and frequently thorny and aromatic, as for example the ilex (Quercus coccifera), Smilax, Cistus, Lentiscus, Calycotome, &c. (2) Next comes, from 1600 to 6500 ft., the mountain region, which may also be called the forest region, still exhibiting sparse woods and isolated trees wherever shelter, moisture and the inhabitants have permitted their growth.
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  • Till the peace of Nymwegen(1697), he continued to serve in the Channel and Mediterranean.
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  • Called to office after disaster had driven Turkey's forces from Hungary and Poland and her fleets from the Mediterranean, he began by ordering strict economy and reform in the taxation; himself setting the example, which was widely followed, of voluntary contributions for the army, which with the navy he reorganized as quickly as he could.
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  • After occupying various important posts he became grand vizier in 1697, and owing to his ability and energy the Turks were able to drive the Austrians back over the Save, and Turkish fleets were sent into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
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  • Lugudunum controlled the trade of its two rivers, and that which passed from northern Gaul to the Mediterranean or vice versa; it had a mint; it was the capital of all northern Gaul, despite its position in the south, and its wealth was such that, when Rome was burnt in Nero's reign, its inhabitants subscribed largely to the relief of the Eternal City.
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  • As an industrial centre Corinth achieved pre-eminence in pottery, metal-work and decorative handicraft, and was the reputed "inventor" of painting and tiling; her bronze and her pottery, moulded from the soft white clay of Oneium, were widely exported over the Mediterranean.
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  • The ebb and flow of the tide is distinctly visible here, Taranto being one of the few places in the Mediterranean where it is perceptible.
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  • Work was begun on the arsenal in 1883 and continued as the finances of the state permitted; it is capable of turning out new warships and of executing repairs of all kinds for the Mediterranean squadron.
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  • Mighty fortifications and harbour works have assisted to make this ideal situation an emporium of Mediterranean trade.
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  • Mediterranean (sometimes called " Malta ") fever has been traced by Colonel David Bruce to a Micrococcus melitensis.
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  • It carried the art of navigation through the Mediterranean, along the Atlantic seaboard as far as Great Britain, leaving colonies along its path.
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  • The principal resources of Malta are derived from its being an important military station and the headquarters of the Mediterranean fleet.
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  • A long absence of the Mediterranean fleet, and withdrawals of imperial forces, produce immediate distress.
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  • The earliest inhabitants of Malta (Melita) and Gozo (Gaulos) belonged to a culture-circle which included the whole of the western Mediterranean, and to a race which perhaps originated from North Africa; and it is they, and not the Phoenicians, who were the builders of the remarkable megalithic monuments which these islands contain, the Gigantia in Gozo, Hagiar Kim and Mnaidra near Crendi, the rock-cut hypogeum of Halsaflieni,' and the megalithic buildings on the hill of Corradino in Malta, being the most noteworthy.
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  • Near Mora in Catalonia it forces a way through the coastal mountains, and, passing Tortosa, falls into the Mediterranean about 80 m.
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  • Cactaceae belong almost entirely to the New World; but some of the Opuntias have been so long distributed over certain parts of Europe, especially on the shores of the Mediterranean and the volcanic soil of Italy, that they appear in some places to have taken possession of the soil, and to be distinguished with difficulty from the aboriginal vegetation.
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  • The island can be reached by steamer from Trapani, and lies close to the main route from east to west through the Mediterranean.
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  • The Dutch now sought peace, and Cromwell offered better terms. During the fighting in the North Sea the Mediterranean trade of England had suffered severely.
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  • The statesgeneral under the skilful management of the Grand Pensionary, John de Witt, retaliated by sending de Ruyter from the Mediterranean, where he was cruising against the Barbary pirates, to follow Holmes.
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  • Spain, unable to defend its possessions singlehanded, appealed to the Dutch for naval help. In September 1675 De Ruyter was sent into the Mediterranean with 18 sail of the line and four fire-ships.
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  • The French remained masters of the Mediterranean.
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  • In 1676 the naval successes of France in the Mediterranean enabled the corps under Marshal Vivonne in Sicily to make considerable progress, and he won an important victory at Messina on the 25th of March.
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  • If he had not become sovereign of the Low Countries, as heir of Mary of Burgundy through his father, Philip would in all probability have devoted himself to warfare with the Turks in the Mediterranean, and to the conquest of northern Africa.
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  • In 1885 it crossed the Mediterranean to Algeria.
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  • Four great intercontinental enclosed seas are included between adjacent continents - the Arctic Sea, the Central American or West Indian Sea, the Australo-Asiatic or Malay Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
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  • Recent levellings along the Swedish and Danish coasts have confirmed the higher level of the Baltic; and the level of the Mediterranean has also been determined by exact measurements to be from 15 to 24 in.
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  • In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.
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  • The time of touching bottom i studied by the Norwegian expedition on board the " VOringen " was judged by timing each loo-fathom mark and noting the in 1876-1878, and the north polar basin by Nansen and Sverdrup sudden increase in the time interval when the shot reached the in the " Fram " in 1893-1896, the Mediterranean by the Italians bottom.
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  • The Mediterranean Sea, the best-known member of the intercontinental class, is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a ridge running from Cape Spartel to Cape Trafalgar on which the greatest depth is only 175 fathoms. The depth increases so rapidly towards the east that soundings exceeding 500 fathoms occur off Gibraltar.
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  • The Black Sea, connected with the Mediterranean by long and narrow channels, is occupied in the north by an extensive shelf on which Mean Depths of Oceans and Seas.
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  • Similar formations are found in the Mediterranean, where a dark mud predominates in the western part, passing into a grey, marly slime in the Tyrrhenian Basin and replaced by a typical calcareous ooze in the Eastern Basin.
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  • In the Red Sea the " Pola " expedition discovered a calcareous .00ze similar to that of the Mediterranean, and the formation of a stony crust by precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonates may be recognized as giving origin to a recent dolomite.
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  • Fol and Sarasin detected the last traces of sunlight in the western Mediterranean at a depth of 254 to 260 fathoms, and Luksch in the eastern Mediterranean at 328 fathoms and in the Red Sea at 273 fathoms. The chief cause of the different depths to which light penetrates in sea-water is the varying turbidity due to the presence of mineral particles in suspension or to plankton.
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  • The northern seas have an increasing tendency towards green, the Irminger Sea showing 5-9 Forel, while in the North Sea the water is usually a pure green (io-14 Forel), the western Mediterranean shows 5-9 Forel, but the eastern is as blue as the open ocean (0-2 Forel).
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  • The saltest include the eastern Mediterranean with 39.5 per mille, the Red Sea with 41 to 43 per mille in the Gulf of Suez, and the Persian Gulf with 38.
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  • In the North Atlantic a strong submarine current flowing outward from the Mediterranean leaves the Strait of Gibraltar with a salinity of 38 per mille, and can be traced as far as Madeira and the Bay of Biscay in depths of from 600 to 2800 fathoms, still with a salinity of 35.6 per mille, whereas off the Azores at equal depths the salinity is from 0.5 to 0.7 per mille less.
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  • Evaporation is naturally greatest in the enclosed seas of the nearly rainless subtropical zone such as the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
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  • The first is the slow-action thermometer which was originally used with good effect by de Saussure in the Mediterranean in 1780.
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  • The third form is the outflow or reversing thermometer, first introduced by Aime, who used a very inconvenient form in the Mediterranean in 1841-1845, but greatly improved and simplified by Negretti and Zambra in 1875.
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  • We are still ignorant of the depth to.which the annual temperature wave penetrates in the open ocean, but observations in the Mediterranean enable us to form some opinion on the matter.
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  • An under-current flows out from the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and from the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar, raising the salinity as well as the temperature of the part of the ocean outside the gates of the respective seas.
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  • Even in the Mediterranean sea-ice is formed annually in the northern part of the Black Sea, and more rarely in the Gulf of Salonica and at the head of the Adriatic off Triest.
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  • The very dense water of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean makes the column of water salter and heavier and the level lower than in the ocean beyond the straits.
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  • The command of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pethor at the junction of the Euphrates and Sajur, and at Arvad he received presents, including a crocodile, from the Egyptian king, and, embarking in a ship, killed a dolphin in the sea.
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  • The best - known is Acanthus mollis (brankursine, or bears' breech), a common species throughout the Mediterranean region, having large, deeply cut, hairy, shining leaves.
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  • Its situation brought it into commercial relations with all the nations lying around the Mediterranean, and at the same time rendered it the one communicating link with the wealth and civilization of the East.
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  • By this Lothair received Italy and the imperial title, together with a stretch of land between the North and Mediterranean Seas lying along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone.
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  • He next organized an extensive international business in coal, and had 13 steamers trading to and from North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Sea ports.
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  • The canal which traverses the shallow Bahira, and connects Tunis with the Mediterranean, is nearly seven miles long.
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  • Shorn thus of his single ally, the emperor realized that the whole eastern land-frontier of France was open to invasion, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean.
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  • His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 600 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
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  • The art of coining was introduced by the Greeks into Italy and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean and into Persia and India.
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  • As gunnery lieutenant he continued in the "President" till 1849; and in the following year he was appointed to the "Arethusa" frigate, then commissioned for the Mediterranean by Captain Symonds, afterwards the well-known admiral of the fleet.
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  • Bringing the oxen of Geryones from Erythia in the far west, which errand involved many adventures in the coast lands of the Mediterranean, and the setting up of the " Pillars of Hercules " at the Straits of Gibraltar.
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  • He drifted in time to San Francisco, and it was a newspaper of that city which in 1867 supplied the money for him to join a party going on a chartered steamboat to the Mediterranean ports.
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  • These are generally species of the genus Penaeus (like P. caramote of the Mediterranean) which are distinguished from all those already mentioned by having pincers on the first three, instead of only on the first two pairs of legs.
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  • In May 1805 he received command of a small squadron in the Mediterranean, while his wife proceeded to Camberwell, where she gave birth to a son.
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  • Nevertheless the Latin element began to prevail with the Lombards and other Italians who flocked into the island in the wake of the conquest, and the conquest of Sicily was decisive in the steady decline from this time of Mahommedan power in the western Mediterranean.
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  • The species are found wild along the northern shores of the Mediterranean, in the Levant, Armenia, Caucasus, Northern Africa, Persia, and sporadically across North and Central Asia to Japan.
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  • Another grass, Lygeum Spartum, with stiff rush-like leaves, growing in rocky soil on the high plains of countries bordering on the Mediterranean, especially of Spain and Algeria, is also a source of esparto.
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  • The fauna and flora resemble those of the Mediterranean coasts of Spain or France.
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  • According to the priests, Atlantis had been a powerful kingdom nine thousand years before the birth of Solon, and its armies had overrun the lands which bordered the Mediterranean.
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  • Among the less important rivers which empty into the Mediterranean are the Macta, the Tafna, the Harrach and the Mazafran.
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  • The Harrach (40 m.), a picturesque stream, enters the Mediterranean in the Bay of Algiers.
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  • The fauna of Algeria resembles that of the Mediterranean system generally, though many animals once common to South Europe and North Africa - such as the lion, panther, hyena and jackal - are now extinct in Europe.
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  • Both historically and geographically, Africa Minor belongs much more to the Mediterranean world than to the African.
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  • All the foreign invaders who successively established their dominion over this country either crossed the Mediterranean or followed its shores.
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  • Ships trading in the Mediterranean were seized by the corsairs, who pillaged the coasts of Europe, carried off their captives to Algiers, and destroyed the fishing and commercial settlements founded by the Marseillais on the shores of Africa.
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  • Two nations, then at the height of their power, Spain and Turkey, disputed the empire of the Mediterranean.
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  • Peasants from the south of France, whose vines had been destroyed by the phylloxera, crossed the Mediterranean and established in Algeria an important vineyard.
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  • Ambrosia maritima and some other species occur also in the Mediterranean region.
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  • Though he was apt to represent himself as disliked and neglected by the admiralty, and was frequently insolent towards his superiors, he was, as a matter of fact, pretty constantly employed, and he more than justified his appointments by his activity and success as captain of the "Pallas" (32) and "Imperieuse" (38) on the ocean and in the Mediterranean.
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  • At Toulouse the canal connects with the Canal du Midi, which runs to the Mediterranean.
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  • Rhineura of Florida, and also known from the Oligocene of South Dakota; Lepidosternum of South America; and Anops in America and Africa; Blanus cinereus, Mediterranean countries.
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  • Seps, of the Mediterranean countries and south-western Asia, has a transparent disk on the lower eyelid which is movable; limbs very short or reduced to mere vestiges.
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  • Even the small island-rocks of the Mediterranean, sometimes only a few hundred yards in diameter, are occupied by peculiar races of lizards, which have attracted much attention from the fact that they have assumed under such isolated conditions a more or less dark,.
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  • The principal rivers are the Ter, the Llobregat, and the Ebro, which all run into the Mediterranean.
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  • The great spread of the Phoenician weight on the Mediterranean, of the Persian in Asia Minor and of the Assyrian in Egypt are evident cases; and that the decimal weights of the laws of Manu (43) are decidedly not Assyrian or Persian, but on exactly the Phoenician standard, is a curious evidence of trade by water and not overland.
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  • It is true that the political and spiritual histories of the peoples on the Mediterranean run in parallel lines, the one leading up to the universal monarchy of Rome, the other leading up to monotheism and universal human morality.
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  • Mommsen interprets this policy as signifying that "the rule of the urban community of Rome over the shores of the Mediterranean was at an end," and says that the first act of the "new Mediterranean state" was "to atone for the two greatest outrages which that urban community had perpetrated on civilization."
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  • The sites of Caesar's colonies were selected for their commercial value, and that the citizens of Rome should cease to be rulers of the Mediterranean basin could never have entered into Caesar's mind.
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  • The shore lagoons are, however, rendered healthy by the ebb and flow of the tide, which is much more considerable than elsewhere in the Mediterranean.
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  • The other variety is met with along the White Nile, in Lower Egypt, and at various points on the African coast of the Mediterranean.
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  • Its mineral produce, metal-work, purple and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, but were distributed over the Mediterranean in the ships of Corinth and Samos.
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  • But after the close of the second Punic War, when Rome had become the chief power, not only in Italy, but in all the neighbouring lands round the Mediterranean, we can trace a growing tendency among the Italian cities to regard citizenship of this great state as a privilege, and to claim complete citizenship as a reward of their services in helping to build up the Roman power.
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  • The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
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  • The greatly varied Arctic coast line of Canada with its large islands, inlets and channels is too much clogged with ice to be of much practical use, but Hudson Bay, a mediterranean sea 850 m.
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  • Besides many smaller streams, two large rivers water the province, the Segura in the southwest, and the Jucar in the north-east; both rising beyond the borders of Albacete, and ultimately flowing into the Mediterranean.
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  • It lies on the western side of the canal on the low, narrow, treeless and desolate strip of land which separates the Mediterranean from Lake Menzala, the land at this point being raised and its area increased by the draining of part of the lake and by the excavation of the inner harbour.
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  • Port Said dates from 1859 and its situation was determined by the desire of the engineers of the Suez Canal to start the canal at the point on the Mediterranean coast of the isthmus of Suez nearest to deep water, and off the spot where Port Said now stands there was found a depth of 26 ft.
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  • The Lemnian version is due to the prominence of his cult at Lemnos in very early times; and his fall into the sea may have been suggested by volcanic activity in Mediterranean islands, as at Lipara, and Thera.
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  • He was also sent to carry the tribute which the United States still condescended to pay to the dey of Algiers, in order to secure exemption from capture for its merchant ships in the Mediterranean - a service which he performed punctually, though with great disgust.
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  • The town of Alaja was the creation of this sultan, as previously there existed on that site only the fortress of Candelor, at that epoch in the possession of an Armenian chief, who was expelled by Kaikobad, and shared the fate of the Armenian and Frankish knights who possessed the fortresses along the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Selefke (Seleucia).
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  • Geologically and structurally Cyrenaica is a mass of Miocene limestone tilted up steeply from the Mediterranean and falling inland by a gentle descent to sea-level again at the line of depression, which runs from the gulf of Sidra through Aujila to Siwa.
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  • From the close of the Mexican War to the beginning of the Civil War he had little but detail duty; in 1855 and again in 1856 he made trips to the Mediterranean to bring to the United States camels for army use in the south-west.
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  • Another such guarantee of a vaguer character is that which the North Sea powers recently entered into for the maintenance of the status quo of their respective North Sea territories; and the similar one entered into by the Mediterranean powers for the same objects in the Mediterranean.
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  • In art, these tribes possessed a native Late Celtic fashion, descended from far-off Mediterranean antecedents and more directly connected with the La-Tene culture of the continental Celts.
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  • The Roman conquest of northern Gaul (57-50 B.C.) brought Britain into definite relation with the Mediterranean.
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  • On the north, its valley is bounded by the wild Sierra Morena; on the south, by the mountains of the Mediterranean littoral, among which the Sierra Nevada, with its peaks of Mulhacen (11,421 ft.)and Veleta(11,148 ft.), is the most conspicuous.
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  • On the coasts of the Mediterranean about Marbella and Malaga, the sugar-cane is successfully cultivated.
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  • Early in 1793 the "Juno" went to the Mediterranean under Lord Hood, and her captain distinguished himself by an audacious feat of coolness and seamanship in extricating his vessel from the harbour of Toulon, which he had entered in ignorance of Lord Hood's withdrawal.
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  • Present in the roads of Corunna at the re-embarkation of the army of Sir John Moore, Hood thence returned to the Mediterranean, where for two years he commanded a division of the British fleet.
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  • The Sea of the Great Bend would seem to be the sea fed by the north-to-south waters of Naharin, just as the Mediterranean, fed by the south-to-north waters of the Nile, is called the Great Circle (šn wr).
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  • The earliest Babylonian monarch of whose presence in Mesopotamia there is positive evidence is Lugalzaggisi (before 2500 s.c.), who claims, with the help of En-lil, to have led his countless host victorious to the Mediterranean.
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  • King now 2 plausibly argues, is not certain; nor whether the 32 kings who revolted and were conquered by Manishtusu, as we now learn, were by the Mediterranean, as Winckler argued, or by the Persian Gulf, as King holds.
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  • Three great rivers, the Douro, which traverses Old Castile, with the Tagus and Guadiana, which respectively drain the central and southern regions of New Castile, flow westward into Portugal, and finally reach the Atlantic; while the Ebro, which rises in the north of the kingdom, skirts the north-eastern frontier on its way to the Mediterranean.
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  • In pursuit of this heroic enterprise, which excited the loud admiration of Voltaire, she sent a fleet under Alexis Orlov into the Mediterranean in 1770.
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  • There is a good road to Aleppo and Alexandretta on the Mediterranean, and to Samsun on the Black Sea by Kharput, Malatia and Sivas.
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  • At what period did Phoenicia first rise to be a power in the Mediterranean?
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