Medieval Sentence Examples
It was like a prisoner's cell in some medieval castle.
Two medieval castles rise above the town, and there are some churches of interest.
She'd thought his wall of swords, daggers, axes, and other medieval weapons were for ceremony.
Its ancient gates, walls and towers have disappeared, but it still possesses a few medieval edifices.
India has also a considerable medieval and modern literature in various languages.Advertisement
In the medieval inventories are sometimes found albae, described as red, blue or black; which has led to the belief that albs were sometimes not only made of stuffs other than linen, but were coloured.
But the dean and chapter objected to the absence of a structural choir, nave and aisles, and wished to follow the medieval cathedral arrangement.
In general, these performed very much the same function as the lives of saints in the early and medieval church.
In medieval times the Propylaea served (Redrawn from the Athenische Mitteilungen by permission of the Kaiserliches Archaeologisches Institut.) as the palace of the dukes of Athens; they were much damaged by the explosion of a powder magazine in 1656.
The other old Greek cities, as well as those of medieval Italy and Germany, would supply us with endless examples of the various ways in which privileged orders arose.Advertisement
Many of the principal medieval attempts in apologetics are directed chiefly against him, e.g.
In one point, however, the Venetian nobility differed from either the older or the newer nobility of Rome, and also from the older nobilities of the medieval Italian cities.
But in no part of Europe can the existing nobility trace itself to this immemorial nobility of primitive days; the nobility of medieval and modern days springs from the later nobility of office.
The high reputation it had in medieval times is attested by the numerous translations, commentaries and imitations of it which then appeared.
The Church of Rome prefers medieval or modern statements of its position; Protestantism can use only modern statements.Advertisement
Its medieval history consists of struggles between the native sovereigns and Tamil invaders.
Above the town is a medieval castle.
In North Africa, probably in the 9th century, appeared the book known under the name of Eldad ha-Dani, giving an account of the ten tribes, from which much medieval legend was derived; 2 and in Kairawan the medical and philosophical treatises of Isaac Israeli, who died in 932.
The greatest of all medieval Jewish scholars was Moses ben Maimon (Rambam), called Maimonides by Christians.
In sympathy with this Platonism, the medieval church began by assuming the entire mutual harmony of faith and reason.Advertisement
The town was strongly fortified by medieval walls, which have to some extent been demolished.
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
They traced their descent to ancestors who had achieved distinction in the political life of medieval Florence and Sarzana; Francesco Buonaparte of Sarzana migrated to Corsica early in the 16th century.
This letter corresponds to the second symbol in the Phoenician alphabet, and appears in the same position in all the European alphabets, except those derived, like the Russian, from medieval Greek, in which the pronunciation of this symbol had changed from b to v.Advertisement
It is true that in Roman Catholicism, in medieval as in modern times, the working of miracles has been ascribed to its saints; but the character of most of these miracles is such as to lack the a priori probability which has been claimed for the Scripture miracles.
Jerusalem, like Rome, had the shadow of a mighty name to lend prestige to its ruler; and as residence in Rome was one great reason of the strength of the medieval papacy, so was 1 Before he left, Raymund had played in Jerusalem the same part of dog in the manger which he had also played at Antioch, and had given Godfrey considerable trouble.
They became regents to their young children; and the experience of all medieval minorities reiterates the lesson - woe to the land where the king is a child and the regent a woman.
In 1489 it was acquired by Venice, which claimed the island on the death of the last king, having adopted his widow (a Venetian lady named Catarina Cornaro) as a daughter of the republic. On the history of Cyprus, see Stubbs, Lectures on Medieval and Modern History, 156-208.
The gulf between the " laity " and " clergy " went on widening during the 5th and 6th centuries; and the people, stripped of their old prerogatives (save in form here and there), passed into a spiritual pupillage which was one distinctive note of the medieval Church.
It is an interesting medieval town with many ancient buildings.
He succeeded in abolishing the old-fashioned medieval textbooks and methods of instruction, and led his pupils to the study of the classical authors themselves.
Medieval Englishmen were particularly apt to put their aspirations into a legal form, and then rest satisfied with their achievement.
Medieval economics was little more than a casuistical system of elaborate and somewhat artificial rules of conduct.
Competition, in the Darwinian sense, is characteristic not only of modern industrial states, but of all living organisms; and in the narrower sense of the " higgling of the market " is found on the Stock Exchange, in the markets of old towns, in medieval fairs and Oriental bazaars.
His sieges, the most difficult part of medieval warfare, though won sometimes by stratagem, prove that he and his followers had benefited from their early training in the wars of Edward I.
Medieval Christian synchronists make Cuchulinn's death take place about the beginning of the Christian era.
This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
Angilbert, however, was little like the true medieval saint; his poems reveal rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying the closest intimacy with the imperial family.
Yet the group of islands called Rialto, in mid-Venetian lagoon, were first the asylum and then the magnificent and permanent home of a race that took a prominent part in the medieval and Renaissance history of Europe.
Pisano's building sheds, nine in a row, with peculiarly shaped roofs, were still standing intact - one of the most interesting medieval monuments of Venice - until recently, but they have been modified past recognition.
Especially prominent in Europe, classical, medieval and modern, and in East Asia, is the spirit of the lake, river, spring, or well, often conceived as human, but also in the form of a bull or horse; the term Old Nick may refer to the water-horse Nok.
For curious instances of the part played by the ass in medieval church festivals see the article Fools, Feast Of.
The site shows a Roman theatre, amphitheatre, temple and other ruins, with part of the city wall, and the moles of the Roman harbour, with a ruined Greek cathedral and other medieval buildings.
Another interesting building is the Gothic chapel of Notre-Dame, with three naves, rebuilt by Louis XI., standing close to a medieval bridge over the Sienne.
While his own work lay chiefly in more modern times, he trained in his classes a school of writers on German medieval history.
The development of the art of war, and the growth of a systematic taxation, are two debts which medieval Europe also owed to the Crusades.
Its medieval importance as an intermediary of trade between Europe and the East was greatly impaired by the opening of the Red Sea route, and finally abolished by the Suez Canal; and Syria is at present important mainly for the sentimental reason that it contains the holiest places of Judaism and Christianity, and for the strategic reason that it lies on the flank of the greatest traderoute of the eastern hemisphere.
Several old houses, some remains of the medieval ramparts and the Tour de l'Horloge, an ancient gateway, are also preserved.
This has its origin in the names Great Java and Lesser Java, by which the medieval Java and Sumatra were called, and it accordingly means the language spoken along the coasts of the two great islands.
Though the precise locality is occasionally uncertain, the majority of the medieval synods assembled in the chapter-house of old St Paul's, or the former chapel of St Catherine within the precincts of Westminster Abbey or at Lambeth.
The fine marble lion of the classical period which stood at the mouth of the Cantharus harbour gave the Peiraeus its medieval and modern names of Porto Leone and Porto Draco; it was carried away to Venice by Morosini.
The site is marked by a medieval castle bearing the name Bisenzo.
Clevedon Court is a remarkable medieval mansion, dating originally from the early part of the 14th century, though much altered in the Elizabethan and other periods.
On a hill behind the town are the ruins of a medieval castle, but no ancient Greek remains have been discovered, although some travellers have identified the site with that of the classical Pharae or Pherae.
He chose the legend of Tannhauser, collecting his materials from the ancient Tannhauser-Lied, the Volksbuch, Tieck's poetical Erzahlung, Hoffmann's story of Der Sangerkrieg, and the medieval poem on Der Wartburgkrieg.
The medieval studies which Wagner had begun for his work at the libretto of Tannhauser bore rich fruit in his next opera Lohengrin, in which he also developed his principles on a larger scale and with a riper technique than hitherto.
In 1857 he completed the libretto of Tristan and Isolde at Venice, adopting the Celtic legend modified by Gottfried of Strasburg's medieval version.
A very old tradition suggests that the idea of such an earthly paradise was a reminiscence of some unrecorded voyage to Madeira and the Canaries, which are sometimes named Fortunatae Insulae by medieval map-makers.
Like other parts of Germany during the 9th century Hesse felt the absence of a strong central power, and, before the time of the emperor Otto the Great, several counts, among whom were Giso and Werner, had made themselves practically independent; but after the accession of Otto in 936 the land quietly accepted the yoke of the medieval emperors.
Puri district is rich in historical remains, from the primitive rock-hewn caves of Buddhism - the earliest relics of Indian architecture - to the medieval sun temple at Kanarak and the shrine of Jagannath.
Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.
The mole-hills and serrated ridges of medieval maps were still in almost general use at the close of the 18th century, and are occasionally met with at the present day, being cheaply produced, readily understood by the unlearned, and in reality preferable to the uncouth and misleading hatchings still to be seen on many maps.
The outlines of several medieval maps resemble each other to such an extent that there can be no doubt that they are derived from the same original source.
The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.
Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.
And though Bede makes no pretensions to originality, least of all in his theological works, freely taking what he needed, and (what is very rare in medieval writers) acknowledging what he took, "out of the works of the venerable Fathers," still everything he wrote is informed and impressed with his own special character and temper.
It has given rise to a false idea that he lived to a great age; some medieval authorities making him ninety when he died.
Of medieval literary Greek papyri very few relics have survived, but of documents coming down to the 8th and 9th centuries an increasing number is being brought to light among the discoveries in Egypt.
Each cubiculum was usually the burying-place of some one family, all the members of which were interred in it, just as in the chantry-chapels connected with medieval churches.
The hotel de ville, a building of the 17th century, containing a museum and library, an older hotel de Tulle of the 13th century, and several medieval and Renaissance houses, are of interest.
Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
The medieval Arabians invented our system of numeration and developed algebra.
A group of signs carved on some rocks near Visegrad have been regarded as cuneiform writing, but are probably medieval masonic symbols.
On the following morning the French reached Regensburg and at once proceeded to assault its medieval walls, but the Austrian garrison bravely defended it till the last of the stragglers was safely across on the north bank.
But the corporation which is mentioned in medieval records is not that of the town of Romford, but of the liberty of Havering.
Huriel has a church of the 11th century and a well-preserved keep, the chief survival of a medieval castle.
But he showed admirable judgment in his choice of subordinates; Robert of Meulan, who died in 1118, and Roger of Salisbury, who survived his master, were statesmen of no common order; and Henry was free from the mania of attending in person to every detail, which was the besetting sin of medieval sovereigns.
The St Katharinenkirche and the St Jakobikirche are the only surviving medieval churches, but neither is of special interest.
A similar rock was named obsianus by medieval writers, from its resemblance to a rock discovered in Ethiopia by one Obsius.
It has an Evangelical church and an old castle and numerous medieval remains.
This contains a list of medieval writers on the subject, another of the inventories used by the author, and one of more modern works.
Marriott's Vestiarium Christianum (1868), though it must now be read with caution, is still of much value, notably the second part, which gives texts (with translations) of passages bearing on the subject taken from early and medieval writers, with many interesting plates.
But their name plays a part in medieval legends and romances.
If to these causes be added a certain exclusiveness, which refused to meet a would-be convert more than half-way, we find no difficulty in accounting for the reluctance which the medieval and modern synagogue has felt on the subject.
The connexion became closer at the time when the schism with its violent controversies between the rival pontiffs, waged with the coarse invective customary to medieval theologians, had brought great discredit on the papacy.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
In medieval times Droitwich was governed by two bailiffs and twelve jurats, the former being elected every year by the burgesses; Queen Mary granted the incorporation charter in 1554 under the name of the bailiffs and burgesses.
In spite of all the provisions of the canon law it is well established that simony was deeply rooted in the medieval church.
Ulm still preserves the dignified and old-fashioned appearance of a free imperial town, and contains many medieval buildings of historic and of artistic interest.
The medieval mind was only too prone to look on morality as a highly technical art, quite as difficult as medicine or chancery law - a path where wayfaring men were certain to err, with no guide but their unsophisticated conscience.
The medieval fairs are no longer held.
Hermann, who became a monk of the famous abbey of Reichenau, is at once one of the most attractive and one of the most pathetic figures of medieval monasticism.
To Frederick William these came as a complete surprise, and, rudely awakened from his medieval dreamings, he even allowed himself to be carried away for a while by the popular tide.
The Christian legend, which is no doubt in the main based on the Jewish, is found in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Slavonic and Medieval Latin.
Some of the streets remain much as they were in the medieval period, and many of the houses display more or less of Norman decoration.
The cunning and stratagem of the fox have been proverbial for many ages, and he has figured as a central character in fables from the earliest times, as in Aesop, down to "Uncle Remus," most notably as Reynard (Raginohardus, strong in counsel) in the great medieval beast-epic "Reynard the Fox" (q.v.).
Francesco, perhaps the finest medieval building in Bologna, begun in 1246 and finished in 1260; it has a fine brick campanile of the end of the 14th century.
The streets are as a rule arcaded, and this characteristic has been preserved in modern additions, which have on the whole been made with considerable taste, as have also the numerous restorations of medieval buildings.
Most of the older buildings have made way for factories, so that the town-hall, dating from 1551, is an almost solitary witness to the town's medieval prosperity.
Picturesquely situated on the slope of a hill, the town has remains of ramparts of the 12th and 13th centuries, with ditches hewn in the rock, and several medieval buildings.
Its medieval importance, due to the pilgrimages to the tomb of the saint and to the commerce in its wines, began to decline towards the end of the 13th century owing to the foundation of Libourne.
The count of the stable, originally the imperial master of the horse, developed into the "illustrious" commander-in-chief of the imperial army (Stilicho, e.g., bore the full title as given above), and became the prototype of the medieval constable.
In medieval France the significance of the title of count varied with the power of those who bore it; in modern France it varies with its historical associations.
They had all along maintained a virtual independence of the Turks and until quite recently retained their medieval customs, living in fortified towers and practising the vendetta or blood-feud.
In 1904 the British Archaeological school at Athens undertook a systematic investigation of the ancient and medieval remains in Laconia.
Adalia played a considerable part in the medieval history of the Levant.
It presents a markedly medieval appearance.
The whole town is full of specimens of medieval architecture, the pointed arch of the 13th century being especially prevalent.
The aspect of Siena during these meetings is very characteristic, and the whole festivity bears a medieval stamp in harmony with the architecture and history of the town.
The medieval walls and gates are still in the main preserved.
Very different is the medieval theory, which arose from the gradual acceptance of the belief that the Jewish was the prototype of the Christian priest.
We may grant further that the medieval offices have been deliberately altered to exclude this view.
In short, the English reformers knew very well that the ordinal and communion office which they drew up could not satisfy the requirements of medieval theology.
The medieval building was demolished late in the 18th century, and the present castle erected in mingled Gothic and Moorish styles.
He made himself master of practically every branch of medieval learning, and had a thorough knowledge of the sources and the bibliography of his subject.
The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.
But the saying draws attention to the two great influences which shaped medieval thought - the tradition of ancient logic and the system of Christian theology.
But, although the relation of reason to an external authority thus constitutes the badge of medieval thought, it would be unjust to look upon Scholasticism as philosophically barren, and to speak as if reason, after an interregnum of a thousand years, resumed its rights at the Renaissance.
First, however, we must examine the form 'which this question assumed to the first medieval thinkers, and the source from which they derived it.
The chief of these, at least so far as regards the influence which they exerted on medieval philosophy, were Avicenna, Avempace and Averroes.
The accounts of medieval thought given by Ritter, Erdmann and Ueberweg in their general histories of philosophy are exceedingly good.
The subject, taken from the age of Hungarian chivalry, is artistically worked out from medieval legends, and gives an excellent description of the times of St Ladislaus of Hungary.
For the medieval history of Hungary the Mdtydskori diplomatikai emlekek (Diplomatic Memorials of the Time of Matthias Corvinus), issued by the academy under the joint editorship of Ivan Nagy and Baron Albert Nyary, affords interesting material.
The local authorities proceeded to carry this out with a zeal due to long suffering, and the ruined medieval chateaus of France still bear witness to the action of Richelieu.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
Eight of them, it is true, fell into disuse; but the medieval Ionian and Hypo-ionian modes are absolutely identical with the modern natural scale of C; and the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes differ from our minor scale, not in constitution, but in treatment only.
Medieval composers, however, regarded the Ionian mode as the least perfect of the series and placed it last in order.
While some works of patristic writers are still of value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a text which most of them knew only through translations.
This was notably the case with some of the Aristotelian writings, so that in this field, as in some others, the Syriac writers handed on the torch of Greek thought to the Arabs, by whom it was in turn transmitted to medieval Europe.
Because they regarded their Perfect or Elect ones as Christs and anointed with the Spirit, the medieval Cathars regularly adored them.
In the great 14th century "Manesse" MS. (c) collection of medieval German lyrics, preserved at Heidelberg, there are two songs written by Conradin, and his fate has formed the subject of several dramas.
It is oval in shape, and retains its medieval fortifications.
The medieval and modern town of Syracuse (with the exception of a new quarter which has sprung up since the construction of the railway between the station and the island) is confined to the island.
There are interesting remains of medieval architecture in the closely built town with its narrow streets; the beautiful 14thcentury windows of the Palazzo Montalto may be especially noticed, and also the 13th-century Castello Mainace at the southern extremity of the island.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
Thus does Arabian medicine appear as judged from a modern standpoint; but to medieval Europe, when little but a tradition remained of the great ancient schools, it was invested with a far higher degree of originality and importance.
The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine.
Among the writers it may be sufficient to mention here Gariopontus; Copho, who wrote the Anatome porci, a well-known medieval book; Joannes Platearius, first of a family of physicians bearing the same name, whose Practica, or medical compendium, was afterwards several times printed; and Trotula, believed to be the wife of the last-named.
Finally, in the 13th and especially the 14th century we find, under the name of consilia, the first medieval reports of medical cases which are preserved in such a form as to be intelligible.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Thus was the campaign opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took the place of Avicenna.
The standard of excellence in the ancient writers was indeed far above the level of the 16th century; but the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been acquired by direct observation retarded progress more than the possession of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental faults of medieval science remained uncorrected.
In spite, therefore, of the encyclopaedic tradition which has persisted from Aristotle through the Arab and medieval schools down to Herbert Spencer, it is forced upon us in our own day that in a pursuit so manysided as medicine, whether in its scientific or in its practical aspect, we have to submit more and more to that division of labour which has been a condition of advance in all other walks of life.
In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.
Here at least the medieval system, in spite of any anomalies with respect to modern conditions, has resisted reform, and no other municipal body shares the traditions and peculiar dignity of the City Corporation.
Upon that was raised a wall of rough rubble rudely faced with stone and flint, evidently a medieval work and about 22 ft.
They were not the same as the medieval gates which have left the record of their names in modern London nomenclature.
Many ineffectual attempts have been made to connect the Watling street in the city with the great Roman road so named in medieval times.
Growth And Population Much has been written upon the population of medieval London, but little certainty has resulted therefrom.
The medieval period closed with the accession of the Tudor dynasty, and from that time the population of London continued to increase, in spite of attempts by the government to prevent it.
Here you can find articles about writers using classical Latin before and during the Roman empire, not medieval or modern latin writers.
Fareham owed its importance in medieval times to its facilities for commerce.
There is a splendid museum of medieval and Renaissance antiquities in the Bargello, the ancient palace of the Podesta, itself one of the finest buildings in the city; among its many treasures are works of Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrochio and other sculptors, and large collections of ivory, enamel and bronze ware.
A group of Italic cremation tombs a pozzo of the Villanova period were found under the pavement of the medieval Vicolo del Campidoglio.
A good example of the camisia of the 12th century is the rochet of Thomas Becket, preserved at Dammartin in the Pas de Calais, the only surviving medieval example remarkable for the pleating which, as was the case with albs also, gave greater breadth and more elaborate folds.
In general it has retained the medieval form more closely than the Roman rochet, in so far as it is of plain, very fine linen (lawn), and reaches almost to the feet.
In the neighbourhood are ruins of several medieval castles, and the fine hall of the Marquess Vega de Armijo.
As the medieval lyric decayed, more and more attention was given to the externals of poetic composition, the form, the number of syllables, the melody; and it was such externals that attracted the interest of these burgher-poets.
A somewhat distorted, but well-substantiated use of the word sacrilegium in medieval Latin was its application to the fine paid by one guilty of sacrilege to the bishop.
Medieval gilds were voluntary associations formed for the mutual aid and protection of their members.
The foster-brotherhood seems to have been unknown to the Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, the nations in which medieval gilds first appear; and hence Dr Pappenheim's conclusions, if tenable at all, apply only to Denmark or Scandinavia.
Some continental writers, in dealing with the origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, have, however, ascribed too much importance to the Anglo-Saxon gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they form the germ of medieval municipal government.
On the continent of Europe the medieval gild merchant played a less important role than in England.
The medieval form of association was incompatible with the new ideas of individual liberty and free competition, with the greater separation of capital and industry, employers and workmen, and with the introduction of the factory system.
It has a medieval castle, several churches, a synagogue and various industries - iron-foundries, saw-mills, brick-works, and breweries; also an extensive trade in cereals and timber.
The allprevailing need of the later Roman and early medieval society was protection - protection against the sudden attacks of invading tribes or revolted peasants, against oppressive neighbours, against the unwarranted demands of government officers, or even against the legal but too heavy exactions of the government itself.
The feudal system with which history most concerns itself is that of medieval western Europe, and it is that which will be here described.
It had indeed begun to break down under the strain of frequent and distant campaigns, but it was long before it was changed as the recognized rule of medieval service.
He succeeded his father as professor of medieval French literature at the College de France in 1872; in 1876 he was admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions and in 1896 to the French Academy; and in 1895 he was appointed director of the College de France.
His Vie de Saint-Alexis (1872) broke new ground and provided a model for future editors of medieval texts.
His excellent summary of medieval French literature forms a volume of the Temple Primers.
It is an old-fashioned town with many quaint wooden houses, notable among them the "Northeimhaus," a beautiful specimen of medieval architecture.
Kaufbeuren is still surrounded by its medieval walls and presents a picturesque appearance.
Near the centre of the inner city, most of the streets in which are narrow and irregular, is the cathedral of St Stephen, the most important medieval building in Vienna, dating in its present form mainly from the 14th and 15th centuries, but incorporating a few fragments of the original 12th-century edifice.
Some too amongst the medieval authorities (Ibn Haugal and Istakhri) note a resemblance between the speech in use amongst the Khazars and the Bulgarians; and the modern Magyar - a Ugrian language - can be traced back to a tribe which in the 9th century formed part of the Khazar kingdom.
The cathedral, an imposing building in the Romanesque Transition style (1207-1242), has a Gothic choir at each end, and contains some interesting medieval sculptures.
It is, as it were, the great temple of medieval science, whose floor and walls are inlaid with an enormous mosaic of skilfully arranged passages from Latin, Greek, Arabic, and even Hebrew authors.
Four of the medieval historians from whom he quotes most frequently are Sigebert of Gembloux, Hugh of Fleury, Helinand of Froidmont, and William of Malmesbury, whom he uses for Continental as well as for English history.
However this may be, remnants of their primitive superhuman qualities cling to the Celtic heroes long after they have been transfigured, under the influence of Christianity and chivalry, into the heroes of the medieval Arthurian romance, types - for the most part - of the knightly virtues as these were conceived by the middle ages; while shadowy memories of early myths live on, strangely disguised, in certain of the episodes repeated uncritically by the medieval poets.
The chief heroes of the medieval Arthurian romances are the following.
Gawain (Welwain, Welsh Gwalchmai), Arthur's nephew, who in medieval romance remains the type of knightly courage and chivalry, until his character is degraded in order to exalt that of Lancelot.
A much-discussed work is the Tale of Igor, the oldest of the Russian medieval epics.
The early thuribles were usually simple in design; but in the medieval period an architectural form was given to the lids by ornamenting them with towers, battlements and traceries, varying according to the prevalent Gothic style of the period.
His great legal (Halachic) work is usually cited as "the Mordecai," and its value consists in its thorough use of the medieval authorities.
The town hall, with its light open loggia of semicircular arches on the ground floor, was designed by Fra Giocondo towards the end of the i 5th century; its sculptured enrichments of pilasters and friezes are very graceful, though lacking the vigorous life of the earlier medieval sculptured ornamentation.
Many of its blocks are still visible in the walls of various medieval buildings.
He rose to great celebrity as an architect, and designed many graceful and richly sculptured buildings in Venice, Rome and even in France; he used classical forms with great taste and skill, and with much of the freedom of the older medieval architects, and was specially remarkable for his rich and delicate sculptured decorations.
The universal is, as Herbert Spencer remarked, a subjective idea, and the general forms, existing ante res, which play so prominent a part in Greek and medieval philosophy, do not in the least correspond to the homogeneous matter of the physical evolutionists.
The Perceval story is an admirable folk-tale, the Grail problem is the most fascinating problem of medieval literature; the two combined form a romance of quite unique charm and interest.
Of the medieval fortifications the picturesque Eschenheimer Tor, a round tower 155 ft.
The Altstadt, though several broad streets have been opened through it, still preserves many of its narrow alleys and other medieval features.
It lies on the Romerberg, a square flanked by curious medieval houses.
Of numerous other medieval buildings may be mentioned the Leinwandhaus (linendrapers' hall), a 15th century building reconstructed in 1892 as a municipal museum.
The town, with its numerous spires and remains of medieval fortifications, is very picturesque.
Imperfect as this system was, it represented a great advance from the conditions in medieval times.
It is not too much to say, indeed, that when Japan opened her doors to foreigners in the middle of the 19th century, she possessed a system of roads some of which bore striking testimony to her medieval greatness.
The care and expense lavished upon these highly ornate structures would have been deemed extravagant even in medieval Europe.
In medieval and modern Greek, however, this has become the unvoiced sound represented in English by th in thin, thick, pith.
According to the Canon Law, which "was the ecclesi- Pers f - astical law of medieval Europe, and is still the law of heretics.
In Geneva under Calvin, while the Consistoire, or ecclesiastical court, could inflict only spiritual penalties, yet the medieval idea of the duty of the state to co-operate with the church to maintain the religious purity of the community in matters of belief as well as of conduct so far survived that the civil authority was sure to punish those whom the ecclesiastical had censured.
A very good list of writers on heresy, ancient and medieval, is given in Burton's Bampton Lectures on Heresies of the Apostolic Age (1829).
It is in part surrounded by ancient walls, and has many picturesque medieval houses, and two old churches, of St Gregory and St Augustine, both fine Gothic buildings.
The waterways which traverse and surround it and the character of its numerous gabled medieval houses give it the appearance of an old Dutch, rather than of a German, town.
A far more probable explanation of their name "Chretiens" is to be found in the fact that in medieval times all lepers were known as pauperes Christi, and that, Goths or not, these Cagots were affected in the middle ages with a particular form of leprosy or a condition resembling it.
Local tradition asserts that Frome was a medieval borough, and the reeve of Frome is, occasionally mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward I., but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and no trace of any charter granted to it.
In the Church of England and its sister and daughter churches the position of the archbishop is defined by the medieval in the Roman Catholic Church, save as modified on the n one hand by the substitution of the supremacy of the crown for that of the Holy See, and on the other by the restrictions imposed by the council of Trent.
This fact was not observed (that is, the collections of examples were not made) till recently, when experiments in private non-spiritualist circles drew attention to crystal-gazing, a practice always popular among peasants, and known historically to have survived through classical and medieval times, and, as in the famous case of Dr Dee, after the Reformation.
A curious passage on the subject, by Ibn Khaldun, an Arabian medieval savant, is quoted by Mr Thomas from the printed Extracts of MSS.
His personal history is that of many medieval kings.
Its succession of word pictures, conventional and yet vigorous as the illuminations of a medieval manuscript, and in their very conventionality free from all thought of literary presentation, must charm all readers.
Outside the Church the breakup of old civilizations, the confused beginnings of medieval kingdoms, with the attendant war and rapine, the inroads of the Saracens and the rise of Islam, were all effective silencers of the pulpit.
Towards the end of the period we note the beginnings of the triple division of medieval preaching into cloistral, parochial and missionary or popular preaching, a division based at first on audiences rather than on subject-matter, the general character of which - legends and popular stories rather than exposition of Scripture - was much the same everywhere.
The highest point of Cortona, a medieval castle (Fortezza), is situated 2130 ft.
Caravaca is dominated by the medieval castle of Santa Cruz, and contains several convents and a fine parish church, with a miraculous cross celebrated for its healing power, in honour of which a yearly festival is held on the 3rd of May.
It seems probable, however, that the original settlement occupied the site of the medieval town of Corneto, to the W.S.W., on the further side of a deep valley.
There is a striking contrast between the crudeness of much and widely accepted medieval theology and the decrees of the council of Trent.
Medieval ceremonies are described as useful but without power to remit sins.
It was the universal custom in medieval England to eat on this Sunday a grey pea steeped and fried in butter, which came from its association "Carling Nut."
Though restricted to the citadel, the medieval town became the administrative and ecclesiastical capital of Peloponnesus, and enjoyed a thriving trade and silk industry until in 1147 it was sacked by the Normans.
Casimir belongs to that remarkable group of late medieval sovereigns who may be called the fathers of modern diplomacy, inasmuch as they relegated warfare to its proper place as the instrument of politics, and preferred the councilchamber to the battle-field.
Others deal with the great institutional features of medieval society - the development of the feudal system, of the ecclesiastical system, and of the free political system of England.
Of pre-Roman or Roman buildings in the town itself there are few remains, except for some fragments of the Etruscan town walls composed of rather small rectangular blocks of travertine, built into the medieval fortifications.
Higher up is the castle, which now shows no traces of fortifications older than medieval; it commands a fine view of the town and of the mountains which encircle it.
The Ponte di Cecco (so named from Cecco d'Ascoli), with two arches, is also Roman and belongs to the Via Salaria; the Ponte Maggiore and the Ponte Cartaro are, on the other hand, medieval, though the latter perhaps preserves some traces of Roman work.
It is a prettily situated old-fashioned place,with an Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, one of the latter, that of St Peter, a striking medieval edifice.
He grew up resolved to emulate the medieval knights who had reconquered Portugal from the Moors.
The town has a medieval appearance, many old houses decorated with beautiful wood-carving still surviving.
The treasure, preserved in the former chapter-house, is rich in reliquaries, vestments and other objects of medieval church.
Medieval speculation took the Church and the Empire for granted, as divinely appointed institutions, under which the nations of the earth must flourish for the space of man's probation on this planet.
In the revival of learning, scholarship supplanted scholasticism, and the old ways of medieval thinking were forgotten.
He was aware that the old strongholds of medieval thought must be abandoned, and that the decaying ruins of medieval institutions furnished no basis for the erection of solid political edifices.
This so-called biography of the medieval adventurer who raised himself by personal ability and military skill to the tyranny of several Tuscan cities must be regarded in the light of an historical romance.
The story has a medieval origin, and it was almost simultaneously treated in Italian by Machiavelli, Straparola and Giovanni Brevio.
There were medieval chroniclers who did not fear to assert that Charles rose from the dead to take part in the Crusades.
It is a picturesque little town, with several noteworthy medieval buildings.
Pirot has a medieval fortress, believed to have been built on the site of the Roman fortress Quimedava, on the military road leading from Old Naissus to Philippopolis.
In medieval architecture the term is applied on the European continent to that portion of a chancel, which, enclosed with a railing or balustrade in front of the altar, is devoted to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; this in England is generally known as the presbytery.
This word is supposed to be derived from the Walloon hoie, corresponding to the medieval Latin hullae.
The history of the practice of excommunication may be traced through (1) pagan analogues, (2) Hebrew custom, (3) primitive Christian practice, (4) medieval and monastic usage, (5) modern survivals in existing Christian churches.
Thus the medieval and modern crowns may be considered as radiated diadems, and so the diadem and crown have become, as it were, merged in one another.
On the death of Charles Felix (27th of April 1831) Charles Albert succeeded; he inherited a kingdom without an army, with an empty treasury, a chaotic administration and medieval laws.
In the medieval Church there were seven "corporal" and seven "spiritual works of mercy" (opera misericordiae); these were (a) the giving of food to the hungry and drink to the thirsty, the clothing of the naked, the visitation of the sick and of prisoners, the receiving of strangers, and the burial of the dead; (b) the conversion of sinners, teaching of the ignorant, giving of counsel to the doubtful, forgiveness of injuries, patience under wrong, prayer for the living and for the dead.
Close by, on the market square, is the red-brick medieval town-hall (Rathaus), with an historical wine cellar beneath.
He occupies a high place as a hymnologist, but principally as a translator of ancient and medieval hymns, the best known being probably "Brief life is here our portion," "To thee, 0 dear, dear country," and "Jerusalem, the golden," which are included in the poem of Bernard of Cluny, De Contemptu Mundi, translated by him in full.
About 1200 a collection of fables in Latin prose, based partly on Romulus, was made by the Cistercian monk Odo of Sherrington; they have a strong medieval and clerical tinge.
The parish church is ancient, and above it are the ruins of the medieval castle of Resti.
In medieval times Southampton owed its importance to the fact that it was the chief port of Winchester.
These agreed in repudiating certain of the doctrines, rites and practices of the medieval Church, especially the sacrifice of the Mass and the headship of the bishop of Rome, and, whatever their official designations, came generally to be known as " Protestant."
The first step in clarifying the situation is to come to a full realization that the medieval Church was essentially an international state, and that the character of the Protestant secession from it was largely determined by this fact.
The Reformation was thus essentially a stage in the disengaging of the modern state from that medieval, international ecclesiastical state which had its beginning in the ecclesia of the Acts of the Apostles.
But Marsiglio's logical and elaborate justification for a revolt against the medieval Church produced no perceptible effects.
Yet the discussions he aroused, the attacks he made upon the institutions of the medieval Church, and especially the position he assigned to the Scriptures as the exclusive source of revealed truth, serve to make the development of Protestantism under Henry VIII.
But such attacks were rare and isolated and were not intended to effect a breach in the solid ramparts of the medieval Church, but rather to exhibit the ingenuity of the critic. In the libraries collected under humanistic influences the patristic writers, both Latin and Greek, and the scholastic doctors are conspicuous.
But only gradually did he come to realize that his source of spiritual consolation might undermine altogether the artfully constructed fabric of the medieval Church.
In addressing the German nobility Luther had refrained from taking up theological or religious doctrines; but in September 1520 he attacked the whole sacramental system of the medieval Church in his Babylonish Captivity of the Church.
They made it clear that they still held a great part of the beliefs of the medieval Church, especially as represented in Augustine's writings, and repudiated the radical notions of the Anabaptists and of Zwingli.
Thus one of the most important of all medieval ecclesiastical institutions, monasticism, came to an end in England.
The king's ardent desire that diversities of minds and opinions should be done away with and unity be " charitably established " was further promoted by publishing in 1543 A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man, set forth by the King's Majesty of England, in which the tenets of medieval theology, except for denial of the supremacy of the bishop of Rome and the unmistakable assertion of the supremacy of the king, were once more restated.
Communion under both kinds and the marriage of the clergy were sanctioned, thus gravely modifying two of the fundamental institutions of the medieval Church.
There is a theory that no sweeping revolution in dogma took place, but that only a few medieval beliefs were modified or rejected owing to the practical abuses to which they had given rise.
Thus " we ought," as Lindsay says, " to see in the disciplinary powers and punishments of the Consistory of Geneva not an exhibition of the working of the Church organized on the principles of Calvin, but the ordinary procedure of the town council of a medieval city.
The Reformation was, fundamentally, then, but one phase, if the most conspicuous, in the gradual decline of the majestic medieval ecclesiastical State, for this decline has gone on in France, Austria, Spain and Italy, countries in which the Protestant revolt against the ancient Church ended in failure.
The Coptic name, Phelbes, seems to have been derived from Egyptian, but nothing is known of the place before medieval times.
In spite of its classical associations and of modern improvements, Weimar still retains much of its medieval character.
It was a typical medieval sea-fight, and accomplished the ruin of Pisa as a naval power.
It is said that while the archbishop was blessing the fleet the silver cross of his archiepiscopal staff fell off, but that the omen was disregarded by .the irreverence of the Pisans, who declared that if they had the wind they could do without divine help. They advanced in line abreast to meet the first line of the Genoese, fighting according to the medieval custom to ram and board.
They have been celebrated as the birthplace of King Arthur, or as the stronghold of King Mark, in a host of medieval romances, and in the poems of Tennyson and Swinburne.
The high school is housed in a medieval monastery, which was restored in 1894-97.
The medieval walls, erected by the emperor Frederick II., rest upon the walls of an ancient city of unknown name.
He had an unbounded admiration for Erasmus, with whom he entered into correspondence, and from whom he received a somewhat chilling patronage; whilst the brilliant humanist, Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), taught him to criticize, in a rationalizing way, the medieval doctrines of Rome.
He was quite as clear as Luther in repudiating the medieval doctrine of transubstantiation, but he declined to accept Luther's teaching that Christ's words of institution required the belief that the real flesh and blood of Christ co-exist in and with the natural elements.
As opposed to Luther, Zwingli insisted more firmly on the supreme authority of Scripture, and broke more thoroughly and radically with the medieval Church.
It may be said generally that Catharism formed the abiding background of medieval heresy.
The Waldenses, under their more modern name of the Vaudois, have survived to the present day in the valleys of Piedmont, and have been regarded as at once the most ancient and the most evangelical of the medieval sects.
These opinions were subversive of the system of the medieval church, and were naturally viewed with great disfavour by its officials; but it cannot fairly be said that they have much in common with the opinions of the Reformers of the 16th century.
The medieval church set forth Christ as present in the orderly community of the faithful; Protestantism aimed at setting the individual in immediate communion with Christ, without the mechanical intervention of the officers of the community; the 1 D'Argentre, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, i.
In medieval romance he became a prominent figure in the tale of Troilus and Cressida.
The name Albion was taken by medieval writers from Pliny and Ptolemy.
Just below Brugg the Reuss and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined castle cf Habsburg, the old convent of KÃ¶nigsfelden (with fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch].
Hercules was a favourite figure in French medieval literature.
The syrinx was in use during the middle ages, and was known in France as frestel or fretiau, in medieval Latin as fistula panis, and in Germany as PansflÃ¶te or Hirtenpfeife (now PapagenoflÃ¶te).
It is flanked by medieval walls, towers and gates, and its antique appearance has been carefully preserved.
Modern anti-Semitism, he felt, was both like and unlike the medieval.
He had found time for Lectures on Medieval Church History (1878); his poetical works were rearranged and collected in two volumes (last edition, 1885).
The Reformation, the religious wars and the Revolution have swept away nearly all the canons regular, but some of their houses in Austria still exist in their medieval splendour.
Its medieval castle was destroyed in 1860.
Tyack; and Guide to Medieval Room, British Museum, p. 69.
It is still in part surrounded by its medieval wall, and has an old marketplace, a castle and many old houses.
Zasulich's medieval generalship had been modified so far that he intended to retreat when he had taught the Japanese a lesson, and therefore Kuropatkin's original arrangements were not sensibly modified.
Unlike the terremare and the lake dwellings they do not seem to belong to the prehistoric ages, but yield indications of occupation in post-Roman and medieval times.
The usual material of medieval stoles was silk, and the better ones were embroidered with silk, gold thread, pearls, &c.
The distinction between real and nominal sovereignty was familiar to medieval writers, who recognized a double sovereignty, and distinguished between (1) the real or practical sovereignty resident in the people, and (2) the personal sovereignty of the ruler (Adolf Dock, Der Souveranitaitsbegrif, &c., p. 13).
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
The influence of Ranke early diverted him from his original purpose of studying law, and while still a student he began that series of researches in German medieval history which was to be his life's work.
His special domain was medieval German history, and he rarely travelled beyond it.
Again, the attempt to subordinate all intellectual life to ecclesiastical control was a feature of the medieval Church, and the fundamental attitude of that Church towards heresy was fixed during the same period.
Remains of the medieval town are also visible, consisting of the walls (one-tenth the area of the Roman city), the castle, the cathedral (now covered by modern houses), and a church.
Bernardo, on the site of the ancient amphitheatre, is a remarkable view of medieval Rome.
He did not scruple, for instance, to strike out of the lists of witnesses to medieval charters, before publishing them, the names of families which he disliked.
Its remains are scanty, as its site has been covered by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman.
Freeman's range included Greek, Roman and the earlier part of English history, together with some portions of foreign medieval history, and he had a scholarly though general knowledge of the rest of the history of the European world.
He was one of the evil demons of the seven planets, the Maskim of the ancient Akkadian religion, a conception transmitted through the Chaldeans, the Babylonians and the Jewish Kabbala to medieval and modern astrologers and magicians.
Volterra preserves its medieval character, having suffered little modification since the 16th century.
The town contains many picturesque medieval towers and houses.
The only other buildings of importance dating from medieval times are the three churches of Ste Gudule (often erroneously called the cathedral), Notre-Dame des Victoires or Church of the Sablon, and Notre-Dame de la Chapelle, or simply la Chapelle, and the hotel de ville and the Maison du Roi on the Grand Place.
The great medieval canon lawyer Lyndwood illustrates the difficulty of distinguishing, even as late as the middle of the 15th century, between concubinage and a clandestine, though legal, marriage.
But, while lacking the medieval appearance of Fribourg or Bern, or Sion or Coire, the great number of modern fine buildings in Geneva, hotels, villas, &c., gives it an air of prosperity and comfort that attracts many visitors, though on others modern French architecture produces a blinding glare.
This was the home of the Latin Christian literature and theology of medieval times.
It was a bold conception - too bold for the medieval world, for which faith was primarily the obligation to believe.
The terrible tragedy which was consummated on the 23rd of May 1498 before the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence, casts a lurid light upon the irreconcilable opposition in which the wearers of the papal dignity stood to medieval piety; for Girolamo Savonarola was in every fibre a loyal son of the medieval Church.
Yet we may say that this was its salvation; for the struggle against Luther drove the papacy back to its ecclesiastical duties, and the council of Trent established medieval dogma as the doctrine of modern Catholicism in contradistinction to Protestantism.
Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.
The anathema of the Roman Church had fallen upon all the fundamental doctrines for which the Reformers had contended and died; the right of free discussion within the limits of the creeds, which had given room for the speculations of the medieval philosophers, was henceforth curtailed and confined; and the definitions of the schoolmen were for ever exalted by the authority of Rome into dogmas of the Church.
His statesmanship, as judged from his acts, was all but flawless, and he was certainly one of the greatest of the medieval diplomatists.
The medieval church had spanned the centuries by supposing that Christ's death was continuous down through the age in the sacrifice of the Mass; Protestant theology had nothing equivalent.
It may be most generally described by saying that the idea was taken from the consistorial courts through which the medieval bishops managed the affairs of their dioceses.
The external features of the medieval churches were retained; but the minor altars, the tabernacula to contain the Host, and the light permanently burning before the altar, were done away with.
Here are a medieval fort, built by the Spaniards in 1284, and a modern fort, garrisoned by the French.
This is the second great period of the development of Polish literature, which has known nothing of medieval romanticism.
He has, besides, the whole science of "venerie" at his finger-tips; in fact Tristan is the "Admirable Crichton" of medieval romance, there is nothing he cannot do, and that superlatively well - it must be regretfully admitted that he is also a most accomplished liar!
Medieval literature abounds in references to Tristan and Iseult, and their adventures were translated into many tongues and are found depicted in carvings and tapestries.
Thomas's work, fortunately, fell into the hands of a true poet in the person of Gottfried von Strassburg, whose Tristan and Isolde is, from a literary point of view, the gem of medieval German literature.
Its gateway, Elsinore, is a medieval reproduction; other prominent features are the reservoirs, which resemble natural lakes, and a high water tower, from which there is a delightful view.
Historically speaking, it is indisputable that the practice of Indulgences in the medieval p4 +p2 C1C2(L1L2 M 2) + church arose out of the authoritative remission, in exceptional cases, of a certain proportion of this canonical penalty.
The town is surrounded by a medieval wall, with three gateways, and contains two Protestant churches, of which that of St Nicholas (14th century) is remarkable for its three fine aisles.
Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and East India.
About the same date, and in the same province of northern Africa, Martianus Capella produced his allegorical work on the " liberal arts," the principal, and, indeed, often the only, text-book of the medieval schools.
The medieval dependence on the authority of Aristotle gradually diminished.
Medieval writers, for whom the tale was preserved by the Arabian geographers, believed it true, and were fortified in their belief by numerous traditions of islands in the western sea, which offered various points of resemblance to Atlantis.