She wrenched open the medicine cabinet for the most powerful of the drugs Dr. Mallard prescribed for her and slammed the cabinet shut.
Medicine isn't an exact science.
And besides, what a notion that medicine ever cured anyone!
When I'm not studying medicine, I'm practicing it at the hospital.
They said she'd be sleepy because of the medicine, so I'll try to sleep while she is asleep.
Doctor gave her medicine to make her well, but poor Florence did not get well.
With a penchant for medicine and science and my magic, I can cure what others could not.
If you love "Western medicine" and think all acupuncturists are "quacks," then you are not likely to heed (or even appreciate) your friend's well-meaning efforts to get you to drink your own urine for its health benefits.
The answer was mix of advanced medicine and magic.
I've tried traditional medicine" he motioned to the machines lining the perimeter of the room "and my magic."
The doc reappeared, frowning, and armed with another medicine gun.
After having taken medicine, and fasted for three days, all the fire in the town is extinguished.
He detailed the man's selection of clothes and the contents of his medicine cabinet as he shaved.
Even to Natasha herself it was pleasant to see that so many sacrifices were being made for her sake, and to know that she had to take medicine at certain hours, though she declared that no medicine would cure her and that it was all nonsense.
From that point, medicine would never be the same.
She bit back an order to leave her stuff alone but stopped herself, watching him go through her medicine cabinet for any additional drugs.
They talk about medicine--what is the good of medicine when it can't cure a cold!
In 1817 a Roman Catholic theological faculty was added, with a seminary called the Konvikt, and there are now also faculties of law, medicine, philosophy, political economy and natural science.
There are five kinds of faculties: medicine, letters, science, law and Protestant theology.
The nurse injected the medicine into the IV and left the room.
After a period of instruction in medicine by a doctor who also, according to Lucian, was an impostor, he succeeded in establishing an oracle of Aesculapius at his native town.
He became a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1863, and ten years afterwards entered the Academy of Sciences, of which he became perpetual secretary in 1889 in succession to Louis Pasteur.
And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
But when he had gone into another room, to which the countess hurriedly followed him, he assumed a grave air and thoughtfully shaking his head said that though there was danger, he had hopes of the effect of this last medicine and one must wait and see, that the malady was chiefly mental, but...
"You'll never get well like that," she would say, forgetting her grief in her vexation, "if you won't obey the doctor and take your medicine at the right time!
For this patron several of his treatises were written; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine also dates from his stay in Hyrcania.
The university, founded in 1869, built mainly of basalt, has schools of arts, medicine, chemistry and mineralogy.
Minutes later when the nurse arrived with a syringe of medicine, Destiny was asleep again, still clutching the doll to her chest.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases, must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
Medicine and surgery - - - 4,428 9,055
The last medicine has done her a very great deal of good.
Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, &c., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836).
Having studied medicine at Paris, Lucas took the degree of M.D.
Other schools are the school of naval medicine at Bordeaux with annexes at Toulon, Brest and Rochefort; schools of torpedoes and mines and of gunnery at Toulon, &c., &c. The coles dhydro graphic established at various ports are for theoretical training for the higher grades of the merchant service.
As one of the pioneers of civilization, he was supposed to have taught mankind the arts of medicine, writing and agriculture.
The faculties of medicine confer the degree of doctor of medicine.
Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters.
He refused medicine to induce sleep, declaring "it is not my design to drink or to sleep, but my design is to make what haste I can to be gone."
Prince Nicholas had always ridiculed medicine, but latterly on Mademoiselle Bourienne's advice had allowed this doctor to visit him and had grown accustomed to him.
A great deal of the trouble that is in the world is medicine which is very bad to take, but which it is good to take because it makes us better.
The apothecaries' ordinance at Nuremberg provided that no Theriaca should in future be branded with the seal of the city unless it had been previously examined and declared worthy of the same by the doctors of medicine, and that every druggist must know the age of the Theriaca he sold.
Every time she gave him his medicine he sobbed and silently kissed her hand.
The royal university of Parma, founded in 1601 by Ranuccio I., and reconstituted by Philip of Bourbon in 1768, has faculties in law, medicine and natural science, and possesses an observatory, and natural science collections, among which is the Eritrean Zoological Museum.
Hertz himself gave an admirable account of the significance of his discoveries in a lecture on the relations between light and electricity, delivered before the German Society for the Advancement of Natural Science and Medicine at Heidelberg in September 1889.
The outdoor charitable institutions include those which distribute help in money or food; those which supply medicine and medical help; those which aid mothers unable to rear their own children; those which subsidize orphans and foundlings; those which subsidize educational institutes; and those which supply marriage portions.
What is termed the iatro-mechanical school of medicine, with G.
He is, like all his countrymen, ample in the enumeration of symptoms, and is said to be inferior to Ali: in practical medicine and surgery.
He studied medicine in London, Paris and Leiden, receiving his M.D.
16), and that of medicine by another class (Lev.
For higher and professional education there are two national universities at Buenos Aires and Cordoba, and three provincial universities, at La Plata, Santa Fe and Parana, which comprise faculties of law, medicine and engineering, in addition to the usual courses in arts and science.
Other authorities suggest that it is going much too far to deny the existence of religion altogether, and instance as proof of the divinity of the supra-normal anthropomorphic beings of the Baiame class, the fact that the Yuin and cognate tribes dance around the image of Daramulun (their equivalent of Baiame) and the medicine men " invocate his name."
Doctors came to see her singly and in consultation, talked much in French, German, and Latin, blamed one another, and prescribed a great variety of medicines for all the diseases known to them, but the simple idea never occurred to any of them that they could not know the disease Natasha was suffering from, as no disease suffered by a live man can be known, for every living person has his own peculiarities and always has his own peculiar, personal, novel, complicated disease, unknown to medicine--not a disease of the lungs, liver, skin, heart, nerves, and so on mentioned in medical books, but a disease consisting of one of the innumerable combinations of the maladies of those organs.
The university dates from 1307, and has faculties of law, science and medicine; it had 318 students in 1902-1903.
He studied philosophy and medicine at the university of Louvain, where he remained as a lecturer for several years.
The leech has been used in medicine from remote antiquity as a moderate blood-letter; and it is still so used, though more rarely than formerly.
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
Hippocrates was remarkable not only as a surgeon but also because he systematized medicine in his spare time.
When computers are in your clothes, medicine, eyeglasses, wallet, tires, walls, makeup, jewelry, cookware, tennis shoes, binoculars, and everything else you own, those things will do more than you can imagine—the stuff of science fiction.
If you think "Western Medicine" is a business whose goal is to keep you sick to sell you medicines, you will tend to move away from genetically modified foods and favor organic.
He was, according to his enemies, the son of an apothecary, his father being in fact a doctor of medicine of respectable family, who kept a small drug store as part of the necessary outfit of a country practitioner.
Science, he says, may be compared to a tree; metaphysics is the root, physics is the trunk, and the three chief branches are mechanics, medicine and Ouvres, viii.
only survived five years at Utrecht, and it was reserved for Heinrich Regius (van Roy) - who in 1638 had been appointed to the new chair of botany and theoretical medicine at Utrecht, and who visited Descartes at Egmond in order more thoroughly to learn his views - to throw down the gauntlet to the adherents of the old methods.
The best-known amongst them, and that to which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593 and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491.
Roosevelt went on to outline what he believed would be in this Second Bill of Rights: food, medicine, shelter, and so on.
The bark of young oak branches has been employed in medicine from the days of Dioscorides, but is not used in modern practice.
Clearly, what nanites will do inside our bodies in the future is almost limitless and will change medicine forever.
They have four faculties: of theology, law, philosophy and medicine.
In 1756 he succeeded Cullen as lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow, and was also appointed professor of anatomy, though that post he was glad to exchange for the chair of medicine.
Martin, is in Allbutt's System of Medicine.
The basic carbonate, 2(B10) 2 CO 3 4H 2 O, obtained as a white precipitate when an alkaline carbonate is added to a solution of bismuth nitrate, is employed in medicine.
On his return to his native city he studied medicine, and in 1694 took the degree of M.D.
Grouped about the Plaza de Santo Domingo are the old convent and church of Santo Domingo, the court of the Inquisition now occupied by the School of Medicine, the offices of the Department of Communicaciones, and the old custom-house (aduana) .
The old university of Mexico, with its faculties of theology, law and medicine (founded 1551 and inaugurated 1553), ceased to exist in 1865 and was succeeded by schools of engineering, law and medicine, which have been signally successful.
Mucilages are useful in medicine as vehicles for various insoluble and other drugs, and in the arts as thickeners (in calico-printing, dyeing, &c.).
First there is a medical usage - empirical versus dogmatic medicine.
Cod-liver oil is used externally in medicine when its internal administration is rendered impossible by idiosyncrasy or the state of the patient's digestion.
Luckes, Hospital Sisters and their Duties; Morten, How to become a Nurse; Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing; Nightingale Boyd, "Nursing," in Quain's Dictionary of Medicine.
Its only important application in medicine is as a carminative to lessen the griping caused by some purgatives such as aloes.
Liver of sulphur or hepar sulphuris, a medicine known to the alchemists, is a mixture of various polysulphides with the sulphate and thiosulphate, in variable proportions, obtained by gently heating the carbonate with sulphur in covered vessels.
- Numerous salts and preparations of potassium are used in medicine; viz.
from the business centre of the city, which had in1908-190934 instructors and 672 students; the Sioux City College of Medicine (1889), and St Mary's School.
As a boy he attended the Volksschule of his native village, and at the age of seventeen, having passed through the gymnasium of Kdslin, went to Berlin to study medicine.
medicine, see Sprengel, Histoire de la Medecine; and for his philosophy, see Shahrastani, German trans.
at Cracow, spent four years at Konigsberg in Prussia, studying medicine and natural science.
Delaware is the seat of the Ohio Wesleyan University (co-educational), founded by the Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1841, and opened as a college in 1844; it includes a college of liberal arts (1844), an academic department (1841), a school of music (1877), a school of fine arts (1877), a school of oratory (1894), a business school (1895), and a college of medicine (the Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons, at Cleveland, Ohio; founded as the Charity Hospital Medical College in 1863, and the medical department of the university of Wooster until 1896, when, under its present name, it became a part of Ohio Wesleyan University).
1233 passed a law, which remained in force for a long time in the two Sicilies, by which every medical man was required to give information against any pharmacist who should sell bad medicine.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.
The dried ripe seeds of this plant are also used in medicine.
He was educated at the lycee Louis le Grand, and afterwards studied medicine, a profession which he abandoned in 1894 for that of literature.
In 1852 he became lecturer in medicine at the university of Tubingen, where he published his great work Kraft and Stoi' (18J5).
He next devoted himself to medicine, but his natural inclination proved too strong for him, and within a year he resolved to give his whole time to mathematics.
It held its meetings at first in the church of the monastery of the Cordeliers, - the name given in France to the Franciscan Observantists, - now the Dupuytren museum of anatomy in connexion with the school of medicine.
One of the most interesting was carried out in 1900 for the London School of Tropical Medicine by Dr Sambon and Dr Low, who went to reside in one of the most malarious districts in the Roman Campagna during the most dangerous season.
Mosquitoes caught by the experimenters, and sent to London, produced malaria in persons who submitted themselves to the bites of these insects at the London School of Tropical Medicine.
- Celli, Malaria; Christy, Mosquitoes and Malaria; Manson, Tropical Diseases; Allbutt's System of Medicine; Ross, "Malaria," Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, 3rd ed.; The Practitioner, March, 1901 (Malaria Number); Lancet (Sept.
He then went to Paris to study medicine, but after two years returned to London, where, in 1832, he qualified as L.S.A.
Literature and affairs, science and statecraft, poetry and medicine, these various expressions of human nature and activity were so harmoniously balanced that they might be found in the possession of one and the same individual.
1863) and Lasker in politics, Auerbach in literature, Rubenstein and Joachim in music, Traube in medicine, and Lazarus in psychology.
After studying medicine at Jena, he graduated doctor at Gottingen in 1775, and was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine in 1776 and ordinary professor in 1778.
Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.
In 1759 he returned to GÃ¶ttingen, where he began the study of medicine.
Schlozer, who in 1769 married Caroline Roederer, daughter of Johann Georg Roederer (1726-1763), professor of medicine at GÃ¶ttingen and body physician to the king of England, left five children.
ANTOINE BARTHELEMY CLOT (1793-1868), French physician, known as Clot Bey, was born at Grenoble on the 7th of November 1793, and graduated in medicine and surgery at Montpellier.
The metal itself is not used in medicine.
PAUL GERVAIS (1816-1879), French palaeontologist, was born on the 26th of September 1816 at Paris, where he obtained the diplomas of doctor of science and of medicine, and in 1835 he began palaeontological research as assistant in the laboratory of comparative anatomy at the Museum of Natural History.
He graduated in arts, and claims to have graduated in medicine (of this there is no record at Paris), published six lectures on " syrups " (the most popular of his works), lectured on geometry and " astrology " (from a medical point of view) and defended by counsel a suit brought against him (March 1538) by the medical faculty on the ground of his astrological lectures.
After this he practised medicine for a short time at Avignon, and for a longer period at Charlieu (where he contemplated marriage, but was deterred by a physical impediment).
He was a student of medicine at Paris in 1790, became one of the orators of the club of the Cordeliers, and contributed anonymously to the Revolutions de Paris.
In medicine Franklin was considered important enough to be elected to the Royal Medical Society of Paris in 1777, and an honorary member of the Medical Society of London in 1787.
Besides the subjects of theory and practice of medicine, he lectured systematically on botany, materia medica and chemistry.
In 1751 he was appointed professor of medicine, but continued to lecture on chemistry, and in 1756 he was elected joint professor of chemistry at Edinburgh along with Andrew Plummer, on whose death in the following year the sole appointment was conferred on Cullen.
From 1757 he delivered lectures on clinical medicine in the Royal Infirmary.
On the death of Robert Whytt (1714-1766), the professor of the institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time resigning that of chemistry.
His chief works were First Lines of the Practice of Physic (1774); Institutions of Medicine (1770); and Synopsis Nosologicae Medicae (1785), which contained his classification of diseases into four great classes - (t) Pyrexiae, or febrile diseases, as typhus fever; (2) Neuroses, or nervous diseases, as epilepsy; (3) Cachexiae, or diseases resulting from bad habit of body, as scurvy; L and (4) Locales, or local diseases, as cancer.
In 1836, having completed his education, he entered the Bibliotheque Nationale, and afterwards the Bibliotheque de 1'Institut (1844), where he devoted himself to the study of archaeology, ancient and modern languages, medicine and law.
Kunkel to have been known as an arcanum or secret medicine to the electoral house of Saxony in the middle of the 16th century, but it was first described by J.
In medicine it is employed as an aperient, and is one of the safest and most innocuous known.
The introduction of the drug into medicine is supposed to have been due to the Arabian physicians in the middle ages.
Apprenticed at the age of sixteen to a surgeon, he soon went to Paris, studied medicine and surgery there, and, having qualified as a mastersurgeon, settled down to practice at Mantes.
In 1744 he graduated as a doctor of medicine; he became physician in ordinary to the king, and afterwards his first consulting physician, and was installed in the palace of Versailles.
Even medicine has not escaped its vigilance, as is proved by the prohibition of certain surgical operations.
Varenius studied at the gymnasium of Hamburg (1640-42), and at Konigsberg (1643-45) and Leiden (1645-49) universities, where he devoted himself to mathematics and medicine, taking his medical degree at Leiden in 1649.
He then settled at Amsterdam, intending to practise medicine.
of Medicine, p. 30.
On the practice of medicine, which is in close alliance with magic, there are several well-known works.
Camerarius, professor of botany and medicine at Tubingen, published a letter on the sexes of plants, in which he refers to the stamens and pistils as the organs of reproduction, and states the difficulties he had encountered in determining the organs of Cryptogamic plants.
Geneva boasts also of a fine observatory and of a number of technical schools (watchmaking, chemistry, medicine, commerce, fine arts, &c.), some of which are really annexes of the university, which in June 1906 was attended by 1158 matriculated students, of whom 903 The city and its buildings.
Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride, British and United States pharmacopoeiae) as used in medicine is a white crystalline odourless powder having a saline taste.
Francois Sanchez (1562-1632), professor of medicine and philosophy in Toulouse, combated the Aristotelianism of the schools with much bitterness, and was the author of a book with the title Quod nihil scitur.
It consisted of three faculties - Roman law, medicine and philosophy.
It is used in medicine on account of the high solubility of its salt with uric acid.
The institution embraces a college of liberal arts, a college of engineering, a college of law (united in 1897 with the law school of Cincinnati College, then the only surviving department of that college, which was founded as Lancaster Seminary in 1815 and was chartered as Cincinnati College in 1819), a college of medicine (from 1819 to 1896 the Medical College of Ohio; the college occupies the site of the old M`Micken homestead), a college for teachers, a graduate school, and a technical school (founded in 1886 and transferred to the university in 1901); while closely affiliated with it are the Clinical and Pathological School of Cincinnati and the Ohio College of Dentistry.
- The metal sodium is not used in medicine, but many of its salts are employed.
He was elected to the Academy of Medicine in 1873, and ten years afterwards.
In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.
In 1904 there were only six secondary schools, including the institute of law and medicine and the training-school for teachers at San Jose.
The university has now five faculties, of which those of law and medicine are the most celebrated, and is attended by about 1200 students.
Now Mark Napier found in the library of the university of Edinburgh a mathematical work bearing a sentence in Latin which he translates, " To Doctor John Craig of Edinburgh, in Scotland, a most illustrious man, highly gifted with various and excellent learning, professor of medicine, and exceedingly skilled in the mathematics, Tycho Brahe bath sent this gift, and with his own hand written this at Uraniburg, 2d November 1588."
He went to the university of Leipzig as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered officially as a student of medicine.
ROBERT RAINY (1826-1906), Scotch Presbyterian divine, was born on the 1st of January 1826; his father, Dr Harry Rainy, professor of forensic medicine in Glasgow University, was the son of a Sutherlandshire minister.
The same may be said of the lineal descendant of savage medicine - the magical leech-craft of European folk-lore; cures for toothache, warts, &c., act in spite of the disbelief of the sufferer; how far incredulity on the part of the healer would result in failure is an open question.
At the age of twelve he was sent to a grammar school in Belfast, whence he removed in 1746 to study medicine in Glasgow.
In 1762, at the age of eighteen, he went up to Konigsberg with the intention of studying medicine, but finding himself unequal to the operations of the dissecting-room, he abandoned this object, and, by the help of one or two friends and his own self-supporting labours, followed out his earlier idea of the clerical profession by joining the university.
Baelz (emeritus professor of medicine in the Imperial University of Tokyo), who enumerates the following sub-divisions of the race inhabiting the Japanese islands.
Then he studied medicine, taking his degree in 1867, and setting up in practice at Pons in Charente-Inferieure.
The first journal devoted to medicine (1679) was by Nicolas de Blegny, frequently spoken of as a charlatan, a term which sometimes means simply a man of many ideas.
Medicine.-Revue de medecine (1881); Annales de l'Ecole de plein exercise de medicine et de pharmacie de Marseille (1891); La Chronique medecale (1893); Revue de gynecologie, bi-monthly; La Semaine medicale, weekly; Journal d'hygiene, monthly.
Historical journalism was first represented by Electa juris publici (1709), philology by Neue acerra philologica (1715-1723), philosophy by the Ada philosophorum (1715-1727), medicine by Der patriotische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728).
The imperial university of Tokyo, which consists of the colleges of law, medicine, literature, science, engineering and agriculture, is the principal institution of learning in the empire.
He qualified as a doctor of medicine in London in 1827.
Scientific and practical subjects, such as natural history, architecture, medicine, agriculture, are treated in more elaborate literary style.
Cornelius Celsus composed a series of technical handbooks, one of which, upon medicine, has survived.
HIPPOCRATES, Greek philosopher and writer, termed the " Father of Medicine," was born, according to Soranus, in Cos, in the first year of the Both Olympiad, i.e.
Born of a family of priest-physicians, and inheriting all its traditions and prejudices, Hippocrates was the first to cast superstition aside, and to base the practice of medicine on the principles of inductive philosophy.
According to Homer, he was brought up by his mother at Phthia with his cousin and intimate friend Patroclus, and learned the arts of war and eloquence from Phoenix, while the Centaur Chiron taught him music and medicine.
Professions, such as the law or medicine, observe a code of etiquette, which the members must observe as protecting the dignity of the profession and preventing injury to its members.
"If you please, your excellency, Petrusha has brought some papers," said one of the nursemaids to Prince Andrew who was sitting on a child's little chair while, frowning and with trembling hands, he poured drops from a medicine bottle into a wineglass half full of water.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
- The sources of all sulphur preparations used in medicine (except calx sulphurata) are native virgin sulphur and the sulphides of metals.
Other educational institutions are the Indianapolis College of Law (1897), the Indiana Medical College (the School of Medicine of Purdue University, formed in 1905 by the consolidation of the Medical College of Indiana, the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Fort Wayne College of Medicine), the State College of Physicians and Surgeons (the medical school of Indiana University), the Indiana Veterinary College (1892), the Indianapolis Normal School, the Indiana Kindergarten and Primary Normal Training School (private), and the Winona Technical Institute.
For more detailed bibliographical information see Apercu des travaux zoo-ge'ographiques, published at St Petersburg in connexion with the Exhibition of 1878; and the index Ukazatel Russkoi Literatury for natural science, mathematics and medicine, published since 1872 by the Society of the Kiev University.
The most interesting of Pasteur's investigations in preventive and curative medicine remains to be told.
This, founded in 1456, is well endowed and is largely frequented by students of medicine.
In 1553 he became physician to the count of Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, and in 1558 held the same post with the elector-palatine, Otto Heinrich, being at the same time professor of medicine at Heidelberg.
He published several pieces bearing on medicine, astrology and alchemy, and attacking the system of Paracelsus.
Two preparations of hard soap (sodium oleate), made by acting on olive oil with caustic soda, are used in medicine: (1) Emplastrum saponis, made with lead plaster; (2) Pilula saponis cornposita, which contains one in five parts of opium.
The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.
In Berthelot's opinion, the Syriac portions represent a compilation of receipts and processes undertaken in the Syrian school of medicine at Bagdad under the Abbasids in the 9th or 10th century, and to a large extent constituted by the earlier translations made by Sergius of Resaena in the 6th century.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
He was the son of a physician, and went to study medicine first at Zurich University in 1851, and then, two years later, at Wurzburg, where he had R.
Louis University (subject to the life income of certain surviving relatives) for the erection and support of a hospital and for the advancement of medicine and surgery.
The Koran, sacred and secular law, logic, poetry, arithmetic, with some medicine and geography, are the chief subjects of study.
The history of the alchemical period is treated in more detail in the article Alchemy, and of the iatrochemical in the article Medicine.
de la BoÃ« Sylvius (1614-1672), who regarded medicine as applied chemistry, and Otto Tachenius, who elucidated the nature of salts.
The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.
Many substances were employed in ancient medicine: galena was the basis of a valuable Egyptian cosmetic and drug; the arsenic sulphides, realgar and orpiment, litharge, alum, saltpetre, iron rust were also used.
It is used in medicine under the names aspirin, acetysal, aletodin, saletin, xaxa, &c. It has the same action as salicylic acid and salicylates, but is said to be much freer from objectionable secondary effects.
borage and Pulmonaria, were formerly used in medicine, and the roots yield purple or brown dyes, as in Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet).
In 1789 he exchanged his chemistry lectureship for that of the theory and practice of physic; and when the medical college, which he had helped to found, was absorbed by the university of Pennsylvania in 1791 he became professor of the institutes of medicine and of clinical practice, succeeding in 1796 to the chair of the theory and practice of medicine.
See eulogy by his friend Dr David Hosack (Essays, i., New York, 1824), with biographical details taken from a letter of Rush to President John Adams; also references in the works of Thacker, Gross and Bowditch on the history of medicine in America.
The chief cities and towns of Alberta are Edmonton (11,167), Calgary (11,967), Medicine Hat (3020), Lethbridge (2948) and Strathcona (2927).
The most notable gas discovery is that at Medicine Hat, which has wells with unlimited quantities.
A branch line of the Canadian Pacific railway runs from Medicine Hat between 49° and 50° N., passing through the Crow's Nest Pass of the Rocky Mountains and carrying on trade with British Columbia.
After studying law for a time he took up medicine; his graduation thesis De Somno was well received.
In private service superior posts were often filled by freedmen; the higher arts - as medicine, grammar, painting - were partly in the hands of freedmen and even of ingenui; the more successful actors and gladiators were often freedmen.
He opened dispensaries in London and Bristol and was keenly interested in medicine.
After receiving his early education at the Caroline academy of Stuttgart, he entered the university of Tubingen, where he received the degree of doctor of medicine.
He practised for some time as a physician at Sulz, and then at Kirchheim, and in 1811 he was chosen extraordinary professor of philosophy and medicine at Tubingen.
Not only literature, but the physical sciences, as then taught, had a charm for him; and he is said to have made considerable progress in medicine under the tuition of his father.
Among its buildings are the cathedral, dating from 1553 and once noted for its wealth; the president's palace and halls of congress, which are no longer occupied as such by the national government; the cabildo, or town-hall; a mint dating from 1572; the courts of justice, and the university of San Xavier, founded in 1624, with faculties of law, medicine and theology.
For superior education there is (1) the university of Constantinople, with its four faculties of letters, science, law and medicine; and (2) special schools, including (a) the normal school for training teachers, (b) the civil imperial school, (c) the school of the fine arts and (d) the imperial schools of medicine.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
There are certain recognized rights to exemption from military service, such as some court officials, state officials, students in normal schools, medicine and law colleges, &c. The redifs form the principal part of the army in time of war, and are divided into two classes: Class I.
Special state schools of medicine, arts, science, crafts, &c., have been created successively, and in 1901 a university was founded.
The college has departments for arts, pure and applied science and technology, medicine, public health, music, and for the training of men and women teachers for elementary and secondary schools.
MARSILIUS OF PADUA [MARSIGLIO MAINARDINO] (1270-1342), Italian medieval scholar, was born at Padua, and at first studied medicine in his own country.
While still practising medicine he entered into relations with another master of Paris, the philosopher John of Jandun, who collaborated with him in the composition of the famous Defensor pacis (1324), one of the most extraordinary political and religious works which appeared during the 14th century.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
The appendix de Benedictionibus to the Rituale Romanum contains formulae, often of much simple beauty, for blessing all manner of persons and things, from the congregation as a whole and sick men and women, to railways, ships, blast-furnaces, lime-kilns, articles of food, medicine and medical bandages and all manner of domestic animals.
The medieval mind was only too prone to look on morality as a highly technical art, quite as difficult as medicine or chancery law - a path where wayfaring men were certain to err, with no guide but their unsophisticated conscience.
The Introduction to the Science of Medicine (V.
In 1844, having graduated as doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to organize the new faculty of science at Besancon, where he acted as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851.
Different substances were distinguished by the name of "alumen"; but they were all characterized by a certain degree of astringency, and were all employed in dyeing and medicine, the light-coloured alumen being useful in brilliant dyes, the dark-coloured only in dyeing black or very dark colours.
Another highly useful palm is the carnauba or carnahuba (Copernicia cerifera) which supplies fruit, medullary meal, food for cattle, boards and timber, fibre, wax and medicine.
To this spacious and well-equipped group of buildings the faculty of medicine was removed from the college.
Its graduates also give lectures on the various branches of medicine and science requisite for the degree of doctor of medicine, and those extra-academical courses are recognized, under certain restrictions, by the University Court, as qualifying for the degree.
The city possesses a university, founded in 1203 and limited to the faculties of law and medicine.
The university provides instruction and grants degrees in arts, law, medicine, science and engineering; instruction in theology, however, is given, not by the university, but by the different affiliated colleges.
(1793), starting to practise medicine in 1789 at Bury St Edmunds, whence he soon removed to London.
But he made little way, and failed to obtain a vacant physicianship at St George's hospital; the result was that he abandoned medicine and took to original research.
- The science of medicine, as we understand it, has for its province the treatment of disease.
The word "medicine" (Lat.
Taking disease to be a deflexion from the line of health, the first requisite of medicine is an extensive and intimate acquaintance with the norm of the body.
The most fundamental division is into internal and external medicine, or into medicine proper and surgery.
The administration of the civil and criminal law involves frequent relations with medicine, and the professional subjects most likely to arise in that connexion, together with a summary of causes celebres, are formed into the department of Medical Jurisprudence.
History Of Medicine Medicine a Portrayed in the Homeric Poems. - In the state of society pictured by Homer it is clear that medicine has already had a history.
In other words, a rough indication is seen of the separation of medicine and surgery.
There is no sign in the Homeric poems of the subordination of medicine to religion which is seen in ancient Egypt and India, nor are priests charged, as they were in those countries, with medical functions - all circumstances which throw grave doubts on the commonly received opinion that medicine derived its origin in all countries from religious observances.
Although the actual organization of medicine among the Homeric Greeks was thus quite distinct from religion, the worship of Asclepius (or Aesculapius) as the god of healing demands some notice.
The theory of a development of Greek medicine from the rites of Asclepius, though defended by eminent names, must accordingly be rejected.
It is only from non medical writers that anything is known of the development of medicine in Greece before the age of Hippocrates.
Nor is much importance to be attached to the influence of the philosophical sects on medicine except as regards the school of Pythagoras.
We must therefore hasten onward to the age of Pericles, in which Hippocrates, already called "the Great," was in medicine as complete a representative of the highest efforts of the Greek intellect as were his contemporaries the great philosophers, orators and tragedians.
The first grand characteristic of Hippocratic medicine is the high conception of the duties and status of the physician, shown in the celebrated "Oath of Hippocrates" and elsewhere - equally free from the mysticism of a priesthood and the vulgar pretensions of a mercenary craft.
Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.
Though the Hippocratic medicine was so largely founded on observation, it would be an error to suppose that dogma or theory had no place.
The above sketch of Hippocratic medicine will make it less necessary to dwell upon the details relating to subsequent medical schools or sects in ancient times.
After Hippocrates the progress of medicine in Greece does not call for any special remark in such a sketch as this, but mention must be made of one great name.
Though none of Aristotle's writings are strictly medical, he has by his researches in anatomy and physiology contributed greatly to the progress of medicine.
It should also be remembered that he was of an Asclepiad family, and received that partly medical education which was traditional in such families, and also himself is said to have practised medicine as an amateur.
Moreover, his works on natural history doubtless furthered the progress among the Greeks of sciences tributary to medicine, though the only specimens of such works which have come down to us from the Peripatetic school are those of Theophrastus, who may be considered the founder of the scientific study of botany.
The Peripatetic school may have been more favourable to the development of medicine, as of other departments of natural knowledge, than any other; but there is no evidence that any of the philosophical schools had important influence on the progress of medicine.
The dispersion of Greek science and intellectual activity through the world by the conquests of Alexander and his successors led to the formation of more than one learned centre, in which medicine among other sciences was represented.
It is here that the real continuation and development of Hippocratic medicine can be traced.
Two eminent names stand in the first rank as leaders of the two earliest schools of medicine which arose in Alexandria, Herophilus and Erasistratus.
802), and in the knowledge and practice of medicine he appears to have been equally renowned.
If we look at the work of the Alexandrian schools in medicine as a whole, we must admit that the progress made was great and permanent.
The greatest service rendered to medicine was undoubtedly the systematic study of anatomy.
The Romans cannot be said to have at any time originated or possessed an independent school of medicine.
They had from early times a very complicated system of superstitious medicine, or religion, related to disease and the cure of disease, borrowed, as is thought, from the Etruscans; and, though the saying of Pliny that the Roman people got on for six hundred years without doctors was doubtless an exaggeration, and not, literally speaking, exact, it must be accepted for the broad truth which it contains.
Asclepiades had many pupils who adhered more or less closely to his doctrines, but it was especially one of them, Themison, who gave permanence to the teachings of his master by framing out of them, with some modifications, a new system of medical doctrine, and founding on this basis a school which lasted for some centuries in successful rivalry with the Hippocratic tradition, which, as we have seen, was up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine.
He reversed the Hippocratic maxim "art is long," promising his scholars to teach them the whole of medicine in six months, and had inscribed upon his tomb iaTpovLKc, 7 r, as being superior to all living and bygone physicians.
It was the first definite product of Greek medicine on Roman soil, but was destined to be followed by others, which kept up a more or less successful rivalry with it, and with the Hippocratic tradition.
Although no system or important doctrine of medicine was originated by the Roman intellect, and though the practice of the profession was probably almost entirely in the hands of the Greeks, the most complete picture which we have of medical thought and activity in Roman times is due to a Latin pen, and to one who was, in all probability, not a physician.
The work of Celsus is thus for us only second in importance to the Hippocratic writings and the works of Galen; but it is valuable rather as a part of the history of medicine than as the subject of that history.
In his Natural History we find as complete a summary of the popular medicine of his time as Celsus gives of the scientific medicine.
Pliny disliked doctors, and lost no opportunity of depreciating regular medicine; nevertheless he has left many quotations from, and many details about, medical authors which are of the highest value.
He is useful to us for what he wrote about the history of medicine, not for what he contributed.
We now come to the writer who, above all others, gathered up into himself the divergent and scattered threads of ancient medicine, and out of whom again the greater part of modern European medicine has flowed.
to have made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile scientific acquirements and practical skill, to bring back the unity of medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners.
Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine.
The history of medicine in Roman times is by no means the same thing as the history of the fate of the works of Galen.
The popularity of Caelius is evidenced by the fact that in the 6th century an abridgment of his larger work was recommended by Cassiodorus to the Benedictine monks for the study of medicine.
The Byzantine school of medicine, which closely corresponds to the Byzantine literary and historical schools, followed closely in Galen's footsteps, and its writers were chiefly compilers and encyclopaedists.
But the most prominent figure in Byzantine medicine is that of Paul of Aegina (Paulus Aegineta), who lived probably in the early part of the 7th century.
In this respect Paulus is a most important influence in the development of medicine.
The work of the last has some independent merit; but all are interesting as showing a fusion of Greek and Arabian medicine, the latter having begun to exercise even in the 11th century a reflex influence on the schools of Byzantium.
Something was borrowed even from the school of Salerno, and thus the close of Byzantine medicine is brought into connexion with the dawn of science in modern Europe.
In the West the period after Galen affords little evidence of anything but a gradual though unvarying decline in Roman medicine.
The rise of the Mahommedan Empire, which influenced Europe so deeply both politically and intellectually, made its mark also in the history of medicine.
At Damascus Greek medicine was zealously cultivated with the aid of Jewish and Christian teachers.
At the same time the Arabs became acquainted with Indian medicine, and Indian physicians lived at the court of Bagdad.
He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant.
writers of this century need not be mentioned here; but the next, the 11th century, is given as the probable though uncertain date of a writer who had a great influence on European medicine, Mesua the younger of Damascus, whose personality is obscure, and of whose very existence some historians have doubted, thinking that the name was assumed by some medieval Latin writer.
Avicenna has always been regarded as the chief representative of Arabian medicine.
It was translated into Latin, and more than once printed, as were some of his lesser works, which thus formed a part of the contribution made by the Arabians to European medicine.
But, so far as is known, the independent and rationalistic spirit which the two last-named writers showed in philosophy did not lead them to take any original point of view in medicine.
It is thus evident that the circumstance of having been translated (which may have been in some cases almost an accident) is what has chiefly determined the influence of particular writers on Western medicine.
There can be no doubt that it was in the main Greek medicine, modified to suit other climates, habits and national tastes, and with some important additions from Oriental sources.
The Latin medical writers were necessarily unknown to the Arabs; and this was partly the cause that even in Europe Galenic medicine assumed such a preponderance, the methodic school and Celsus being forgotten or neglected.
Thus does Arabian medicine appear as judged from a modern standpoint; but to medieval Europe, when little but a tradition remained of the great ancient schools, it was invested with a far higher degree of originality and importance.
It is now necessary to consider what was the state of medicine in Europe after the fall of the Western Empire and before the influence of Arabian science and literature began to be felt.
A continuous thread of learning and practice must have connected the last period of Roman medicine already mentioned with the dawn of science in the middle ages.
The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine.
It was among the Benedictines that the monastic study of medicine first received a new direction, and aimed at a higher standard.
The study of Hippocrates, Galen, and other classics was recommended by Cassiodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there what could be called a medical school; nor had this foundation any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school of Salerno.
All that can with certainty be said is that a school or collection of schools gradually grew up in which especially medicine, but also, in a subordinate degree, law and philosophy were taught.
The number of students of medicine must at one time have been considerable, and in a corresponding degree the number of teachers.
The reputation of the school was great till the 12th or 13th century, when the introduction of the Arab medicine was gradually fatal to it.
All of these fall into the first period before the advent of Arabian medicine.
In the transitional period, when the Arabian school began to influence European medicine, but before the Salernitans were superseded, comes Nicolaus Praepositus, who wrote the Antidotarium, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, which became the standard work on the subject, and the foundation of many later compilations.
Although it cannot be said that the science of medicine was advanced at Salerno, still its decline was arrested at a time when every other branch of learning was rapidly falling into decay; and there can be no doubt that the observation of patients in hospitals, and probably clinical instruction, were made use of in learning and teaching.
The school of Salerno thus forms a bridge between the ancient and the modern medicine, more direct though less conspicuous than that circuitous route, through Byzantium, Bagdad and Cordova, by which Hippocrates and Galen, in Arabian dress, again entered the European world.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
The influence of Arabian medicine soon began to be felt even in the Hippocratic city of Salerno, and in the r3th century is said to have held an even balance with the older medicine.
After this time the foreign influence predominated; and by the time that the Aristotelian dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so large a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the medical world.
The history of medicine in the period now opening is closely combined with the history of scholastic philosophy.
Both were infected with the same dialectical subtlety, which was, from the nature of the subject, especially injurious to medicine.
Montpellier became distinguished for the practical and empirical spirit of its medicine, as contrasted with the dogmatic and scholastic teaching of Paris and other universities.
The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival of learning, when the study of the medical classics in their original language worked another revolution.
Of these two physicians the first probably, the latter certainly, was educated and practised abroad, but John Gaddesden (1280?-1361), the author of Rosa anglica seu Practica medicinae (between 1305 and 1317), was a graduate in medicine of Merton College, Oxford, and court physician.
The impulse which all departments of intellectual activity received from the revival of Greek literature in Europe was felt by medicine among the rest.
The former brought with it necessarily a more accurate conception of physiology, and thus led up to the great discovery of Harvey, which was the turningpoint in modern medicine.
It was at first very naturally imagined that the simple revival of classical and especially of Greek literature would at once produce the same brilliant results in medicine as in literature and philosophy.
The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Thus was the campaign opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took the place of Avicenna.
Janus Cornarius, from whom this is quoted, laments, however, that the Arabians still reigned in most of the schools of medicine, and that the Italian and French authors of works called Practica were still in high repute.
Upon this apparently trifling question arose a controversy which lasted many years, occupied several universities, and led to the interposition of personages no less important than the pope and the emperor, but which is thought to have largely contributed to the final downfall of the Arabian medicine.
But his importance in the universal history of medicine we cannot estimate so highly.
In England "chemical medicine" is first heard of in the reign of Elizabeth, and was in like manner contemned and assailed by the College of Physicians and the Society of Apothecaries.
The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.
Nevertheless some progress has to be recorded, even if not due directly to the study of ancient medicine.
Among many descriptions of this disease, that by John Kaye or Caius, already referred to, was one of the best, and of great importance as showing that the works of Galen did not comprise all that could be known in medicine.
In another direction the foundations of modern medicine were being laid during the 16th century - namely, by the introduction of clinical instruction in hospitals.
The medicine of the early 17th century presents no features to distinguish it from that of the preceding century.
The practice and theory of medicine were mainly founded upon Hippocrates and Galen, with everincreasing additions from the chemical school.
When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws.
It is often assumed that the writings and influence of Bacon did much towards introducing a more scientific method into medicine and physiology.
Before speaking in detail of these, we may note that by other influences quite independent of theories, important additions were made to practical medicine.
The medicine of the 17th century was especially distinguished by the rise of sytems; and we must first speak of an eccentric genius who endeavoured to construct a system for himself, as original and opposed to tradition as that of Paracelsus.
Van Helmont (1578-1644) was a man of noble family in Brussels, who, after mastering all other branches of learning as then understood, devoted himself with enthusiasm to medicine and chemistry.
By education and position a little out of the regular lines of the profession, he took up in medicine an independent attitude.
In respect of practical medicine, much less effect was at first noticeable.
But this example, combined with the Cartesian principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to reconstruct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical basis - to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological or scientific medicine.
The result of this was not to eliminate dogma from medicine, though it weakened the authority of the old dogma.
The iatro-physical school of medicine grew out of physiological theories.
But the influence of these theories on practical medicine was not great.
The so-called iatro-chemical school stood in a much closer relation to practical medicine than the iatrophysical.
Its chief aim was to reconcile the new views in physiology and chemistry with practical medicine.
The founder of the iatrochemical school was Sylvius (1614-1672), who belonged to a French family settled in Holland, and was for fourteen years professor of medicine at Leiden, where he attracted students from all quarters of Europe.
He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.
But some parts of Willis's works, such as his descriptions of nervous diseases, and his account (the earliest) of diabetes, are classical contributions to scientific medicine.
The chemical school met with violent opposition, partly from the adherents of the ancient medicine, partly from the iatro-mechanical school.
Sydenham's influence on European medicine was very great.
It is deeply to be regretted in the interests of medicine that he did not write more.
We thus see that, while the great anatomists, physicists and chemists - men of the type of Willis, Borelli and Boyle - were laying foundations which were later on built up into the fabric of scientific medicine, little good was done by the premature application of their half-understood principles to practice.
The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.
Sydenham showed that these processes might be profitably studied and dealt with without explaining them; and, by turning men's minds away from explanations and fixing them on facts, he enriched medicine with a method more fruitful than any discoveries in detail.
From this time forth the reign of canonical authority in medicine was at an end, though the dogmatic spirit long survived.
The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical.
He is also one of the most distinguished writers on the history of medicine.
Mead was the pupil of the equally popular and successful John Radcliffe (1650-1714), who had acquired from Sydenham a contempt for book-learning, and belonged to no school in medicine but the school of common sense.
Radcliffe left, however, no work requiring mention in a history of medicine.
"It is very evident," he says, "that all other means of improving medicine have been found ineffectual, by the stand it was at for two thousand years, and that, since mathematicians have sot themselves to the study of it, men already begin to talk so intelligibly and comprehensibly, even about abstruse matters, that it is to be hoped that mathematical learning will be the distinguishing mark of a physician and a quack."
James Keill (1673-1719) applied Newtonian and mechanical principles to the explanation of bodily functions with still greater accuracy and completeness; but his researches have more importance for physiology than for practical medicine.
He was for many years .professor of medicine at Leiden, where he lectured five hours a day, and excelled in influence and reputation not only his greatest forerunners, Montanus of Padua and Sylvius of Leiden, but probably every subsequent teacher.
Many of the leading English physicians of the 18th century studied there; Gerard Van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, transplanted the latter's method of teaching to Vienna, and founded the noted Vienna school of medicine.
As the organizer, and almost the constructor, of the modern method of clinical instruction, the services of Boerhaave to the progress of medicine were immense, and can hardly be overrated.
His object was to make all the anatomical and physiological acquisitions of his age, even microscopical anatomy, which he diligently studied, available for use in the practice of medicine.
It almost follows from the nature of the case that the great task of Boerhaave's life, a synthesis of ancient and modern medicine, and the work in which this is chiefly contained, his.
He was in 1693 appointed the first professor of medicine in the university of Halle, then just founded by the elector Frederick III.
Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
George Ernest Stahl (1660-1734) was for more than twenty years professor of medicine at Halle, and thus a colleague of Hoffmann, whom he resembled in constructing a complete theoretical system, though their systems had little or nothing in common.
From the subtleties of rival systems it is a satisfaction to turn to two movements in the medicine of the 18th century which, though they did not extinguish the spirit of system-making, opened up paths of investigation by which the systems were ultimately superseded.
He advanced chemistry, botany, anatomy, as well as physiology, and was incessantly occupied in endeavouring to apply his scientific studies to practical medicine, thus continuing the work of his great teacher Boerhaave.
Besides all this he was probably more profoundly acquainted with the literature and bibliography of medicine than any one before or since.
Haller occupied in the new university of Gottingen (founded 1737) a position corresponding to that of Boerhaave at Leiden, and in like manner influenced a very large circle of pupils, The appreciation of his work in physiology belongs to the history of that science; we are only concerned here with its influence on medicine.
The great name of Haller does not therefore occupy a very prominent place in the history of practical medicine.
But it is on the combination of the two methods - that of Sydenham and of Morgagni - that modern medicine rests; and it is through these that it has been able to make steady progress in its own field, independently of the advance of physiology or other sciences.
It remains to speak of two systematic writers on medicine in the 18th century, whose great reputation prevents them from being passed over, though their real contribution to the progress of medicine was not great - Cullen and Brown.
William Cullen (1710-1790) was a most eminent and popular professor of medicine at Edinburgh.
The same academical influences as surrounded the Dutch and German founders of systems were doubtless partly concerned in leading him to form the plan of a comprehensive system of medicine.
It is difficult to form a clear estimate of the importance of the last systematizer of medicine - John Brown (1735-1788) - for, though in England he has been but little regarded, the wide though shortlived popularity of his system on the Continent shows that it must have contained some elements of brilliancy, if not originality.
The fortunes of Brown's system (called, from having been originally written in Latin, the Brunonian) form one of the strangest chapters in the history of medicine.
Joseph Frank (1774-1841), a German professor at Pavia, afterwards of Vienna, the author of an encyclopaedic work on medicine now forgotten, embraced the Brunonian system, though he afterwards introduced some modifications, and transplanted it to Vienna.
Hahnemann (1753-1844) was in conception as revolutionary a reformer of medicine as Paracelsus.
He professed to base medicine entirely on a knowledge of symptoms, regarding all investigation of the causes of symptoms as useless.
In his second period he developed the theory of "potentiality" or dynamization - namely, that medicines gained in strength by being diluted, if the dilution was accompanied by shaking or pounding, which was supposed to "potentialize" or increase the potency of the medicine.
From a theoretical point of view Hahnemann's is one of the abstract systems, pretending to universality, which modern medicine neither accepts nor finds it worth while to controvert.
In looking back on the repeated attempts in the 18th century to construct a universal system of medicine, it is impossible not to regret the waste of brilliant gifts and profound acquirements which they involved.
It was fortunate, however, that the accumulation of positive knowledge in medicine did not cease.
But the state of medicine in that country till the end of the 18th century was unsatisfactory as compared with some other parts of Europe.
In England the brilliancy of the early part of the century in practical medicine was hardly maintained to the end, and presented, indeed, a certain contrast with the remarkable and unflagging progress of surgery in the same period.
In Germany the only important school of practical medicine was that of Vienna, as revived by Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, under the patronage of Maria Theresa.
This, the old "Vienna School," was not distinguished for any notable discoveries, but for success in clinical teaching, and for its sound method of studying the actual facts of disease during life and after death, which largely contributed to the establishment of the "positive medicine" of the 19th century.
Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.
The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802).
Starting from these men arose a school of physicians who endeavoured to give to the study of symptoms the same precision as belonged to anatomical observations, and by the combination of both methods made a new era in clinical medicine.
In another respect also he aided in establishing an exact science of medicine by the introduction of the numerical or statistical method.
By this method only can the fallacies which are attendant on drawing conclusions from isolated cases be avoided; and thus the chief objection which has been made to regarding medicine as an inductive science has been removed.
During this brilliant period of French medicine the superiority of the school of Paris could hardly be contested.
English Medicine from 1800 to 1840.
- The progress of medicine in England during this period displays the same characteristics as at other times, viz.
Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France.
The English school of medicine was also profoundly stirred by the teachings of the two brothers William and John Hunter, especially the latter - who must therefore be briefly mentioned, though their own researches were chiefly concerned with subjects lying a little outside the limits of this sketch.
His immense contributions to anatomy and pathology cannot be estimated here, but his services in stimulating research and training investigators belong to the history of general medicine.
An instance of the latter is the work of Robert Willan (1757-1812) on diseases of the skin - a department of medicine in which abstract and hypothetical views had been especially injurious.
These observers, and others who cannot be mentioned here, belong to the period when English medicine was still little influenced by the French school.
Although many names of scarcely less note might be mentioned among the London physicians of the early part of the century, we must pass them over to consider the progress of medicine in Scotland and Ireland.
Here the chief home of positive medicine was still for a long time Vienna, where the "new Vienna school" continued and surpassed the glory of the old.
In the other German schools, though some great names might be found, as Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873), the founder of the modern era in the study of nervous diseases, the general spirit was scholastic and the result barren till the teaching of one man, whom the modern German physicians generally regard as the regenerator of scientific medicine in their country, made itself felt.
- In recent times the positive bent of modern knowledge and methods in other spheres of science and thought, and especially in biology, has influenced medicine profoundly.
For medicine in England Harvey did what William Gilbert did for physics and Robert Boyle for chemistry: he insisted upon direct interrogation of natural processes, and thereby annihilated the ascendancy of mere authority, which, while nations were in the making, was an essential principle in the welding together of heterogeneous and turbulent peoples.
The degradation of medicine between Galen and Harvey, if in part it consisted in the blind following of the authority of the former physician, was primarily due to other causes; and its new development was not due to the discovery of the experimental method alone: social and political causes also are concerned in the advance even of the exact sciences.
Hence the description of the advance of medicine in western Europe and America may for the latest stage be taken as a whole, without that separate treatment, nation by nation, which in the history of earlier times was necessary.
The several influences of modern Germany, France and America became of the first importance to English medicine; but these tides, instead of pursuing their courses as independent streams, have become confluent.
The character of modern medicine cannot be summed in a word, as, with more or less aptness, that of some previous periods may be.
We see now that the practice of the experimental method endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, through his influence, those who are associated with him in medical science, even if these be not themselves actually engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old faculties, as is seen as well in other sciences as in those on which medicine more directly depends.
Such was medicine, statically ordered in pathology, statically ordered in its clinical concepts, when, on the 24th of November 1859 the Origin of Species was published.
Before Darwin - if the name of Darwin may be used to signify the transformation of thought of which he was the chief artificer - natural objects were regarded, not in medicine and pathology only, as a set of hidebound events; and natural operations as moving in fixed grooves, after a fashion which it is now difficult for us to realize.
In practical medicine the subsequent results of Behring and his followers have in diphtheria attained a signal therapeutical success.
von Barensprung (1822-1865) and Ludwig Traube (1818-1876) did the same service; but it is to the work of Karl August Wunderlich (1815-1877) that we owe the establishment of this means of precision as a method of regular observation both in pathology and in clinical medicine.
In spite, therefore, of the encyclopaedic tradition which has persisted from Aristotle through the Arab and medieval schools down to Herbert Spencer, it is forced upon us in our own day that in a pursuit so manysided as medicine, whether in its scientific or in its practical aspect, we have to submit more and more to that division of labour which has been a condition of advance in all other walks of life.
The first clinical laboratory seems to have been that of Von Ziemssen (1829-1902) at Munich, founded in 1885; and, although his example has not yet been followed as it ought to have been, enough has been done in this way, at Johns Hopkins University and elsewhere, to prove the vital importance of the system to the progress of modern medicine.
A conspicuous example of the incalculable evil wrought by lack of integration is well seen in the radical divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the most mischievous legacies of the middle ages - one whose mischief is scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deeply rooted in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to be hard to obliterate.
That the methods and the subject-matter of surgery and of medicine are substantially the same, and that the advance of one is the advance of the other, the division being purely artificial and founded merely on accidents of personal bent and skill, must be insisted upon at this time of our history.
It is under this closer occupation with mechanical conditions that surgery to-day is said - not without excuse, but with no more than superficial truth - to have made more progress than medicine.
Medicine and surgery are but two aspects of one art; Pasteur shed light on both surgery and medicine, and when Lister, his disciple, penetrated into the secrets of wound fevers and septicaemia, he illuminated surgery and medicine alike.
While pathology then, which is especially the "science of medicine," was winning territory on one side from physiology,.
and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.
In place of it, systematic clinical classes have become part of the scheme of every efficient school of medicine.
Among the drawbacks of this temper, which on the whole made for progress, was the rise of a school of excessive scepticism, which, forgetting the value of the accumulated stores of empiricism, despised those degrees of moral certainty that, in so complex a study and so tentative a practice as medicine, must be our portion for the present, and even for a long future, however great the triumphs of medicine may become.
This scepticism took form in the school, most active between 1860 and 1880, known as the school of "Expectant Medicine."
From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E.
From the time of Plato medicine has been accused of ministering to the survival of unfit persons, and to their propagation of children.
Hitherto we have presented a survey of the progress of the science and practice of medicine on general.
Romberg (1795-1873) and Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) also were pioneers in the study of nervous diseases, but it was not till later in the century that Germany took a high place in this department of medicine.
Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.
The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of "neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical medicine, but this construction is described under Brain; Neuropathology; Muscle And Nerve, &C.
The life of these insane patients is as bright, and the treatment as humane, as a barrack life can be; but of science, whether in pathology or medicine, there can be little.
Perhaps no advance in medicine has done so much as the study of tuberculosis to educate the public in the methods and value of research in medical subjects, for the results, and even the methods, of such labours have been brought home not only to patients and their friends, but also to the farmer, the dairyman, the butcher, the public carrier, and, indeed, to every home in the land.
We have said that this advance is often quoted, not very wisely, to signify that in modern progress "medicine" has fallen behind surgery - as if the art of the physician were not one and indivisible.
That certain Fellows of the College of Physicians (especially in gynaecology) have personally taken operative procedures in hand is some good omen that in time the unreal and mischievous schism between medicine and surgery may be bridged over.
The diseases of children have not lacked the renewed attention, the successful investigation, and the valuable new lights which have been given to other departments of medicine.
As by the discovery of stethoscopy by Laennec a new field of medical science and art was opened up, so, more recently, inventions of other new methods of investigation in medicine have opened to us other fields of little less interest and importance.
Radiography has done great things for surgery; for medicine its services are already appreciable, and may prove more and more valuable hereafter.
In 1879 the use of the spectroscope in medicine was pointed out by Dr Charles A.
du Bois-Reymond, Robert Remak (1815-1865), Carlo Matteucci (1811-1868), Guillaume Duchenne (1806-1875), the value of electricity in medicine, greater in diagnosis perhaps than in therapeutics, was demonstrated.
Among the achievements of the medicine of the 19th century the growth of the medical press must not be forgotten.
In the field of the History of Medicine the work of scholars such as Francis Adams of Banchory (1796-1861), William A.
- Osler and McCrae, Modern Medicine; F.
Roberts, The Practice of Medicine (1909); Hermann Nothnagel, Internationale Beitrcige zur inneren Medicin (1902); Ed.
Savill, Clinical Medicine (1909); W.
Osler, The Principles and Practice of Medicine (1909); Allbutt and Rolleston, A System of Medicine (1906-1910); Sir Patrick Manson, Tropical Medicine (1907); Frederick Taylor, A Manual of the Practice of Medicine (1908).
London School of Medicine for Women.
The faculties are theology, arts, law, music, medicine, science, engineering and economics.
At Gresham College, Basinghall Street, City, founded in 1 597 by Sir Thomas Gresham, and moved to its present site in 1843, lectures are given in the principal branches of science, law, divinity, medicine, &c.
He also attended lectures in theology, but, a relative having persuaded him to change his subject, he studied medicine for two years.
OFFICINAL, a term applied in medicine to drugs, plants and herbs, which are sold in chemists' and druggists' shops, and to medical preparations of such drugs, &c., as are made in accordance with the prescriptions authorized by the pharmacopoeia.
There he received a good training in philosophy and medicine, and is said to have been a pupil of Avempace.
The first forty-two years of his life are obscure; we learn from incidental remarks of his that he was a Sunnite, probably according to the IIanifite rite, well versed in all the branches of natural science, in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, in.
Higher education is imparted at the university (Istituto di studii superiori e di perfezionalnento), with 600 to 650 students; although only comprising the faculties of literature, medicine and natural science, it is, as regards the first-named faculty, one of the most important institutions in Italy.
sarkara, gravel, sugar), and used in medicine.
Throughout Europe it continued to be a costly luxury and article of