Medical Sentence Examples
I spent the day at the medical facility.
That a cultured medical genius found her inspiring was beyond flattering.
She drew nearer, eyes sweeping over the medical equipment in the room.
I did not ask the American Medical Association their opinion of this arrangement.
It would heal once he reached the main craft with the help of the medical unit but was useless in the meantime.Advertisement
Still exhausted, he sat next to Dan in the helo that transported them from the medical facility to the lush green foothills of the Rockies.
Codes mingled with names and addresses in a request for medical assistance.
Some medical attention has to beat none.
Yes, do you have your medical equipment with you?
How long would it take to get medical attention?Advertisement
And when more and more people have their medical history tracked over time, we will learn even more about how our bodies get sick and how they heal.
We had full medical insurance and a pension program.
He was one of those medical prodigies that mentally existed on a level too removed for most people to follow.
A youth was stuffing a bag full of medical supplies.
More vexing than the inexplicable medical miracle was the creature that did it.Advertisement
I guess I could say it's a medical problem.
He strapped on his weapons and strode into the storage area, looking with admiration at the boxes of medical supplies.
Precisely at six the next morning, he strode through the medical facility's maximum security barriers.
Lana followed them into the medical facility after a quick look around, not recognizing the flat landscape and distant red rocks surrounding the canyon in which they'd landed.
She rose and trailed Elise out of the medical facility and into the awaiting helo.Advertisement
Was it medical interest that drew him closer, or an interest in the baby?
Now she was costing him time at the clinic, an ambulance bill and who knew what kind of medical bills?
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
When Lotze published these works, medical science was still much under the influence of Schelling's philosophy of nature.
In cases of poisoning by mushrooms immediate medical advice should be secured.Advertisement
About the same time, having shown too open sympathy with the revolutionary or reforming tendencies of 1848, he was for; olitical reasons obliged to leave Berlin and retire to the seclusion of Wiirzburg, the medical school of which profited enormously by his labours as professor of pathological anatomy, and secured a wide extension of its reputation.
In respect cf hospitals and the treatment of the sick his energy and knowledge were of enormous advantage to his country, both in times of peace and of war, and the unrivalled accommodation for medical treatment possessed by Berlin is a standing tribute to his name, which will be perpetuated in one of the largest hospitals of the city.
The reputation of the oracle, which was in origin medical, spread, and with it grew Alexander's skilled plans of organized deception.
Before he was sixteen he not merely knew medical theory, but by gratuitous attendance on the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment.
At first he entered into the service of a high-born lady; but ere long the amir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar.
He introduced into medical theory the four causes of the Peripatetic system.
Other medical works translated into Latin are the Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina, Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso.
Kaisarieh is the headquarters of the American mission in Cappadocia, which has several churches and schools for boys and girls and does splendid medical work.
It has affiliated to it colleges of the Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian and Methodist denominations, with medical and pharmaceutical colleges.
There are also directors of stores, of naval construction, of the medical service, and of the submarine defences (which are concerned with torpedoes, mines and torpedo-boats), as well as of naval ordnance and works, The prefect directs the operations of the arsenal, and is responsible for its efficiency and for that of the ships which are there in reserve.
The cause of medical materialism is the natural bias of physicians towards explaining the health and disease of mind by the health and disease of body.
Origen reprobated medical art on the ground that the prescription here cited is enough; modern faith-healers and Peculiar People have followed in his wake.
Among recent advances having medical import in our knowledge of the Nematodes, the chief are those dealing with the parasites of the blood.
Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, he was a founder of schools, and he also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.
The outdoor charitable institutions include those which distribute help in money or food; those which supply medicine and medical help; those which aid mothers unable to rear their own children; those which subsidize orphans and foundlings; those which subsidize educational institutes; and those which supply marriage portions.
The increase in the numbers rejected as unfit is accounted for by the fact that if only a small proportion of the contingent can be taken for service, the medical standard of acceptance is high.
There are four hospitals, each under a resident medical officer, under the general supervision of a senior officer of the Indian medical service, and medical aid is given free to the whole population.
The prescription for the general antidote known as Mithradatum was found with his body, together with other medical MSS., by Pompey, after his victory over that king.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.
The society has also established a chemical research laboratory, in which much useful work has been done in connexion with the national pharmacopoeia under the direction of the Pharmacopoeia Committee of the Medical Council.
They are not allowed to prescribe, nor the medical men to dispense, except under special licence, and then only in small villages, where the pharmacist could not make a living.
In Holland he may not enter into any agreement, direct or indirect, with a medical man with regard to the supply of medicines.
The British Medical Association published in 1907 a work on Secret Remedies; what they cost and what they contain.
A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
In North Africa, probably in the 9th century, appeared the book known under the name of Eldad ha-Dani, giving an account of the ten tribes, from which much medieval legend was derived; 2 and in Kairawan the medical and philosophical treatises of Isaac Israeli, who died in 932.
He was distinguished in his profession as a physician, and wrote a number of medical works in Arabic (including a commentary on the aphorisms of Hippocrates), all of which were translated into Hebrew, and most of them into Latin, becoming the text-books of Europe in the succeeding centuries.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
Other educational institutions are the Indianapolis College of Law (1897), the Indiana Medical College (the School of Medicine of Purdue University, formed in 1905 by the consolidation of the Medical College of Indiana, the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Fort Wayne College of Medicine), the State College of Physicians and Surgeons (the medical school of Indiana University), the Indiana Veterinary College (1892), the Indianapolis Normal School, the Indiana Kindergarten and Primary Normal Training School (private), and the Winona Technical Institute.
He was educated at the medical school and was at first an army surgeon.
A small -mausoleum contains the remains of Prince Alexander; there are monuments to the tsar Alexander II., to Russia, to the medical officers who fell in the war of 1877 and to the patriot Levsky.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
When at last in the autumn he was in condition to travel, it was determined that he should pass the winter at St Michael's and in the spring obtain medical advice in Europe.
The continual attacks of sickness which had retarded his progress induced his aunt, by medical advice, to take him to Bath; but the mineral waters had no effect.
The people kept the street in which he lay quiet; but medical care, the loving solicitude of friends, and the respect of all the people could not save his life.
The two schools composed of the followers of Herophilus and Erasistratus respectively long divided between them the medical world of Alexandria.
A few years later, with the United States again at war, most of its top medical minds were engaged in the war effort.
Every day, we seem to be getting better at distributing medical resources and information.
And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
He created many of the medical terms we use today, such as acute, chronic, endemic, epidemic, paroxysm, and relapse.
He formalized the structure of medical inquiry as an independent science.
Certainly some of the medical practices of the ancient world, such as bloodletting and the use of leeches, seem to us at least misguided and at worst, barbaric.
In 1543, Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body, which corrected errors from antiquity and advanced the medical sciences.
The number of medical patents issued in 2010 was more than fifty thousand, an all-time record—and it almost certainly will be broken next year, then the next, and again the next.
I think it is likely that the answers to almost all our medical problems could be found in the data we may already be collecting.
Then, people could start reporting all their medical issues—headaches, halitosis, heart disease—and we will begin to see commonalities between genes and conditions we do not generally regard as genetic.
Rights do not mean much, he reasoned, to those with an "empty stomach, shirtless back, roofless dwellings ... unemployment and poverty, no education or medical attention."
And it was even pleasant to be able to show, by disregarding the orders, that she did not believe in medical treatment and did not value her life.
The doctors said that she could not get on without medical treatment, so they kept her in the stifling atmosphere of the town, and the Rostovs did not move to the country that summer of 1812.
The first is entitled Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis Tabulae, &c. while the second, which is the most valuable, is merely appended to the Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani corporis, &c., and thus, the scope of each work being regarded as medical, the author's labours were wholly overlooked by the mere naturalhistorians who followed, though Coiter introduced a table, " De differentiis Auium," furnishing a key to a rough classification of such birds as were known to him, and this as nearly the first attempt of the kind deserves notice here.
Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.
A People's Palace dedicated to the work of the Salvation Army, and containing baths, gymnasium, a public hall, a library, sleeping-rooms, an employment bureau, free medical and legal bureaus, &c., was opened in 1906.
Medical science has never gauged, perhaps never enough set itself to gauge the intimate connexion between moral fault and disease.
The mission of the American Presbyterian Church, which has had its centre in Beirut for the last sixty years, has done much for Syria, especially in the spread of popular education; numerous publications issue from its press, and its medical school has been extremely beneficial.
Dioscorus followed his father's profession in his native place; Alexander became at Rome one of the most celebrated medical men of his time; Olympius was deeply versed in Roman jurisprudence; and Metrodorus was one of the distinguished grammarians of the great Eastern capital.
But, influenced by medical views and by the almost insuperable difficulty of enforcing any drastic import veto in the face of Formosa's large communications by junk with China, the Japanese finally adopted the middle course of licensing the preparation and sale of the drug, and limiting its use to persons in receipt of medical sanction.
At a cost of $5,000,000 a new medical school, hospital and children's hospital, occupying several city blocks fronting on Forest Park, have been completed since 1911.
The medical school, a department of Washington University, includes laboratory, anatomical, clinical and other buildings.
Towards the end of the 16th century the failure of the alchemists to achieve their cherished purpose, and the general increase in medical knowledge, caused attention to be given to the utilization of chemical preparations as medicines.
Having qualified as a medical man in 1721, he practised at Brunswick and afterwards at Wolfenbiittel.
The community is in the main composed of simple working people, who, apart from their peculiarity, have a good reputation; but their avoidance of professional medical attendance has led to severe criticism at inquests on children who have died for want of it.
He then settled for some years as a medical practitioner at Penzance; there geology engaged his particular attention, and he became secretary of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.
In 1787 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention which adopted the Federal constitution, and thereafter he retired from public life, and gave himself up wholly to medical practice.
In 1789 he exchanged his chemistry lectureship for that of the theory and practice of physic; and when the medical college, which he had helped to found, was absorbed by the university of Pennsylvania in 1791 he became professor of the institutes of medicine and of clinical practice, succeeding in 1796 to the chair of the theory and practice of medicine.
He is best known by the five volumes of Medical Inquiries and Observations, which he brought out 'at intervals from 1789 to 1798 (two later editions revised by the author).
In 1806 he became a medical practitioner in partnership with James Gregory, but, though successful in his profession, preferred literature and philosophy.
The success of the Vindiciae finally decided him to give up the medical for the legal profession.
A university, founded in 1825, three colleges, one of them dating from colonial times, a medical school, and a public library, founded in 1821, are distinguishing features of the city, which has always taken high rank in Peru for its learning and liberalism, as well as for its political restlessness.
Other non-combatant troops, such as military train, medical corps, &c., are undergoing reorganization.
In 1907-1908 Western Reserve University had 193 instructors and 914 students (277 in Adelbert College; 269 in College for Women; 20 in graduate department; and 102 in medical, 133 in law, 75 in dental and 51 in Library school); and the Case School of Applied Science 40 instructors and 440 students.
The appendix de Benedictionibus to the Rituale Romanum contains formulae, often of much simple beauty, for blessing all manner of persons and things, from the congregation as a whole and sick men and women, to railways, ships, blast-furnaces, lime-kilns, articles of food, medicine and medical bandages and all manner of domestic animals.
The university includes a fitting school at Georgetown, and a medical department at Dallas, Texas; in 1909 it had an enrolment of 1037 students.
At Abuzabel, near Cairo, he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction, as well as for the study of the French language; and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, instituted the study of anatomy by means of dissection.
Late in the same year, accordingly, he entered the medical school of Padua, where he remained until 1505, having taken meanwhile a doctor's degree in canon law at Ferrara on the 31st of May 1503.
He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522.
He had in fact started his university course as a medicinae cultor, and in his autobiography he half regrets that he did not choose the medical profession.
Soon after marriage his wife was attacked by a lingering illness, to which she succumbed, Lagrange devoting all his time, and a considerable store of medical knowledge, to her care.
Its healthy situation was famous in antiquity, and to this was ascribed its superiority in athletics; it was the seat also of a medical school which in the days of Herodotus was considered the first in Greece.
Higher, or superior, instruction is confined almost exclusively to professional schools - the medical schools of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, the law schools of Sao Paulo and Pernambuco, the polytechnic of Rio de Janeiro, and the school of mines of Ouro Preto.
The medical school stands in Teviot Row, adjoining George Square and the Meadows.
The medical school is in the Italian Renaissance style from the designs of Sir Rowand Anderson.
Closely associated with the medical school, and separated from it by the Middle Meadow Walk, is the Royal Infirmary, designed by David Bryce, R.S.A.
It was with this corps that Dr. Elsie Inglis and a detachment of the Scottish Women's Hospitals served as medical unit.
Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration, but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology.
The exploration of parts of the New World next brought to hand descriptions and specimens of many novel forms of animal life, and in the latter part of the 16th century and the Medical beginning of the 17th that careful study by " special- anatomists" of the structure a.nd life-history of particular groups of animals was commenced, which, directed micro- at first to common and familiar kinds, was gradually scopists.
This minuter study had two origins, one in the researches of the medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537-1619), Severinus (1580-1656), Harvey (1578-1657), and Tyson (1649-1708), the other in the careful work of the entomologists and first microscopists, such as Malpighi (1628-1694), Swammerdam (1637-1680), and Hook (1635-1702).
Harley Street, between Marylebone Road and Cavendish Square, is noted as the residence of medical practitioners.
From 1816 he published various papers in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.
There are law, medical and engineering schools in the country, but one rarely hears of them.
The names of Pasteur and Lister will descend to posterity as those of two of the greatest figures in the annals of medical science, and indeed of science in general, during the 19th century.
The medical art (ars medendi) divides itself into departments and subdepartments.
A state of war, actual or contingent, gives occasion to special developments of medical and surgical practice (military hygiene and military surgery).
The administration of the civil and criminal law involves frequent relations with medicine, and the professional subjects most likely to arise in that connexion, together with a summary of causes celebres, are formed into the department of Medical Jurisprudence.
In preserving the public health, the medical profession is again brought into direct relation with the state, through the public medical officers.
There is no sign in the Homeric poems of the subordination of medicine to religion which is seen in ancient Egypt and India, nor are priests charged, as they were in those countries, with medical functions - all circumstances which throw grave doubts on the commonly received opinion that medicine derived its origin in all countries from religious observances.
When a medical profession appears, it is, so far as we are able to trace it, as an importation from Greece.
His works have been much admired for the purity of the Greek style, and his accurate descriptions of disease; but, as he quotes no medical author, and is quoted by none before Alexander of Aphrodisias at the beginning of the 3rd century, it is clear that he belonged to no school and founded none, and thus his position in the chain of medical tradition is quite uncertain.
An abridgment of one of his writings, with the title of Aurelius, became the most popular of all Latin medical works.
As a writer he was worthy of a better period of medical literature.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
In Bagdad, under the rule of Harun el Rashid and his successors, a still more flourishing school arose, where numerous translations of Greek medical works were made.
The Islamite rulers in Spain were not long behind those of the East in encouraging learning and medical science, and developed culture to a still higher degree of perfection.
The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author.
As in the case of Galen, the formal and encyclopaedic character of Avicenna's works was the chief cause of his popularity and ascendancy, though in modern times these very qualities in a scientific or medical writer would rather cause him to become more speedily antiquated.
In the long list of Arabian medical writers none can here be mentioned except the great names of the Hispano-Moorish school, a school both philosophically and medically antagonistic to that of Avicenna.
Of these the earliest is Avenzoar or Abumeron, that is, Abu Merwan `Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (beginning of 12th century), a member of a family which gave several distinguished members to the medical profession.
His friend and pupil AvERROES of Cordova (q.v.), so well known for his philosophical writings, was also an author in medical subjects, and as such widely read in Latin.
His works exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in Hebrew translations; only some smaller treatises have been translated into Latin, so that no definite opinion can be formed as to their medical value.
The works of the Arabian medical writers who have now been mentioned form a very small fraction of the existing literature.
Three hundred medical writers in Arabic are enumerated by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld (1808-1899), and other historians have enlarged the list (Haser), but only three have been printed in the original; a certain number more are known through old Latin translations, and the great majority still exist in manuscript.
The Latin medical writers were necessarily unknown to the Arabs; and this was partly the cause that even in Europe Galenic medicine assumed such a preponderance, the methodic school and Celsus being forgotten or neglected.
In medical as in civil history there is no real break.
The chief homes of medical as of other learning in these disturbed times were the monasteries.
Though the science was certainly not advanced by their labours, it was saved from total oblivion, and many ancient medical works were preserved either in Latin or vernacular versions.
The study of Hippocrates, Galen, and other classics was recommended by Cassiodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there what could be called a medical school; nor had this foundation any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school of Salerno.
The origin of this, the most important source of medical knowledge in Europe in the early middle ages, is involved in obscurity.
It is known that Salerno, a Roman colony, in a situation noted in ancient times for its salubrity, was in the 6th century at least the seat of a bishopric, and at the end of the 7th century of a Benedictine monastery, and that some of the prelates and higher clergy were distinguished for learning, and even for medical acquirements.
Among the writers it may be sufficient to mention here Gariopontus; Copho, who wrote the Anatome porci, a well-known medieval book; Joannes Platearius, first of a family of physicians bearing the same name, whose Practica, or medical compendium, was afterwards several times printed; and Trotula, believed to be the wife of the last-named.
Two of them, on the urine and the pulse respectively, attained the position of medical classics.
About the middle of the 11th century the Arabian medical writers began to be known by Latin translations in the Western world.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
At the same time, through the rise of the universities, medical learning was much more widely diffused, and the first definite forward movement was seen in the school of Montpellier, where a medical faculty existed early in the 12th century, afterwards united with faculties of law and philosophy.
The medical school owed its foundation largely to Jewish teachers, themselves educated in the Moorish schools of Spain, and imbued with the intellectual independence of the Averroists.
In Italy, Bologna and Padua were earliest distinguished for medical studies - the former preserving more of the Galenical tradition, the latter being more progressive and Averroist.
The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival of learning, when the study of the medical classics in their original language worked another revolution.
The medical writers of this period, who chiefly drew from Arabian sources, have been called Arabists (though it is difficult to give any clear meaning to this term), and were afterwards known as the neoterics.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.
But for us the most interesting fact is the first appearance of Englishmen as authors of medical works having a European reputation, distinguished, according to the testimony of Haser, by a practical tendency characteristic - of the British race, and fostered in the school of Montpellier.
Works of this kind became still more abundant in the 14th and in the first half of the 15th century, till the wider distribution of the medical classics in the original put them out of fashion.
The medical writings of Arnald de Villanova (c. 1235-1313) (if the Breviarium practicae be rightly ascribed to him) rise above the rank of compilations.
Finally, in the 13th and especially the 14th century we find, under the name of consilia, the first medieval reports of medical cases which are preserved in such a form as to be intelligible.
The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Himself well trained in the learning and medical science of the day, he despised and trampled upon all traditional and authoritative teachings.
The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.
But the development of mathematical and physical science soon introduced a fundamental change in the habits of thought with respect to medical doctrine.
When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws.
But, without discussing the general philosophical position or historical importance of Bacon, it may safely be said that his direct influence can be little traced in medical writings of the first half of the r 7th century.
It is enough to say that on this fantastic basis Helmont constructed a medical system which had some practical merits, that his therapeutical methods were mild and in many respects happy, and that he did service by applying newer chemical methods to the preparation of drugs.
Towards the end of the 17th century appeared an English medical reformer who sided with none of these schools, but may be said in some respects to have surpassed and dispensed with them.
As his model in medical methods, Sydenham repeatedly and pointedly refers to Hippocrates, and he has not unfairly been called the English Hippocrates.
Still less was his mind warped by either of the two great systems, the classical and the chemical, which then divided the medical world.
He shared and defended many of Sydenham's principles, and in the few medical observations he has left shows himself to be even more thorough-going than the "English Hippocrates."
None of these men founded a school - a result due in part to their intellectual character, in part to the absence in England of medical schools equivalent in position and importance to the universities of the Continent.
An important academical position was, on the other hand, one of the reasons why a physician not very different in his way of thinking from the English physicians of the age of Queen Anne was able to take a far more predominant position in the medical world.
The hospital of Leiden, though with only twelve beds available for teaching, became the centre of medical influence in Europe.
Boerhaave attached great importance to the study of the medical classics, but rather treated them historically than quoted them as canonical authorities.
His medical theories rest upon a complete theory of the universe.
But never before was so large a collection of cases brought together, described with such accuracy, or illustrated with equal anatomical and medical knowledge.
Morbid anatomy now became a recognized branch of medical research, and the movement was started which has lasted till our own day.
The contribution of Morgagni to medical science must be regarded as in some respects the counterpart of Sydenham's.
Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) was the inventor of this most important perhaps of all methods of medical research.
It was published in Reports of Medical Cases 1827-1831..
In Edinburgh the admirable teaching of Cullen had raised the medical faculty to a height of prosperity of which his successor, James Gregory (1758-1821), was not unworthy.
We see now that the practice of the experimental method endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, through his influence, those who are associated with him in medical science, even if these be not themselves actually engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old faculties, as is seen as well in other sciences as in those on which medicine more directly depends.
If at first in the 18th century, and in the earlier 19th, the discoveries in this branch of medical knowledge had a certain isolation, due perhaps to the prepossessions of the school of Sydenham, they soon became the property of the physician, and were brought into co-ordination with the clinical phenomena of disease.
The establishment in England of the Register of qualified practitioners and of the General Medical Council (in 1858) did something, however imperfectly, to give unity to the profession, unhappily bisected by "the two colleges"; and did much to organize, to strengthen and to purify medical education and qualification.
If we consult the medical works even of the middle of the 19th century we shall find that, in the light of the present time, accurate knowledge in this sphere, whether clinical, pathological or therapeutical, could scarcely be said to exist.
An enormous accumulation of lunatics of all sorts and degrees seems to have paralysed public authorities, who, at vast expense in buildings, mass them more or less indiscriminately in barracks, and expect that their sundry and difficult disorders can be properly studied and treated by a medical superintendent charged with the whole domestic establishment, with a few young assistants under him.
Perhaps no advance in medicine has done so much as the study of tuberculosis to educate the public in the methods and value of research in medical subjects, for the results, and even the methods, of such labours have been brought home not only to patients and their friends, but also to the farmer, the dairyman, the butcher, the public carrier, and, indeed, to every home in the land.
As by the discovery of stethoscopy by Laennec a new field of medical science and art was opened up, so, more recently, inventions of other new methods of investigation in medicine have opened to us other fields of little less interest and importance.
Among the achievements of the medicine of the 19th century the growth of the medical press must not be forgotten.
He became an Augustinian canon, and founded his hospital, which is now, as St Bartholomew's Hospital, one of the principal medical institutions in the metropolis.
A medical officer of health for the whole county is appointed by the Council, which also pays half the salaries of local medical officers and sanitary inspectors.
Louse-infestation is known as phthiriasis in medical and veterinary terminology.
Another argument in support of this belief, upon which much reliance has been placed, is found in the descriptions of diseases, and the words common in Greek medical writers, contained in these two works.
He became a medical student at Guy's Hospital, and graduated M.B.
To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
Medical literature was indebted for its origin to the works of Galen and the medical school of Gondesapur.
In addition to other medical works he published anonymously Conjectures sur les memoires originaux dont it parait que Moyse s'est servi pour composer le livre de la Genese, (1753), in which he pointed out that two main sources can be traced in the book of Genesis; and two dissertations on the immateriality and immortality of the soul,.
Alsergrund, with the enormous general hospital, the military hospital and the municipal asylum for the insane, is the medical quarter.
Its university, established in 1365, is now attended by nearly 6000 students, and the medical faculty enjoys a world-wide reputation.
The result has been that in subsequent years mosquitoes have been collected, studied and described by naturalists and medical men in all parts of the globe.
In connexion with the university are medical and other schools, a priests' seminary, and a library of 300,000 volumes.
The New York College for the Training of Teachers became its Teachers' College of Columbia; a Faculty of Pure Science was added; the Medical School gave up its separate charter to become an integral part of the university; Barnard College became more closely allied with the university; relations were entered into between the university and the General, Union and Jewish theological seminaries of New York City and with Cooper Union, the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts and the American Museum of Natural History; and its faculty and student body became less local in character.
This blow probably decided his career; but he endured two years of misery and mental conflict before resolving to abandon his medical studies and become a monk.
He was a physician, and Ibn Abi Usaibia, in his treatise on Arabian doctors, mentions him as the author of a medical work.
Moliere's medical student accounts for it by a soporific principle contained in the opium.
In the forefront of the new movement are to be found men like Yoneharu Unkai and Shinkai Taketaro; the former chiselled a figure of Jenner for the Medical Association of Japan when they celebrated the centenary of the great physician, and the latter has carved life-size effigies of two Imperial princes who lost their lives in the war with China (1894 95).
At the close of the 7th century the emperor Mommu is said to have enacted a law that wealthy persons living near the highways must supply rice to travellers, and in 745 an empress (Koken) directed that a stock of medical necessaries must be kept at the postal stations.
He was intended for the medical profession, and studied at the universities of Berlin, Halle, Gottingen and Leiden.
Religious periodicals date from 1680, and the Journal ecclesiastique of the abbe de la Roque, to whom is also due the first medical journal (1683).
His advice was followed, and the differences between the medical men were made the occasion for a considerable display of national and political animosity.
It contains the government college, named after Mr Ravenshaw, a former commissioner; a high school, a training school, a survey school, a medical school and a law school.
Locke, who in his capacity of medical attendant to the Ashley household had already assisted in bringing the boy into the world, though not his instructor, was entrusted with the superintendence of his education.
He graduated in arts, and claims to have graduated in medicine (of this there is no record at Paris), published six lectures on " syrups " (the most popular of his works), lectured on geometry and " astrology " (from a medical point of view) and defended by counsel a suit brought against him (March 1538) by the medical faculty on the ground of his astrological lectures.
In September 1540 he entered himself for further study in the medical school at Montpellier, possibly gaining there a medical degree.
The main university is at Austin, and the medical department (established 1891) at Galveston.
There are also barracks for the Royal Army Medical Corps.
In medicine Franklin was considered important enough to be elected to the Royal Medical Society of Paris in 1777, and an honorary member of the Medical Society of London in 1787.
The same idea pervades old medical treatises; for a drug was not a chemical substance taking effect naturally on the human system, but something into which a supernatural virtue had been magically introduced, in order the more easily and efficaciously to be brought to bear upon the patient.
Law and medical schools are maintained in Boston and Harvard universities.
After working as a vine-dresser and then as a goldsmith he became a travelling doctor, and displayed great skill in disputations on medical subjects; but his controversial power soon found a wider field for its exercise in the great theological question of the time.
First there is a medical usage - empirical versus dogmatic medicine.
In late times the priests of Denderah claimed Khufu as a benefactor; he was reputed to have built temples to the gods near the Great Pyramids and Sphinx (where also a pyramid of his daughter Hentsen is spoken of), and there are incidental notices of him in the medical and religious literature.
On the 10th of June 1746 he left Holland and settled in Leipzig, where he hoped to get medical practice.
He began his medical career as apprentice to John Paisley, a Glasgow surgeon, and after completing his apprenticeship he became surgeon to a merchant vessel trading between London and the West Indies.
On his return to Scotland in 1732 he settled as a practitioner in the parish of Shotts, Lanarkshire, and in1734-1736studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he was one of the founders of the Royal Medical Society.
During his residence at Hamilton, besides the arduous duties of medical practice, he found time to devote to the study of the natural sciences, and especially of chemistry.
On coming to Glasgow he appears to have begun to lecture in connexion with the university, the medical school of which was as yet imperfectly organized.
Polemon, Aristotle and Adamantius may also be named as having dealt with the subject; as also have the medical writers of Greece and Rome - Hippocrates, Galen and Paulus Aegineta, and in later times the Arabian commentators on these authors.
In counties lacking adequate hospital accommodation a poor person requiring medical or surgical treatment may be sent to the nearest hospital approved by the state board of charities.
By a law enacted in 1909 the licensing of the sale of intoxicating liquors, other than for medical purposes by druggists and pharmacists, is left to the option of counties and cities.
Women's settlements probably are more general in the United States than in Great Britain; but in both countries they carry out a great variety of useful work, providing medical mission dispensaries, district nurses, workrooms for needle-women, hospitals for women and children, &c.
Clark, the queen's physician, and the result was that Lady Flora was subjected to the indignity of a medical examination, which,.
Varenius studied at the gymnasium of Hamburg (1640-42), and at Konigsberg (1643-45) and Leiden (1645-49) universities, where he devoted himself to mathematics and medicine, taking his medical degree at Leiden in 1649.
Organized nursing does not appear to have formed any part of medical treatment, except in so far as the deacons of the church attended on the poor, until the 4th century of the Christian era.
Nurses were provided by the male and female monastic orders, an arrangement which still continues in most Roman Catholic countries, though it is gradually being abandoned through the increasing demands of medical science, which have led the hospitals to establish training schools of their own.
Since 1880 the increasing demands of medical knowledge have well-nigh revolutionized the craft in the home, the hospital and the workhouse.
It embraces many duties - some of them menial and disagreeable - besides the purely medical and surgical functions.
He was educated at St Andrews and Oxford, where he graduated in natural science, with a view to following the medical profession, which he abandoned in favour of a scholastic career.
There are also the medical school, the law school, the civil service school, the military schools and the agricultural college, which are entered by students who have passed through the secondary grade for the purpose of receiving professional instruction.
This was especially the case at universities, where medical schools existed.
There are schools for higher education at Batavia, Surabaya and Semarang; at the first two of these towns are government schools for mechanical engineering, and at Batavia a crafts school and a medical school for natives.
The university of Modena, originally founded in 1683 by Francis II., is mainly a medical and legal school, but has also a faculty of physical and mathematical science.
In 1851 the government founded a medical school for Javanese, and in 1860 the "Gymnasium William III."
Nestorian philosophers and medical practitioners became the teachers of the great Arabian natural philosophers of the middle ages, and the latter obtained their knowledge of Greek learning from Syriac translations of the works of Greek thinkers.
He went to the Riviera under medical advice, and died at Cannes on the 3rd of February 1888.
Of the learned societies the more important are the medical (1840), the naturalists' (1869), the juridical (1876), the historical of Nestor the Chronicler (1872), the horticultural (1875), and the dramatic (1879), the archaeological commission (1843), and the society of church archaeology.
The institution embraces a college of liberal arts, a college of engineering, a college of law (united in 1897 with the law school of Cincinnati College, then the only surviving department of that college, which was founded as Lancaster Seminary in 1815 and was chartered as Cincinnati College in 1819), a college of medicine (from 1819 to 1896 the Medical College of Ohio; the college occupies the site of the old M`Micken homestead), a college for teachers, a graduate school, and a technical school (founded in 1886 and transferred to the university in 1901); while closely affiliated with it are the Clinical and Pathological School of Cincinnati and the Ohio College of Dentistry.
Proctor in 1877 directed attention to the composition of the slag resulting from the burning of esparto, which they found to be strikingly similar to that of average medical bottle glass, the latter yielding on analysis 66.3% of silica and 25.1% of alkalies and alkaline.
He came of an intellectual stock, his grandfather and father having both been physicians of eminence and professors of one or other of the branches of medical science; his mother too belonged to a family not undistinguished in intellectual power.
Vaccination is common except in the cities, - the women often performing the operation themselves when medical assistance cannot be got.
On the 9th of March 1871 a syndicate recommended that, in the Previous Examination, French and German (taken together) should be allowed in place of Greek; on the 27th of April this recommendation (which only affected candidates for honours or for medical degrees) was rejected by 51 votes to 48.
In 1860 he became professor of pathological anatomy in the medical faculty of Paris, and in 1862 began that famous connexion with the Salpetriere which lasted to the end of his life.
Maryland supports no state university, but Johns Hopkins University, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the country, receives $25,000 a year from the state; the medical department of the university of Maryland receives an annual appropriation of about $2500, and St John's College, the academic department of the university of Maryland, receives from the state $13,000 annually and gives for each county in the state one free scholarship and one scholarship covering all expenses.
In the medical papyrus (38) a weight of 2/3rds kat is used, which is thought to be Syrian; now 2/3 kat = 92 to 101 grains, or just this weight which we have found in Syria; and the weights of 2/3 and 1/3 kat are very rare in Egypt except at Defenneh (29), on the Syrian road, where they abound.
It comprises the university buildings proper, the medical school, the natural history museum, the Wilson Hall, a magnificent building in the Perpendicular style, and the three affiliated colleges, Trinity College (Anglican), Ormond College (Presbyterian) and Queen's College (Wesleyan).
He had already contributed articles and reviews to the Journal of Fichte and Niethammer, and had thrown himself with all his native impetuosity into the study of physical and medical science.
Auguste's death in 1800 (due partly to Schelling's rash confidence in his medical knowledge) drew Schelling and Caroline together, and Schlegel having removed to Berlin, a divorce was, apparently with his consent, arranged.
He took up medical studies by the advice of the anatomist Felix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794), and after many difficulties caused by lack of means finally in 1780 obtained his doctor's diploma.
Of late years considerable progress has taken place in our knowledge of these organisms, research upon them having been stimulated by the realization of their extreme importance in medical parasitology.
The schools form a fine modern pile (1856), and other buildings are the provost's house (1760), printing house (1760), museum (1857) and the medical school buildings, in three blocks, one of the best schools in the kingdom.
All except five (medical and law fellows) were bound to take Holy Orders until 1872.
He studied at Woodhouse Grove, at the University of London, and, after removing to America in 1832, at the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania in 1835-1836.
His son, Henry Draper (1837-1882), graduated at the University of New York in 1858, became professor of natural science there in 1860, and was professor of physiology (in the medical school) and dean of the faculty in 1866-1873.
The total number of conirnissioned officers, staff and line, on the active list, is 4209 (including 219 first lieutenants of the medical reserve corps on active duty).
The university was opened in 1871, when the faculty and students of Genesee College (1850) removed from Lima (New York) to Syracuse - a court-ruling made it impossible for the corporation to remove; in 1872 the Geneva medical college (1835) removed to Syracuse and became a college of the university.
He graduated from the medical department of the university of Pennsylvania in 1838, and a few years later set up in practice at Philadelphia and became a lecturer at the Philadelphia School of Anatomy.
For twenty-six years (1863-1889) he was connected with the medical faculty of the university of Pennsylvania, being elected professor of operative surgery in 1870 and professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the following year.
All the larger universities have schools of medicine in affiliation, and have the power of conferring medical degrees.
Since 1877 Canadian degrees have been recognized by the Medical Council of Great Britain.
Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1881 entered the Indian medical service.
In 1899 he retired from the Indian medical service, and devoted himself to research and teaching, joining the Liverpool school of tropical medicine as lecturer, and subsequently becoming professor of tropical medicine at Liverpool University.
He studied with earnest zeal the Greek philosophers; Plato in particular, and the writings of the Stoics, he had fully at command, and his treatise De Anima shows that he himself was able to investigate and discuss philosophical problems. From the philosophers he had been led to the medical writers, whose treatises plainly had a place in his working library.
Two years later he was chosen extraordinary professor of chemistry in the medical faculty, in 1853 he received the ordinary professorship, and in 1865 he became also professor of hygiene.
He wrote also a medical work, The Urinal of Physic (1548), frequently reprinted.
He was intended for a medical career and graduated M.D.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
The name, as has been pointed out above, is derived from the Persian mumiai, meaning pitch or asphalt, which substance occurs frequently in the prescriptions of the Greek and Roman medical writers.
In 1889, after unsuccessfully contesting Castres, he returned to his professional duties at Toulouse, where he took an active interest in municipal affairs, and helped to found the medical faculty of the university.
The old university buildings erected in 1713 by the Genoese architect Ricca proved too small; and new buildings, fitted more especially for the medical and scientific departments, have been erected..
The Medical School may be considered the only distinctively professional school in the city.
He graduated from Oberlin College in 1850 and from the Albany Medical College in 1853, where he attracted the notice of Professor James Hall, state geologist of New York, through whose influence he was induced to join in an exploration of Nebraska.
The town has long been an important military centre with a large permanent camp. There are a free grammar school (founded 1 539), a technical and university extension college, a literary institute and medical and other societies.
There are five faculties in the university - a legal, a medical, and a philosophic, and one of Roman Catholic and another Protestant theology.
It supports schools and medical missions, homes and orphanages.
In Scotland, medical and other scientific reports are lodged in process before the trial, and the witness reads them as part of his evidence and is liable to be examined or cross-examined on their contents.
Thorold, of the India Medical Service, and a native sub-surveyor, Captain Hamilton Bower, I.S.C., set out from Leh on the 1st of June 1891, and crossed the Lanak la and the Ladak frontier on the 3rd of July.
A quack is one who pretends to knowledge of which he is ignorant, a charlatan, particularly a medical impostor.
In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian writers.
There are a British medical mission, a German Protestant mission with church and schools, and, near Abraham's Oak, a Russian mission.
Along with the medical science of the period the Arabians contributed to the literature of physiognomy; `Ali b.
The medical work won the favour of the government, and so wisely did the missionaries act, that during all the turbulent changes since 1884 they escaped entanglement in the political disturbances and yet held the confidence of the people.
Medical work made an impression on the people and won the favour of the government, which has always been cordial and has employed missionaries as court-tutors.
The Egypt, Palestine and Persia missions of the latter society have been largely reinforced and extended since 1884, medical work and women's work being especially prominent.
He entered the navy in 1862, serving on the East African and Cochin-China stations in the medical department until the Franco-German War, when he resigned and volunteered for the army medical service.
Urban sanctioned the order of Jesuates and founded the medical school at Montpellier.
Large Wimshurst multiple plate influence machines are often used instead of induction coils for exciting Rntgen ray tubes in medical work.
Some medical lectures he did attend, but as long as Frau Neuber's company kept together the theatre had an irresistible fascination for him.
He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy.
In 1836 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in the medical faculty at GÃ¶ttingen, holding also the office of inspector-general of pharmacies in the kingdom of Hanover.
There are five faculties - theological, juridical, medical, philosophical and mathematical.
His deposition on the 30th of May 1876 was hailed with joy throughout Turkey; a fortnight later he was found dead in the palace where he was confined, and trustworthy medical evidence attributed his death to suicide.
He attached no value to mere scholarship; scholastic disputations he utterly ignored and despised - and especially the discussions on medical topics, which turned more upon theories and definitions than upon actual practice.
He is compelled, therefore, to rest his medical practice upon general theories of the present state of things; his medical system - if there is such a thing - is an adaptation of his cosmogony.
Medical experts state that the beverage infused from the leaves has a stimulating effect, and is also slightly diuretic. The total amount exported from Paraguay in 1908 was 4133 tons.
Two medical treatises, one on prescriptions in general, the other on the treatment of eye-disease, are said, by Chinese writers, to be by him.
The public school system of Manila includes, besides the common schools and Manila high school, the American school, the Philippine normal school (1901), the Philippine school of arts and trades (1901), the Philippine medical school (1907) and the Philippine school of commerce (1908).
Other educa tional institutions are the (Dominican) San Jose medical and pharmaceutical college, San Juan de Letran (Dominican), which is a primary and secondary school, the ateneo municipal, a corresponding secondary and primary school under the charge of the Jesuits, and the college of St Isabel, a girls' school.
Two years later he first tried the effect of electro-puncture of the muscles on a patient under his care, and from this time on devoted himself more and more to the medical applications of electricity, thereby laying the foundation of the modern science of electro-therapeutics.
A limited section of medical opinion has recommended China tea for reasons of health, and undoubtedly the inferior strength it possesses reduces the risk arising from improper use, but it also reduces the stimulating and comforting effects the ordinary tea-drinker hopes to experience.
In 1716 Sloane was created a baronet, being the first medical practitioner to receive an hereditary title, and in 1719 he became president of the College of Physicians, holding the office sixteen years.
The existing buildings, subsequently enlarged, were opened in 1871, are divided into a series of blocks, and include a medical school.
The appointment of permanent doctors (Kassenarzle) at a fixed salary has given rise to much difference between the medical profession and this local sick fund; and the insistence on freedom of choice in doctors, which has been made by the members and threatens to militate against the interest of the profession, has been met on the part of the medical body by the appointment of a commission to investigate cases of undue influence in the selection.
As for war, the total fighting strength of the German nation (including the navy) has been placed at as high a figure as 11000,000, Of these 7,000,000 have received little or no training, owing to medical unfitness, residence abroad, failure to appear, surplus of annual contingents, &c., as already explained, and not more than 3,000,000 of these would be available in war.
It is calculated that the field army would consist, in the third week of a great war, of 633 battalions, 410 squadrons and 574 batteries, with technical, departmental and medical troops (say 630,000 bayonets, 60,000 sabres and 3444 guns, or 750,000 men), and that these could be reinforced in three or four weeks by 350 fresh battalions.
The active naval personnel was, in 1906, 2631 officers (including engineers, marines, medical, &c.) and 51,138 under-officers and men, total 53,769.
The charitable institutions and professional schools included in 1908 about thirty hospitals, several children's homes and homes for the aged, an industrial home, the Kansas City school of law, the University medical college, and the Scarritt training school.
The medical schools, especially that of Alexandria, really enlarged knowledge of the animal frame.
South of the bridge are the Ismailia palace (a khedivial residence), the British consulate general, the palace of the khedive's mother, the medical school and the government hospital.
When the crews of the whale-boats were conveying stores, the forwarding officers tried to keep brandy and such like medical comforts from the European crews, coffee and tea from Canadian voyageurs and sugar from Kroo boys.
Twelve medical and two veterinary officers are also employed departmentally, as well as officers acting as directors of supply, &c. Since the assumption of command by the third sirdar, Colonel (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, the ordnance, supply and engineer services have been separately administered, and a financial secretary is charged with the duty of preparing the budget, making contracts, &c. The total annual expenditure is 500,000.
A nunTher of papyri have been discovered containing medical prescriptions.
Little has yet been accomplished in identifying the diseases and the substances named in the medical papyri.
The whole country is divided into districts, in each of which a medical man is appointed with a salary, who is under the obligation to attend to poor sick and assist the authorities in medical matters, inquests, &c. The relief of the poor is well organized, mostly on the system of out-door relief.
Johan Clemens Tode (1736-1806) was eminent in many branches of science, but especially as a medical writer.
Besides many mosques and churches there are three monasteries (Syrian, Franciscan and Capuchin), and an important American Mission station, with church, schools and a medical officer.
Since this website contains information dating from 1911, it should NOT be used for any health, medical, science or any other purposes other than providing historical information and context.
Besides pressing loans upon both Thomas and John Carlyle, he offered to settle an annuity of £loo upon Thomas, and finally enabled John to support himself by recommending him to a medical position.'
St Mungo's College, Glasgow, incorporated in 1889 under a Board of Trade licence, has medicinal and law faculties, and Anderson's College Medical School, Glasgow, was instituted in 1887.
These are on the same basis as the extra-mural medical schools in Edinburgh, their medical curricula qualifying for licence only and not for Scottish university degrees.
The act of 1894, as we have seen, not only established the Local Government Board, consisting of the secretary for Scotland, the solicitor-general, the under-secretary and three appointed members - a vice-president, a lawyer and a medical officer of public health - but also replaced the parochial boards by parish councils, empowered to deal among other things with poor relief, lunacy, vaccination, libraries, baths, recreation grounds, disused churchyards, rights of way, parochial endowments, and the formation of special lighting and scavenging districts.