The upper consists of princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church, the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
In its modern usage it is practically confined to the money endowment given to the younger children of reigning or mediatized houses in Germany and Austria, which reverts to the state or to the head of the family on the extinction of the line of the original grantee.
In Germany, for instance, there are several categories of counts: (1) the mediatized princely counts (gefiirstete Grafen), who are reckoned the equals in blood of the European sovereign houses, an equality symbolized by the "closed crown" surmounting their armorial bearings.
BEUTHEN, or NIEDERBEUTHEN, a town of Germany, in the north of Prussian Silesia, on the Oder, the capital of the mediatized principality of Carolath-Beuthen.
Mediatus, mediate, middle), the process by which at the beginning of the 19th century, a number of German princes, hitherto sovereign as holding immediately of the emperor, were deprived of their sovereignty and mediatized by being placed under that of other sovereigns.
This was first done on a large scale in 1803, when by a recess of the imperial diet many of the smaller fiefs were mediatized, in order to compensate those German princes who had been forced to cede their territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France.
On the other hand, at Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) the powers, in response to the representations of the aggrieved parties, admonished the German sovereigns to respect the rights of the mediatized princes subject to them.
Of these rights, which included the hereditary right to a seat in the estates, the most valued is that of Ebenbiirtigkeit (equality of birth),which, for purposes of matrimonial alliance, ranks the mediatized princes with the royal houses of Europe.
The mediatized families are included in the Almanach de Gotha.
In 1817 it was given, with the duchy of Leuchtenberg, as a mediatized domain under the Bavarian crown, by the king of Bavaria to his son-in-law Eugene de Beauharnais, ex-viceroy of Italy, henceforth styled duke of Leuchtenberg.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
Beuthen is an old town, and was formerly the capital of the Bohemian duchy of Beuthen, which in 1620 was ultimately granted, as a free lordship of the Empire, to Lazarus, Baron Henckel von Donnersmarck, by the emperor Ferdinand II., and parts of which, now mediatized, are held by two branches of the counts Henckel von Donnersmarck.
The first chamber consists of the adult princes of the blood, two representatives of the Lutheran and one of the Roman Catholic Church, a representative of Leipzig university, the proprietor (or a deputy) of the Herrschaft of Wildenfels, a proprietor of the mediatized domains, two of Standesherrschaften, one of those of four estates in fee, the superintendent at Leipzig, a deputy of the collegiate institution at Wurzen, 12 deputies elected by owners of nobiliar estates, ten landed proprietors and five other members nominated by the king and the burgomasters of eight towns.
In 1806, during the long reign of the landgrave Frederick V., which extended from 1751 to 1820, Hesse-Homburg was mediatized, and incorporated with Hesse-Darmstadt; but in 1815 by the congress of Vienna the latter state was compelled to recognize the independence of Hesse-Homburg, which was increased by the addition of Meisenheim.
The elder branch of the mediatized house of Rechteren-Limpourg is still established at Almelo; the younger, German branch, at Markt Einersheim in Bavaria.
OELS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, formerly the capital of a mediatized principality of its own name.
France now obtained the whole of the left bank of the Rhine, the dispossessed princes being compensated by grants of secularized church lands and of mediatized imperial cities (1803).
In spite of the clamour of the mediatized princes for the restoration of their liberties, no attempt was made to reverse the essential changes in the territorial disposition of Germany made during the revolutionary epoch.
In 5855 he received back his possessions, which were mediatized by the congress of Vienna, Recklinghausen falling to Prussia and Meppen to Hanover.
NEUWIED, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, the capital of the mediatized countship of Wied, is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, 8 m.
Besides the sovereign dukes in Germany there are certain "mediatized" ducal houses, e.g.
Ten of them are under direct treaty with the government of India; others are held under sanads and deeds, of fealty and obedience; while a third class, known as the mediatized states, are held under agreements mediated by the British government between them and their superior chiefs.
The Indian states are sometimes described as " Feudatory States," sometimes " Independent and Protected States " (Twiss), sometimes " Mediatized States " (Chesney), sometimes " Half-Sovereign," sometimes as in a position of " subordinate alliance " (Lord Salisbury, Parliamentary Papers, 1897 [c. 87001.
Besides these mediatized princes, who transmit their titles and their privilege of " royal " blood to all their legitimate descendants, there are also in Austria and Germany " princes," created by the various German sovereigns, and some dating from the period of the old empire, who take a lower rank, as not being " princes of the Holy Roman Empire " nor entitled to any royal privileges.
Bavaria), for the cadets of mediatized ducal and princely families.