His voice sounded mechanical to his own ears.
The advances were not merely mechanical but chemical as well.
Even then it looked more like a mechanical toy than a living creature.
As it is with mechanical improvements, so is it to a still greater degree with changes in the function of timbre in art.
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy); and Nathan (a mechanical engineer of considerable repute).
Mayer, a physician at Heilbronn, published an attempt to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the heat produced when air is compressed.
The audience included the Dawkinses, still in residence after an airplane mechanical problem delayed them yet another day.
Though we can convert the whole of the energy possessed by any mechanical system into heat, it is not in our power to perform the inverse operation, and to utilize the whole of the heat in doing mechanical work.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.
Such is the reflex and mechanical movement independent of the mind.
"I am well, ikir," came the mechanical reply.
Beyond a certain limit no mechanical disruption of the body could hasten the process of decomposition.
"Damian," came the mechanical voice.
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
Much attention has been paid to the improvement of the mechanical details of the lifting and other motions of cranes, and in important installations the gearing is now usually made of cast steel.
A fine collection of mechanical models is connected with the polytechnic school.
His touch was mechanical and instructional, his attention elsewhere.
Assuming that the whole of the energy was converted into heat, when the air was subjected to a pressure of 21.5 atmospheres Joule obtained for the mechanical equivalent of heat about 824.8 foot-pounds, and when a pressure of only 10 .
Often, listening to the pilgrims' tales, she was so stimulated by their simple speech, mechanical to them but to her so full of deep meaning, that several times she was on the point of abandoning everything and running away from home.
The institute comprises an academic department (in which all students are enrolled) with a seven years' course, the Phelps Hall bible training school (1892), with a three years' course, and departments of mechanical industries, industries for girls, and agriculture.
She was already perfectly familiar with words and the construction of sentences, and had only mechanical difficulties to overcome.
The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.
For a long time the final result deduced by Joule by these varied and careful investigations was accepted as the standard value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
E14/YyaCa; Ev, in, €pyov, work), in physical science, a term which may be defined as accumulated mechanical work, which, however, may be only partially available for use.
The word is broad in its meaning and I use it in its broadest sense, as a mechanical device built to independently perform a task.
Joule inferred from them that the mechanical equivalent of heat is probably about 772 foot-pounds, or, employing the centigrade scale, about 1390 foot-pounds.
It sounds mechanical, sterile, and just a little bit un-American.
I gave her my braille slate to play with, thinking that the mechanical pricking of holes in the paper would amuse her and rest her mind.
Cranes driven by shafting, or by mechanical power, have been largely superseded by electric cranes, principally on account of the much greater economy of transmission.
when actually lifting at full speed the mechanical work of lifting represents about 72%° of the electric energy put into the lifting motor.
Although the action of zymase may be regarded as mechanical, the enzyme cannot be produced by any other than living protoplasm.
One of the first who took in hand the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat was Marc. Seguin, a nephew of J.
In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.
The quantity of energy which, if entirely converted into heat, is capable of raising the temperature of the unit mass of water from C. to 1° C. is called the mechanical equivalent of heat.
It seemed all so mechanical and difficult, my heart ached for the poor little children.
The word potential does not imply that this energy is not real; it exists in potentiality only in the sense that it is stored away in some latent manner; but it can be drawn upon without limit for mechanical work.
Why is it only described as a mechanical device divorced from any purpose?
He is said to have fixed on a large and fully laden ship and to have used a mechanical device by which Hiero was enabled to move it by himself: but accounts differ as to the particular mechanical powers employed.
61, p. 444), and the instrument contains many elegant mechanical and optical details due to Horace Darwin and Messrs Zeiss respectively.
From the brain these spirits are conveyed through the body by means of the nerves, regarded by Descartes as tubular vessels, resembling the pipes conveying the water of a spring to act upon the mechanical appliances in an artificial fountain.
Borelli (1608-1679) as its most notable name, entered in a way on the mechanical study of anatomy suggested by Descartes, but was probably much more dependent upon the positive researches of Galileo.
In 1839 Seguin endeavoured to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the loss of heat suffered by steam in expanding, assuming that the whole of the heat so lost was consumed in doing external work against the pressure to which the steam was exposed.
The conception of work and of energy was originally derived from observation of purely mechanical phenomena, that is to say, phenomena in which the relative positions and motions of visible portions of matter were all that were taken into consideration.
The doctrine of the circulation of the blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably did much to popularize the discovery.
This leads up to the fundamental distinction, introduced by Lord Kelvin, between "available energy," which we can turn to mechanical effect, and "diffuse energy," which is useless for that purpose.
Diodorus says that the rock at the back of the palace containing the royal sepulchres is so steep that the bodies could be raised to their last resting-place only by mechanical appliances.
The ratio of the portion of the energy of a system which can under given conditions be converted into mechanical work to the whole amount of energy operated upon may be called the "availability" of the energy.
And as there is no branch of art in which mechanical improvements, and the consequent change in the nature of technical difficulties, bear so directly upon the possibilities and methods of external effect, it follows that an exclusive preponderance of this view is not without serious disadvantage from the standpoint of general musical culture.
His faith made him believe that his adversaries were in the wrong; but how great must have been this faith, which permitted him to undertake the work at a time when mechanical appliances for the execution of such an undertaking did not exist, and when for the utilization of the proposed canal there was as yet no steam mercantile marine !
It is one of the grandest hypotheses which ever have been formed to account by mechanical processes for the movements of the universe.
Descartes began with the certainty that we are thinking beings; that region remains untouched; but up to its very borders the mechanical explanation of nature reigns unchecked.
Him succeeded, not only in showing that such a difference exists, but in measuring it, and hence determining a tolerably approximate value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
He also determined a roughly approximate value for the mechanical equivalent of heat from the results of these experiments.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
(The mechanical improvements by which horns and trumpets acquired a complete scale have revolutionized the nature of those instruments; and Wagner's orchestration, more than that of any other composer, has profited by this.
Michael's bar has live bands, beer pong, karaoke, dodge ball and a mechanical bull.
He made her sound so cold and calculating - so mechanical.
But what is mechanical necessity, if we admit that in some sense it exists?
Yet Descartes, in his Principia Philosophiae, laid the foundation of the modern mechanical conception of nature and of physical evolution.
Aristotle's teleological conception of organic evolution often approaches modern mechanical conceptions.
- The Epicureans differed from the Stoics by adopting a purely mechanical view of the worldprocess.
Our world is but one of an infinite number of others, and all the harmonies and adaptations of the universe are regarded as a special case of the infinite possibilities of mechanical events.
He is indeed careful to keep right with the orthodox doctrine of creation by saying that he does not believe the world actually arose in this mechanical way out of the three kinds of elements which he here supposes, but that he simply puts out his hypothesis as a mode of conceiving how it might have arisen.
Lodge arranged a mechanical tapper for the purpose which continually administered the small blow to the tube sufficient to keep the filings in a sensitive condition.
These mechanical qualities correspond to inductance and capacity in electric circuits.
Another and somewhat similar example is furnished by what has been variously designated as the " string," toy," " lovers," and " mechanical " telephone.
When the sounding board was spoken to or subjected to sound-waves, the mechanical resistance of the loose electrode, due to its weight, or the spring, or both, served to vary the pressure at the contact, and this gave to the current a form corresponding to the sound-waves, and it was therefore capable of being used as a speaking-telephone transmitter.'
As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.
The chief development has taken place in mechanical industries, though it has also been marked in metallurgy.
In the mining and woollen industries they have fallen, but have increased in mechanical, chemical, silk and cotton industries.
Tramways with mechanical traction have developed rapidly.
Gian Galeazzos duchy was a masterpiece of mechanical contrivance, the creation of a scheming intellect and lawless will.
We may call it mechanical necessity.
But you can never, at any one point, say, from the scientific or mechanical or materialistic standpoint, this " had to be."
Materialism supposes that this mechanical order is the real world and the only real world - mechanical monism.'
The valid or scientific but metaphysically untrustworthy knowledge, to which Kant shut us up, was knowledge of a mechanical universe.
His reply to Hume was this - Mechanical causation is as real as the unity of consciousness.
In this interpretation of the universe, the difference between mechanical or relative necessity and absolute or ideal necessity is slurred, or dogmatically affirmed to be non-existent.
And, as the sympathizers with Hegel try to force mechanical necessity into the garb of absolute or ideal necessity, so they seek to show that moral necessity is only an inferior form of absolute or ideal or, we might say, mathematical necessity.
Knowledge grows, not by mechanical addition, but by organic transformation.
He holds - on grounds of fact and science - to the mechanical orderliness of nature, but claims that the Weltanschauung thus suggested may be reinterpreted in view of those undying human aspirations which MacTaggart dismisses to instant execution (unless they can dress themselves in syllogism).
The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
In the theory of Atomism taught by Leucippus and Democritus we have the basis of the modern mechanical conceptions of cosmic evolution.
Turning now to Leibnitz's conception of the world as a process, we see first that he supplies, in his notion of the underlying reality as force which is represented as spiritual (quelque chose d'analogique au sentiment et a Tappan), both a mechanical and a teleological explanation of its order.
Kant, like Leibnitz, seeks to reconcile the mechanical and teleological views of nature, only he assigns to these different spheres.
So far as the evolution of the solar system is concerned, Kant held these mechanical causes as adequate.
in his cosmology Kant thus relies on mechanical conceptions, in his treatment of organic life his mind is, on the contrary, dominated by teleological ideas.
Thus Kant, though he appropriated and gave new form to the idea of human progress, conceived of this as wholly distinct from a natural (mechanical) process.
It can only be understood by subordinating the mechanical conception to the vital, by conceiving the world as one organism animated by a spiritual principle or intelligence (Weltseele).
Yet, as Strauss and others have shown, Kant's mind betrayed a decided leaning at times to a more mechanical conception of organic forms as related by descent.
There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.
Hegel gives a place in his metaphysical system to the mechanical and the teleological views; yet in his treatment of the world as an evolution the idea of end or purpose is the predominant one.
In truth, Schopenhauer's conception of the world as the activity of a blind force is at bottom a materialistic and mechanical rather than a spiritualistic and teleological theory.
In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.
In the larger veins of the leaf especially in the midrib, in the petiole, and in the young stem, a1 extremely frequent type of mechanical tissue is collenchyma.
In a few cases some of the tracheids have very thick walls and reduced cavities, functioning as mechanical rather than as waterconducting elements.
observer that such perceptions exist, and that they are followed by certain purposeful changes in the plant, sometimes mechanical, sometimes chemical, the object being evidently to secure some advantage for the plant, to ward off some danger, or to extricate it from some difficulty.
If too closely packed, the soil particles present mechanical obstacles to growth; if too retentive of moisture, the root-hairs suffer, as already hinted; if too open or over-drained, the plant succumbs to drought.
Organs which respond to the mechanical stimulus of contact are found to possess special contrivances in certain of their cells(I) sensitive spots, consisting of places here and there on the epidermal cells where the wall is thin and in close contact with protoplasmic projections.
The building and handling of vessels also, and the utilization of such uncontrollable powers of nature as wind and tide, helped forward mechanical invention.
The Ohio State University (non-sectarian and co-educational), opened as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1873, and reorganized under its present name in 1878, is 3 m.
The filtering works include 6 lime saturators, 2 mixing or softening tanks, 6 settling basins, 10 mechanical filters and 2 clear-water reservoirs.
It needs hardly to be pointed out why such a purely mechanical scheme was doomed to Jiletapatag.
Its author, with a considerable mathematical and mechanical bias, reckoned entirely with the quantity, not with the quality of his units, and relied almost implicitly upon his formulae.
The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
In 1861 appeared Ober die Aufgabe der Naturphilosophie and ihr Verhdltnis zur Naturwissenschaft, which was, he declared, directed against the purely mechanical conception of the universe, and affirmed the necessity of a creative Power.
Judd that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses.
Gower in 1772, practically demonstrated the registration of a vessel's speed by mechanical means.
When he visited Rome with Gunibald, king of the Burgundians, he took him to Boetius, who showed them, amongst other mechanical contrivances, a sun-dial and a water-clock.
If Peter really thought of taking the administration into his own hands, he very soon abandoned the idea and returned to the irregular suburban life he had led during his half- Peter the sister's regency - associating with foreigners who could Great, teach him the mechanical arts of the West, drilling 1689- troops, building and sailing boats, forming projects 1725.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
In soft material the excavation may be performed by mechanical excavators or " steam navvies," while in hard it may be necessary to resort to blasting.
In whatever form energy is produced and distributed to the train it ultimately appears as mechanical energy applied to turn one or more axles against the resistance to their rotation imposed by the weight on the wheels and the motion of the train.
The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.
The steam produced in consequence of this heat transference from the furnace gas to the water carries heat to the cylinder, where 7 to II% is transformed into mechanical energy, the remainder passing away up the chimney with the exhaust steam.
With this assumption, 0.06 is the fraction of the heat energy of the coal which is utilized in the engine cylinders as mechanical work; that is to say, of the 15,000 B.Th.U.
per lb; then the mechanical energy available in footpounds per hour is approximately 0-06 X 778 X Ec, and this expressed in horse-power units gives I.H.P. - o 06X778XEc _648.1,980,000.
The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.
Hence assuming the mechanical efficiency of the engine to be and substituting !
The distribution of steam to both cylinders is effected by one piston-valve operated by a link motion, so that there is considerable mechanical simplicity in the arrangement.
It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
The Master Car Builders' Association, a great body of mechanical officers organized especially to being about improvement and uniformity in details of construction and operation, expressed its sense of the importance of " self-coupling " so far back as 1874, but no device of the kind that could be considered useful had then been invented.
In 1887 a committee reported that the coupler question was the " knottiest mechanical problem that had ever been presented to the railroad," and over 4000 attempted solutions were on record in the United States Patent Office.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
For the prophet's function became in an increasing degree a function of mind, and not merely of traditional routine or mechanical technique, like that of the diviner with his arrows or his lots which he cast in the presence of the ephod or plated Yahweh image.
Amongst the earliest mechanical contrivances of Fraunhofer was a machine for polishing mathematically uniform spherical surfaces.
Forbes communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a short paper of his on a mechanical method of tracing Cartesian ovals.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
(3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
The extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was credited.
The two agricultural and mechanical colleges were founded by the sale of public lands given by Congress under the Morrill Act of 1862.
Mysticism instinctively recedes from formulas that have become stereotyped and mechanical.
Pierre Poiret (1646-1719) exhibits a violent reaction against the mechanical philosophy of Descartes, and especially against its consequences in Spinoza.
Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.
In order to 'ascertain what modes of action are most conducive to the end in view, and what motives are best fitted to produce them, Bentham was led to construct marvellously exhaustive, though somewhat mechanical, tables of motives.
The scientific and mechanical improvements of the first half of the century were widely adopted, while the prices of the protectionist period showed little decline.
With a variety of crops, again, the mechanical operations of the farm, involving horse and hand labour, are better distributed over the year, and are therefore more economically performed.
These trials taking place, with few intermissions, year after year serve to direct the public mind to the development, which is continually in progress, of the mechanical aids to agriculture.
"That which is" is a whole, not an aggregate; an organic complex of parts, not a mechanical mass; a "whole" too not material but spiritual, a "world of thought-relations."
In 1664 Sir John Cutler instituted for his benefit a mechanical lectureship of £50 a year, and in the following year he was nominated professor of geometry in Gresham College, where he subsequently resided.
He was the first to state clearly that the motions of the heavenly bodies must be regarded as a mechanical problem, and he approached in a remarkable manner the discovery of universal gravitation.
Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878.
Bacon's fame in popular estimation has always rested on his mechanical discoveries.
The people, though remarkable for their intelligence whilst Europe was in a state of barbarism, made no approximation to the mechanical operations of modern times, nor was the cultivation of cotton either improved or considerably extended.
This vital, as opposed to a mechanical, constitution of nature, together with the conceptions of nature as not complete in itself - as if it were dissevered from the divine energy - shows how a miracle may take place without any disturbance elsewhere of the constancy of nature, all whose forces are affected sympathetically, with the consequence that its orderly movement goes on unhindered " (Mikrokosmos, iii.
This is the open place on which a power that commands in the name of this meaning can exert its influence; and if under this command the inner condition of the elements, the magnitudes of their relation and their opposition to each other, become altered, the necessity of the mechanical cause of the world must unfold this new state into a miraculous appearance, not through suspension but through strict maintenance of its general laws " (op. cit.
- Instruments of the third class depend for their action on the fact discovered by Ampere, that mechanical forces exist between conductors carrying electric currents when those conductors occupy certain relative positions.
Antliff, Thomas Bateman and Henry Hodge) finds Primitive Methodism as a connexion of federated districts, a unity which may be described as mechanical rather than organic. The districts between 1853 and 1873 were ten in number, Tunstall, Nottingham, Hull, Sunderland, Norwich, Manchester, Brinkworth, Leeds, Bristol and London.
In large pans a mechanical stirring apparatus is provided, which in some cases, as in Morfit's steam " twirl," is formed of the steam-heating tubes geared to rotate.
Treatment of Settled Soap. - The upper layer having been removed, the desired soap is ladled out or ran off to a crutcher, which is an iron pan provided with hand or mechanical stirring appliances.
The silicate in the form of a concentrated solution is crutched or stirred into the soap in a mechanical mixing machine after the completion of the saponification, and it appears to enter into a distinct chemical combination with the soap. While silicate soaps bear heavy watering, the soluble silicate itself is a powerful detergent, and it possesses certain advantages when used with hard waters.
2 The theory of Berthollet was essentially mechanical, and he attempted to prove that the course of a reaction depended not on affinities alone but also on the masses of the reacting components.
(1) particles derived by limiting mechanical subdivision, the modern molecule, and (2) particles derived from the first class by chemical subdivision, i.e.
He also postulated, with Regnault, the existence of " molecular or mechanical types " containing substances which, although having the same number of equivalents, are essentially different in characters.
In 1766 he was apprenticed to a storekeeper at Salem, in New England, and while in that employment occupied himself in chemical and mechanical experiments, as well as in engraving, in which he attained to some proficiency.
His best-known work is De motu animalium (Rome, 1680-1681), in which he sought to explain the movements of the animal body on mechanical principles; he thus ranks as the founder of the iatrophysical school.
They were employed as animated roasting jacks, turning round and round the wire cage in which they were confined, but with the employment of mechanical jacks their use ceased and the race appears to be extinct.
Dolezalek, however, has attributed the difference to mechanical hindrances, which prevent the equalization of acid concentration in the neighbourhood of the electrodes, rather than to any essentially irreversible chemical action.
The effect of chemical agents in producing coagulation are in consonance with what is known of other instances of polymeric or condensation changes, whilst the fact that the collection of globules separated by creaming after thorough washing, and therefore removal of all proteid, is susceptible of solidification into caoutchouc by a merely mechanical act such as churning, strongly supports the view that the character of the change is distinct from that of any alteration which may occur in the proteid constituents of the latex.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
The blocks are cut into thin sheets by means of a sharp knife, which is caused to move to and fro about two thousand times per minute, the knife being kept moistened with water, and the block fed up to it by mechanical means.
Effects of Mechanical Stress on Magnetization.
On the other hand, the magnetic properties of a substance are affected by such causes as mechanical stress and changes of temperature.
The small magnet may be a sphere rigidly magnetized in the direction of Ho; if this is replaced by an isotropic sphere inductively magnetized by the field, then, for a displacement so small that the magnetization of the sphere may be regarded as unchanged, we shall have dW = - vIdHo = v I+-, whence W = - 2 I + H2 ° (37) The mechanical force acting on the sphere in the direction of displacement x is 1 Hopkinson specified the retentiveness by the numerical value of the " residual induction " (=47rI).
After pointing out that, since the magnetization of the metal is the quantity really concerned, W is more appropriately expressed in terms of I, the magnetic moment per unit of volume, than of B, he suggests an experiment to determine whether the mechanical work required to effect the complete magnetic reversal i Phil.
Effects Of Mechanical Stress Upon Magnetization The effects of traction, compression and torsion in relation to magnetism have formed the subject of much patient investigation, especially at the hands of J.
Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
To this mechanical phenomenon there is a magnetic reciprocal.
Abrupt alterations, take place in its density, specific heat, thermo-electric quality, electrical conductivity, temperature-coefficient of electrical resistance, and in some at least of its mechanical properties.
Hall, the positive sign indicating that the electromotive force is in the same direction as the mechanical force acting upon the conductor.
In the case of iron and nickel it was found that, when correction was made for mechanical stress due to magnetization, magnetic change of thermo-electric force was, within the limits of experimental error, proportional to magnetic change of length.
2 From the fundamental principle of virtual velocities, which thus acquired a new significance, Lagrange deduced, with the aid of the calculus of variations, the whole system of mechanical truths, by processes so elegant, lucid and harmonious as to constitute, in Sir William Hamilton's words, "a kind of scientific poem."
His purely abstract mode of regarding functions, apart from any mechanical or geometrical considerations, led the way to a new and sharply characterized development of the higher analysis in the hands of A.
But it was in the application to mechanical questions of the instrument which he thus helped to form that his singular merit lay.
It was his just boast to have transformed mechanics (defined by him as a "geometry of four dimensions") into a branch of analysis, and to have exhibited the so-called mechanical "principles" as simple results of the calculus.
It has not indeed proved practically available; but his system of calculating cometary perturbations by means of "mechanical quadratures" has formed the startingpoint of all subsequent researches on the subject.
The peasants are described as intelligent, and the artizans are justly celebrated for their ingenuity and mechanical skill.
Since then, says their regretful pupil, " less time and less care have been bestowed on grammar, and persons who profess all arts, liberal and mechanical, are ignorant of the primary art, without which a man proceeds in vain to the rest.
The declared aim of the author 1 was to offer a complete solution of the great mechanical problem presented by the solar system, and to bring theory to coincide so closely with observation that empirical equations should no longer find a place in astronomical tables.
That it formed the starting-point, and largely prescribed the course of thought on the subject of planetary origin is due to the simplicity of its assumptions, and the clearness of the mechanical principles involved, rather than to any cogent evidence of its truth.
Moreover, the ideas which are usually formed on these points at an early stage are incomplete; and, if the incompleteness of an idea is not realized, operations in which it is implied are apt to be purely formal and mechanical.
The deductions follow directly from the definitions, and such mechanical processes as "clearing of fractions " find no place (ï¿½ 21 (ii.)).
Mechanical, commercial, economic and statistical facts (the latter usually involving the time-relation) afford numerous examples.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
Other mechanical disturbances may assist in this production of congenital variation.
To the mere tradition preserved by memory and handed on by speech was then added the written record and its later multiplication by the mechanical arts of printing, by which it acquired permanence and universal distribution.
It may be well therefore to remember that precisely these laws apply to a secondary wave of sound, which can be investigated upon the strictest mechanical principles.
The mechanical arrangements for maintaining the focus are of great simplicity.
The calcination is preferably effected in mechanical roasters, it being especially necessary to agitate the ore continually, otherwise it cakes.
The results are not favourable to a mechanical view of prophecy as involving absolute accuracy of statement.
Stimuli comprise chemical, mechanical, thermal, photic and electrical changes in the environment of the organism.
513; Starling, " Mechanical Factors in Lymph Production," Journ.
He appears to have leaned to mechanical explanations of the symptoms of disease, as was especially the case with inflammation, of which he gave the first rational, though necessarily inadequate, theory.
It is notable that an important instrument of research, the speculum, which has been reinvented in modern times, was used by Soranus; and specimens of still earlier date, showing great mechanical perfection, have been found among the ruins of Pompeii.
These discoveries not only weakened or destroyed the respect for authority in matters of science, but brought about a marked tendency to mechanical explanations of life and disease.
But this example, combined with the Cartesian principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to reconstruct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical basis - to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological or scientific medicine.
The most important of these were the so-called iatro-physical or mechanical and the iatro-chemical schools.
The tendency of the school was to explain the actions and functions of the body on physical, and especially on mechanical, principles.
The more judicious of the mechanical or physical school refrained, as a judicious modern physiologist does, from too immediate an application of their principles to daily practice.
Mechanical theories were introduced into pathology, in explanation of the processes of fever and the like, but had little or no influence on therapeutics.
This phase is most clearly developed in Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), who, though a determined opponent of metaphysical explanations, and of the chemical doctrines, gave to his own rude mechanical explanations of life and disease almost the dogmatic completeness of a theological system.
His countryman and pupil, George Cheyne (1671-1743), who lived some years at Bath, published a new theory of fevers on the mechanical system, which had a great reputation.
Their English contemporaries and successors, John Freind, William Cole, and Richard Mead, leaned also to mechanical explanations, but with a distrust of systematic theoretical completeness, which was perhaps partly a national characteristic, partly the result of the teaching of Sydenham and Locke.
Freind (1675-1728) in his Emmenologia gave a mechanical explanation of the phenomena of menstruation.
His Mechanical Account of Poisons, in the first edition (1702), gave an explanation of the effects of poisons, as acting only on the blood.
James Keill (1673-1719) applied Newtonian and mechanical principles to the explanation of bodily functions with still greater accuracy and completeness; but his researches have more importance for physiology than for practical medicine.
For mechanical conceptions he substituted the theory of" animism "- attributing to the soul the functions of ordinary animal life in man, while the life of other creatures was left to mechanical laws.
Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.
By them the demonstration of Harvey that the circulation of the blood is in large part a mechanical process, and nowhere independent of mechanical laws, was considerably enlarged and extended.
Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.
It is under this closer occupation with mechanical conditions that surgery to-day is said - not without excuse, but with no more than superficial truth - to have made more progress than medicine.
Nor was the theory of reflex action confined to the more "mechanical" functions.
In the treatment of effusions into the pleura and, though with less advantage, of pericardial effusions, direct mechanical interference was practised by one physician and another, till these means of attaining rapid and complete cure took their places as indispensable, and were extended from thoracic diseases to those of the abdominal and other inner parts formerly beyond the reach of direct therapeutics.
Here are collections of pictures and drawings, including the Raphael cartoons, objects of art of every description, mechanical and scientific collections, and Japanese, Chinese and Persian collections, and an Indian section.
This can be done in inclined deposits, it can often be done by the aid of mechanical appliances, though sometimes at an expense not warranted in the saving in the labour of loading.
Sharp curves should be avoided, especially for mechanical haulage.
In metal mines, where, as a rule, mechanical haulage is inapplicable, the cars are moved by men (trammers).
Animal haulage is employed chiefly in collieries and large metal mines; sometimes for main haulage lines, but oftener for distributing empty cars and making up trains for mechanical haulage.
Zimmer, Mechanical Handling of Materials, and Engineering Magazine, xiv.
Taking into account the risk attending all mining operations, which make necessary large interest and amortization charges on the cost of a tunnel, it will in most cases be advisable to raise the water to the surface by mechanical means.
A student of mining must receive thorough instruction in geology; he must study mining as practised in different countries, and the metallurgical and mechanical treatment of minerals; and he should have an engineering education, especially on mechanical and electrical lines.
Pumps for evacuating vessels may be divided into three classes: (i) mechanical, (2) mercurial, and (3) jet pumps; the last named are treated in Hydraulics.
The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
The so-called oil air-pumps are much more efficient; the valve difficulty is avoided, and the risk of leakage minimized; whilst in addition there is no air clearance between the piston and the base of the cylinder as in the older mechanical forms. The Fleuss pump may be taken as an example.
This was the only method known until the invention of the mechanical air-pumps; it was subsequently employed by Count Rumford, and as late as 1845, Edward A.
HERO OF ALEXANDRIA, Greek geometer and writer on mechanical and physical subjects, probably flourished in the second half of the 1st century.
It is indeed not credible that Hero wrote two separate treatises on the subject of the mechanical powers, which are fully discussed in the Mechanics, ii., iii.
He early distinguished himself as professor of mathematical and mechanical philosophy in the college of Ragusa; but after residing there for several years he returned to his native city, where he became a professor in the Collegio Nazareno, and began to form the fine mineralogical cabinet in that institution.
The mechanical properties of the curves are treated in the article MECHANIcs,where various forms are illustrated.
In some English works coal is still employed for direct heating with various forms of mechanical stokers.
In England directly-heated coal furnaces are still in common use, which in many cases are stoked by mechanical feeders.
Cutting and engraving are mechanical processes for producing decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold.
The complicated and indirect process of sheet-glass manufacture has led to numerous inventions aiming at a direct method of production by more or less mechanical means.
In this process, however, the entire operations of splitting and flattening are retained, and although the mechanical process is said to be in successful commercial operation, it has not as yet made itself felt as a formidable rival to hand-made sheet-glass.
An effort at a more direct mechanical process is embodied in the inventions of Foucault which are at present being developed in Germany and Belgium; in this process the glass is drawn from the molten bath in the shape of flat sheets, by the aid of a bar of iron, previously immersed in the glass, the glass receiving its form by being drawn through slots in large fire-bricks, and being kept in shape by rapid chilling produced by the action of air-blasts.
The mechanical operation is quite successful for thick sheets, but it is not as yet available for the thinner sheets required for the ordinary purposes of sheet-glass, since with these excessive breakage occurs, while the sheets generally show grooves or lines derived from small irregularities of the drawing orifice.
In most modern works the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power and subsequently electrical power having been successfully applied to this purpose; the handling of the great weights of glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible without the aid of machinery.
This definition, however, is highly artificial and objectionable on principle, because when we speak of metals we think, not of their chemical relations, but of a certain sum of mechanical and physical properties which unites them all into one natural family.
To this remarkable combination of properties more than to anything else the ordinary metals owe their wide application in the mechanical arts.
The quality of plasticity is developed to very different degrees in different metals, and even in the same species it depends on temperature, and may be modified by mechanical or physical operations.
This varies in metals from 594 (lithium) to 22.48 (osmium), and in one and the same species is a function of temperature and of previous physical and mechanical treatment.
It has in general one value for the powdery metal as obtained by reduction of the oxide in hydrogen below the melting point of the metal, another for the metal in the state which it assumes spontaneously on freezing, and this latter value, in general, is modified by hammering, rolling, drawing, &c. These mechanical operations do not necessarily add to the density; stamping, it is true, does so necessarily, but rolling or drawing occasionally causes a diminution of the density.
The presence in a metal of even small proportions of arsenide generally leads to considerable deterioration in mechanical qualities.
From a collection of the best experiments by previous workers he selected eighty-two (fifty-one on the velocity of water in conduit pipes, and thirty-one on its velocity in open canals); and, discussing these on physical and mechanical principles, he succeeded in drawing up general formulae, which afforded a simple expression for the velocity of running water.
At the same time, it delights the pure theorist by the simplicity of the logic with which the fundamental theorems may be established, and by the elegance of its mathematical operations, insomuch that hydrostatics may be considered as the Euclidean pure geometry of mechanical science.
This mechanical axiom of the normality of fluid pressure is the foundation of the mathematical theory of hydrostatics.
2, it will be balanced by a thrust W lb applied to the other piston of area B ft.', where p = P/A=W/B, (I) the pressure p of the liquid being supposed uniform; and, by making the ratio B/A sufficiently large, the mechanical advantage can be increased to any desired amount, and in the simplest manner possible, without the intervention of levers and machinery.
The emenders postulate mechanical errors in the writing of the figures, but, equally with those who accept them, regard the calculations of the native scribes as above reproach.
Thus the human element is reduced to zero, and the conception of prophecy becomes mechanical.
Determinism thus became a leading characteristic of Jewish apocalyptic, and its conception of history became severely mechanical.
Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers.
In Louisiana the use of mechanical feeders is almost universal.
90% 94% 74.80% 77.44% 79.20% 82.72% Mechanical ments.
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
In endeavouring to make a pan of less power do as much and as good work as one of greater power, they have imagined many ingenious mechanical contrivances, such as currents produced mechanically to promote evaporation and crystallization, feeding the pan from many points in order to spread the feed equally throughout the mass of sugar being cooked, and so on.
All their endeavours have obtained at best but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating surface effected by their employment.
in length; with such coils, and a sufficient annular space in the pan free from obstruction, in order to allow a natural down-current of the cooking mass, while an up-current all round is also naturally produced by the action of the heated worms or coils, rapid evaporation and crystallization can be obtained, without any mechanical adjuncts to require attention or afford excuse for negligence.
Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
The pans are provided with steam worms to keep the mass hot as required, and with mechanical stirrers to keep it in movement and thoroughly mixed with the water and sweet water which are added to the sugar to obtain a solution of the specific gravity desired.
Taylor bag filters are generally used for clearing the melted liquor of its mechanical impurities.
Dinostratus, a Greek geometer and disciple of Plato, discussed the curve, and showed how it effected a mechanical solution of squaring the circle.
In the mechanical analysis of the soil, after separation of the stones and fine gravel by means of sieves, the remainder of the finer earth is subjected to various processes of sifting and deposition from water with a view of determining the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay present in it.
Given suitable climatic conditions, the type of tobacco produced is determined mainly by the soil, and particularly by its mechanical or physical condition.
In practice, however, we never have to deal with pure zinc minerals, but with complex mixtures, which must first of all be subjected to mechanical operations, to remove at least part of the gangue, and if possible also of the heavy metallic impurities.
Neither mechanical nor magnetic concentration can effect much in the way of separation when, as in many complex ores, carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium replace the isomorphous zinc carbonate, when some iron sulphide containing less sulphur than pyrites replaces zinc sulphide, and when gold and silver are contained in the zinc ore itself.
The ores of the Joplin district, in the Ozark uplift in the Mississippi Valley, are remarkable in that they are specially adapted to mechanical concentration.
For the desulphurization of zinc blende where it is not intended to collect and save the sulphur there are many mechanical kilns, generally classified as straight-line, horse-shoe, turret and shaft kilns; all of these may be made to do good work on moderately clean ores which do not melt at the temperature of desulphurization.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
Ordinarily carbon is used as the electrode material, but when carbon comes in contact at high temperatures with any metal that is capable of forming a carbide a certain amount of combination between them is inevitable, and the carbon thus introduced impairs the mechanical properties of the ultimate metallic product.
Among other ingenious applications, he used it to determine the form of movement of a vibrating string, by him first successfully reduced to mechanical principles.
high; Chalmers hospital (founded by Alexander Chalmers of Clunie, a merchant and shipowner of the town); a masonic hall of tasteful design; and the academy, a modern structure in the Grecian style, to which there is attached an extensive museum, containing examples of the early mechanical genius of James Ferguson, the astronomer.
Manufactures.-Rhode Island is essentially a manufacturing state; of the 191,923 persons in the state engaged in gainful occupations in 1900, 101,162 (or 52.7%) were employed in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
The prohibition of the exportation from England of machinery, models or drawings retarded mechanical improvement, but in 1790 an industrial company was formed at Providence to carry on cotton spinning, and in December of that year there was established at Pawtucket a factory equipped with Arkwright machines constructed by Samuel Slater.
The existence of evil in opposition to the perfect goodness of God, as thus explained, need not be attributed to God's agency, inasmuch as the whole emanation-process is governed by necessary - as it were mechanical - laws, which may be compared to those of the physical universe.
He will not tolerate the stagnation and tedium of a dull uniformity by mechanical reproduction.
In color-printing, the colors, which are much the same as those in use in Europe, are mixed, with rice-paste as a medium, on the block for each operation, and the power of regulating the result given by this custom to an intelligent craftsman (who, again, is neither the artist nor the engraver) was productive in the best period of very beautiful and artistic effects, such as could never have been obtained by any mechanical device.
It is scarcely possible to imagine a higher effort of hand and eve than this nunome-zOgan displays, for while intricacy and elaborateness are carried to the very extreme, absolute mechanical accuracy is obtained.
It appears, therefore, that Spencer ultimately describes the Knowable in terms of the mechanical conceptions of matter and motion, and that this must give a materialistic colouring to his philosophy.
On the one hand, his whole formulation of Evolution in mechanical terms urges him in the direction of materialism, and he attempts to compose the mind out of homogeneous units of consciousness (or" feeling ")" similar in nature to those which we know as nervous shocks; each of which is the correlative of a rhythmical motion of a material unit or group of such units "(§ 62).
From 1716 to 1718 he published a scientific periodical, called Daedalus hyperboreus, a record of mechanical and mathematical inventions and discoveries.
The same year he published various mathematical and mechanical works.
In 1734 appeared in three volumes (Opera philosophica et mineralia, the first volume of which (his Principia) contained his view of the first principles of the universe, a curious mechanical and geometrical theory of the origin of things.
It is almost impossible by mechanical means to detect the separate ingredients in such an alloy; we may cut or file or polish it without discovering any lack of homogeneousness.
It is certain that the structure existing in the alloy is closely connected with the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, rigidity, and so on, that make particular alloys valuable in the arts, and many efforts have been made to trace this connexion.
Moreover, the three solids S,D and W will differ in minute structure and therefore, probably, in mechanical properties.
Other cases could be quoted, but enough has been said to show the importance of solid solutions and their influence on the mechanical properties of alloys.
The importance is now widely recognized of considering the mechanical properties of alloys in connexion with the freezing-point curves to which reference has already been made, but the subject is a very complicated one, and all that need be said here, is that when considered in relation to their meltingpoints the pure metals are consistently weaker than alloys.
C. Roberts-Austen's six Reports (1891 to 2904) to the Alloys Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, the last report being concluded by William Gowland; the Cantor Lectures on Alloys delivered at the Society of Arts and the Contribution a l'etude des alliages (2902), published by the Societe d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale under the direction of the Commission des alliages (2896-2900), should be consulted.
Electrified bodies exert mechanical forces on each other, creating or tending to create motion, and also induce electric charges on neighbouring surfaces.
Coulomb proved that this mechanical force varies inversely as the square of the distance between the centres of the spheres.
The unit of mechanical force in the " centimetre, gramme, second " (C.G.S.) system of units is the dyne, which is approximately equal to 1/981 part of the weight of one gramme.
If the two small conducting spheres are placed with centres at a distance d centimetres, and immersed in an insulator of dielectric constant K, and carry charges of Q and Q' electrostatic units respectively, measured as above described, then the mechanical force between them is equal to QQ'/Kd 2 dynes.
For constant charges and distances the mechanical force is inversely as the dielectric constant.
If a small conducting body is charged with Q electrostatic units of electricity, and placed in any electric field at a point where the electric force has a value E, it will be subject to a mechanical force equal to QE dynes, tending to move it in the direction of the resultant electric force.
This provides us with a definition of a unit of electric force, for it is the strength of an electric field at that point where a small conductor carrying a unit charge is acted upon by unit mechanical force, assuming the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium to be unity.
In the same manner, if an electrified body carries a positive charge Q electrostatic units and is placed in an electric field at a place where the electric force or electromotive intensity has a value E units, it is urged in the direction of the electric force with a mechanical force equal to QE dynes.
The potential of a conductor has already been defined as the mechanical work which must be done to bring up a very small body charged with a unit of positive electricity from the earth's surface or other boundary taken as the place of zero potential to the surface of this conductor in question.
It has been shown that this behaviour of dielectrics can be imitated by a mechanical model consisting of a series of perforated pistons placed in a tube of oil with spiral springs between each piston.
The superiority of the empire was a mechanical one, and during the two centuries or so that the exarchate lasted it lost ground.
The name thermodynamics is given to that branch of the general science of Energetics which deals with the relations between thermal and mechanical energy, and the transformations of heat into work, and vice versa.
The converse process of the transformation of heat into mechanical work or other forms of energy is subject to limitations.
The remainder is equivalent to the external work, W, done by the body in expanding or otherwise, which can be utilized for mechanical purposes, and ceases to exist as heat in the body.
(I) in which E 0 represents the quantity of energy originally present in the body, and all the quantities are supposed, as usual, to be expressed in mechanical units.
Mayer (1842) made this assumption in calculating the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Joule (1845) was the first to prove it approximately by direct experiment, but did not see his way to reconcile Carnot's principle, as stated by Clapeyron, with the mechanical theory.
Clausius (1850), applying the same assumption, deduced the same value of F'(t), and showed that it was consistent with the mechanical theory and Joule's experiments, but required that a vapour like steam should deviate more considerably from the gaseous laws than was at that time generally admitted.
If mechanical work or kinetic energy is directly converted into heat by friction, reversal of the motion does not restore the energy so converted.
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
H, Quantity of heat (in mechanical units).
In thus looking to the return of the ancient prophet to do the work for which later prophecy is too weak, Malachi unconsciously signalizes the decay of the order of which he was one of the last representatives; and the somewhat mechanical measure which he applies to the people's sins, as for example when he teaches that if the sacred dues were rightly paid prosperous seasons would at once return (iii.
in 1727, and by various other works, including Moses's Sine Principio, 1730; The Confusion of Tongues and Trinity of the Gentiles, 1731; Power Essential and Mechanical, or what power belongs to God and what to his creatures, in which the design of Sir I.
These are the only certain examples of natural combinations of the metal, the minute, though economically valuable, quantity often found in pyrites and other sulphides being probably only present in mechanical suspension.
The foreign whites alone constituted 10.4% of the total number of persons engaged in agricultural pursuits; 11.4% of those in professional services; 2 5.7% in domestic and personal services; 19.2% in trade and transportation; and 30.6% of those engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries.
In addition to these, the native whites of foreign parentage constituted, in agriculture, &c., Io 6%; in professional service, 20.6%; in domestic and personal service, 16.4%; in trade and transportation, 25.7% in manufacturing and mechanical, 25.4% of all those engaged in those occupations.
The people nominally profess the Buddhist religion, but in reality their religious exercises are confined to the propitiation of evil spirits, and the mechanical recital of a few sacred sentences.
was whether the mechanical impulsion was a direct effect of the light, or whether the radiation only set up internal stresses, acting in and through the residual air, between the vanes and the walls of the enclosure.
The National Physical Laboratory, for making scientific investigations of industrial importance, and for mechanical testing, was opened in Bushey House in 1902.
These show that he had not only realized for himself the true nature of heat, but had noted down for trial many of the best modern methods of finding its mechanical equivalent, such as those of J.
Fraunhofer, however, did not execute this wish, on the ground that the mechanical difficulties were too great.
generally it is done by horse or mechanical traction, ground upon railways, the " trams " or " tubs," as the pit convey= wagons are called, being where possible brought up to ante.
In the main roads to the pit when the distance is not considerable horse traction may be used, a train of 6 to i 5 vehicles being drawn by one horse, but more generally the hauling or, as it is called in the north of England, the leading of the trains of tubs is effected by mechanical traction.
Such a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical means when the workings are of any extent, the methods actually adopted being - (i) The rarefaction of the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface.
Mechanical ventilation may be effected either by direct exhaustion or centrifugal displacement of the air to be removed.
The drawing or winding of the coal from the pit bottom to the surface is one of the most important operations in coal mining, and probably the department in which winding mechanical appliances have been brought to the highest state of development.
For longer experiments he used a " Compteur " or mechanical integrator, suggested by J.
In spring dynamometers designed to measure a transmitted torque, the mechanical problem of ascertaining the change of form of the spring is complicated by the fact that the spring and the whole apparatus are rotating together.
Signor Rosio used a telephonic method to effect the same end, and mechanical, optical and telephonic devices have been utilized by the Rev. F.
In this way the effective horse-power and also the mechanical efficiency of a number of large marine engines, each of several thousand horse-power, have been determined.
The state also supports, wholly or in part: the Agricultural and Mechanical College at College Station (opened in 1876; a land grant college under the Morrill Act of 1862), near Bryan, which has a course in textile engineering besides the courses usually given in state agricultural and mechanical For a full discussion of this question see E.
The nominal amount of the public debt on the 1st of September 1908 was $3,989,400, but the figures are misleading, because, with the exception of $22,000 (held partly by counties), all of these obligations were in the permanent school fund or in funds for the University, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the various charitable institutions.
In comparison with its other industries it stands also pre-eminently as an agricultural state; for of its 789,404 labourers in 1900, 371,604, or 47%, were engaged in agriculture, 129,006 being engaged in trade and transportation, and 124,803 in manufactures and mechanical pursuits.
If the volume of the gas is kept constant, we put dv=o in equation (18) and dQ = JC0NmdT, where C v is the specific Specific heat of the gas at constant volume and J is the mechanical equivalent of heat.
He maintained that old prejudices would disappear with the progress of knowledge, and that superstition and mechanical devices of salvation would be insensibly abandoned.
Suffice it to say that in spite of its spiritualistic starting-point its general result was to give a stimulus to the prevailing scientific tendency as represented by Galileo, Kepler and Harvey to the principle of mechanical explanations of the phenomena of the universe.
In continental philosophy the reaction against mechanical and pantheistic explanations of the universe found even more definite utterance than in English psychological.
In interpreting its environment first as a world of things that seem to stand in a relation of exclusion to one another and to itself, then as a natural system governed by rigid mechanical necessity, the mind can yet feel that in its very opposition the world is akin to it, bone of its bone and flesh of its flesh.
Even the resultant of mechanical forces refuses to resolve itself into its constituents.
Of males (1,097, 581) engaged in 1900 in gainful occupations 47.1% were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits (77.9 in every loo in 1870 and 73 in 1900), 27.1 in trade and transportation, 14.2 in domestic and personal service, 7.4 in agricultural pursuits and 4.2 in professional service.
When the war broke out it was her troops who first received hostile fire in Baltimore, and turning their mechanical training to account opened the obstructed railroad to Washington.
His sympathies, however, were always with mechanical and scientific pursuits, and several of his inventions date from a time anterior to his final abandonment of the law.
The subject received little attention in the United Kingdom, owing to the relatively high cost of home-produced alcohol as compared with that of imported petrol; and the use of alcohol in England for generating mechanical power was neither contemplated nor provided for by the Legislature before 1920, when, as the result of the consideration of the position by the Government, following on a report by a Departmental Committee appointed towards the end of 1918, clauses were inserted in the Finance Act of 1920 legalizing the use of alcohol for power purposes.
Capture begins among the lower tribes with the hand, without devices, developing knack and skill in seizing, pursuing, climbing, swimming, and maiming without weapons; and proceeds to gathering with devices that take the place of the hand in dipping, digging, hooking and grasping; weapons for striking, whether clubs, missiles or projectiles; edged weapons of capture, which were rare in America; piercing devices for capture, in lances, barbed spears, harpoons and arrows; traps for enclosing, arresting and killing, such as pens, cages, pits, pen-falls, nets, hooks, nooses, clutches, adhesives, deadfalls, impalers, knife traps and poisons; animals consciously and unconsciously aiding in capture; fire in the form of torches, beacons, burning out and smoking out; poisons and asphyxiators; the accessories to hunting, including such changes in food, dress, shelter, travelling, packing, mechanical tools and intellectual apparatus as demanded by these arts.
SIGHTS, the name for mechanical appliances for directing the axis of the bore of a gun or other firearm on a point whose position relative to the target fired at is such that the projectile will strike the target.
The reduction of friction by improved mechanical arrangements, and the introduction of electric firing, enabled the layer not only to train and elevate the gun himself, but also to fire it the moment it was truly " on " the target.
on account of the slow rate of fire imposed by black powder, the rapidity of laying conferred by its use was of no great advantage, and it was unsuited to the imperfect mechanical arrangements of the gun mountings of the time.
There are mechanical works, match factories and stockinet factories, and a mineral spring rich in iron, the water of which is bottled for export.
In regard to the purification of water, filtration was long looked upon as merely a mechanical process of straining out the solid particles, whereby a turbid water could be rendered clear.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
The medieval church set forth Christ as present in the orderly community of the faithful; Protestantism aimed at setting the individual in immediate communion with Christ, without the mechanical intervention of the officers of the community; the 1 D'Argentre, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, i.
In physical and mechanical applications, where concrete measurements are involved, there is, as pointed out in the preceding section, the additional inaccuracy due to want of exactness in the figure itself.
For mechanical methods of calculating areas and moments see CALCULATING MACHINES.
The town was founded in 1880, but the Motala mechanical works, 2 m.
In the course of ages every detail has been brought under a formal set of rules, which only need mechanical application.
That these purely mechanical arrangements have any psychic, occult or predictive meaning is a fantastic imagination, which seems to have a peculiar attraction for certain types of mind, and as there can be no fundamental hypothesis of correlation, its discussion does not lie within the province of reason.
Orebro is in close connexion with the iron-mining district of central Sweden; it has mechanical works and a technical college.
According to Proclus, a man named Hippias, probably Hippias of Elis (c. 460 B.C.), trisected an angle with a mechanical curve, named the quadratrix.
All these solutions were condemned by Plato on the ground that they were mechanical and not geometrical, i.e.
The pursuit of mechanical methods furnished a stimulus to the study of mechanical loci, for example, the locus of a point carried on a rod which is caused to move according to a definite rule.
The State College of Washington (1890) at Pullman, for instruction in agriculture, mechanical arts and natural sciences, includes an agricultural college, an experiment station and a school of science.
Apart from a growing import trade in coal and machinery, its commerce has declined; but it is among the first twelve manufacturing places in Sweden, having large mechanical workshops.
A plan of teaching him Greek by some kind of mechanical arrangement is not very intelligible, and was quite unsuccessful.
A particular tendency to arrange history according to a mechanical rule appears in the constant endeavour to show that recompense and retribution followed immediately on good or bad conduct, and especially on obedience or disobedience to prophetic advice.
It may be also described as a type of the mechanical or juridical theory of sovereignty.
by dredging, or some form of mechanical excavator, until the formation is reached which is to support the pier; the concrete is then shot into the enclosed space from a height of about io ft., and rammed down in layers about i ft.
was equivalent to the mechanical forewhich could raise 838 lb.
A good many years later he was entrusted by the committee of the British Association on standards of electric resist ance with the task of deducing the mechanical equivalent of heat from the thermal effects of electric currents.
The first thing noticeable about him is that he defies all customary and mechanical classification.
whether continuous current or alternating current, and if the latter, whether monophase or polyphase; (ii) according to whether they record intermittently or continuously; (iii) according to the principle of their action, whether mechanical or electrolytic; (iv) according to the nature of the measurement, whether quantity or energy meters.
A modification of the above meter with some mechanical improvements has been devised by S.
On this Point are the residence and private estate of the founder of the city, John Stevens (1749-1838), Hudson Park, and facing it the Stevens Institute of Technology, an excellent school of mechanical engineering endowed by Edwin A.
There are schools for higher education at Batavia, Surabaya and Semarang; at the first two of these towns are government schools for mechanical engineering, and at Batavia a crafts school and a medical school for natives.
Private mechanical and crafts schools are established at Jokjakarta, Surabaya and Semarang, and there is an agricultural school at Buitenzorg.
Although, however, gravitation has formed the most perfect instance of an influence completely expressible, up to the most extreme refinement of accuracy, in terms of laws of direct action across space, yet, as is well known, the author of this ideally simple and perfect theory held the view that it is not possible to conceive of direct mechanical action independent of means of transmission.
They were content with a knowledge of the truth of the principle of gravitation; instead of essaying to explain it further by the properties of a transmitting medium, they in fact modelled the whole of their natural philosophy on that principle, and tried to express all kinds of material interaction in terms of laws of direct mechanical attraction across space.
The problem is whether we can represent the facts more simply by supposing the intervening space to be occupied by a medium which transmits physical actions, after the manner that a continuous material medium, solid or liquid, transmits mechanical disturbance.
The evidence for this view, that all these agencies are at bottom connected together and parts of the same scheme, was enormously strengthened during the latter half of the 19th century by the development of a relation of simple quantitative equivalence between them; it has been found that we can define quantities relating to them, under the names of mechanical energy, electric energy, thermal energy, and so on, so that when one of them disappears, it is replaced by the others to exactly equal amount.
Thus, if we are treating of energy, we can separate out mechanical and electric and other constituents in it; and there will be a residue of which we know nothing except its quantity, and which we call thermal.
MacCullagh's hands the correct equations were derived from a single energy formula by the principle of least action; and while the validity of this dynamical method was maintained, it was frankly admitted that no mechanical analogy was forthcoming.
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.
The ritual had a mechanical character and was by no means attractive.
The second volume (1817) relates to the Eulerian integrals, and to various integrals and series, developments, mechanical problems, &c., connected with the integral calculus; this volume contains also a numerical table of the values of the gamma function.
Christiansand is an important fishing centre (salmon, mackerel, lobsters), and sawmills, wood-pulp factories, shipbuilding yards and mechanical workshops are the principal industrial works.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
(2) There had been no scientific study of phonetics, and consequently the changes and combinations of languages are treated in a mechanical way: e.g.
The technical services, in which the mechanical skill and ingenuity of the American had full play, developed remarkable efficiency.
Mines, torpedoes and submarines were all employed, and with the "Monitor" may fairly be said to have begun the application of mechanical science to the uses of naval war.
What was formerly the State Agricultural and Mechanical College at Lexington became the State University by legislative enactment (1908) there is no tuition fee except in the School of Law.
510 seq.), he follows the prevalent notion of the later Jews, at least in so far as he makes the function of the prophet that of purely mechanical reproduction; cf.
We may assume that like the practice of the soothsaying priest (the earlier type of priest) and of the Izosem (diviner), so the procedure of the roeh was mechanical and magical in character.
associations had done no more than organize a new form of spiritual excitement, they would have only added one to the many mechanical types of hysterical religion which are found all over the East.
In this philosophy the mystical properties of numbers are a leading feature; absurd and mechanical notions are glossed over with the sheen of sacramental mystery; myths are explained by pious fancies and fine-sounding pietistic reflections; miracles, even the most ridiculous, are believed in, and miracles are wrought.
In 1617 he published a small work entitled Rabdologia relating to mechanical methods of performing multiplications and divisions, and in the same year he died.
He personally sought to demonstrate such origin, first, in the existence of a specific internal growth force, which he termed bathmic force, and second in the direct inheritance of acquired mechanical modifications of, the teeth and feet.
During the last two decades of the 19th century the number of inhabitants engaged in agricultural pursuits decreased from 45,122 to 38,782; and the number engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits increased from 57,283 to 75,945.
Properties of the limagon may be deduced from its mechanical construction; thus the length of a focal chord is constant and the normals at the extremities of a focal chord intersect on a fixed circle.
Bouillier (1813-1899), which makes life, or life and mind, the directive principle in evolution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced back to chemical and mechanical processes, but that there is a directive force which guides energy without altering its amount.
Certain actions being admittedly automatic, Descartes maintained that, in regard of the lower animals, all action is purely mechanical.
The same theory has since been applied to man, with this difference that, accompanying the mechanical phenomena of action, and entirely disconnected with it, are the phenomena of consciousness.
This mechanical stress may be made the measure of the P. D.
In 1847 he was appointed professor of the mechanical principles of engineering in University College, London, and at the same time he was employed as a member of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the application of iron to railway structures.