The measurements are doubtful, but the upward tendency is clear.
But beyond the eastern shores of the Caspian no system of direct geodetic measurements by first-class triangulation has been possible, and the surveys of Asiatic Russia are separated from those of Europe by the width of that inland sea.
Delambre gives 3 the following comparison between the results of Gascoigne's measurements of the sun's semi-diameter and the computed results from modern determinations: Gascoigne.
The conductivity measurements of G.
long; the measurements in both methods are referred to the central line of the track.
Since thermochemical measurements of this type may be frequently performed with an error due to other causes of much less than i per cent., the error introduced by either of these assumptions is the chief cause of uncertainty in the method.
Halifax not only took measurements, but copied 18 Greek and 4 Palmyrene texts.
The linear scale of maps can obviously be used only in the case of maps covering a small area, for in the case of maps of greater extension measurements would be vitiated owing to the distortion or exaggeration inherent in all projections, not to mention the expansion or shrinking of the paper in the process of printing.
(other measurements give 9823 ft.), probably the highest summit in Brazil.
Other elements of the problem there are none, except mere numbers and angles, which do not depend upon the fundamental measurements of space, time and mass.
Flamsteed, in the first volume of the Historia coelestis, has inserted a series of measurements made by Gascoigne extending from 1638 to 1643.
(1773), p. 190) also gives results of measurements by Gascoigne of the diameters of the moon, Jupiter, Mars and Venus with his micrometer.
5 represents the instrument with which a half of the astronomical measurements of the 19th century were made.
Swan's measurements, which had misled Bent into accepting a chronology based on a supposed orientation of the "temple," had been shown to be inexact.
He found the light of the sun to be 300 times more intense than that of the moon, and thus made some of the earliest measurements in photometry.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
The increasing number of measurements of the height of land in all continents and islands, and the very detailed levellings in those countries which have been thoroughly surveyed, enable the average elevation of the land above sea-level to be fairly estimated, although many vast gaps in accurate knowledge remain, and the estimate is not an exact one.
Wagner,' his metric measurements being transposed into British units: Comparison of the Continents.
In view of the not very great accuracy of thermochemical measurements, the precise definition of the heat-unit employed is not a matter of special importance.
I need to take some measurements.
We've been down to the old house, taking some measurements.
These include the mutual distances of some of the stars in the Pleiades, a few observations of the apparent diameter of the sun, others of the distance of the moon from neighbouring stars, and a great number of measurements of the diameter of the moon.
Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.
In this table measurements of price movements stated both absolutely and as percentages of price levels are given, because authorities have expressed doubts as to whether the former or the latter might be expected to remain constant, other things being equal, when price rose.
The sole piece of evidence, from which probable conclusions may be drawn, is that three separate measurements of price fluctuations over some forty years reveal a growing unsteadiness of late, whether they be expressed absolutely or as percentages of price.
The cranial measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian races.
The peristyle, if we compare the measurements of the stylobate with those of the drums built into the wall of the Acropolis, may be concluded to have consisted of six Doric columns at the ends and twelve at the sides.
With Sydney Young and others he investigated the critical state and properties of liquids and the relationship between their vapour pressures and temperature, and with John Shields he applied measurements of the surface tension of liquids to the determination of their molecular complexity.
The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.
Since molecular refractions are independent of temperature and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dispersions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the chemical composition of substances.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.
Space runners for facilitating these measurements, variously known as chartometers, curvimeters, opisometers, &c., have been devised in great variety.
An interesting question arises as to the accuracy of the different measurements given by Pliny.
It has, however, been observed that in practice the width of extant rolls does not tally in any satisfactory degree with Pliny's measurements; and a more plausible explanation has been offered (Birt, Antik.
The heading "Measurement of Dynamical Quantities" includes the topics units, measurements, and the constant of gravitation.
Van Hoff pointed out that measurements of osmotic pressure confirmed this value in the case of dilute solutions of cane sugar.
The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.
It should be pointed out that no measurements on osmotic pressures or freezing points can do more than tell us that an excess of particles is present; such experiments can throw no light on the question whether or not those particles are electrically charged.
It must be remembered that, the so utions not being of quite the same strength, these numbers are not strictly comparable, and that the experimental difficulties involved in the chemical measurements are considerable.
The specific rotation also varies with the concentration; this is due to the dissociation of complex molecules into simpler ones, a view confirmed by cryoscopic measurements.
By measurements giving the position of Mars among Planetary the neighbouring stars in the morning and evening, Parallaxes.
dW F - d -v 1+ a 7rK dx dH (38) (34) [[[Magnetic Measurements]] If Ho is constant, the force will be zero; if Ho is variable, the sphere will tend to move in the direction in which Ho varies most rapidly.
Magnetic Measurements Magnetic Moment.
The magnetometric method, except when employed in connexion with ellipsoids, for which the demagnetizing factors are [[[Magnetic Measurements]] accurately known, is generally less satisfactory for the exact determination of induction or magnetization than the ballistic method.
[[[Magnetic Measurements]] introduced the method of measuring hysteresis by means of an electro-dynamometer used ballistically.
[[[Magnetic Measurements]] that could be produced by any magnetizing force, however great.
In all such measurements a correction should be made in respect of the demagnetizing force due to the joint, and unless the fit is very accurate the demagnetizing action will be variable.
In most of the experiments the measurements were made by suddenly withdrawing the bobbin from its place ron FIG.
In the second series, to which greater importance is attached, measurements were made of the force exerted in a divergent field upon small balls of copper, silver and other substances, first when the balls were in air and afterwards when they were immersed in liquid oxygen.
by all observers in magnetic observatories, who are every day making measurements of magnetic quantities, and who obtain results which would be inconsistent with each other if the law of force had been erroneously assumed.
In different gratings the lengths of the spectra and their distances from the axis were inversely proportional to the grating interval, while with a given grating the distances of the various spectra from the axis were as i, 2, 3, &c. To Fraunhofer we owe the first accurate measurements of wave-lengths, and the method of separating the overlapping spectra by a prism dispersing in the perpendicular direction.
Mag., 1887) that the angular measurements present less difficulty than the comparison of the grating interval with the standard metre.
In spite of the many improvements introduced by Rowland and of the care with which his observations were made, recent workers have come to the conclusion that .errors of unexpected amount have crept into his measurements of wave-lengths, and there is even a disposition to discard the grating altogether for fundamental work in favour of the so-called " interference methods," as developed by A.
1853), to a system of identification depending on the unchanging character of certain measurements of parts of the human frame.
He concluded from this that when these measurements were made and recorded systematically every single individual would be found to be perfectly distinguishable from others.
It reported favourably, especially on the use of the measurements for primary classification, but recommended also the adoption in part of a system of "finger prints" as suggested by Francis Galton, and already practised in Bengal.
From this great mass of details, soon represented in Paris by the collection of some ioo,000 cards, it was possible, proceeding by exhaustion, to sift and sort down the cards till a small bundle of half a dozen produced the combined facts of the measurements of the individual last sought.
The whole of the record is independent of names, and the final identification is by means of the photograph which lies with the individual's card of measurements.
In Bengal measurements were already abandoned by 1897, when the finger print system was adopted throughout British India.
Thanet is roughly oblong in form, its extreme measurements being about 8 m.
in thickness and the extent and distribution of the rich and barren areas by outcrop measurements.
Special glasses have therefore been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glassworks in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are shown in Table III.
Harlacher (1842-1890) contained valuable measurements of this kind, together with a comparison of the experimental results with the formulae of flow that had been proposed up to the date of its publication, and important data were yielded by the gaugings of the Mississippi made for the United States government by A.
His pupil, Rainer Gemma-Frisius, used it for the observation of the solar eclipse of January 1544 at Louvain, and fully described the methods he adopted for making measurements and drawings of the eclipsed sun, in his De Radio Astronomico et Geometrico (1545).
He also wrote a Description of the World illustrated by maps, in which was probably included his Measurements of Mountains.
and reported on Nevil Maskelyne's determination of the mean density and mass of the earth from measurements taken in 1774-1776 at Mount Schiehallion in Perthshire.
1 See Lord Kelvin, " Report on Electrometers and Electrostatic Measurements," Brit.
To avoid unnecessary complications we shall assume this latter condition in all the following discussion, which is equivalent simply to assuming that all our electrical measurements are made in air or in vacuo.
He returned to Paris in 1744 and published the results of his measurements and travels with a map of the Amazon in Mein.
On a visit to Rome La Condamine made careful measurements of the ancient buildings with a view to a precise determination of the length of the Roman foot.
During the 19th century the measurements of the various parts of the Carpathians was undertaken by the ordnance survey of the Austrian army, which published their first map of the central Carpathians in 1870.
Tanganyika has never been sounded systematically, but the whole configuration of its valley points to its being generally deep, and this has been confirmed by a few actual measurements.
(1901); Kohlrausch, Practical Physics; Ostwald, Physico-Chemical Measurements.
focus), Franz von Paula Triesnecker made a series of measurements at the observatory of Vienna which has been reduced by Dr Wilhelm Schur of Strasburg (Nova Acta der Ksl.
The reading micrometers e, f also serve to measure, independently, the separation of the segments, by scales attached to the slides; such measurements can be employed as a check on those made by the screws.
Recent levellings along the Swedish and Danish coasts have confirmed the higher level of the Baltic; and the level of the Mediterranean has also been determined by exact measurements to be from 15 to 24 in.
The honour of first sounding really oceanic depths belongs to " Egeria," " Waterwitch," " Dart," " Penguin," " Stork," Sir James Clark Ross, who made some excellent measurements and " Investigator."
All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is perpendicular throughout its run.
The total areas occupied by the various deposits according to the latest measurements of Kriimmel are as follows: - Area of Submarine Deposits.
Schott gives the following as the result of measurements of transparency by means of a white disk at 23 stations in the open ocean, where quantitative observations of the plankton under i square metre of surface were made at the same time.
These measurements were utilized in combination with appropriate elastic coefficients of the material to find the horse-power transmitted from the engines along the shaft to the propeller.
The concepts on which the peoples of the Old World have been classified, such as stature, colour, skeletal measurements, nationality, and so on, cannot as yet be used in America with Classifica- success.
At all the more interesting sites he took up his abode for a time; he examined, he inquired, he made measurements, he accumulated materials.
It might, therefore, be described as that branch of mathematics which deals with formulae for calculating the numerical measurements of curved lengths, areas and volumes, in terms of numerical data which determine these measurements.
The first group comprises such subjects as land-surveying; here the measurements in the elementary stages take place in a plane, and the consideration of volumes necessarily constitutes a later stage; and the figures to be measured are mostly not movable, so that triangulation plays an important part.
(iii) In dealing with cases where actual measurements are involved, the error (i) due to inaccuracy of the formula will often be negligible in comparison with the error (ii) due to inaccuracy of the data.
It is necessary, in applying formulae to specific cases, not only, on the one hand, to remember that the measurements are only approximate, but also, on the other hand, to give to any ratio such as 7r a value which is at least more accurate than the measurements.
In physical and mechanical applications, where concrete measurements are involved, there is, as pointed out in the preceding section, the additional inaccuracy due to want of exactness in the figure itself.
As the measurements can only be rough, the trapezoidal rule is the most appropriate in ordinary cases.
Measurements of Intensity of Sound or Loudness.
Valuable measurements of the deformations of girders and tension members due to moving trains have been made by S.
Let measurements along the beam be represented according to any convenient scale, so that calling L 1 and 1 1 the lengths to be drawn on paper, we have L = aL i; now let r1, r 2, r 3 be a series of radii such that r 1 = R i /ab, r 2 = R 2 /ab, &c., where b is any convenient constant chosen of such magnitude as will allow arcs with the radii, r 1, &c., to be drawn with the means at the draughtsman's disposal.
According to modern measurements the solar radiation imparts almost 3 grammecalories of energy per minute per square centimetre at the distance of the earth, which is about Iï¿½3 X io s ergs per sec. per cm.
In electrical measurements connected with incandescent electric lamps the potentiometer is of great use, as it enables us to make accurately and nearly simultaneously two measurements, one of the current through the lamp and the other of the potential difference of the terminals.
being remarkable for the 'minuteness with which Ezekiel describes the organization of the restored community, as he would fain see it realized, including even such details as the measurements and other arrangements of the Temple, the sacrifices to be offered in it, the duties and revenues of the priests, and the redistribution of the country among the twelve tribes.
Gray, Absolute Measurements in Electricity and Magnetism (1900); E.
He announced the existence of hydrogen, among other elements, in the sun's atmosphere in 1862, and in 1868 published his great map of the normal solar spectrum which long remained authoritative in questions of wave-length, although his measurements were inexact to the extent of one part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his standard having been slightly too short.
The length of the metre is independent of the thermometer so far that it has its length at a definite physical point, the temperature of melting ice (0° C.), but there is the practical difficulty that for ordinary purposes measurements cannot be always carried out at 0° C.
Mexico adopted the metric system in 1862, and it is used in all official transactions, land measurements, railway calculations and public school work.
Measurements of their skulls show them mesocephalic (index about 78), or intermediate between the dolichocephalic and brachycephalic types of mankind.
Sir Thomas Wardle of Leek, in his handbook on silk published in 1887, showed by a series of measurements that the diameter of a single cocoon thread or bave varied from o oth to -nth part of an inch in diameter in the various species of Bombycides, whilst those of the Saturnides or wild species varied from - 0 oth to 3-0 0 th part of an inch.
Flamsteed, from measurements made in 1689 and succeeding years with his mural quadrant, similarly concluded that the declination of the Pole Star was 40" less in July than in September.
One hypothesis was: while y Draconis was stationary, the plumb-line, from which the angular measurements were made, varied; this would follow if the axis of the earth varied.
Spectroscopic Measurements and Standards of Wave-Length.- All spectroscopic measurement should be reduced to wavelengths or wave-frequencies, by a process of interpolation between lines the wave-lengths of which are known with sufficient accuracy.
At present the quantity of electricity it carries, and also its mass, may be determined, and we can therefore derive units of length and of mass from our electrical measurements.
The careful measurements of Kayser and Runge of the carbon bands show that the successive differences in the frequencies do (1900), I, p. 399.
The widening of lines does not lend itself easily to accurate measurements; more precise numerical data are obtainable by the study of the displacements consequent on increased density which were discovered and studied by W.
Secondly, his theory of inference contains the admission that we infer beyond sensations: he remarks that the space of the geometer is beyond space-sensations, and the time of the physicist does not coincide with time-sensations, because it uses measurements such as the rotation of the earth and the vibrations of the pendulum.
Measurements of the Magnetic Elements at Sea.
An attachment to the ordinary ship's compass, by means of which satisfactory measurements of the horizontal component have been made on board ship, is described by L.
Among his contributions to astronomy may be noted his eleven zonecatalogues of 34,674 stars, his measurements, in 1836-1837, of nebulae and clusters, and his determination of the mass of Uranus from observations of its satellites (Mena.
As early as 1788 Sir Charles Blagden (1748-1820) made measurements of the freezing points of salt solutions, and showed that the depression of freezing point was.
The pressure at each point should be that of the vapour, but since the solubility of a solid does not change much with pressure, measurements under the constant atmospheric pressure give a curve practically identical with the theoretical one.
But the most accurate test of the theory depends on measurements of freezing points.
Now measurements of osmotic properties of these solutions show that their osmotic pressures are abnormally great and that, at extreme dilution, the ratio of their osmotic pressures to that of equivalent solutions of non-electrolytes is equal to the number of ions indicated by the electrolytic properties.
Their table of comparison published in 1906 shows the following agreement: - It seems likely that measurements of vapour pressure and compressibility may eventually enable us to determine accurately osmotic pressures in cases where direct measurement is impossible.
Frazer, who have made direct measurements of osmotic pressure of solution of cane-sugar, have also measured the freezing points of corresponding solutions.
Assuming these three main divisions, we must now consider in detail the 18 sub-divisions which we distinguish; the first 5 forming the Western Alps, the next 7 the Central Alps, and the rest the Eastern Alps, the heights throughout being, of course, given in English feet and representing the latest measurements.
Gould's measurements of L.
Used for muffs, trimmings, boas, and carriage 1 The measurements given are from nose to root of tail of average large sizes after the dressing process, which has a shrinking tendency.
The "Paris Model" figure is the basis of these estimates for ladies' garments, the standard measurements being height 5 ft.
- Measurements of thermal conductivity present peculiar difficulties on account of the variety of quantities to be observed, the slowness of the process of conduction, the impossibility of isolating a quantity of heat, and the difficulty of exactly realizing the theoretical conditions of the problem.
No calorimetric observations are required, but the results are obtained in terms of the thermal capacity of unit volume c, and the measurements give the diffusivity klc, instead of the calorimetric conductivity k.
It is probable for this reason that the average conductivity of the earth's crust, as deduced from surface observations, is too large; and that estimates of the age of the earth based on such measurements are too low, and require to be raised; they would thereby be brought into better agreement with the conclusions of geologists derived from other lines of argument.
The extreme divergence of the resulting values of the diffusivity, including eight independent series of measurements on different days, was less than I %.
In addition to the simple measurements of the conductivity (M`Gill College, 18 951896), some very elaborate experiments were made by King (Proc. Amer.
The principal measurements are: each abutment 176 ft.; from abutment to side tower, 230 ft.; from side tower to central tower, 460 ft.; breadth of each side tower at road-level, 32 ft.; breadth of centre tower, 45 ft.
Numerous measurements have been made of the wavelengths of the brightest.
Inschriften (Leipzig, 1893), Egyptological Researches (Washington, 1906); for measurements of Egyptian skulls, Miss Fawcett in Biometrika (1902); A.
criticisms in Man, 1905; and for comparisons with modern measurements, C. S.
The measurements of a female, taken in the flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 172 in.; but a large individual measured 6 ft.
depth of ruins; these needed the closest examination to discriminate the various buildings, and were recorded by over 4000 measurements and 1000 levellings (Petrie, Abydos, ii.).
Such measurements of fraternal correlation in the lower animal as Pearson and his pupils have at present made give values very close to 2.
Sti bel (1871-1873), and Edward Whymper (1880), whose measurements of the principal summits were: - Eastern Cordillera.
for 1824 (part 3, pp. 1-412) will be found a description by Sir John Herschel and Sir James South of the equatorial telescope which they employed in their measurements of double stars.
The application of the method appears to be practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between the atmospheric temperature and loo° C. The results depend on the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes as 536.7 calories, following Regnault.
The earlier work of Joule is now chiefly of historical interest, but his later measurements in 1878, which were undertaken on a larger scale, adopting G.
These Difficulties Have Been Removed By The Great Advances Since 1880, And In Particular By The Introduction Of Accurate Standard Cells For Measurements Of Electrical Pressure.
J Amin And Amaury, And Of Many Other Experimentalists Who Succeeded Regnault, Appeared To Indicate Much Larger Rates Of Increase Than He Had Found, But There Can Be Little Doubt That The Discrepancies Of Their Results, Which Often Exceeded 5%, Were Due To Lack Of Appreciation Of The Difficulties Of Calorimetric Measurements.
6, Show A Minimum At 25° C., And A Maximum At 87° C., The Values Being 9935 And 1.0075 Respectively In Terms Of The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 100° C. He Paid Great Attention To The Thermometry, And The Discrepancies Of Individual Measurements At Any One Point Nowhere Exceed O 3%, But He Did Not Vary The Conditions Of The Experiments Materially, And It Does Not Appear That The Well Known Constant Errors Of The Method Could Have Been Completely Eliminated By The Devices Which He Adopted.
Vogel of Potsdam, by repeated measurements of the motion of Algol in the line of sight, showed that the star is always receding from us before the loss of light and approaching us afterwards.
P. Pfeffer (Osmotische Untersuchungen, Leipzig, 1877) was the first to obtain satisfactory measurements of osmotic pressures of cane-sugar solutions up to nearly I atmosphere by means of semi-permeable membranes of copper ferrocyanide.
Lord Berkeley and Hartley have also verified the theory by direct measurements of the vapour-pressures of the same solutions.
This agrees with the usual definition in the special case of a saturated vapour, if the liquid is heated under the final pressure p, as is generally the case in heat engines and in experimental measurements of H.
It is obvious that, both in its values and in its measurements, the survey's reckoning is very crude.
Its extreme measurements are 87 m.
Chalcopyrite crystallizes in the tetragonal system with inclined hemihedrism, but the form is so nearly cubic that it was not recognized as tetragonal until accurate measurements were made in 1822.
Units of this kind are called absolute on account of their fundamental and invariable character as contrasted with gravitational units, which (as we shall see presently) vary somewhat with the locality at which the measurements are supposed to be made.
As a final example we may note the arrangement, often employed in physical measurements, where a body performs small oscillations about a vertical axis through its mass-centre G, under the influence of a couple whose moment varies as the angle of rotation from the equilibrium position.
Bludau's measurements give the total area draining to the Red Sea at about 255,000 sq.
The precision of his earlier work is evidenced by his Micrometric Measurements of the Elementary Parts of Man and Animals (Leipzig, 1834).
The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.
Amongst Cavendish's important contributions were his exact measurements of electrical capacity.
Hence his measurements are all directly comparable with modern electrostatic measurements in which the unit of capacity is that of a sphere r centimetre in radius.
He made many measurements of the electric conductivity of different solids and liquids, by comparing the intensity of the electric shock taken through his body and various conductors.
The accuracy of his measurement, by which he established within 2% the above law, was only limited by the sensibility, or rather insensibility, of the pith ball electrometer, which was his only means of detecting the electric charge.2 In the accuracy of his quantitative measurements and the range of his researches and his combination of mathematical and physical knowledge, Cavendish may not inaptly be described as the Kelvin of the 18th century.
Experimental methods were devised for the further exact measurements of the electromagnetic velocity and numerous determinations of the dielectric constants of various solids, liquids and gases, and comparisons of these with the corresponding optical refractive indices were conducted.
He also made great additions to the theory of alternating electric currents, and provided fresh appliances for other electrical measurements (see his Collected Scientific Papers, Cambridge, 1900) .
As regards the latent process (latens processes) which goes on in all cases of generation and continuous development or motion, we examine carefully, and by quantitative measurements, the gradual growth and change from the first elements to the completed thing.
No positive result was, however, arrived at, principally on account of the want of regular measurements of the volume of the Volga and its tributaries - measurements which began to be made on scientific principles only in 1880.
(io) Middoth (" measures "), an important tractate on the temple (measurements, gates, halls, &c.).
Gray, Absolute Measurements in Electricity and Magnetism (London, 1888), vol.
He also made accurate measurements and a plan of the Hellenistic temple, found many inscriptions and a few miscellaneous antiquities, and had begun to explore the Precinct, when the great expense and other considerations induced the trustees of the British Museum to suspend his operations in 1874.
The height of the temple is doubtful, the measurements of columns given us by later authority having reference probably to its successor, the height of which was considered abnormal and marvellous.
Biot, to complete the meridional measurements which had been begun by J.
Dicaearchus, referring to the town of Cassander, gives two measurements for the circuit, equal to about 9 m.
The best map possible is therefore only the result of estimates and partial measurements.
Measurements of the movement of Himalayan glaciers give results according closely with those obtained under analogous conditions in the Alps, viz.
In such a film it is possible that no part of the liquid may be so far from the surface as to have the potential and density corresponding to what we have called the interior of a liquid mass, and measurements of the tension of the film when drawn out to different degrees of thinness may possibly lead to an estimate of range of the molecular forces, or at least of the depth within a liquid mass, at which its properties become sensibly uniform.
It is impossible to make direct measurements of the properties of particles of the substance within the insensible distance e of the bounding surface.
If the cells remain connected the resulting filament repeats these processes of elongation and subsequent division uniformly so long as the conditions are maintained, and very accurate measurements have been obtained on such a form, e.g.
He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of an arc and trigonometrical operations (1821-1848), and wrote (1843, 1846) the two memoirs Ãœber GegenstÃnde der hÃ¶heren GeodÃsie.
Thefollowing are the measurements of the model in question: - length of wing from tip to tip, 32 in.; weight of wing, tail, frame, india-rubber, &c., 73 grammes (about 22 ounces).
2 Measurements made on a map on the scale of 122 m.
Classification of races on cranial measurements has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements.
Leonardo obtained Pacioli's help in calculations and measurements for the great task of casting the bronze horse and man.
by Gotha planimetrical measurements.
Islam did away with the worship of idols; what was lost in interest by their suppression ' The exact measurements (which, however, vary according to different authorities) are stated to be: sides 37 ft.
Measurements at the Ripon Falls show that 18,000,000,000, or some 13% of this amount, is taken off by the Nile, and when allowance has been made for the annual rise and fall of the lake-level it is apparent that by far the greater part of the water which enters the nyanza is lost by evaporation; in fact, that the amount drawn off by the river plays a comparatively small part in the annual oscillation of the water surface.
(including his earliest publication, "On the Arithmetic of Impossible Quantities," 1779, and an "Account of the Lithological Survey of Schehallion," 1811) and in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ("On the Causes which affect the Accuracy of Barometrical Measurements," &c.), also the articles "Aepinus" and "Physical Astronomy," and a "Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science since the Revival of Learning in Europe," in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Supplement to fourth, fifth and sixth editions).
Playfair's contributions to pure mathematics were not considerable, his paper "On the Arithmetic of Impossible Quantities," that "On the Causes which affect the Accuracy of Barometrical Measurements," and his Elements of Geometry, all already referred to, being the most important.
Johann Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit round the sun, whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit, that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun describes equal areas in equal times, and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.
Even in commercial transactions, in dealing with sums of money, the statement of an amount often has reference to the last item added rather than to a total; and geometrical measurements are practically ordinal (§ 26).
(iv) In graphic representation measurements are usually made upwards; the adoption of this direction resting on certain deeply rooted ideas (§ 23).
All numbers, for instance,which represent physical measurements,are limited in their accuracy not only by our powers of measurement but also by the accuracy of the measure we use as our unit.
occur in statistics, economics, &c. An average is found by adding together several measurements of the same kind and dividing by the number of measurements.
In calculating an average it should be observed that the addition of any numerical quantity (positive or negative) to each of the measurements produces the addition of the same quantity to the average, so that the calculation may often be simplified by taking some particular measurement as a new zero from which to measure.
measurements the chief difficulty, however, is not to determine the resistance of a coil, but to determine the temperature of the coil at the time when the resistance measurement is made.
In accurate comparisons, therefore, it is necessary that the coils to be compared should be immersed in melting ice, and that sufficient time should be allowed to elapse between the measurements for the heat generated in the coil to be removed.
Modifications of the ordinary Wheatstone's bridge for very accurate measurements have been devised by H.
Gray, Absolute Measurements in Electricity and Magnetism (1900); Rollo Appleyard, " The Conductometer," Proc. Phys.
According to the measurements of Sir J.
Obviously the pedometer is little better than an ingenious toy, depending even for rough measurements on the uniformity of pace maintained throughout the journey measured.
It was for the most part written on horseback, during the author's rides in the country while engaged in his meridian measurements.
The theory of the system is that the metre is a 1000-1000Y Part of a quandrant of the earth through Paris; the litre or unit of volume is a cube ofmetre side; the gramme or unit of weight is (nominally) 10 water at 4° C. The idea of adopting scientific measurements had been suggested as early as the 17th century, particularly by the astronomer Jean Picard (1620-1682), who proposed to take as a unit the length of a pendulum beating one second at sealevel, at a latitude of 45°.
The measurements seem exaggerated, but we must remember that even in Xenophon's time (Anab.
There were three courts, the outer or great court, the middle court of Ishtar and Zamama, and the inner court on the east side of which was the tower of seven stages (known as the House of the Foundation of Heaven and Earth), 90 metres high according to Hommel's calculation of the measurements in the tablet; while on the west side was the temple proper of Merodach and his wife Sarpanit or Zarpanit, as well as chapels of Anu, Ea and Bel on either side of it.
Of the three co-ordinates,the radius vector does not admit of direct measurement, and must be inferred by a combination of indirect measurements and physical theories.
This being ascertained by one or more stars near it, may be used to determine by direct measurements the polar distances of other bodies.
They were provided with large graduated circles adapted for measurements of declination and right ascension, and prove the Chinese to have anticipated by at least three centuries some of Tycho Brahe's most important inventions.
in diameter; he substituted equatorial for zodiacal armillae, thus definitively establishing the system of measurements in right ascension and declination; and improved the graduation of circular arcs by adopting the method of " transversals."
Kempf with a polarizing photometer; but by far the most comprehensive work of the kind is the Harvard Photometric Durchmusterung (1901-1903), embracing all stars to 7.5 magnitude, and extended to the southern pole by measurements executed at Arequipa.
57)57) by Seleucus I., although the name, like so many others, probably failed to win acceptance; and in the time of Eratosthenes the position of Thapsacus had become so central that he chose it as the point from which to make his measurements for all Asia (Strabo ii.
The development of the method has been greatly assisted by photography, while the application of photometric measurements has been a powerful auxiliary in the work.
In order to avoid the question of the measurements of the intensity in different media, it is convenient to suppose that the refracted stream emerges into a medium similar to the first by a transition so gradual that no light is lost by reflection.
If measurements be required, the plate must have a motion round an axis perpendicular to that of the optical systems, and also about an axis normal to its faces; the polarizer and analyser must also be capable of adjustment.
Before the time of Tait's researches such data were of little interest or value, on account of insufficient care in securing the purity of the materials tested; but increased facilities in this respect, combined with great improvements in electrical measurements, have put the question on a different footing.
But on account of the difficulty of the measurements involved, the verification of the accurate relation between the Peltier effect and thermoelectric power was left to more recent times.
A;` qualitative relation was known at that time to exist, but no absolute measurements of sufficient accuracy had been made.
The most accurate measurements of the heat absorption due to the Peltier effect at present available are probably those of H.
When the question is tested more carefully, either by taking more accurate measurements of temperature, or by extending the observations over a wider range, it is found that there are systematic deviations from the parabola in the majority of cases, which cannot be explained by errors of experiment.
p. 201, 1867) made a number of relative measurements of the effect in different metals, which agreed qualitatively with observations of the thermoelectric power, and showed that the effect was proportional to the current for a given temperature gradient.
These measurements, though subject to some uncertainty on account of the great experimental difficulties, are a very valuable confirmation of the accuracy of Thomson's theory, because they show that the magnitude of the effect is of the required order, but they cannot be said to be strongly in support of Tait's hypothesis.
Langstroth, in his measurements, hit upon the happy mean which keeps bees from propolizing or fastening the frames to the hive body, as they assuredly would do if sufficient space had not been allowed for free passage round the side-bars; it is equally certain that if too much space had been provided, they would fill it with comb and thus render the frame immovable.
These measurements determine the optical tube length A.
The description listed the measurements at 5 3/4 X 4 1/2 X 1/2 inches.
It became imperative to relate these numbers to the actual measurements.
It was inferred from geophysical measurements in mines.
Results are compared with previous measurements with monochromatic ion beams from a conventional accelerator.
accuracy of measurements by up to 20% .
acoustical measurements provided an interesting assessment of a difficult room.
To monitor adherence to diet Serial measurements of EMA are a reliable marker for dietary adherence.
The results were in good agreement with standard low temperature nitrogen adsorption measurements.
alleviated somewhat by the decision to let the agencies choose three of the six measurements.
altimeter range measurements has been estimated to be a little under 5 cm.
Mean velocity measurements were taken by using a precision constant temperature linearized hot-wire anemometer designed for low speed water flows.
approximate measurements only.
Examples include measurements on the fat content of farmed salmon, and on cake batters.
The measurements of the guage boson properties enables the Standard Model of particle physics to be tested to incredibly high precision.
Measurements of thresholds for bond breakage and the energy released into the photofragments allow very precise determinations of strengths of chemical bonds.
Imag The DENIS I-band total magnitude calibrated by comparison with the I-band measurements of Mathewson at al.
We cannot undo the cosmic cataclysm of the Fall by making astronomical measurements or adjustments.
childhood obesity measurements in schools could do more harm than good, warn researchers.
The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements show that the molecular weight profile is only changed slightly.
Clients are responsible for providing accurate sizing measurements e.g. for full head circlets.
circumference measurements as well in these socks!
coercivity measurements were supplied by members of the British Hardmetal Association, particularly Marshalls Hard Metals Ltd. References Nordgren, A., Int.
Residual measurements carried out on glass/polyester rods showed that the longitudinal tensile modulus remains constant over the entire lifetime of the unidirectional composite.
Recent developments with cw diode lasers have realized the potential for compact instruments to perform in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gas constituents.
correspond most closely to subjective noisiness and is most commonly used in environmental noise measurements.
Fast visible image of an ELM in MAST Measurements of neoclassical island evolution appearing to confirm the strong stabilizing role of field curvature effects.
deuterium target are presented together with a re-analysis of previous measurements on the proton.
differential equations of high order, using integral measurements as its variables, does much the same thing.
Measurements show comparable performance between active and passive diffusers, while the active solution requires less space.
Auto wash between particle size distribution measurements eliminates cross contamination.
The dosimetric characteristics of the chosen chamber have been assessed by comparison with absorbed dose measurements made using chemical dosimeters.
Such measurements show a winter downdraft that is strongest over the latitude range from 40° to 60° .
The measurements below should be taken whilst wearing light clothing, using a dressmaker 's tape measure.
dynamometer car behind, in which all the accurate measurements were made.
dynamometer measurements before and after the individuals wrote about their own mortality or dental pain.
elastic hosiery - garments made to patient's measurements.
Measurements of such order are usually made by diffraction techniques, which detect the ionic cores and the spins of the conduction electrons.
enlarged to encompass experimental measurements and their relationship to computational techniques.
Bakos et al. calculated the equatorial coordinates for epoch and equinox 2000.0 using their astrometry and proper motion measurements.
fiducial point, a point on the circle from which measurements are made.
flux densitydividual measurements of magnetic flux densities in the range 2 to 10 microteslas were encountered in close proximity to the feeder cables.
The numbers and sizes of limpets and other grazing gastropods were determined by measurements and counts from the digital images.
gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements show that the molecular weight profile is only changed slightly.
geodetic measurements with an accuracy that will enable present day tectonic movements to be monitored.
Physical properties provide critical interpretive links between geophysical measurements and evaluation of subsurface geology and state conditions.
All subjects used the same goniometer for all three measurements.
Flight measurements from accelerometers and rate gyros provide airplane motion characteristics relative to axes fixed within the airframe.
Our measurements of the HI in our Galaxy have given us insight into the dark matter halo around our Galaxy.
heat capacity measurements.
helium scattering has been limited by the energy resolution with which such measurements can be made.
plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: association with measurements of body mass: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study.
Made to measure elastic hosiery - garments made to patient's measurements.
Measurements of the changing water pressures were made using hydrophones.
Serial measurements were made for various cytokines using specific enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA ).
Weighing people under water and measurements of electrical impedance have also been employed.
The measurements supplied are for general guidance and as such must be considered incorrect.
interferometer measurements of positions of falling reflectors has become highly developed and easy to use.
ionosonde measurements on Earth provide ample data to define variability patters.
irradiance measurements in confined environments.
isotropic scattering, accurate molecular weight measurements can be made at a single angle.
The research is focused on carrying out the majority of the measurements in-situ using benthic landers.
Measurements either not made to an appropriate level of accuracy or presented in a haphazard form.
lidar measurements of S transport across the Atlantic have been published.
luminescence measurements White plates give maximum reflection so may offer some advantage over transparent plates for weakly luminescent samples.
Measurements include directional luminous intensity, illuminance of lamps and meters, luminance of sources and meters and total luminous flux.
We used a heavy paving mallet to put a vibration impulse into the floor with simultaneous measurements being made in both buildings.
Measurements and weights metric measurements and weights metric measurements for products are followed by the imperial equivalent and are approximate.
Important Note: All sizes are approximate measurements only.
In specific locations of the construction in-situ measurements are measured of the wood moisture by using resistance moisture meters.
At Titan, the on-going Cassini mission has been providing a rich dataset of in situ measurements of the ionosphere.
fluorescence measurements performed on the tissue specimens ex vivo showed the predominant accumulation of porphyrins in the synovium of the inflamed joints.
Measuring Instructions For an accurate measurement please use a metal tape measure and take measurements in centimeters to the nearest 0.1cm.
measurements of the thermal conductivity.
measurements of the thickness of the tower and nave walls have revealed what might be early construction in the north wall of the nave.
Figure 5: H1 measurements of the W dependence of electroproduction and photoproduction cross sections of exclusive vector mesons.
metric measurements including recipes.
They were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, complex impedance measurements, electron probe microanalysis and dielectric lifetime testing.
The amount needed for NMR measurements is of several milligrams in a solution of at least approximately 1 mM.
We will carry out measurements using scale models in the anechoic chamber.
modulus measurements at low strain levels, uncertainties of better than ~ ± 1% should be readily achievable.
pallet descent, a number of other measurements were made.
parallax measurements to a precision of 0.001 " and the recently launched Hipparchus satellite to 0.002 " .
We also made routine measurements of phytoplankton pigments (eg. chlorophyll-a as a measure of biomass) and we enumerated the principal phytoplankton species.
polarization of a photon, the choice of what direction to measure affects all subsequent measurements.
I made the following measurements of the female porbeagle: Total Weight.
porosity measurements on each of the four samples.
The second channel can also be used with a suitable microphone preamplifier for sound measurements.
pulsation period measurements.
A number of projects are available based on spectral-temporal measurements of femtosecond pulses interacting with different photonic materials and devices.
pyroelectric sensors for individual pulse energy measurements at KHz rates.
quantify due to the nature of the sources and to the lack of appropriate UK measurements.
quick-fire questions to compare measurements: " Jane's hand span is 13 cm.
radiocarbon age measurements are reliable.
National protocol for patient dose measurements in diagnostic radiology.
high accuracy filter radiometers are used in thermal and optical metrology, for temperature measurements, photometry, and derivation of spectral emission.
radiosonde measurements from Halley to the full.
The density measurements gave no ground for reliance on an unusual isotopic ratio.
A study based on measurements of the serum acute-phase reactants.
reflectance measurements are made using either a scanning spectrophotometer fitted with an integrating sphere accessory, or a diode array spectrophotometer.
Electrical resistivity: Non contact resistivity measurements using a unique double paired coil induction method.
reverberant field with intensity measurements made close to the sample surface.
reverberation time measurements are shown in figure 5 where they are compared with the maximum allowable limit.
roc analysis was performed to assess the ability of the cortical width measurements to detect low systemic bone mineral density.
With clear sides with cooking measurements on them, it is also extremely handy for mixing rehydration sachets.
The measurements show sodium salicylate concentrated by extraction with cetyl pyridinium chloride surfactant.
The forecasts will make use of satellite and ground based measurements and a range of models for different spatial scales.
In many areas, conventional helium scattering has been limited by the energy resolution with which such measurements can be made.
scintillator based technology provides the high resolution requred for accurate, fast response scanning measurements.
Measurements Measurement of plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin in stored sera.
simultaneous measurements of variations in all three important scales would be made for the first time.
He uses high-resolution solid-state detectors to make precision measurements on the gamma rays emitted by radioactive nuclei.
som help at the other end of the tape measure to ensure your measurements are spot on.
sorption measurements on different oxides.
The combined analysis of surface measurements, balloon soundings, direct observations, weather maps, and satellite images completed the data base.
Unlike LASCO, it will make measurements and images between 2 and 10 solar radii with high spectral and spatial resolution.
Total Transmittance Measurements are made using a scanning spectrophotometer fitted with an integrating sphere accessory.
Total Reflectance Measurements are made using either a scanning spectrophotometer fitted with an integrating sphere accessory, or a diode array spectrophotometer.
spectroscopy measurements PrPc is predominantly alpha helical and contains almost no beta sheet.
standardize measurements of all kinds.
Using in-situ synchrotron measurements to follow the calcination of a (TiO 2) 0.18 (SiO 2) 0.82 sol-gel.
Measurements of permitivity and loss tangent as a function of temperature and bias are obtained in this way.
using tartaric acid as a standard for determining the titer of your NaOH is probably good enough - at least for TA measurements.
theodolite measurements of changes of azimuth and elevation and angular size are of great aid to the evaluation of reports.
thermocouple measurements around a furnace are highly correlated.
thermopile sensors for high power lasers and sensitive pyroelectric sensors for individual pulse energy measurements at KHz rates.
In many cases people claimed ' cold ' arm measurements when, in fact these had been taken after a twenty minute thrashing.
Although initial rheumatoid factor titre is of prognostic significance, serial measurements are not useful in assessing progress.
These measurements require the use of high accuracy transducers and control methods with high resolution and repeatability.
transducer assembly is tightened and repeat measurements are made, the displacement output is almost identical each time.
Regular transmittance NPL is able to make regular transmittance measurements from 200 to 3000 nm.
These calculations are little more than three-dimensional trigonometry in most cases involving converting tape, compass and clino measurements into an XYZ vector.
trigonometry in most cases involving converting tape, compass and clino measurements into an XYZ vector.
Estimating suspended sediment concentrations from ocean color measurements in moderately turbid waters; the impact of variable particle scattering properties.
The sample preparation and the measurements were done in ultra high vacuum.
The more commonly used length measurements -- length overall, length between perpendiculars, and length on load waterline are discussed as follows.
This presentation covers the most frequently asked questions from users of the zetasizer range for both dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements.
146) that the probable error of these measures amounted to about 2'.2 The invention of the telescope at once extended the possibilities of accuracy in astronomical measurements.
This determines the reading of the position-circle corresponding to position-angle 90Ã‚° or 270 Ã‚°.2 When it is remembered that the measurements of the Struves, Dembowski, Secchi, the Bonds, Maclear and of most modern European astronomers have been made with Fraunhofer or Merz micrometers it is not too much to say that fig.
Since the discovery of this fact all measurements have been made in that fixed position of the microscope with respect to the axis of the screw for which the errors of the screw have been determined.
The forms of measuring machines of type C, often seen in physical laboratories, should be at once rejected for refined measurements, because it is impossible to construct slides of such perfection that the axis of the microscope will remain absolutely normal to the surface of the plate (assumed to be a plane) throughout the range of measurement.
The race has probably suffered less here than in most parts of the Mediterranean basin from foreign intermixture, except for a few Catalan and Genoese settlements on the coast (Alghero and Carloforte are respectively the most important of these); and the population in general seems to have deteriorated slightly since prehistoric times, the average cranial capacity of the prehistoric skulls from the Anghelu Ruju being 1490 c.c. for males and 1308 for females, while among the modern population 60% of males and females together fall below 1250 c.c.; and the stature is generally lower than in other parts of Italy, as is shown by the measurements of the recruits (R.
Table III., showing orchestral pitches obtained in 1899, for the measurements of which the writer is responsible, prove how chimerical it is to hope for greater accuracy than is found between 435 and 440 vibrations a second for a', inasmuch as temperature must always be reckoned with.
p. 1351) found that cryoscopic and electric conductivity measurements showed sodium fulminate to be NaCNO.
Pythagoras had speculated as to the existence of antipodes, but it was not until the first approximately accurate measurements of the globe and estimates of the length and breadth of the Problem oekumene were made by Eratosthenes (c. 250 B.C.) that of the the fact that, as then known, it occupied less than a quarter Antipodes.
The notation which Julius Thomsen employed to express his thermochemical measurements is still extensively used, and is as follows: - The chemical symbols of the reacting substances are written in juxtaposition and separated by commas; the whole is then enclosed in brackets and connected by the sign of equality to the number expressing the thermal effect of the action.
Gray, Absolute Measurements in Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
At present, measurements of freezing point are more convenient and accurate than those of osmotic pressure, and we may test the validity of Arrhenius' relations by their means.
The valuable work of Gauss on magnetic theory and measurements, especially in relation to terrestrial magnetism, was published in his Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris, 1833, and in memoirs communicated to the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des magnetischen Vereins, 1838 and 1839, which, with others, are contained in vol.
By measurements of coronas it is possible to infer the size of the particles to which they are due, an application of considerable interest in the case of natural coronas - the general rule being the larger the corona the smaller the water spherules.
Bertillon selected the following five measurements as the basis of his system: (i) head length; (2) head breadth; (3) length of middle finger; (4) of left foot, and (5) of cubit or forearm from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger.
m., the Gotha measurements being 1,137,000 sq.
Rough approximations must always precede accurate measurements; and these returns, while often inaccurate, are better than nothing, and probably improve with each decade.
The measurements of a polygonal field or other area are usually taken as in § 25 (ii); a diagonal AE is taken as the base-line, and for the points B, C, D,..
p. 467) collated some measurements of deflection taken during official trials of Indian bridges, and found the increment of deflection due to impact to depend on the ratio of dead to live load.
According to modern measurements the solar radiation imparts almost 3 grammecalories of energy per minute per square centimetre at the distance of the earth, which is about IÃ¯¿½3 X io s ergs per sec. per cm.
Sumpner, however, has devised forms of wattmeter of the dyna - mometer type in which iron cores are employed, and has defined the conditions under which these instruments are available for accurate measurements.
Addenbrooke, "The Electrostatic Wattmeter and its Calibration and Adaptation for Polyphase Measurements," Electrician (1903), 51, 811; W.
The length of the metre is independent of the thermometer so far that it has its length at a definite physical point, the temperature of melting ice (0Ã‚° C.), but there is the practical difficulty that for ordinary purposes measurements cannot be always carried out at 0Ã‚° C.
In geodetic measurements the dimensions of the triangles vary with the temperature of the earth, but these variations in the same region of the earth are smaller than the variations of the temperature of the air, less than 10Ã‚° C. Adopting as a co-efficient of dilatation of the earth's crust 0.000002, the variations of the distances are smaller than the errors of measurement (see Geodesy).
His micrometric measurements of 2714 double stars were made from 1824 to 1837, and are contained in his principal work, Stellarum duplicium et multiplicium mensurae micrometricae (St Petersburg, 1837 seq.; a convenient summary of the results is given in vol.
For the study of Zeeman effects (see Magneto-Optics) the echelon seems specially adapted, while the great pliability of 'Fabry and Perot's methods, allowing a clear interpretation of results, is likely to secure them permanently an established place in measurements of precision.
Experimental measurements of freezing points of various non-electrolytic solutions have been made by Raoult, Loomis, Griffiths, Bedford and others and numbers ranging round 1.85 found for this concentration.
To the tale of his woodcuts, besides a few illustrations to his book on measurements (that is, geometry and perspective), and on fortification, he only added one Holy Family and one portrait, that of his friend Eoban Hesse.
After a large series of measurements, involving the most varied characters of human brothers, Pearson has shown that the correlation has a value very nearly equal to z; so that the variability of human children obeys the same law as that of other repeated structures, the standard deviation of an array, produced by the same parents, having an average value equal to the standard deviation of the whole filial generation multiplied by 1 2 1 J I - (or by.
The application of the method appears to be practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between the atmospheric temperature and looÃ‚° C. The results depend on the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes as 536.7 calories, following Regnault.
6, Show A Minimum At 25Ã‚° C., And A Maximum At 87Ã‚° C., The Values Being 9935 And 1.0075 Respectively In Terms Of The Mean Specific Heat Between OÃ‚° And 100Ã‚° C. He Paid Great Attention To The Thermometry, And The Discrepancies Of Individual Measurements At Any One Point Nowhere Exceed O 3%, But He Did Not Vary The Conditions Of The Experiments Materially, And It Does Not Appear That The Well Known Constant Errors Of The Method Could Have Been Completely Eliminated By The Devices Which He Adopted.
He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of an arc and trigonometrical operations (1821-1848), and wrote (1843, 1846) the two memoirs ÃƒÅ“ber GegenstÃƒnde der hÃƒ¶heren GeodÃƒsie.
No practical good can therefore accrue to aviation from elaborate measurements of the wings and body of any flying thing; neither can any rule be laid down as to the extent of surface required for sustaining a given weight in the air.
Cryoscopic measurements on the sodium salt points to the double formula, but the organic esters appear to be derived from H2P03 (see A.
The theory of the system is that the metre is a 1000-1000Y Part of a quandrant of the earth through Paris; the litre or unit of volume is a cube ofmetre side; the gramme or unit of weight is (nominally) 10 water at 4Ã‚° C. The idea of adopting scientific measurements had been suggested as early as the 17th century, particularly by the astronomer Jean Picard (1620-1682), who proposed to take as a unit the length of a pendulum beating one second at sealevel, at a latitude of 45Ã‚°.
These efforts have been very effective in removing the influence of the diurnal cycle from pulsation period measurements.
Rugged thermopile sensors for high power lasers and sensitive pyroelectric sensors for individual pulse energy measurements at KHz rates.
These sources are all difficult to quantify due to the nature of the sources and to the lack of appropriate UK measurements.
Ask quick-fire questions to compare measurements: Jane 's hand span is 13 cm.
In general, the error terms attached to more recent radiocarbon age measurements are reliable.
High accuracy filter radiometers are used in thermal and optical metrology, for temperature measurements, photometry, and derivation of spectral emission.
The instrument of choice for these measurements is a radionuclide calibrator, the main component of which is an ionization chamber.
This will enable us to exploit the regular radiosonde measurements from Halley to the full.
But for more accurate measurements of mass, composition and gross structure, space rendezvous missions are needed.
Electrical Resistivity: Non contact resistivity measurements using a unique double paired coil induction method.
The second technique combines SPL measurements in a reverberant field with intensity measurements made close to the sample surface.
The results of reverberation time measurements are shown in figure 5 where they are compared with the maximum allowable limit.
ROC analysis was performed to assess the ability of the cortical width measurements to detect low systemic bone mineral density.
Once again, unique scintillator based technology provides the high resolution requred for accurate, fast response scanning measurements.
Simultaneous measurements of variations in all three important scales would be made for the first time.
Measurements of the stones also indicated possible lunar and solstice alignments.
Enlist som help at the other end of the tape measure to ensure your measurements are spot on.
This is demonstrated in this paper by hexane and cyclohexane sorption measurements on different oxides.
As expected from spectroscopy measurements PrPc is predominantly alpha helical and contains almost no beta sheet.
This statute should be understood as one part of Elizabeth 's larger effort to standardize measurements of all kinds.
Using tartaric acid as a standard for determining the titer of your NaOH is probably good enough - at least for TA measurements.
Theodolite measurements of changes of azimuth and elevation and angular size are of great aid to the evaluation of reports.
Typically, thermocouple measurements around a furnace are highly correlated.
When the transducer assembly is tightened and repeat measurements are made, the displacement output is almost identical each time.
Regular Transmittance NPL is able to make regular transmittance measurements from 200 to 3000 nm.
This presentation covers the most frequently asked questions from users of the Zetasizer range for both dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements.
It is also a good idea to measure more than once to see how consistent these measurements are.
Also, a custom Elfa closet installation with child-level clothing and storage is less than $400 at the Container Store and the in-store design team will take the measurements and design the closet.
The seamstress may need to take your child's measurements, however.
However, after some simple measurements and a difficult return to reality, chances are your idealistic décor dreams have somehow grown quite larger than your designated room space.
To take advantage of these tools, you will need to take your baby's measurements.
Your doctor also compares current measurements to those taken at previous doctor visits.
Sometimes even significant changes in growth chart measurements don't necessarily mean your baby isn't developing properly.
They first initiated multiple measurements of a luteinizing hormone (LH) within the patient's urine.
Measurements such as a baby's height and weight are good indicators of the baby's overall health in many cases; however, there is no official height or weight that an infant should be at a certain age.
Current growth charts were created with data collected from the measurements of thousands of infants; this data was evaluated to determine the average weight and height for each age and gender.
Other percentile curves were also placed on the charts marking the 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles for the different measurements.
Be sure and take your measurements before you bid or buy online, however, and request the measurements of the bra from the seller as well.
In addition to double-checking the measurements that you have made, the installation company will want their own measurements.
Take these measurements with you when you go shopping.
Once you have decided on the sink type, you will want to take exact measurements of your space.
Write all of these measurements down because you will want to be able to refer to them at the store.