The Measurement of Areas is easily effected if the map at our disposal is drawn on an equal area projection.
One important measurement is that of the wave-length emitted from an antenna.
Measurement On Maps Measurement of Distance.
The Greeks created the sciences of geometry and of number as applied to the measurement of continuous quantities.
If love alone was a measurement of success, the future of the three had a small measure hope.
For the measurement of wider stars he invented his lamp-micrometer, in which the components of a double star observed with the right eye were made to coincide with two lucid points placed io ft.
They are ascertained by a ticalgeo- combination of actual measurement of the highest.
the alteration in the direction of the bounding line, due to alteration in the unit of measurement of Y, is useful in relation to geometrical projection.
The celebrated Newland oak in Gloucestershire, known for centuries as "the great oak," was by the latest measurement 472 ft.
The measurement of a coast-line is difficult, because the length will necessarily be greater when measured on a largescale map where minute irregularities can be taken into account.
Still, the idea of the exact measurement of sensation has been a fruitful one, and mainly through his influence on Wundt, Fechner was the father of that "new" psychology of laboratories which investigates human faculties with the aid of exact scientific apparatus.
In the case of substances possessing anomalous dispersion, the direct measurement of the refractive index for Hertzian waves of very long wave-length may be employed.
Thus the whole method of measurement in geometry as described in the elementary textbooks and the older treatises is obscure to the last degree.
The great geographical event of the century, as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc of the So meridian.
But while we have yet to wait for that expansion of principal triangulation which will bring Asia into connexion with Europe by the direct process of earth measurement, a topobetween graphical connexion has been effected between Russian Russ/an and Indian surveys which sufficiently proves that the and deductive methods employed by both countries for the Indian determination of the co-ordinate values of fixed points so surveys.
Measurement of Field Strength.
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
Arago, with whom he had already carried out investigations on the refractive properties of different gases, in the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Spain, and in subsequent years he was engaged in various other geodetic determinations.
They are constructed for the measurement not only of continuousor unvarying butalsoof alternating currents.
Quick motion in position-angle for rough setting or for the measurement of close double stars is given by the large ring R.
the above-described gravity type can be employed with certain restrictions for the measurement of alternating currents.
Now frequency of movement, average daily price variation, and range of price movements are matters of fundamental importance to the public. Hence for practical purposes we require several kinds of measurement of price movements, and it is impossible to weigh exactly the one against the other in respect of importance.
Its length (outside measurement) is 464 ft., its breadth 159 ft.; the nave is 136 ft.
Before astronomical telescopes were mounted parallactically, the measurement of position angles was seldom attempted.
Should any one be sceptical as to the sufficiency of these laws to account for the present state of things, science can furnish no evidence strong enough to overthrow his doubts until the sun shall be found growing smaller by actual measurement, or the nebulae be actually seen to condense into stars and systems."
would be equal to 114,800 metres, its actual length according to modern measurement being I Io,808 metres.
21 a contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments.
The same book contains an account of Norman's discovery and correct measurement of the dip (1576).
For accurate measurement of the displacements of lines of stellar spectra which are produced by the relative motion of star and observer in the line of sight, a very beautiful instrument has been devised by Dr J.
AMPEREMETER, or Ammeter, an instrument for the measurement of electric currents in terms of the unit called the ampere.
In height it stood about the same as a young individual of the ordinary African elephant when about a year and a half old, the vertical measurement at the shoulder being only 4 ft., or merely a foot higher than a new-born Indian elephant.
In fact, the whole theory of measurement in geometry arises at a comparatively late stage as the result of a variety of complicated considerations.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
Now, owing to the necessary inexactness of measurement, it is impossible to discriminate directly whether any kind of continuous physical quantity possesses the compactness of the series of rationals or the continuity of the series of real numbers.
Hamilton, "the measurement of a number of tails of the [European] wild cat and of the domestic cat gives a range between 11 in.
In certain forms, hot-wire instruments are well adapted for the measurement of very small alternating currents.
At the beginning of 1680 he presented a paper to the Royal Society, De nova temporis dimetiendi ratione et accurata horologiorum .constructione, in which he attempted to deprive Huygens of the honour of applying the pendulum to the measurement of time.
The heading "Measurement of Dynamical Quantities" includes the topics units, measurements, and the constant of gravitation.
The moment of a magnet may also be deduced from a measurement of the couple exerted on the magnet by a uniform field H.
Soc. Arts, 1901, and " Measurement of High Frequency Currents," Cantor Lectures, ib., 1905; G.
The operations were carried on during eight years on a plain to the south of Quito; and, in addition to his memoir on this memorable measurement, La Condamine collected much valuable geographical information during a voyage down the Amazon.
In constructing a hot-wire instrument for the measurement of high frequency currents it is necessary to make the working wire of a number of fine wires placed in parallel and slightly separated from one another, and to rpass the whole of the current to be measured through this strand.
The joint was surrounded by an induction coil connected with a ballistic galvanometer, an arrangement which enabled him to make an independent measurement of the induction at the moment when the two portions of the bar were separated.
Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel.
For the practical measurement of field intensity du Bois has used plates of the densest Jena flint glass.
The harmony between arithmetical and geometrical measurement, which was disturbed by the Greek geometers on the discovery of irrational numbers, is restored by an unlimited supply of the causes of disturbance.
From a measurement of the maximum distance the least angle between consecutive lines consistent with resolution may be deduced, and a comparison made with the rule stated above.
We have, in fact, in this instrument a combination of types B and C. Even in this apparatus if the slide on which the chariot moves is not perfect (and no slide is perfect), the azimuth of the axis of the microscope is liable to change in the course of movement of the slide, and thus equal spaces on the scale will not be represented by equal spaces on the plate under measurement.
Direct reading equidivisional movable coil ammeters can be made in various portable forms, and are very much employed as laboratory instruments and also as ammeters for the measurement of large electric currents in electric generating stations.
The word is also used as a unit of linear measurement of the magnifying power of a lens or microscope.
As a term of linear measurement, "perch," also "rod" or "pole," =162 ft., 52 yds.; of superficial area, =304 sq.
Should either fault occur (technically called " fiddling ") it is fatal to accurate measurement.
Thus the estimation of kinetic energy is intimately affected by the choice of our base of measurement.
The scientific study of electric wave telegraphy has necessitated the introduction of many new processes and methods of electrical measurement.
published in 1524, and subsequently edited and added to by Gemma Frisius under the title of Cosmographia, based the whole science on mathematics and measurement.
Wagner's Lehrbuch (Hanover, 1908, pp. 241-252) refers to numerous authorities who deal fully with the whole question of measurement.
by precise measurement.
That of direct measurement.
The main work of Descartes, so far as algebra was concerned, was the establishment of a relation between arithmetical and geometrical measurement.
Another useful set of graphs comprises those which give the relation between the expressions of a length, volume, &c., on different systems of measurement.
This area, however, was subject to the settlement of the Colombia boundary line, and the measurement is only approximate.
The nucleolus is elongated, and its longest measurement lies in the direction of the equatorial plane of the nucleus.
Shaken with mercury and sulphuric acid, nitroglycerin yields its nitrogen as nitric oxide; the measurement of the volume of this gas is a convenient mode of estimating nitroglycerin.
And it is not alien from the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light thrown on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its motions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th century James Hope, E.
By these, and other instruments of precision, such as the thermometer, of which we have already spok en, the eminently scientific discipline of the measurement of functional movements, so difficult in the complex science of biology, has been cultivated.
The valuation of mines then involves the following steps: (1) The sampling of the deposit so far as developed, and assaying of the samples taken; (2) The measurement of the developed ore; (3) estimates of the probable amount of ore in the undeveloped part of the property; (4) estimates of probable profits, life of the mine, and determination of the value of the property.
(direct map measurement) from the outpost of Russia at Langar Kisht on the river Panja, with the Dorah pass across the Hindu Kush intervening.
German engineers have also devoted special attention to the measurement of the flow in rivers; the Beitreige zur Hydrographie des Konigreiches Bohmen (Prague, 1872-1875) of A.
Some of his statues, now in the Louvre, are carved out of Sinaitic dolerite, and on the lap of one of them (statue E) is the plan of his palace, with the scale of measurement attached.
These latter pass to automatic weighing machines, which drop them, in quantities of 1 cwt., into wooden boxes of uniform measurement, made to contain that weight; and the boxes are then conveyed to the storehouse, ready for sale.
Several independent chisellings may be necessary before the lines of the (liaper emerge clearly, but throughout the whole operation no measurement of any kind is taken, the artist being guided entirely by his hand and eye.
29 expedition for the measurement of the arc of the meridian in 1816-1852.
The height of Zahr el-Kazib, by barometric measurement, is 10,018 ft.; that of the others does not reach io,000 ft.
Measurement of Capacity.-Numerous methods have been devised for the measurement of the electrical capacity of conductors in those cases in which it cannot be determined by calculation.
Such a measurement may be an absolute determination or a relative one.
An absolute measurement of capacity means, therefore, a determination in E.S.
On the other hand there are numerous methods by which the capacities of condensers may be compared and a relative measurement made in terms of some standard.
It would appear that to Servington Savary is due the first invention of a micrometer for measurement by double image.
are sufficient for measurement.
5, p. iv.) he found that the index error of the scale changed systematically in different position angles by quantities which were independent of the direction of gravity relative to the position angle under measurement, but which depended solely on the direction of the measured position angle relative to a fixed radius of the object-glass.
But he was so delighted with the general performance of the instrument, with the sharpness of the images and the possibilities which a kindred construction offered for the measurement of FIG.
This construction would give all the advantage of the younger Dollond's object-glass micrometer, and more than its sharpness of definition, without liability to the systematic errors which may be due to want of homogeneity of the object-glass; for the lenses will not be turned with respect to each other, but, in measurement, will always have the same relation in position angle to the line joining the objects under observation.
To Bouguer in 1748 is due the true conception of measurement by double image without the auxiliary aid of a filar micrometer, viz.
To Dollond in 1754 we owe the combination of Savary's idea of the divided object-glass with Bouguer's method of measurement, and the construction of the first really practical heliometers.
The measurement of position angles is provided for by a graduated circle attached to the head.
One segment is fixed, and the measures are made as in the first method, excepting that the eye-piece is placed symmetrically with respect to the images under measurement.
For this purpose the position angle of the eye-piece micrometer is set to that of the head, and the eye-piece is displaced from the axis of the tube (in the direction of the movable segment) by an amount equal to half the angle under measurement.
Thus the two images under measurement are not defined with equal sharpness and symmetry.
4) that Bessel had indicated, by notes in his handbooks, the following points which should be kept in mind in the construction of future heliometers: (I) The segments should move in cylindrical slides; b (2) the screw should be protected from dust; 6 (3) the zero of the position circle should not be so liable to change; 7 (4) the distance of the optical centres of the segments should not change in different position angles or otherwise; 8 (5) the points of the micrometer screws should rest on ivory plates; 9 (6) there should be an apparatus for changing the screen.'° Wilhelm Struve, in describing the Pulkowa heliometer,' 1 made The distances of the optical centres of the segments from the eye-piece are in this method as I; secant of the angle under measurement.
6 This most important improvement would permit any two stars under measurement each to be viewed in the optical axis of each segment.
It permits complete rotation of the tube and measurement of all angles in reversed positions of the circle; the handles that move the slides can be brought down to the eye-end, inside the tube, and consequently made to rotate with it; and the position circle may be placed at the end of the cradle next the eyeend where it is convenient of access.
Dawes found the best method for the purpose in question was to limit the aperture of the object-glass by a diaphragm having a double circular aperture, placing the line joining the centres of the circles approximately in the position angle under measurement.
They are liable to the objection that their employment is limited to the measurement of very small angles, viz.
the unit of measurement).
The main object of o C o c**.e= the present article is to describe more recent work, and to discuss experimental difficulties and methods of measurement.
The measurement of the temperature gradient in the plate generally presents the greatest difficulties.
It is the most convenient method, in the case of good conductors, on account of the great facilities which it permits for the measurement of the temperature gradient at different points; but it has the disadvantage that the results depend almost entirely on a knowledge of the external heat loss or emissivity, or, in comparative experiments, on the assumption that it is the same in different cases.
This is one of the simplest of all methods in practice, but it involves the measurement of several different quantities, some of which are difficult to observe accurately.
are two electrical methods which have been recently applied to the measurement of the conductivity of metals, (a) the resistance method, devised by Callendar, and applied by him, and also by R.
An interesting stone containing nine cavities for measures of capacity found in Pompeii and now preserved in the Naples Museum with Oscan inscriptions erased in antiquity shows that the Oscan system of measurement was modified so as to correspond more closely with the Roman, about 14 B.C., by the duoviri, who record their work in a Latin inscription (C.I.L.
For the two shorter wave-lengths, for whose measurement he claims the highest precision, the observer, J.
Hecker in his measurement of the variation in the vertical and of tidal earth tremors.
Ewing, Memoir on Earthquake Measurement (Tokyo, 1883); Reports of the British Association (1887-1902); E.
Measurement of volume (amounts of grain in cylindrical and rectangular spaces of different dimensions and vice versa).
Measurement of area (areas of square, circular, triangular, &c., fields).
In the typical form the total length may reach 4 ft.; the average measurement of the Ocelot (Felis pardalis).
Darwin was well aware that variation ranged from differences so minute as to become apparent only on careful measurement to those large departures from the normal which may be called abnormalities, malformations or monstrosities.
At this point the measurement of the comparative lengths of the chief Pamir tributaries of the Oxus is as follows: To the head of the Aksu at Lake Chakmaktin.
At the same time Cotopaxi and Sangay, the two active volcanoes, have actually increased in elevation since the measurement of La Condamine in 1742.
Mr Whymper's measurement is for the middle peak.
The French academician Bouger, who was chief of the scientific commission sent to Ecuador in 1736 to measure a degree of the meridian on the equator, made a trigonometrical measurement of Iliniza, and Wagner ascended to within 800 ft.
The standard of measurement most in use is the St Petersburg standard, which contains 165 cubic ft.
But if it be possible to mount a fixed telescope by which a solar or stellar image can be formed within a laboratory we give the following advantages: - (1) There is no mechanical limit to the length of the telescope; (2) the clockwork and other appliances to move the mirror, which reflects the starlight along the axis, are much lighter and smaller than those required to move a large telescope; (3) the observer remains in a fixed position, and spectroscopes of any weight can be used on piers within the laboratory; and (4) the angular value of any linear distance on a photographic plate can be determined by direct measurement of the distance of the photographic plate from the optical centre of the object-glass.
The instrument is thus a theodolite, although, compared with its other dimensions, feeble as an apparatus for the measurement of absolute altitudes and azimuths, although capable of determining these co-ordinates with considerable precision.
calor), to be distinguished from thermometry, which signifies the measurement of temperature.
The methods of measurement, founded on rise of temperature, may be classed as thermometric methods, since they depend on the observation of change of temperature with a thermometer.
The advantage of the method is that there is no transference or mixture; the defect is that the whole measurement depends on the assumption that the rate of loss of heat is the same in the two cases, and that any variation in the conditions, or uncertainty in the rate of loss, produces its full effect in the result, whereas in the previous case it would only affect a small correction.
The Defects Of The Earlier Work From An Electrical Point Of View Lay Chiefly In The Difficulty Of Measuring The Current With Sufficient Accuracy Owing To The Imperfect Development Of The Science Of Electrical Measurement.
Assoc. Reports, 1897 And 1899) Adopted An Entirely Different Method Of Calorimetry, As Well As A Different Method Of Electrical Measurement.
In Consequence Of The Small Thermal Capacity Of Gases And Vapours Per Unit Volume At Ordinary Pressures, The Difficulties Of Direct Measurement Are Almost Insuperable Except In Case (2).
It was also by his orders that two learned mathematicians undertook the measurement of a degree of the earth's circumference.
Near the city is the illustrated standard of land measurement cut by Ki-tze in 1124 B.C.
Ocular examination, anthropometric measurement and serum retinol analysis were carried out.
The measurement uncertainty samples were analyzed in eight separate batches over a period of three weeks.
The preliminary conditions of measurement are: - I.
Yet the beautiful images which these micrometers give permit the measurement of very difficult objects as a check on measures with the parallel-wire micrometer.
The measurement of temperature in the depths, unless a high-speed waterbottle be used, involves stopping the ship and employing thermometers of special construction.
The name has been applied generally to all kinds of instruments used in the measurement of a force, as for example electric dynamometers, but the term specially denotes apparatus used in connexion with the measurement of work, or in the measurement of the horse-power of engines and motors.
In the first kind the work done is converted into heat; in the second it is transmitted, after measurement, for use.
Flather, Dynamometers and the Measurement of Power (New York, 1893).
The founder of the mathematical school was the celebrated Euclid (Eucleides); among its scholars were Archimedes; Apollonius of Perga, author of a treatise on Conic Sections; Eratosthenes, to whom we owe the first measurement of the earth; and Hipparchus, the founder of the epicyclical theory of the heavens, afterwards called the Ptolemaic system, from its most famous expositor, Claudius Ptolemaeus.
ALIDADE (from the Arab.), the movable index of a graduated arc, used in the measurement of angles.
While the majority of his researches bear on one or other of the subjects just mentioned, others deal with such widely different topics as the birds of Greenland, ocean temperatures, the Gulf Stream, barometric measurement of heights, arcs of meridian, glacier transport of rocks, the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands, and various points of meteorology.
In 1868 he proved incandescent carbon-vapours to be the main source of cometary light; and on the 23rd of April in the same year applied Doppler's principle to the detection and measurement of stellar velocities in the line of sight.
mensura, a measure), the science of measurement; or, in a more limited sense, the science of numerical representation of geometrical magnitudes.
Even in the second sense, the term is a very wide one, since it comprises the measurement of angles (plane and solid), lengths, areas and volumes.
of distances between points) as belonging to geometry or trigonometry; while the measurement of curved lengths, except in certain special cases, involves the use of the integral calculus.
The term " mensuration " is therefore ordinarily restricted to the measurement of areas and volumes, and of certain simple curved lengths, such as the circumference of a circle.
The restriction is really determined by a difference in the methods of measurement.
The distance between two points can, at any rate in theory, be measured directly, by successive applications of the unit of measurement.
The measurement is numerical, i.e.
the direct measurement of certain magnitudes (usually lengths) in terms of a unit, and the application of a formula for determining the area or volume from these data.
Mensuration is not concerned with the first of these two processes, which forms part of the art of measurement, but only with the second.
As a result of the importance both of the formulae obtained by elementary methods and of those which have involved the previous use of analysis, there is a tendency to dissociate the former, like the latter, from the methods by which they have been obtained, and to regard mensuration as consisting of those mathematical formulae which are concerned with the measurement of geometrical magnitudes (including lengths), or, in a slightly wider sense, as being the art of applying these formulae to specific cases.
It is in reference to the measurement of areas and volumes that it is of special importance to illustrate geometrical truths by means of concrete cases.
(iii) Association of solid measure with liquid measure, presenting numerical measurement in a different aspect, should be retained by testing volumes as found from linear dimensions with the volumes of the same bodies as found by the use of measures of capacity.
The most elementary stage is arithmetical mensuration, which comprises the measurement of the areas of rectangles and parallelepipeds.
(b) It must, however, be remembered that in all practical applications of formulae the data have first to be ascertained by direct or indirect measurement; and this measurement involves a certain margin of error.
This limits the accuracy of the result; and we can therefore replace the figure by another figure which coincides with it approximately, provided that the further inaccuracy so introduced is comparable with the original inaccuracies of measurement.
The volume of a frustum of a cone, for instance, can be expressed in terms of certain magnitudes by a certain formula; but not only will there be some error in the measurement of these magnitudes, but there is not any material figure which is an exact cone.
The formula may, however, be used if the deviation from conical form is relatively less than the errors of measurement.
(ii) This assignment of different coefficients means that different weights are given to different ordinates; and the relative weights may not agree with the relative accuracies of measurement.
When the sequence of differences is not such as to enable any of the foregoing methods to be applied, it is sometimes possible to amplify the data by measurement of intermediate ordinates, and then apply a suitable method to the amplified series.
For examples of measurement of areas by geometrical construction, see G.
For further information on the measurement of high resistance, see J.
From 1884 he was the Hamburg delegate for the International Earth Measurement.
long; if the measurement be made from the source of the Werra, in the Thuringer Wald, the total length of the stream is 440 m.
When the measurement of a time interval depends on an.
But the converse, the measurement of the loudness of a sound not produced at our will, is by no means so easy.
From the first he appreciated the importance of accurate measurement, and all through his life the attainment of exact quantitative data was one of his chief considerations.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
Subsequently he studied the expansion of solids by heat, and applied the phenomena of interference of light to the measurement of the dilatations of crystals.
ELECTRIC. METER In the public supply of electric energy for lighting and power it is necessary to provide for the measurement of the electric energy or quantity by devices which are called electric meters.
whether continuous current or alternating current, and if the latter, whether monophase or polyphase; (ii) according to whether they record intermittently or continuously; (iii) according to the principle of their action, whether mechanical or electrolytic; (iv) according to the nature of the measurement, whether quantity or energy meters.
Meters intended to measure electric quantity are called coulomb meters and also ampere-hour meters; they are employed for the measurement of public electric supply on the assumption that the electromotive force or pressure is constant.
These meters, of which one well-known form is that of Johnson and Phillips, have the disadvantage of being unsuited for the measurement of electric supply in those cases in which it is irregular or intermittent - as in a theatre or hotel.
It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.
From 1792 to 1799 he was occupied with the measurement of the arc of the meridian extending from Dunkirk to Barcelona, and published a detailed account of the operations in Base du systeme metrique (3 vols., 1806, 1807, 1810), for which he was awarded in 181 o the decennial prize of the Institute.
He introduced several practical improvements, such as the measurement of time to tenths of a second; and he prevailed upon the government to replace Bird's mural quadrant by a repeating circle 6 ft.
Maskelyne also took a great interest in various geodetical operations, notably the measurement of the length of a degree of latitude in Maryland and Pennsylvania (ibid.
POTENTIOMETER, an instrument for the measurement of electromotive force and also of difference of electric potential between two points.
The term potentiometer is usually applied to an instrument for the measurement of steady or continuous potential difference between two points in terms of the potential difference of the terminals of a standard voltaic cell of some kind, such as a Clark or Weston cell.
In order that a wattmeter shall be suitable for the measurement of power taken up in an inductive circuit certain conditions of construction must be fulfilled.
Sumpner, "The Measurement of the Power given by an Electric Current to any Circuit," Proc. Roy.
Blakesley, "Further Contributions to Dynamometry or the Measurement of Power," Phil.
In the measurement of the cubic inch it has been found that 2 the specific mass of the cubic inch of distilled water freed from air, and weighed in air against brass weights (= 8.13), at the temperature of 62° F., and under an atmospheric pressure equal to 30 in.
(76 millimetres), which denotes a variation of 103 grammes per square centimetre in the pressure of the atmosphere, the change caused thereby in the length of a standard of linear measurement would appear to be as follows: --
Authoritative standards and instruments for the measurement of electricity, based on the fundamental units of the metric system, have been placed in the Electrical Laboratory of the Board of Trade.
The standard volt, and sub-standards for the measurement of pressure from 25 to 3000 volts.
In the measurement of temperature the Fahrenheit scale is still followed for imperial standards, and the Centigrade scale for metric standards.
The International Geodetic Committee have adopted the metre as their unit of measurement.
In the measurement of woollen and other textile fabrics, as to quality, strength, number of threads, &c., there exists at Bradford a voluntary standardizing institution known as the Conditioning House (Bradford Corporation Act 1887), the work of which has been extended to a chemical analysis of fabrics.
In the measurement of liquids the old "wine gallon" (231 cub.
The lameness of the Greeks in angular measurement would alone show that they could not derive itinerary measures from long and accurately determined distances on the earth.
"Gauges," as understood at one time, included only those used in the measurement of barrels, casks, etcetera, and hence the term "gauger."
If the powder of a transparent substance is immersed in a liquid of the same refractive index, the mixture becomes transparent and a measurement of the refractive index of the liquid gives the refractivity of the powder.
He had commenced them with a survey of Livonia (1816-1819), which was followed by the measurement of an arc of meridian of more than 31° in the Baltic provinces of Russia (Beschreibung der Breitengradmessung in den Ostseeprovinzen Russlands, 2 vols.
This work was afterwards extended by Struve and General Tenner into a measurement of a meridional arc from the north coast of Norway to Ismail on the Danube (Arc du meridien de 25° 20' entre le Danube et la Mer Glaciale, 2 vols.
Electrostatic voltmeters are now almost entirely used for the measurement of high voltages from 2000 to 50,000 volts employed in electrotechnics.
In any case of potential difference measurement it is essential not to disturb the potential difference being measured; hence it follows that in electrokinetic voltmeters the wire connecting the two points of which the potential difference is to be measured must be of very high resistance.
Electromagnetic voltmeters may therefore be thermal, electromagnetic or electrodynamic. As a rule, electromagnetic voltmeters are only suitable for the measurement of relatively small potentials - o to 200 or 300 volts.
These instruments are only adapted for the measurement of continuous potential difference, that is to say, unidirectional potential difference, but not for alternating voltages.
This measurement is applicable to the measurement of high potentials, either alternating or continuous, provided that in the case of alternating currents the high resistance employed is wound non-inductively and an electrostatic voltmeter is used.
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
between 1796 and 1825, its measurement at the latter date being 13 ft., with a height of 972 ft.
to the same measurement.
He experimented with an air-thermometer, in which the temperature was defined by measurement of the length of a column of mercury; and he pointed out that the extreme cold of such a thermometer would be that which reduced the "spring" of the air to nothing, thus being the first to recognize that the use of air as a thermometric substance led to the inference of the existence of a zero of temperature.
Spectroscopic Measurements and Standards of Wave-Length.- All spectroscopic measurement should be reduced to wavelengths or wave-frequencies, by a process of interpolation between lines the wave-lengths of which are known with sufficient accuracy.
The determination of the purity-factor requires the measurement of the width of the slit.
Defining oscillation as is usual in spectroscopic measurement by wave-length, the visible spectrum is found to extend from about 7700 to 3900 A.
The course of the Alabama is tortuous; its width varies from 200 to 300 yds., its depth from 3 to 7 ft.; its length by the United States Survey is 312 m., by steamboat measurement, 420 m.
It remains to consider the measurement of the declination and the horizontal component, these two elements being generally measured with the same instrument, which is called a unifilar magnetometer.
The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination.
The generalized view of angles and their measurement is treated in the article Trigonometry.
This result is very nearly correct, the deviations being so small as to be almost beyond the reach of direct measurement.
For the measurement of motion it must be presumed that we have a method of measuring time.
The question of the standard to be employed for the scientific measurement of - time accordingly demands attention.
A definition of the measurement dependent on dynamical theory has Time.
All clocks are constructed on the basis of this method of measurement; that is to say, on the plan of counting the repetitions of some operation, adopted solely on the ground of its being capable of continual repetition with a certain degree of accuracy, and possibly also of automatic compensation for changing conditions.
Practically clocks are regulated by reference to the diurnal rotation of the earth relatively to the stars, which affords a measurement on the repetition principle agreeing with other methods, but more accurate than that given by any existing clock.
Their table of comparison published in 1906 shows the following agreement: - It seems likely that measurements of vapour pressure and compressibility may eventually enable us to determine accurately osmotic pressures in cases where direct measurement is impossible.
In one experiment, specially undertaken for the sake of measurement, the total air employed was 9250 c.c., and the oxygen consumed, manipulated with the aid of partially deaerated water, amounted to 10,820 c.c. The oxygen contained in the air would be 1942 c.c.; so that the quantities of atmospheric nitrogen and of total oxygen which enter into combination would be 7308 c.c. and 12,762 c.c. respectively.
But the question as to whether albinoes are more or less constitutionally vigorous than pigmented individuals of the same species may be tested by exact measurement.
This would give for albinoes and pigmented individuals the amount per kilogramme of body-weight required to kill in each case, and would afford a measurement of the relative resistance of the two races.
Lastly, in a practical point of view: Thales furnished the first example of an application of theoretical geometry to practice,' and laid the foundation of an important branch of the same - the measurement of heights and distances.
The level at which it is desired to keep the water in these ditches constitutes the unit of water measurement for the polder, and is called the polder's zomer peil (Z.P.) or summer water-level.
Owing to the shrinkage of the soil in reclaimed lands, however, that is, lands which have been drained after fen or other reclamation, the sides of the polder are often higher than the middle, and it is necessary by means of small dams or sluices to make separate water-tight compartments (afpolderingen), each having its own unit of measurement.
The cost of iron ore is likely to rise much less rapidly than that of coal, because the additions to our known supply are likely to be very much greater in the case of ore than in that of coal, for the reason that, while rich and great iron ore beds may exist anywhere, those of coal are confined chiefly to the Carboniferous formation, a fact which has led to the systematic survey and measurement of this formation in most countries.
This measurement refers to the Russian and Siberian sorts, which are the only kind imported for the fur.
m., and by rail the distance round the base of the mountain is 86 m., though, as the railway in some places travels high, the correct measurement is about 91 m.
THEODOLITE,' a surveying instrument consisting of two graduated circles placed at right angles to each other, for the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, a telescope, which turns on axes mounted centrically to the circles, and an alidade for each circle, which carries two or more verniers.
- The question of the measurement of the specific heat of a vapour possesses special interest on account of this simple theoretical relation between the specific heat and the variation of the latent and total heats.
1900), who quotes the results of similar experiments made at McGill College in 1897, but gives an entirely different interpretation, based on a direct measurement of the - specific heat at 100° C. by an electrical method.
An immense mass of material has been collected on the subject of vapour-pressures and densities, the greater part of which will be found in Winkelmann's Handbook, in Landolt's and Bornstein's Tables, and in similar compendiums. The results vary greatly in accuracy, and are frequently vitiated by errors of temperature measurement, by chemical impurities and surface condensation, or by peculiarities of the empirical formulae employed in smoothing the observations; but it would not be within the scope of the present article to discuss these details.
The first published research (1816) dealt with the dilatation of solids, liquids and gases and with the exact measurement of temperature, and it was followed by another in 1818 on the measurement of temperature and the communication of heat, which was crowned by the French Academy.
For many purposes a gravitational system of measurement is most natural; thus we speak of a force of so many pounds or so many kilogrammes.
The absolute system of measurement will be referred to below in PART II., KINETICS.
So far nothing has been said about the measurement of time.
It is found that for almost all purposes a system of measurement based ultimately on the earths rotation is perfectly adequate.
The question remains, of course, as to how far the measurement of force here implied is practically consistent with the gravitational method usually adopted in statics; this will be referred to presently.
See also DYNAMOMETER for illustrations of the use of what are essentially friction-straps of different forms for the measurement of the brake horse-power of an engine or motor.
The general results of the decline of the marriage-rate and the postponement of marriage upon the natural growth of population will be discussed in connection with the birth-rate, though the statistics available do not permit of the accurate measurement of the respective influence of these factors, and there are others, too, which have to be taken into consideration, as will appear below.
The accuracy of his measurement, by which he established within 2% the above law, was only limited by the sensibility, or rather insensibility, of the pith ball electrometer, which was his only means of detecting the electric charge.2 In the accuracy of his quantitative measurements and the range of his researches and his combination of mathematical and physical knowledge, Cavendish may not inaptly be described as the Kelvin of the 18th century.
Faraday's ideas thus pressed upon electricians the necessity for the quantitative measurement of electrical phenomena.'
The measurement of electric resistance then engaged the attention of electricians.
Gauss introduced a system of absolute measurement of electric and magnetic phenomena.
These labours laid the foundation on which was subsequently erected a complete system for the absolute measurement of electric and magnetic quantities, referring them all to the fundamental units of mass, length and time.
Lord Kelvin's contributions to the science of exact electric measurement 2 were enormous.
2 The quantitative study of electrical phenomena has been enormously assisted by the establishment of the absolute system of electrical measurement due originally to Gauss and Weber.
Weber had already laid the foundations of the absolute system of electric and magnetic measurement, and proved that a quantity of electricity could be measured either by the force it exercises upon another static or stationary quantity of electricity, or magnetically by the force this quantity of electricity exercises upon a magnetic pole when flowing through a neighbouring conductor.
The two systems of measurement were called respectively the electrostatic and the electromagnetic systems (see Physical Units).
He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.
An electrometer is an instrument for measuring difference of potential, which operates by means of electrostatic force and gives the measurement either in arbitrary or in absolute units.
Observation of 0 with measurement of the value of 1 and r reckoned in centimetres and W in grammes gives us the potential difference of the balls in absolute C.G.S.
Farm produce is generally sold by the arroba or fanega; the var y is used in lineal measurement, and the cuadra is used by country people in land measurement.
At the same time the rain is heavier as we approach the Himalaya and the greatest falls are measured in its outer ranges; but the quantity again diminishes as we pass onward across the chain, and on arriving at the border of Tibet, behind the great line of snowy peaks, the rain falls in such small quantities as to be hardly susceptible of measurement.
001 mm.) in diameter, others have cells measur ing 4µ or 5µ or even 7 1 2 or 8µ in thickness, while the length may vary from that of the diameter to many times that measurement.
In 1736 he accompanied Pierre Louis Maupertuis and Alexis Claude Clairaut in the expedition to Lapland for the measurement of a degree of the meridian.
The Murray has a very tortuous course, as may be judged from the fact that the measurement along the joint boundary of New South Wales and Victoria is only 460 m.
Like these our author holds himself so far aloof from current debate of ceremonial or doctrine as to escape our principal standards of measurement regarding place and time.
Since it has been taken up by specialists, psychology is being established on a broader basis of induction, and with the advantage, in some departments, of the employment of experimental methods of measurement.
pertica, a pole or rod used for measurement), a bar or rod used for various purposes, as .e.g.
Syene was one of the bases used by Eratosthenes in his calculations for the measurement of the earth.
On some plates the stars were allowed to trail and the planet was followed, in others the reverse procedure was taken; in either case the planet's position is measured by referring it to " comparison stars " of approximately its own magnitude situated within 25' to 30' of the centre of the plate, while these stars are themselves fixed by measurement from brighter " reference stars," the positions of which are found by meridian observations if absolute places are desired.
There are more than five hundred pillars in all, of very various style and workmanship, and the enclosure-250 paces in length and 200 in breadth, according to Burckhardt's measurement - is entered by nineteen archways irregularly disposed.
In the best filters an automatic arrangement for the measurement of the supply to each separate filter, and for the regulation of the quantity within certain limits, is adopted, and the resistance at outflow is so arranged that not more than a certain head of pressure, about 22 ft., can under any circumstances come upon the surface film, while a depth of several feet of water is maintained over the sand.
It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's, and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject.
- The application of arithmetical methods to geometrical measurement presents some difficulty.
When now we pass to geometrical measurement, each " one " is a thing which is itself divisible, and it cannot be said that at any moment we are counting it; it is only when one is completed that we can count it.
for the individual objects cease to have an intelligible meaning, and measurement is effected by the cardinal numbers I, II, III,..
These cardinal numbers have now, however, come to denote individual points in the line of measurement, i.e.
This notation survives in reference to the minute (') and second (") of angular measurement, and has been extended, by analogy, to the foot (') and inch (").
(iii) Finally, there are the cases of linear measurement, where it is theoretically possible to find, by geometrical methods, an exact submultiple of a given unit, but both the unit and the submultiple are not really concrete objects, but are spatial relations embodied in objects.
All numbers, for instance,which represent physical measurements,are limited in their accuracy not only by our powers of measurement but also by the accuracy of the measure we use as our unit.
The transition is similar to that which arises in the case of geometrical measurement (§ 26), and it is an essential feature of all reasoning with regard to continuous quantity, such as we have to deal with in real life.
A case of general interest is the measurement of temperature.
In calculating an average it should be observed that the addition of any numerical quantity (positive or negative) to each of the measurements produces the addition of the same quantity to the average, so that the calculation may often be simplified by taking some particular measurement as a new zero from which to measure.
measurements the chief difficulty, however, is not to determine the resistance of a coil, but to determine the temperature of the coil at the time when the resistance measurement is made.
In the form of standard coil recommended by the Berlin Reichsanstalt the coil is immersed in an insulating oil which is kept stirred by means of a small electric motor during the time of making the measurement.
For the measurement of low resistances a modification of the Wheatstone's bridge devised by Lord Kelvin is employed.
A useful bridge method for measurement of low resistances has been given by R.
Price, The Practical Measurement of Resistance; A.
For the restricted use of "metre" as a unit of measurement, see Metric System below.
Shortly after he engaged to take part in the Portuguese expedition for the survey of Brazil, and the measurement of a degree of the meridian; but he yielded to the urgent request of the pope that he would remain in Italy and undertake a similar task there.
The measurement of the speed with which the individual stars are moving towards or from our system is a work of such magnitude that what has yet been done is scarcely more than a beginning.
For the relations thus arising, and their practical applications, see Time, Measurement Of.
The fundamental problem of practical astronomy is that of determining by measurement the co-ordinates of the heavenly bodies as already defined.
Of the three co-ordinates,the radius vector does not admit of direct measurement, and must be inferred by a combination of indirect measurements and physical theories.
The other two coordinates, which define the direction of a body, admit of direct measurement on principles applied in the construction and use of astronomical instruments.
This measurement is effected by a combination of two instruments, the telescope and the graduated circle.
In the measurement of equatorial co-ordinates, the polar distance is determined in an analogous way.
This troublesome result is utilized and made a means of measurement.
We perceive then that the fundamental problems of sidereal science are closely linked up with the elementary and indispensable procedures of celestial measurement.
He mapped 324, chose out nine, which he designated by the letters of the alphabet, to be standards of measurement for the rest, and ascertained the coincidence in position between the double yellow ray derived from the flame of burning sodium and the pair of dark lines named by him " D " in the solar spectrum.
A high degree of precision in measurement thus became attainable, and has since been fully attained.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to measurement.
It was the result of several years' careful study and micrometric measurement of the features shown by the moon.
The volume of text gives descriptive details and measurement of the spots and heights of the mountains.
In Paris he advocated the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Lapland, and took part, in 1736, in the expedition organized for the purpose by the French Academy.
Among its results were determinations of the lunar and of the solar parallax (Mars serving as an intermediary), the first measurement of a South African arc of the meridian, and the observation of io,000 southern stars.
For the observation and measurement of rings in crystals polariscopes are constructed on the following principle.
Absolute Measurement of Thomson Effect.
Turin, 1886) to the absolute measurement.
"Fathom" is also used in the measurement of timber, when it is equivalent to 6 ft.
This frame, the outside measurement of which is 14 by 82 in., was the outcome of deliberations extending over a considerable time on the part of a committee of well-known bee-keepers, specially appointed in 1882 to consider the matter.
Differences in view may, and do, exist regarding the thickness of the wood used in frame-making, but the outside measurement never varies.
More particularly, "minute" is used of the sixtieth part of any unit); in time, of an hour; and in astronomy, geometry, geography, &c., of a degree in the measurement of a circle.
The theory of the ecliptic as representing the course of the sun through the year, divided among twelve constellations with a measurement of 30 to each division, is also of Babylonian origin, as has now been definitely proved; but it does not appear to have been perfected until after the fall of the Babylonian empire in 539 B.C. Similarly, the other accomplishments of Babylonian astronomers, such as their system or rather systems of moon calculations and the drawing up of planetary tablets, belong to this late period, so that the golden age of Babylonian astronomy belongs not to the remote past, as was until recently supposed, but to the Seleucid period, i.e.
This measurement can also be made with a goniometer eyepiece, in which a row of parallel double-marks are used instead of the cross threads.
The use of an eyepiece with a cross thread is essential to this measurement.
As fractions of intervals can only be estimated in this method, a measurement with such an eyepiece scale can of course not be as exact as with a screw micrometer ocular.
A mind like that of Thomson could not be content to deal with any physical quantity, however successfully from a practical point of view, without subjecting it to measurement.
Thomson's work in connexion with telegraphy led to the production in rapid succession of instruments adapted to the requirements of the time for the measurement of every electrical quantity, and when electric lighting came to the front a new set of instruments was produced to meet the needs of the electrical engineer.
Mount Tupungato reaches 22,329 ft., according to Argentine measurement.
The measurement is effected by adjoining to the space or interval to be measured some means of measurement defined; for example, by a fixed scale which extends into the space, or by a movable point (Wandermarke).
This instrument shows a transition to the stereoscope, inasmuch as the scale or means of measurement is not directly observed, but to each eye a plane representation is offered, just as in the stereoscope; the space to be measured, on the other hand, is portrayed in exactly the same way as in the double telescope.
Weber's name is especially known for his work on electrical measurement.
It measured broadband speeds from the end-user perspective with its measurement tool.
Each user, even a novice, is able to quickly design complex measurement tasks using the standard control command syntax.
An NPL Rotating wheel abrasion Test Summary This measurement note describes the development of a rotating wheel abrasion test system.
These are relatively low cost, plastic tubes which contain a prepared absorbent which can later be desorbed for analysis and measurement.
accurate measurement, you'll need to pop into a bike shop.
Measurement of the size of each species ' acorns suggests that a plant's seed size may control the geographic range of the plant.
acuity measurement is often not properly understood and not properly calculated.
Which did make me think the measurement was slightly adrift, given the track conditions.
Both the image normalization and tissue segmentation algorithms developed by our group significantly improve the statistics in tumor volume measurement.
This unit is used in airborne laser altimetry, distance measurement and collision avoidance.
Nitrogen accumulation methods include measurement of plant tissue N concentration, amino acids, substrate N and foliar ammonium.
Fields of Application These transimpedance amplifiers are particularly useful for the measurement of current from photodiodes.
Urinalysis, blood pressure and weight checks, fundal height measurement and fetal heart auscultation are performed routinely at each office visit.
Your awning manufacturer will then advise on the nearest size of awning manufacturer will then advise on the nearest size of awning appropriate for your measurement.
baud unit of measurement similar to bps expressing the speed of a modem over an analog line.
blood pressure measurement error for prevention strategies.
Example: Under bust measurement = 29 Over bust measurement = 29 Over bust measurement = 38.
calcium chloride solution Free hydrogen ions are critical for accurate measurement of pH.
capacitance measurement an AC supply may be required.
carbonyl ligands at the temperature of the measurement?
The measurement relies on a chemical process called the ' polymerase chain reaction ' or PCR.
chinos hemmed to your own inside-leg measurement.
Measurement of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity is the primary method for measuring the effect of these pesticides on the nervous system.
chromium speciation by different methods of practical use for routine in situ measurement.
We have made the world's first measurement of exclusive c c production at a hadron collider.
National Framework PSA 1 This involves measurement of crime reduction by the British Crime Survey comparator.
This book contains a compendium of some of the papers presented at a workshop on Performance Measurement and Management Control in October, 2001.
The measurement of thermal diffusivity by laser flash is an alternative way of determining the thermal conductivity of liquid alloys.
Observational methods, e.g. eddy correlation techniques to measure turbulent fluxes or measurement of mean profiles to infer turbulent transport.
T he development of a new and robust liquid crystalline medium for the measurement of residual dipolar couplings.
crump weir designed to provide for flow measurement.
The Biblically minded may use the cubit for medium-scale measurement, otherwise the use of the rod, pole or perch is recommended.
desultory discussion in 1994, a committee of 14 MPs nodded through the Units of Measurement Regulations.
Measurement Good Practice Guide No. 25 (High field dielectric properties of piezoelectric materials) Buy Online!
Here we report the measurement of electron diffraction patterns from these crystals.
diode laser spectroscopy of free radicals has included measurement of the band strength of the methyl radical, CH 3.
discontinuous changes in the relevant quantities during the measurement process.
dissimilarity index (D ), use evenness as their measurement benchmark.
eddy correlation techniques to measure turbulent fluxes or measurement of mean profiles to infer turbulent transport.
Cathedral and High Streets have restored 17th-century houses, one of which has metal ell, measurement for cloth, on wall.
All measurement tools allow independent emissivity and distance settings.
extensometer for accurate strain measurement.
Demand still exists for a simple, inexpensive, high resolution double-sided extensometer for accurate strain measurement.
For any accounting or measurement issue that is not addressed in the SME standards, the IASB proposes mandatory fallback to IFRS.
filar micrometer eyepiece allows me to make accurate measurement of cell dimensions.
Professional instructors will be on hand in health clubs to administer the test, which is a well-respected measurement of cardiovascular fitness.
In the case of poor knee flexion the measurement taken should be to the tips of the toes.
quantum mechanics suffers from the notorious measurement problem, a problem which demands one or another interpretation of the quantum formalism.
airborne geophysics is the remote measurement of Earth's physical properties from the air.
girth measurement refers to the widest part of the piece.
Another negative aspect is that when the testers took the measurement they gave the goniometer to the model to record their readings.
handgrip pulse measurement during training.
Add 25mm (1 ") to your measurement and then cut the hardboard to this size.
Bradley is also unduly harsh on the usefulness of a chair absorption measurement method involving screens.
Measured total hemoglobin Direct measurement of total hemoglobin provides more accurate results for bypass patients.
Students will examine: taxonomy of holoplankton and meroplankton specieis; the measurement of holoplankton grazing rates on a range of plytoplankton species.
In addition, changes in measurement technologies and data processing procedures imply that few hydrometric time series can be considered truly homogeneous.
humidity measurement is more difficult to carry out than the measurement of temperature, pressure, length or weight.
The whirling hygrometer offers the maximum level of accuracy due to the nature of measurement.
Equipped with the latest in state-of-the-art instrumentation, LGC is uniquely positioned to meet the measurement needs of the pharmaceutical sector.
EQUIPMENT An item of control or measurement instrumentation, which can be identified by a discreet serial number.
This technique was more strongly predictive of RT than was measurement of serum B-2 microglobulin or serum lactate dehydrogenase levels.
What does the latter evidence indicate as regards the behavior of the carbonyl ligands at the temperature of the measurement?
Applications include the measurement of induced and remanent magnetism and use in site surveys prior to the installation of MRI equipment.
magnetoresistance measurement on patterned high resistivity magnetic layers.
Our services include: Measurement of hand arm vibration magnitudes.
Also, the measurement of serum markers may vary between laboratories.
capability maturity is another important concept for application risk measurement.
performing sward height measurement Focal animal sampling was carried out to gain insight into the deer's foraging behavior.
For an accurate measurement, you'll need to pop into a bike shop.
A precise measurement of the loading is then read off the steelyard.
Under simultaneous 2-channel measurement, 2 data items are recorded at the same time.
measurement techniques are continually being improved.
measurement error in the input data.
Furthermore, your waist measurement can be an indication of your future health.
This requires rather fancy technology and very, very high precision measurement using what's now become known as interferometer.
Thermistors can be a low cost solution to temperature measurement.
Measuring Instructions For an accurate measurement please use a metal tape measure and take measurements in centimeters to the nearest 0.1cm.
mercantile capitalism exemplified a renewed concentration on abstract measurement.
Practical sessions will cover all areas of measurement including basic metrology, estimating uncertainties and applying corrections.
As the technology is developed, new metrology, or measurement, tools are also required.
We are, in addition, recognized internationally as a center of excellence in chemical metrology (the science of measurement ).
The measurement of specimen size with a microscope is normally made by using an eyepiece micrometer.
This new capability allows for measurement of sub-100 micron test pads in chips.
A rough measurement of the speed of the freshly mown lawns was 9.9 seconds on the Plummer scale.
outcomes measurement, economic evaluation and rationing.
The aim of this study was to validate a gas chromatography (GC) method for measurement of breath pentane in the horse.
performance measurement and explain why it is important in operations improvement.
permeability measurement in the laboratory and the field are reviewed.
In particular, the technique is suited to measurement of surface phonons and vibrational modes of adsorbates.
The Department of Sports Science has two established laboratories for measurement in applied physiology.
planimeters used for the measurement of areas.
precise measurement of the loading is then read off the steelyard.
As the measurement of position, gets more precise, the value of the momentum gets more indefinite.
psychotherapy outcome, process, and the measurement of change.
quantile regression allows the measurement of the return to player Players.
The Assignments section contains multiple-choice quizzes to practice your measurement skills.
The measurement of black body temperature therefore links the primary spectral radiance and irradiance scales to primary detector scales.
NPL's cryogenic radiometer is the primary standard for the measurement of optical radiant power.
redshift value of zero means that there is no measurement.
This usually means the measurement of spectral transmittance, spectral reflectance, spectral radiance factor or spectral fluorescence.
Using an optical technique for displacement measurement enables remote sensing of vibration.
A particularly popular choice for HVAC applications is the bulk polymer resistive sensor, which provides a direct, secondary measurement of RH.
resistivity measurement is really a measure of the amount of water held in the ground at a particular point.
The measurement of extrudate swell of polymer melts using capillary extrusion rheometers is specified by the standard ISO 11443  .
Measurement of health status in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Measurement update: RTT roadshow presentations now available The final RTT measurement roadshow presentations now available The final RTT measurement roadshow takes place on Friday 22 September in London.
rump length (CRL) measurement on rates of induction of labor for postdates.
saliva cotinine measurement was obtained was 83% .
second-string saddle back from the first saddle, using the gage of the second string as a measurement.
There is a substantial section on sedimentation, which focuses on stream load measurement and the problems of reservoir sedimentation.
Measurements Measurement of plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin in stored sera.
Measurement science implies more than just the observation of phenomena, it suggests identification, quantification, possibly spatial or volume localisation.
standard gaugeions below are based on the 5 in standard British gage and the modern mm measurement.
Measurement of the plane strain fracture toughness of an alloy steel.
Used in PA catheter (allows continuous measurement) and oesophageal stethoscope.
stickiness measurement calculates how long they stay at a website.
stopwatch function allows for a user-defined measurement of elapsed time.
strain gage errors is important in the accurate measurement of the fatigue life of an aircrafts airframe.
substratum field research, in particular the quantification of fields within different substrata and in situ measurement.
Responses on some labeled attitude measurement scales (e.g., interest in watching football) can also be nicely summarized via the frequency table.
The British Standards Organization, for example, specifies graphical symbols for process measurement and control.
Dr. Rex N. Taylor Research interests: Geochemistry of volcanic systems; radiogenic and stable isotope measurement systematics.
There are constant advances in technology and measurement techniques are continually being improved.
However, reliable biological assays for measurement of immune function remain slow and cumbersome (e.g. lymphocyte proliferation by uptake of tritiated thymidine ).
Clinical observation can be usefully supplemented by pulse oximetry, blood pressure measurement, ECG and end tidal CO 2 monitoring when available.
These fault timesheet timecard conditions are normally masked with a standard junction box allowing operation with measurement errors.
topography measurement performed between each scratch.
I joined NPL in June 1997 to work on applications of single-electron transistors in precise measurement of small electrical currents.
two-step measurement procedure is used to measure the CDs.