This committee consisted of six members, two barons, two ministers and two burgesses - the two barons selected being John Napier of Merchiston and James Maxwell of Calderwood.
Stirling Maxwell, Don John of Austria (1883); and Jurien de la Graviere, La Guerre de Chypre la bataille de Lepanto (1888).
From 1879 to 1884 he was Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, in succession to Clerk Maxwell; and in 1887 he accepted the post of professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, which he resigned in 1905.
Strutt, made him known over Europe; and his powers rapidly matured until, at the death of Clerk Maxwell, he stood at the head of British physicists, Sir George Stokes and Lord Kelvin alone excepted.
In 1883 he went to Kiel, becoming Privatdozent, and there he began the studies in Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory which a few years later resulted in the discoveries that rendered his name famous.
Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
Clerk Maxwell supposed two compartments, A and B, to be filled with gas at the same temperature, and to be separated by an ideal, infinitely thin partition containing a number of exceedingly small trap-doors, each of which could be opened or closed without any expenditure of energy.
In the experiment imagined by Lord Rayleigh a porous diaphragm takes the place of the partition and trap-doors imagined by Clerk Maxwell, and the molecules sort themselves automatically on account of the difference in their average velocities for the two gases.
See also Guldenstubbe, De la realite des esprits (1857), p. 66; also Maxwell, Les Phenomenes psychiques (1903).
Joseph Maxwell, of Bordeaux, has published accounts 8 of raps and movements of objects without contact, witnessed with private and other mediums, which he appears to have observed with care, though he does not describe the conditions sufficiently for others to form any independent judgment about them.
8 Maxwell, Les Phenomenes psychiques (1st ed., Paris, 1903).
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879), British physicist, was the last representative of a younger branch of the wellknown Scottish family of Clerk of Penicuik, and was born at Edinburgh on the 13th of November 1831.
Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician.
The writer had the opportunity of perusing the MS. of " On Faraday's Lines of Force," in a form little different from the final one, a year before Maxwell took his degree.
The first paper of Maxwell's in which an attempt at an admissible physical theory of electromagnetism was made was communicated to the Royal Society in 1867.
One of Maxwell's last great contributions to science was the editing (with copious original notes) of the Electrical Researches of the Hon.
Henry Cavendish, from which it appeared that Cavendish, already famous by many other researches (such as the mean density of the earth, the composition of water, &c.), must be looked on as, in his day, a man of Maxwell's own stamp as a theorist and an experimenter of the very first rank.
Maxwell Henry Close >>
Among his articles may be mentioned those which he wrote for the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia on Light, Mechanics, Quaternions, Radiation and Thermodynamics, besides the biographical notices of Hamilton and Clerk Maxwell.
The Select Transactions of this society were collected and published in 1743 by Robert Maxwell, who took a large part in its proceedings.
In 1757 Maxwell issued another work entitled The Practical Husbandman; being a collection of Miscellaneous papers on Husbandry, F&'c. In it the greater part of the Select Transactions is republished, with a number of new papers, among which an Essay on the Husbandry of Scotland, with a proposal for the improvement of it, is the most valuable.
Maxwell, Robert the Bruce (London, 1897).
The collections of Malay Proberbs made by, Klinkert, Maxwell and Clifford also give a good idea of the literary methods of the Malays.
C. Klinkert, Nieuw Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woorden boek (Leiden, 1893); John Leyden, Malay Annals (London, 1821); William Marsden, The History of Sumatra (London, 181 I); Malay Dictionary (London, 1824); Sir William Maxwell, A Manual of the Malay Language (London, 1888); T.
Thomas Maxwell, who was left to meet and pray with the members at the Foundery during the absence of the Wesleys, began to preach.
Wesley hurried to London to check this irregularity, but his mother urged him to hear Maxwell for himself, and he soon saw that such assistance was of the highest value.
Maxwell, History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798; with Memoirs of the Union and Emmet's Insurrection in 1803 (London, 1845); W.
C. Maxwell, H.
2 Clerk Maxwell employed German capitals to denote vector quantities.
(Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, II., § 437).
- When magnetic force acts on any medium, whether magnetic, diamagnetic or neutral, it produces within it a phenomenon of the nature of a flux or flow called magnetic induction (Maxwell, loc. cit., § 428).
Inside a magnetized body, B is the force that would be exerted on a unit pole if placed in a narrow crevasse cut in the body, the walls of the crevasse being perpendicular to the direction of the magnetization (Maxwell, § § 399, 604); and its numerical value, being partly due to the free magnetism on the walls, is generally very different from that of H.
Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, § 7 H.
C. Maxwell, Treatise, § 435; E.
The equation F = B 2 /87r is often said to express " Maxwell's law of magnetic traction " (Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism,, §§ 642-646).
Those who support this view generally speak of the stress as " Maxwell's stress," and assume its value to be B 2 /87r.
The stress in question seems, however, to be quite unconnected with the " stress in the medium " contemplated by Maxwell, and its value is not exactly B 2 /87r except in the particular case of a permanent ring magnet, when H = O.
Further, Maxwell's stress is a tension along the lines of force, and is equal to B 2 /87r only when B = H, and there is no magnetization.
C. Maxwell, Treatise, § 643.
These observations have been verified and extended by Knott, whose researches have brought to light a large number of additional facts, all of which are in perfect harmony with Maxwell's explanation of the twist.
Maxwell has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a current passing through it.
Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, § 444), recognizing that the theory in this form gave no account of residual magnetization, made the further assumption that if the deflection of the axis of the molecule exceeded a certain angle, the axis would not return to its original position when the deflecting force was removed, but would retain a permanent set.
Although the amended theory as worked out by Maxwell is in rough agreement with certain leading phenomena of magnetization, it fails to account for many others, and is in some cases at variance with observed facts.
Soc., 1890, 48, 342) has demonstrated that it is quite unnecessary to assume either the directive force of Weber, the permanent set of Maxwell, or any kind of frictional resistance, the forces by which the molecular magnets are constrained being simply those due to their own mutual attractions and repulsions.
The strength of the induced current is - HScosO/L, where 0 is the inclination of the axis of the circuit to the direction of the field, and L the coefficient of self-induction; the resolved part of the magnetic moment in the direction of the field is equal to - HS 2 cos 2 6/L, and if there are n molecules in a unit of volume, their axes being distributed indifferently in all directions, the magnetization of the substance will be-3nHS 2 /L, and its susceptibility - 3S 2 /L (Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, § 838).
There are strong reasons for believing that magnetism is a phenomenon involving rotation, and as early as 1876 Rowland, carrying out an experiment which had been proposed by Maxwell, showed that a revolving electric charge produced the same magnetic effects as a current.
The accuracy of this law was in 1832 confirmed by Gauss, 3 who employed an indirect but more perfect method than that of Coulomb, and also, as Maxwell remarks, 1 The quotations are from the translation published by the Gilbert Club, London, 1900.
Kirchhoff, and Maxwell.
In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his classical Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, in which Faraday's ideas were translated into a mathematical form.
Maxwell explained electric and magnetic forces, not by the action at a distance assumed by the earlier mathematicians, but by stresses in a medium filling all space, and possessing qualities like those attributed to the old luminiferous ether.
Since the experimental confirmation of Maxwell's views by H.
C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (3rd ed., Oxford, 1892); E.
Clerk Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, ii.
Gauss in particular employed it in the calculation of the magnetic potential of the earth, and it received new light from Clerk Maxwell's interpretation of harmonics with reference to poles on the sphere.
Moreover, his association with glass manufacture led him to study the refractive indices of different kinds of glass; he further undertook abstruse researches on electrostatic capacity, the phenomena of the residual charge, and other problems arising out of Clerk Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory.
C. Maxwell Garnett, who has studied the optical properties of these glasses, has suggested that the changes in colour correspond with changes effected in the structure of the metals as they pass gradually from solution in the glass to a state of crystallization.
According to Maxwell (Theory of Heat) " When a continuous alteration of form is produced only by a stress exceeding a certain value, the substance is called a solid, however soft and plastic it may be.
Maxwell illustrates the difference between a soft solid and a hard liquid by a jelly and a block of pitch; also by the experiment of supporting a candle and a stick of sealingwax; after a considerable time the sealing-wax will be found bent and so is a fluid, but the candle remains straight as a solid.
C. Maxwell, Collected Works, ii.
He is remembered through the Creevey Papers, published in 1903 under the editorship of Sir Herbert Maxwell, which, consisting partly of Creevey's own journals and partly of correspondence, give a lively and valuable picture of the political and social life of the late Georgian era, and are characterized by an almost Pepysian outspokenness.
The diary, mentioned above, did not survive, perhaps through Brougham's success, and the papers from which Sir Herbert Maxwell made his selection came into his hands from Mrs Blackett Ord, whose husband was the grandson of Creevey's eldest step-daughter.
Douglas was slain in the battle, though not, as is stated by Walsingham, by Percy's hand: Henry Percy was captured by Sir John Montgomery, and his brother Ralph by Sir John Maxwell.
William Maxwell Evarts >>
Clerk Maxwell demonstrated, however, that all electric charge or electrification of conductors consists simply in the establishment of a physical state in the surrounding insulator or dielectric, which state is variously called electric strain, electric displacement or electric polarization.
Owing to the confusion introduced by the employment of the term force, Maxwell and other writers sometimes use the words electromotive intensityinstead of electric force.
It can be shown that the resultant electric force normal to the surface at a point just outside a conductor is 1 See Maxwell, Elementary Treatise on Electricity (Oxford, 1881), P. 47.
p. 76, where Maxwell gives an elegant proof that if the force in the interior of a closed conductor is zero, the law of the force must be that of the inverse square of the distance.'
It is not even necessary that 2 See Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (3rd ed., Oxford, 1892), vol.
Clerk Maxwell (Cambridge, 1879), 104.
Maxwell (Elementary Treatise, &c., p. 15) ingeniously applied this fact to the insulation of conductors.
See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
Maxwell (Elec. and Magn.
Ann., 18J4, 91; see also Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
The above is a statement of Coulomb's law, that the electric fores at the surface of a conductor is proportional to the surface density of the charge at that point and equal to 41r times the density.3 See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
Hence that distribution of potential which is neces 1 See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
Clerk Maxwell, Elementary Treatise on Electricity (Oxford, 1881); J.
Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1st ed., Oxford, 1873; 2nd ed.
In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
by Osborne Reynolds and by Clerk Maxwell.
On this ground Maxwell inferred that the forces acting in the radiometer are connected with gliding of the gas along the unequally heated boundaries; and as the laws of this slipping, as well as the constitution of the adjacent layer, are uncertain, the problem becomes very intricate.
The results coincide with Maxwell's so far as above stated, though the numerical coefficients do not agree.
With the experience thus gained in manipulating the vacuum, the achievement of thoroughly verifying the pressure of radiation on both opaque and transparent bodies, in accordance with Clerk Maxwell's formula, has been effected (Physical Review, 1901, and later papers) by E.
The leading historical stages in the evolution of the modern conception of the molecular structure of matter are treated in the following passage from James Clerk Maxwell's article Atom in the 9th edition of the Ency.
" The opposite school maintained then, as they have always done, 1 It wiII be noted that Clerk Maxwell's " atom " and " atomic theory " have the significance which we now attach to " molecule " and " molecular theory."
(5) If c is the resultant velocity of a molecule, so that c 2 =u2+v2+w2, it is readily found from formula (4) that the number of molecules of the first kind of which the resultant velocity lies between c and c+dc is 4lrs1,l (h 3 rn 3 17r 3)e hmc2 c 2 dc. (6) These formulae express the " law of distribution of velocities " in the normal state: the law is often called Maxwell's Law of Distribution.
At the same time this difficulty is only one aspect of a wider difficulty which cannot be lightly passed over; Maxwell himself regarded it as the principal obstacle in the way of the full acceptance of the theory of which he was so largely the author.
In 1668 it was purchased from Sir Patrick Maxwell of Newark by the Glasgow magistrates, who here constructed a harbour.
Clerk Maxwell gave (Phil.
This polygon falls under the definition of a reciprocal figure given by Clerk Maxwell, if we consider the frame as a point in equilibrium under the external forces.
John Maxwell Herries >>
"WILLIAM MAXWELL AITKEN BEAVERBROOK, 1ST Baron (1879-), British politician, was born at Newcastle, New Brunswick, on May 25 1879, the son of the Rev. William Aitken, Presbyterian minister of Newcastle.
See also Maxwell's Theory of Heat, chap. xiii.
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.
In the remainder of the article referred to, Maxwell reviews the evidence for the necessity of an aether, from the fact that light takes time to travel, while it cannot travel as a substance, for if so two interfering lights could not mask each other in the dark fringes.
Before 1868 Maxwell conducted the experiment by sending light from the illuminated cross-wires of an observing telescope forward through the object-glass, and through a train of prisms, and then reflecting it back along the same path; any influence of convection would conspire in altering both refractions, but yet no displacement of the image depending on the earth's motion was detected.
A train of ideas which strongly impressed itself on Clerk Maxwell's mind, in the early stages of his theoretical views, was put forward by Lord Kelvin in 1858; he showed that the special characteristics of the rotation of the plane of polarization, discovered by Faraday in light propagated along a magnetic field, viz.
When Clerk Maxwell pointed out the way to the common origin of optical and electrical phenomena, these equations naturally came to repose on an electric basis, the connexion having been first definitely exhibited by FitzGerald in 1878; and according as the independent variable was one or other of the vectors which represent electric force, magnetic force or electric polarity, they took the form appropriate to one or other of the elastic theories above mentioned.
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.
Maxwell had himself, at an early stage of his theory, tested the absorbing power of gold-leaf for light, and found that the effective conductivity for luminous vibrations must be very much greater than its steady ohmic value; it is, in fact, there a case of incipient conductivity, which is continually being undone on account of the rapid alternation of force before it is fully established.
- Maxwell, Collected Papers, H.
The fundamental assumption is that the medium contains positively and negatively charged ions or electrons which are acted on by the periodic electric forces which occur in wave propagation on Maxwell's theory.
MAXWELL, the name of a Scottish family, members of which have held the titles of earl of Morton, earl of Nithsdale, Lord Maxwell, and Lord Herries.
The name is taken probably from Maccuswell, or Maxwell, near Kelso, whither the family migrated from England about r ioo.
Sir Herbert Maxwell won great fame by defending his castle of Carlaverock against Edward I.
in 130o; another Sir Herbert was made a lord of the Scottish parliament before 1445; and his great-grandson John, 3rd Lord Maxwell, was killed at Flodden in 1513.
Robert's grandson John, 7th Lord Maxwell (1553-1593), was the second son of Robert, the 5th lord (d.
After the execution of the regent Morton, the 4th earl, in 1581 this earldom was bestowed upon Maxwell, but in 1586 the attainder of the late earl was reversed and he was deprived of his new title.
1646) was restored to the lordship of Maxwell, and in 1620 was created earl of Nithsdale, surrendering at this time his claim to the earldom of Morton.
A few words may be added about other prominent members of the Maxwell family.
John Maxwell (c. 1590-1647), archbishop of Tuam, was a Scottish ecclesiastic who took a leading part in helping Archbishop Laud in his futile attempt to restore the liturgy in Scotland.
James Maxwell of Kirkconnell (c. 1708-1762), the Jacobite, wrote the Narrative of Charles Prince of Wales's Expedition to Scotland in 1745, which was printed for the Maitland Club in 1841.
Robert Maxwell (1695-1765) was the author of Select Transactions of the Society of Improvers and was a great benefactor to Scottish agriculture.
Sir Murray Maxwell (1775-1831), a naval officer, gained much fame by his conduct when his ship the "Alceste" was wrecked in Gaspar Strait in 1817.
William Hamilton Maxwell (1792-1850), the Irish novelist, wrote, in addition to several novels, a Life of the Duke of Wellington (1839-1841 and again 1883), and a History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798 (1845 and 1891).
Sir Herbert Maxwell, 7th Bart.
James Clerk Maxwell >>
3 Maxwell, Life, ii.
See also Sir Herbert Maxwell, Life of Wellington (2 vols., London, 1900), and the literature of the Peninsular War, Waterloo Campaign.
Mrs Maxwell Scott.
According to Maxwell's law, however, the number of molecules having a velocity in the line of sight lying between v and vd-dv is proportional to e-1 3v2 dv, where (3 is equal to 312u 2; for v=u, we have therefore the ratio in the number of molecules having velocity u to those having no velocity in the line of sight e-0/1 2 =-- e-z = 22.
Hitchcock, Hawaii and its Volcanoes (Honolulu, 1909); Augustin Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, Fauna (London, 1899); Walter Maxwell, Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, 1898); W.
Clerk Maxwell, Matter and Motion (1882); H.
Clerk Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2nd ed., Oxford, 1881), vol.
E.) Maxwell, the governor of Cape Coast, in native fashion.
Afterwards it changed hands several times, but was finally acquired from the Montrose family by Sir John Maxwell of Pollok.
Clerk Maxwell, who predicted that the effect should be independent of the density within wide limits.
Maxwell himself verified this prediction experimentally for viscosity over a wide range of pressure.
Sir Benson Maxwell British and Mr Clifford Lloyd, who had been sent out to nd native reform the departments of justice and the interior, officials.
His force consisted of Gatacres British brigade (1st Warwicks, Lincoins, Seaforths and Camerons) and Hunters Egyptian division (3 brigades under Colonels Maxwell, MacDonald and Lewis respectively), Broadwoods cavalry, Tudways camel corps and Longs artillery.
Lyttelton (1st Northumberlands and Grenadier Guards, 2nd Lancashire and Rifle Brigade); Egyptian division, under Major-General Hunter, consisting of four brigades, commanded by Colonels MacDonald, Maxwell, Lewis and, Collinson; mounted troops2Ist Lancers, camel corps, and Egyptian cavalry; artillery, under Colonel Long, 2 British batteries, 5 Egyptian batteries, and 20 machine guns; detachment of Royal Engineers.
Lord Maxwell, earl of Morton, as a Roman Catholic, mustered his tenants here to act in concert with the Armada; but on the approach of King James VI.
With Herries and Maxwell he shook the English centre, but while Stanley and the men of Cheshire drove the highlanders of Lennox and Argyll in flight (their leaders had already fallen), the admiral and Dacre fell on the flank of James's command, which Surrey, too wise to pursue the fleet highlanders, surrounded with his whole force.
On the 27th of May he was with Angus in the castle of Edinburgh; on the 30th of May, by a bold and dexterous ride, he was with his mother in the castle of Stirling, with Archbishop Beaton, Argyll and Maxwell.
Lang; Miss Shield's King over the Water and Martin Haile's James Francis Stuart (the old Chevalier); Omond's Lord Advocates of Scotland; Willcock's The Great Marquess (of Argyll); Napier's Lives of Montrose and Dundee; Clarke and Foxcroft's Life of Bishop Burnet; Sir Herbert Maxwell's Robert Bruce and Book of Douglas, with all Sir W.
C. Maxwell Lyte, A History of the University of Oxford to the Year 1530 (London, 1886); W.
For Diatomic Or Compound Gases Clerk Maxwell Supposed That The Molecule Would Also Possess Energy Of Rotation, And Endeavoured To Prove That In This Case The Energy Would Be Equally Divided Between The Six Degrees Of Freedom, Three Of Translation And Three Of Rotation, If The Molecule Were Regarded As A Rigid Body Incapable Of Vibration Energy.
In 1879 Maxwell Considered It One Of The Greatest Difficulties Which The Kinetic Theory Had Yet Encountered, That In Spite Of The Many Other Degrees Of Freedom Of Vibration Revealed By The Spectroscope, The Experimental Value Of The Ratio S/S Was 1.40 For So Many Gases, Instead Of Being Less Than 4/3.
A Hypothesis Doubtfully Attributed To Maxwell Is That Each Additional Atom In The Molecule Is Equivalent To Two Extra Degrees Of Freedom.
When Bosanquet says that in " Heat is a mode of motion " there is no reference to individual objects, but " a pure hypothetical form which absolutely neglects the existence of objects," he falls far short of expressing the nature of this scientific judgment, for in his Theory of Heat Clerk Maxwell describes it as " believing heat as it exists in a hot body to be in the form of kinetic energy."
1900) adopted the mean value n=3.5, and also assumed the specific heat at constant volume s =3.5 R (which gives So=4.5 R) on the basis of an hypothesis, doubtfully attributed to Maxwell, that the number of degrees of freedom of a molecule with m atoms is 2m +I.
Later and more accurate experiments have confirmed the experimental value, and have shown that the limiting value of the specific heat should consequently be somewhat smaller than that given by Maxwell's hypothesis.
Clerk Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
Clerk Maxwell, who showed amongst other things that a reciprocal can always be drawn to any figure which is the orthogonal projection of a plane-faced polyhedron.
Clerk Maxwell (1864).
The method was discovered by Clerk Maxwell, and the complete theory is discussed and exempli.
The contents of these for a long time remained unknown, but ultimately by permission of the duke of Devonshire, to whom they belonged, they were edited by James Clerk Maxwell and published in 1879 by the Cambridge University Press as the Electrical Researches of the Hon.
The third covers the period between 1831 and Clerk Maxwell's enunciation of the electromagnetic theory of light in 1865 and the invention of the self-exciting dynamo, which marks another great epoch in the development of the subject; and the fourth comprises the modern development of electric theory and of absolute quantitative measurements, and above all, of the applications of this knowledge in electrical engineering.
A considerable part of Cavendish's work was rescued from oblivion in 1879 and placed in an easily accessible form by Professor Clerk Maxwell, who edited the original manuscripts in the possession of the duke of Devonshire.'
Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S.
He ascertained the distribution of electricity among several spheres (whether equal or unequal) placed in contact in a straight line; and he measured the distribution of 2 In 1878 Clerk Maxwell repeated Cavendish's experiments with improved apparatus and the employment of a Kelvin quadrant electrometer as a means of detecting the absence of charge on the inner conductor after it had been connected to the outer case, and was thus able to show that if the law of electric attraction varies inversely as the nth power of the distance, then the exponent n must have a value of 2 t Isua.
Respecting this achievement when developed in its experimental and mathematical completeness, Clerk Maxwell says that it was " perfect in form and unassailable in accuracy."
1851) at Clerk Maxwell's instigation (see Brit.
With the advent of large magneto-electric machines the era of electrotechnics was fairly entered, and this period, which may be said to terminate about 1867 to 1869, was consummated by the theoretical work of Clerk Maxwell.
Maxwell saw that it was unphilosophical to assume a multiplicity of ethers or media until it had been proved that one would not fulfil all the requirements.
Maxwell never committed himself to a precise definition of the physical nature of electric displacement, but considered it as defining that which Faraday had called the polarization in the insulator, or, what is equivalent, the number of lines of electrostatic force passing normally through a unit of area in the dielectric. A second fundamental conception of Maxwell was that the electric displacement whilst it is changing is in effect an electric current, and creates, therefore, magnetic force.
A second relation connecting magnetic and electric force is 3 The first paper in which Maxwell began to translate Faraday's conceptions into mathematical language was " On Faraday's Lines of Force," read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society on the 10th of December 1855 and the I ith of February 1856.
See Maxwell's Collected Scientific Papers, i.
Maxwell also introduced in this connexion the notion of the vector potential.
If we imagine the current in the conductor to be instantaneously reversed in direction, the magnetic force surrounding it would not be instantly reversed everywhere in direction, but the reversal would be propagated outwards through space with a certain velocity which Maxwell showed was inversely as the square root of the product of the magnetic permeability and the dielectric constant or specific inductive capacity of the medium.
Maxwell showed in this paper that the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic impulse through space could also be determined by certain experimental methods which consisted in measuring the same electric quantity, capacity, resistance or potential in two ways.
Maxwell suggested new methods for the determination of this ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic units, and by experiments of great ingenuity was able to show that this ratio, which is also that of the velocity of the propagation of an electromagnetic impulse through space, is identical with that of light.
An immediate deduction from Maxwell's theory was that in transparent dielectrics, the dielectric constant or specific inductive capacity should be numerically equal to the square of the refractive index for very long electric waves.
At the time when Maxwell developed his theory the dielectric constants of only a few transparent insulators were known and these were for the most part measured with steady or unidirectional electromotive force.
Maxwell made a comparison between the optical refractive index and the dielectric constant of paraffin wax, and the approximation between the numerical values of the square of the first and that of the last was sufficient to show that there was a basis for further work.
Maxwell's electric and magnetic ideas were gathered together in a great mathematical treatise on electricity and magnetism which was published in 1873.1 This book stimulated in a most remarkable degree theoretical and practical research into the phenomena of electricity and magnetism.
This early work indicated that whilst there were a number of cases in which the square 1 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2 vols.), by James Clerk Maxwell, sometime professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge.
of optical refractive index for long waves and the dielectric constant of the same substance were sufficiently close to afford an apparent confirmation of Maxwell's theory, - yet in other cases there were considerable divergencies.
Thomson) with the aid of King and M'Kichan, or those of Clerk Maxwell, W.
Hence although Maxwell's theory of electrical action when first propounded found many adherents in Great Britain, it did not so much dominate opinion on the continent of Europe.
-With the publication of Clerk Maxwell's treatise in 1873, we enter fully upon the fourth and modern period of electrical research.
1 Clerk Maxwell had already used in 1873 the phrase, " a molecule of electricity."
The formulation of electrical theory as far as regards operations in space free from matter was immensely assisted by Maxwell's mathematical theory.
Oliver Heaviside after 1880 rendered much assistance by reducing Maxwell's mathematical analysis to more compact form and by introducing greater precision into terminology (see his Electrical Papers, 1892).
Succeeding Maxwell as Cavendish professor of physics at Cambridge in 1880, he soon devoted himself especially to the exact redetermination of the practical electrical units in absolute measure.
2 See Maxwell's Electricity and Magnetism, vol.
The theory of electro-optics received great attention from Kelvin, Maxwell, Rayleigh, G.
von Helmholtz, to undertake investigations which had for their object a demonstration of the truth of Maxwell's principle that a variation in electric displacement was in fact an electric current and had magnetic effects.
The other additional phenomena he observed finally contributed an all but conclusive proof of the truth of Maxwell's views.
Soc. Lond., 1856, 8, p. 152; or Maxwell, Elect.
The sum total of all these contributions to electrical knowledge had the effect of establishing Maxwell's principles on a firm basis, but they also led to technical inventions of the very greatest utility.
Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2 vols., 3rd ed., 1892); id., Scientific Papers (2 vols., edited by Sir W.
This led Clerk Maxwell to frame his theory of electro-dynamics, in which electrical impulses were assumed to be transmitted through the ether by waves.
The movable plate can be drawn down into a definite sighted position when a difference of potential is made between the two ' See Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2nd ed.), i.
The investigations of James Clerk Maxwell (Phil.Mag., 1856; Quart.
the relative position and magnitude of the images, are not special properties of optical systems, but necessary consequences of the supposition (in Abbe) of the reproduction of all points of a space in image points (Maxwell assumes a less general hypothesis), and are independent of the manner in which the reproduction is effected.
Sir William Rowan Hamilton (British Assoc. Report, 18 33, p. 360) thus derived the aberrations of the third order; and in later times the method was pursued by Clerk Maxwell (Proc. London Math.
Clerk Maxwell, who, however, tied with him for the Smith's prize.
He considered that the suspension of the liquid is due 1 In this revision of James Clerk Maxwell's classical article in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, additions are marked by square brackets.
Rowland was one of the most brilliant men of science that America has produced, and it is Curious that at first his merits were not perceived in his own country, In America he was unable even to secure the publication of certain of his scientific papers; but Clerk Maxwell at once saw their excellence, and had them printed in the Philosophical Magazine.
WILLIAM MAXWELL EVARTS (1818-1901), American lawyer, was born in Boston on the 6th of February 1818.
Besides the works just mentioned see Sir Herbert Maxwell, History of Dumfries and Galloway (1896); George Ridpath, Border History of England and Scotland (1776); Professor John Veitch, History and Poetry of the Scottish Border (1877); Sir George Douglas, History of the Border Counties (Scots), (1899); W.
Clerk Maxwell and George Chrystal that Ohm's law is true, within the limits of experimental error, even when the currents are so powerful as almost to fuse the conducting wire.
Yet more conclusive are the observations of Maxwell Hall at Jamaica, who reached conclusions identical with those of Barnard and Newcomb, from observations of the base of the light at the close of twilight, which he estimated at 60° in the line through the sun.
More recently Maxwell Hall in Jamaica made a satisfactory determination during the months from January to March, July and October, and carefully discussed his results.
The observations of Maxwell Hall also embraced some made with the spectroscope.
0[900); Maxwell Hall, U.S. Monthly Weather Review (March 1906); Newcomb, Astrophysical Journal (1905) ii.
Clerk Maxwell, Balfour Stewart and Fleeming Jenkin as members of that committee.
The last place finisher, Fleur Maxwell, has more artistry than Irina.
The story of mankind's spiritual awakening, and of the part we play in it. © Kit Constable Maxwell 16.
Rallying in an instant, with the most enviable assurance, he began, - ' I beg ten thousand pardons, Mrs. Maxwell!
Well our newly opened bridal boutique, Maisie Maxwell near Lichfield can cater for whatever your heart desires.
Reading a Glyn Maxwell poem is like eating caviar; reading a Glyn Maxwell verse novel is like eating a bucket of caviar.
MAXWELL STREET was called after Stephen Maxwell of Morriston, an extensive coppersmith and chief partner in the Merchants ' Banking Company.
In the rosy dawn of its inauguration, Mr. Charles Maxwell had persuaded some of the clergy to take up shares.
UNderstanding Law (2 nd edition) (London: Sweet and Maxwell ).
In 1786 Maxwell was named executrix to Lady Glenorchy and was given a particular responsibility for maintaining Glenorchy's chapels and other institutions.
field theory later developed by Maxwell and Einstein.
halcyon days ' I held onto the column for seven years under Maxwell, with the backing of the editors.
OOTB housemate: Maxwell, cheeky southeast England accent.
Michael Tippett, Benjamin Britten and Peter Maxwell Davies are among those who have expressed indebtedness to Purcell's musical genius.
For example, in 1861-65 James Clerk Maxwell explained the interrelation of electric and magnetic fields in his unified theory of electromagnetism.
Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Master of the Queen's Music, has used magic squares in several of his compositions.
The original master mason, Mr Stanley Maxwell Moffatt, knew what he was about.
Months ago is this second paper that efforts to clerk maxwell student.
Maxwell said she had taken him to a family member 's home nearby, causing the removal of Perry to last for several hours.
Dumfries had a Catholic provost, John Maxwell, at the insistence of James, the first since the Reformation.
ropewalk chambers, the chambers of Richard Maxwell QC, provides a comprehensive, largely civil advocacy service, and works throughout the country.
The implication is that capitalism itself is one big swindle (compare Enron, Maxwell, etc.
In January 1984 media tycoon Robert Maxwell attempted to take the club over.
With the clock running down, Darren Dods replaced Mark Reilly with Ian Maxwell moving upfield in an effort to grab a goal.
Maxwell estimated I.
Fast and Hu Maxwell, History and Government of West Virginia (Morgantown, 1901; new edition, 1908); A.
It was of course well known, as a necessity of Maxwell's mathematical theory, that the polarization and depolarization of an insulator must give rise to the same electromagnetic effects in the neighbourhood as a voltaic current in a conductor.
There is this difference, however, between this experiment and the operation imagined by Maxwell, that when the gases have diffused the experiment cannot be repeated; and it is no more contrary to the dissipation of energy than is the fact that work may be derived at the expense of heat when a gas expands into a vacuum, for the working substance is not finally restored to its original condition; while Maxwell's "demons" may operate without limit.
Poincare, Les Oscillations electriques (Paris, 1894); Poincare and Vreeland, Maxwell's Theory and Wireless Telegraphy 0904); A.
This paper of Thomson's, whose ideas Maxwell afterwards developed in an extraordinary manner, seems to have given the first hint that there are at least two perfectly distinct methods of arriving at the known formulae of statical electricity.
This was, of course, even more repugnant to Maxwell's mind than the statical distance-action developed by Poisson.
Availing himself of the admirable generalized co-ordinate system of Lagrange, Maxwell showed how to reduce all electric and magnetic phenomena to stresses and motions of a material medium, and, as one preliminary, but excessively severe, test of the truth of his theory, he pointed out that (if the electromagnetic medium be that which is required for the explanation of the phenomena of light) the velocity of light in vacuo should xvii.
In private life Clerk Maxwell was one of the most lovable of men, a sincere and unostentatious Christian.
C. Maxwell Lyte, Dunster and its Lords (1882); Victoria County History, Somerset, vol.
In the introductory paper in Maxwell's collection we are told that " The practice of draining, enclosing, summer fallowing, sowing flax, hemp, rape, turnip and grass seeds, planting cabbages after, and potatoes with, the plough, in fields of great extent, is introduced; and that, according to the general opinion, more corn grows now yearly where it was never known to grow before, these twenty years last past, than perhaps a sixth of all that the kingdom was in use to produce at any time before."
Maxwell, Manual of the Malay Language (1882), pp. 5-34, where this subject is treated more fully than by previous writers.
In Maxwell's Manual, pp. 120 seq., no less than sixteen terms are given to express the different kinds of striking, as many for the different kinds of speaking, eighteen for the various modes of carrying, &c. An unnecessary distinction has been made between High Malay and Low Malay.
The field-strength at any point is also called the magnetic force at that point; it is denoted by H, or, when it is desired to draw attention to the fact that it is a vector quantity, by the block letter H, or the German character, C. Magnetic force is sometimes, and perhaps more suitably, termed magnetic intensity; it corresponds to the intensity of gravity g in the theory of heavy bodies (see Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, § 12 and § 68, footnote).
The magnetization at any point inside the ellipsoid will then be I = HN (29) where N=47r (e2t) (-2-eloI- e - t), e being the eccentricity (see Maxwell's Treatise, § 438).
The parish contains the beautiful ruin of Lincluden Abbey (see Dumfries), and Terregles House, once the seat of William Maxwell, last earl of Nithsdale.
For the proof of the converse proposition we must refer the reader to the Electrical Researches of Cavendish, p. 419, or to Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd ed., vol.
According to Maxwell, priority in showing the necessity for slipping over the boundary rests with Reynolds, who also discovered the cognate fact of thermal transpiration, meaning thereby that gas travels up the gradient of temperature in a capillary tube, owing to surface-actions, until it establishes such a gradient of pressure (extremely minute) as will prevent further flow.
In the remainder of the article referred to, Maxwell reviews the evidence for the necessity of an aether, from the fact that light takes time to travel, while it cannot travel as a substance, for if so two interfering lights could not mask each other in the dark fringes (see Interference Of Light).
But when the rate of change of aethereal strain - that is, of (f,g,h) specified as Maxwell's electric displacement in free aether - is added to it, an analytically convenient vector (u,v,w) is obtained which possesses the characteristic property of being circuital like the flow of an incompressible fluid, and has therefore been made fundamental in the theory by Maxwell under the name of the total electric current.
The latter force is, by Maxwell's hypothesis or by the dynamical theory of an aether pervaded by electrons, the same as that which strair s the aether, and may be called the aethereal force; it thereby produces an aethereal electric displacement, say (f,g,h), according to the relation (f,g,h) = (41 r c 2) - 1(P',Q', RI), in which c is a constant belonging to the aether, which turns out to be the velocity of light.
The current of aethereal displacement d/dt(f,g,h) is what adds on to the true electric current to produce the total circuital current of Maxwell.
Robert died without sons in October 1667, when a cousin John Maxwell, 7th Lord Herries (d.
On the day after the resignation of his seat in the cabinet he also resigned his offices of master of the ordnance and commander-in-chief, giving as his reason "the tone and temper of Mr Canning's letters," though it is difficult to see in these letters any adequate reason for such a course (see Maxwell's Life, ii.
On the other hand, scientific men, such as Herschel, Maxwell and Stokes, who approach nature from mathematics and mechanics, and therefore from the universal laws of motion, have the opposite tendency, because they perceive that nature is not its own explanation.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) entered on his electrical studies with a desire to ascertain if the ideas of Faraday, so different from those of Poisson and the French mathematicians, could be made the foundation of a mathematical method and brought under the power of analysis.3 Maxwell started with the conception that all electric and magnetic phenomena are due to effects taking place in the dielectric or in the ether if the space be vacuous.
Thomson, the successor of Maxwell and Lord Rayleigh in the Cavendish chair of physics in the university of Cambridge, began about the year 1899 a remarkable series of investigations on the cathode discharge, which finally enabled him to make a measurement of the ratio of the electric charge to the mass of the particles of matter projected from the cathode, and to show that this electric charge was identical with the atomic electric charge carried by a hydrogen ion in the act of electrolysis, but that the mass of the cathode particles, or " corpuscles " as he called them, was far less, viz.
The conclusion to which the above observers came was that any quadrant electrometer made in any manner does not See Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism (2nd ed., Oxford, 1881), vol.
Yet more conclusive are the observations of Maxwell Hall at Jamaica, who reached conclusions identical with those of Barnard and Newcomb, from observations of the base of the light at the close of twilight, which he estimated at 60Ã‚° in the line through the sun.
Ropewalk Chambers, the chambers of Richard Maxwell QC, provides a comprehensive, largely civil advocacy service, and works throughout the country.
Andrew Maxwell: ' Round Twilight Cheek, social commentary and subversive humor from Channel 4's King of Comedy.
The Maxwell's young son received a strong rebuke after he called 911 for no reason.
Nick Diamond - Voiced by Len Maxwell, he's the more obnoxious (and sometimes flat-out inappropriate) half of the Celebrity Deathmatch commentators.
One of the things that Brevard Community College is culturally known for is the Maxwell C.
In The Garden, 23rd August 1919, Sir Herbert Maxwell praises this plant as doing well in Scotland.
Rand, and James Mason are clear shades approaching scarlet, and James Macintosh, Maxwell T.
The entire incident began in March of 2008 with a one-week tour scheduled for Dave Carroll's band, Sons of Maxwell.
Sunglasses: the fifteen styles include BSG, Crossover, Digit, EC-DC, Gain, Generator, Hi-Fi, Livewire, Maxwell, Ohm, Overdrive, Technician, Treble, Vol., and Wolfpak.
Move the vending machine next to Maxwell, empty it, and you have the Starlite.
Chrissa Maxwell's story is the story of a young girl who just moved to Arizona.
Several years later, American sportswear designer Vera Maxwell designed her own take of the jumpsuit.
During the pilot episode, Ben Tennyson is on a camping trip with his cousin Gwen and their grandfather, Maxwell.
Michael Parkes' art evokes Maxwell Parrish in its romanticism and fantasy art deco flair.
An explanation of the twist has been given by Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, § 448).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.