She came to her feet, stretching her body to its maximum height.
The flood water brought down by the Shari in December and January causes the lake to rise to a maximum of 24 ft., the water spreading over low-lying ground, left dry again in May or June.
These few were given the tools to achieve their maximum potential, to live that dream.
The maximum wage you can earn, though, is defined by supply and demand for labor, and by your negotiating ability, but it also has a cap.
Where everyone can live up to his or her maximum potential.
Simultaneously the forenoon maximum occurs earlier and the afternoon maximum later in the day.
We compute the maximum amount of food the world can produce by beginning with total acres of land considered arable, but that is based on assumptions about the future of technology and agriculture.
The mean depth is 189 ft., and the maximum 512 ft.
The time chosen for the strike was the height of the wool season, when a cessation of work would be attended with the maximum of inconvenience.
Precisely at six the next morning, he strode through the medical facility's maximum security barriers.
It must be noticed, however, that the angle of maximum polarization would be about 76° instead of 90°.
Thus between London and Manchester only four sets of apparatus could be worked, but between London and Birmingham, a shorter distance, six sets (the maximum for which the system is adapted) were used.
Thus between London and Manchester only four sets of apparatus could be worked, but between London and Birmingham, a shorter distance, six sets (the maximum for which the system is adapted) were used.
But the food would not only be produced with maximum efficiency; it would be extremely fresh and very healthy.
Where transgenesis offers the most amazing possibilities is in GM foods because it allows plants to exceed their maximum genetic potential.
In practice, a period of twenty-one days is usually the maximum period ordered.
It is a sufficient answer to remark that on this theory the blue would reach its maximum development in the colour of the setting sun.
The principal maximum is usually found in the evening between 8 and pp P.M., the principal minimum in the morning from 3 to 5 A.M.
The conspicuous maximum in 1901 and great drop in 1902 in Hungary are also shown by the statistics as to the number of days of thunder.
If we begin with a blue glass, we may observe the gradually increasing obliquity of the direction of maximum polarization; and then by exchanging the blue glass for a red one, we may revert to the original condition of things, and observe the transition from perpendicularity to obliquity over again.
A dock-side crane unloading cargo with high lifts following one another in rapid succession will require a higher load factor than a workshop traveller with a very short lift and only a very occasional maximum load; and a traveller with a very long longitudinal travel will require a higher load factor for the travelling motor than for the lifting motor.
The fact that at this stage the polarization is a maximum, when the angle through which the light is turned exceeds a right angle, is the more worthy of note, as the opposite result would probably have been expected.
Below the surface a focus of maximum temperature appears off the coast of South America in about 30 S.
From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.
From July to October the level of the Senegal shows a series of fluctuations, with, however, a general increase till the end of August or beginning of September, when the maximum occurs.
I can, of course, see everything in it, or if I prefer, set the system to "minimum supplements" or "maximum supplements" and let the system decide.
The diurnal variation showed only a single maximum and minimum, between 5 and 6 P. M.
Most stations in the northern hemisphere have a conspicuous maximum at midsummer with little thunder in winter.
Beginning with the Aptian and Albian the sea again gradually spread over the country and attained its maximum in the early part of the Senonian epoch, when once more the ancient massifs of the Central Plateau, Brittany and the Ardennes, alone rose above the waves.
The hour of maximum is earlier for the mountains, thunder being more frequent there than in the plains between 8 A.M.
If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the causes of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom.
At the temperate stations the maximum occurs near mid-winter; in the Arctic it seems deferred towards spring.
On the other hand, at Altjoch, an Alpine station, from nine days' observations in July 1903 they obtained a mean of 137, the maximum being 224, and the minimum 92.
maximum, grows in wet sandy declivities by railway embankments or streams, &c., and is remarkable for its beauty, due to the abundance of its elegant branches and the alternately green and white appearance of the stem.
It has a minimum temperature of 29°, and a maximum of 104.5°, the average yearly mean being 54.1°.
The heat equator, or line of maximum mean surface temperature, starts from the African coast in about 5° N.
How many people do you know who say their job stretches them to their maximum potential?
This takes place in a plane passing through the sun, and attains a maximum about 90° therefrom.
The same observer from four weeks' observations at Hammerfest got the considerably lower mean value 58, with a maximum of 252.
This depreciation reached its maximum in October 1891 ($460.82 paper for $100 gold), and remained between that figure and $264 during the next six years.
The mean annual temperature is 62.8° F., the maximum 112°, and the minimum 25°.
In this instance there seems little difference in the hour of maximum, the distinguishing feature being the great concentration of thunderstorm occurrence at Agustia between noon and 6 P.M.
North of the North Atlantic maximum the waters become steadily fresher as latitude increases until the channels opening into the Arctic basin are reached.
The mean depth over this ridge is about 250 fathoms, and the maximum depth nowhere reaches 500 fathoms. The main basin of the Atlantic is thus cut off from the Arctic basin, with which the area north of the ridge has complete deep-water communication.
Since 1875 the expenditure of the state has passed through considerable fluctuations- It reached its maximum in 1883, descended E dl- in 1888 and 1889, and since then has continuously inxpeft creased.
The Taconic Mountains rise in very irregular masses to1500-2000ft., and reach their maximum elevation in Mount Equinox at 3816 ft.
In support of his theory Exner states that he has found but little trace of the double maximum and minimum in Ceylon and elsewhere.
His Figures Show A Double Daily Period In Both And A_, The Principal Maximum Occurring About I Or 2 P.M.
and a maximum breadth of 220 ft., surrounded by a dry-built wall of extraordinary massiveness.
Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.
18 shows a modern design of crane intended to command the maximum of yard space, and having some of the characteristics both of the Goliath and of the revolving jib crane, and fig.
After twenty minutes into the session, I became concerned we were nearing his maximum.
It is an arduous race, for only the fittest, yet the race is always booked early to its maximum.
at its maximum.
In the vicinity of Buenos Aires the climatic conditions vary very little from those of the pampa region; the mean annual temperature is about 63° (maximum 104°; minimum 32°), and the annual rainfall is 34 in.; snow is rarely seen.
He showed that in a simple Marconi antenna the variations of potential are a maximum at the insulated top and a minimum at the base, whilst the current amplitudes are a maximum at the top earthed end and zero at the top end.
The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
771818) to employ a receiving antenna consisting of vertical wires held in a frame which could be swivelled round into various positions and used to locate the position of the sending station by ascertaining the position in which the frame must be placed to create in it the maximum oscillatory current.
The capacity of the condenser is then altered until the maximum current, as indicated by a hot wire ammeter, is produced in the circuit.
When this is the case the amplitude of the potential difference of the surfaces of the tubular condenser becomes a maximum, and this is indicated by connecting a vacuum tube filled with neon to the surfaces of the condenser.
In America, on farmers' circuits, ten or more stations are frequently connected to one line; but in England ten is practically the maximum.
The northern portion, measured from the Alps at the Monte Viso to the mouth of the Po, has a breadth of about 270 m., while the maximum breadth, from the Rocca Chiardonnet near Susa to a peak in the valley of the Isonzo, is 354 m.
in Venetia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany the proportion of concentrated population is only from 40 to 55%; in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy the proportion rises to from 70 to 76%; in southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia it attains a maximum of from 76 to 93%.
In 1871 o~ily 20 hectolitres were produced, but in 1881 the output was 318,000 hectolitres, the maximum hitherto attained.
The pupils of the secondary schools reach a maximum of 6~6o per 1000 in Liguria and 5~92 in Latium, and a minimum of 2.30 in the Abruzzi, 227 in Calabria and 1.65 in Basilicata.
Emilia gives a maximum rate of 10.48 per ioo,ooo, while that of Liguria and Lazio is little lower.
Thus in Italy the universal service system, though probably the best organization both for the army and the nation, works with a maximum of friction.
The Italian Chamber decided that from the 1st of July 1901 until the 30th of June 1907 Italian military expenditure proper should not exceed the maximum of 1/29,560,000 per annum fixed by the Army Bill of May 1897, and that, military pensions should not exceed 1/21,440,000.
Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, for an under-secretary of state) was only 500 per annum.
in 1900 the maximum rate was 107.32, and the minimum 105.40, but in 1901 rates fell considerably, and were at par in 1902-1909.
The new law forbade the state banks to lend money on real estate, limited their powers of discounting bills and securities, and reduced the maximum of their paper currency.
The maximum number of teeth is 36, there being typically two pairs of incisors and three of premolars in each jaw.
The rate of growth of a cell varies gradually throughout its course; it begins slowly, increases to a maximum, and then becomes slower till it stops.
Here it is that the actual extension in length of the root takes place, and the cells reach the maximum point of the grand period.
This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.
One side of a stem may be more turgid than the opposite one, and the maximum turgidity, with its consequent growth, may alternate between two opposite sides.
More frequently the region of maximum turgidity passes gradually round the growing zone.
The passage of the maximum turgidity round the stem may vary in rapidity in different places, causing the circle to be replaced by an ellipse.
(6) The tropical forest, which represents the maximum of plant luxuriance, stimulated by the heaviest rainfall, greatest heat and strongest light.
But the positive characteristics of the region as a whole are not its peculiar forms alone; there are at least four families which, being feebly represented elsewhere, here attain the maximum of development.
The eastern part of the township is generally hilly, reaching a maximum altitude of about 2200 ft., and there are two considerable bodies of water - Laurel Lake in the N.W.
The solid melts to a pale yellow liquid which on continued heating gradually darkens and becomes more viscous, the maximum viscosity occurring at 180°, the product being dark red in colour.
Nowhere does the maximum rainfall take place in winter (as in W.
Russia between May the 18th and the 24th, sa that it is only in June that warm weather sets in definitely, and it reaches its maximum in the first half of July (or of August on the Black Sea coast).
Europe, and it attains its maximum velocity in winter.
If the maximum rates were prescribed, as they sometimes were, the limit was placed so high as to be of no practical value for control.
In the first instance laws were enacted prescribing schedules of maximum freight and passenger rates with stringent penalties against rebates and discriminations.
Most of them had power to impose schedules of maximum rates; practically all of them had authority to prescribe rates upon complaint of shippers; and they could all seek the aid of the courts to enforce their decrees.
This demand has in many instances led to ill-considered legislation, has frequently ignored the prerogatives and even the existence of the state commissions, and has brought about the passage by state legislatures of maximum freight and passenger rate laws, with rates so low in many cases that they have been set aside by the courts as unconstitutional.
It expressly conferred upon the Commission the power to prescribe maximum rates, upon complaint and after hearing, as well as to make joint rates, and to establish through rates when the carriers had themselves refused to do so.
The ruling gradient of a section of railway is the steepest incline in that section, and is so called because it governs or rules the maximum load that can be placed behind an engine working over that portion of line.
The maximum gradient possible depends on climatic conditions, a dry climate being the most favourable.
It was not till more than half a century later that an American, Sylvester Marsh, employed the rack system for the purpose of enabling trains to surmount steep slopes on the Mount Washington railway, where the maximum gradient was nearly 1 in 22.
The specifications for bull-headed rails issued by the British Engineering Standards Committee in 1904 provided for a carbon-content ranging from 0-35 to 0-50%, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.075%.
In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.
The maximum weight which one pair of wheels are usually allowed to carry on a first-class track is from 18 to 20 tons.
Thus if the maximum horse-power which a locomotive can develop is woo, the tractive resistance R, at 60 m.
Thus an engine working at maximum power may be used to haul a relatively light load at a high speed or a heavy load at a slow speed.
- The maximum power which can be developed by a locomotive depends upon the maximum rate of fuel combustion which can be maintained per square foot of grate.
This maximum rate depends upon the kind of coal used, whether small, friable, bituminous or hard, upon the thickness of the fire, and upon the correct design and setting of the blast-pipe.
The maximum rate of combustion may be as much as so lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, and in exceptional cases even a greater rate than this has been maintained.
Hence, if p is the maximum value of the mean effective pressure corresponding to about 85% of the boiler pressure,, uW = pd 2 le /D (26) is an expression giving a relation between the total weight on the coupled wheels, their diameters and the size of the cylinder.
Taking 85% of this, the maximum mean effective pressure would be 149 lb per square inch.
This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.
per pound, the maximum indicated horse-power is given by the expression I.H.P. maximum - CcA X778 1980000 where A is the area of the grate in square feet, and is the combined efficiency of the engine and boiler.
ft., that the rate of combustion is 150 lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, that the calorific value is 14000, and finally that n =0.06, the maximum indicated horse-power which the engine might be expected to develop would be o 06 X 150 x14000 X24 X 778/1980000 = I 190, corresponding to a mean effective pressure in the cylinders of 59.5 lb per square inch.
164.) Substituting this value of p in (27) I.H.P. _ (c av (29) 550 the form of which indicates that there is a certain piston speed for which the I.H.P. is a maximum.
In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.
Any modification of the design which will reduce the resistance to the flow of steam through the steam passages at high speeds will increase the piston speed for which the indicated horse-power is a maximum.
on straight lines, radiating from the business centre or point of maximum congestion of travel to the outer limits of the city; and, while not attempting to serve all the population through the agency of the line, make an effort to serve a portion in the best possible manner - that is, with direct transit.
gauge, with a ruling gradient of I in 40, a maximum speed of 15 m.
Curves of still smaller radius have entailed a maximum speed of io m.
The maximum 1st, 2nd and 3rd class passenger fares are, per kilometre, 067 f.
9.5 in.); maximum gradient, I in 50; length of sleepers, 1.70 m.
4.85 in.); locomotives, maximum weight per axle 6 tons, rigid wheel base 1 .
In 1877 the maximum annual output for the mines was attained, being $3 6, 3 01, 537.
The maximum depth is 420 ft.
long at its maximum, with a maximum depth of 55 ft., and covers an area of 142 acres.
wide with a maximum depth of 300 ft.
deep. In June 1908 the maximum low-water draft of the channel and the basin was 19 ft.
In 1907 there was a serious clash between the state authorities and the Federal judiciary, arising from an act of the legislature of that year which fixed the maximum railway fare at 21 cents a mile and imposed enormous fines for .its violation.
as a maximum and 1000 ft.
as a maximum hardly ever exceeded.
At Aden the minimum is a few degrees below 70°, the maximum not much exceeding 90°.
The summers are hot, though short in the northern latitudes, the maximum of summer heat being comparatively little less than that observed in the tropical countries farther south.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
The power of the Achaemenidae, when at its maximum, extended from the Oxus and Indus in the east to Thrace in the west and Egypt in the south, but fell before Greece, after lasting for rather more than 200 years.
The city has a beautiful situation on the hilly ground (maximum elevation, about 250 ft.
deep, nearly continuously from Hampton Roads to the Richmond wharf, and the maximum draft at low water was 16.1 ft.
The acreage of rye grown in the United Kingdom as a grain crop is small, the respective maximum and minimum areas during the period 1875-1905 having been 102,676 acres in 1894 and 47,937 acres in 1880.
animals three to four years old, was abolished, the maximum age at which steers were allowed to compete for prizes being reduced to three years.
The single exception is provided by the slowly-maturing Highland breed of cattle, for which classes were allotted to (I) steers not exceeding three years old, (2) steers or oxen above three years old (with no maximum limit), and (3) heifers not exceeding four years old.
The disease is seen to have attained its maximum virulence in 1883.
Glanders (including farcy) was the subject during the twentyfour years 1877-1900 of outbreaks in Great Britain ranging between a minimum of 518 in 1877 and a maximum of 1657 in 1892; in the former year 758 horses were attacked, and in the latter 3001.
Between 1870 and 1889 the annual outbreaks had ranged between a minimum of 312 in 1884 and a maximum of 3262 in 1874, the largest number of cattle attacked in any one year being 7983 in 1872.
The characteristic torsion attains its maximum effect among the majority of the Streptoneura.
- Streptoneura In this division the torsion of the visceral mass and visceral commissure is at its maximum, the latter being twisted into a figure of eight.
The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.
long, with a maximum height of 129 ft., only 750 ft.
long, reaches there a depth of over 600 fathoms, with a maximum depth of 880 fathoms, i.e.
215 surround it, and most of its area has a depth exceeding 400 fathoms, the maximum depths along three lines of soundings taken across it being 491, 485, and 476 fathoms respectively.
_This stylet is thus situated terminally when the proboscis has reached its maximum eversion.
The instrument therefore does not begin to read from zero current, but from some higher limit which, generally speaking, is about one-tenth of the maximum, so that an ammeter reading up to io amperes will not give much visible indication below i ampere.
In the construction of such an instrument it is essential that the wire should be subjected to a process of preparation or " ageing," which consists in passing through it a fairly strong current, at least the maximum that it will ever have to carry, and starting and stopping this current frequently.
The 1232 convicts " on hand" at the close of 1908 were held in 38 camps, 4 being the minimum, and 160 the maximum number, at a camp. In 1908 two central hospitals for the prisoners were maintained by the lessee company.
The maximum depth recorded by the United States Lake Survey is 870 ft.; the mean level of the surface is 5813 ft.
The level of the lake is subject to seasonal fluctuations, reaching a maximum in midsummer and a minimum in February, as well as to alternating cycles of years of high and low water.
The discharge of water is by law so regulated that the maximum flow shall not exceed 250,000 cub.
The climate is temperate, but liable to sudden changes; the mean temperature is 63° I F., the maximum (in July) 99° 01, the minimum (in January) 31°.
The ordinary variation is from 3 to 4 degrees, the mean maximum reading in the shade in a cooler district being about 105° as against 108° in the hotter ones for the month of May, and 79° as against 83° for the month of December.
The total number of persons in receipt of relief reached its maximum of nearly 700,000 in May 1897.
The maximum of persons relieved for the whole province was 1,971,000 in June 'goo.
maximum), as distinct from the long, narrow and deep troughs occupied by the other chief lakes, which average from 40 to 135 ft.
The months of maximum rainfall at Seathwaite are November, December and January and September.
(4) Black peaty soil varying in thickness, the maximum being about a foot.
The yearly mean temperature is 25° Fahr., the maximum cold being 4.7°.
It was solemnly declared in the decree authorizing the issue that the maximum issue was never to exceed twelve hundred millions.
Then came the passing by the Convention on the 3rd of May 1793 of the absurd "maximum."
A maximum price was fixed, above which no one was to buy or sell under severe penalties.
The extension of the "maximum" to all commodities onry increased the confusion.
The assignats had now become totally valueless - the abolition of the "maximum" the previous year (1795) had produced no effect, and, though, by various payments into the treasury, the total number had been reduced to about 24,000,000,000 francs, their face-value was about 3 o to I of coin.
Its length from Cape Maisi to Cape San Antonio along a medial line is about 730 m.; its breadth, which averages about 50 m., ranges from a maximum of 160 m.
The total revenues of the empire are thus estimated to produce 725,848,332, and seeing the careful and moderate manner in which the estimates have been framed, this may be looked upon rather as a minimum than a maximum.
The naval history of1803-1815includes the culmination and the sequel of the struggle for command of the sea which began in 1793 and reached its maximum intensity on the day of Trafalgar.
to a maximum of 5 ft.
When the fruit has stoned - that is, as soon as the kernels have been formed - the temperature should be raised to about 65° as a minimum, and to 70°, with 75° by sun heat, as a maximum.
There is no doubt about the latter variation, but with regard to its periodicity - that is, the number of years elapsing between one maximum and the next - much still remains to be done.
Such a constellation can be shown to occur at intervals of about 1,800 years and about those times the tide-generating force will be at an absolute maximum.
It is shown to be probable that such effects actually occurred about the time of the last maximum (A.D.
Therefore the animal organisms, as a rule, reproduce in the spring or early summer just after the vernal phyto-plankton maximum.
Following that again is a less well-marked maximum of phyto-plankton in the autumn, occurring just after the period of highest sea temperature.
Daly estimates that the maximum lowering of ocean level due to this cause would only amount to 36 fathoms, but even that would be the cause of very marked geological effects.
in maximum breadth, capable of holding a vessel of 17,500 tons and draught not exceeding 29 ft., so constructed and equipped that in time of need (war) it could be floated down to Cuxhaven.
Nevertheless, in certain cases, the temperature coefficient of conductivity becomes negative at high temperatures, a solution of phosphoric acid, for example, reaching a maximum conductivity at 75° C.
Formally to legalize the minimum enjoined by the rubrics of 1549 would, on the other hand, offend the "Protestant" section of the Church, without reconciling those who would be content with nothing short of the Catholic maximum.
The first settlement was made here in 1849; rich deposits of gold were soon afterwards found on or near the surface, and the settlement had the characteristic growth of a western mining town; its output of gold reached its maximum in 1850-1851.
These disadvantages are at their maximum when the rubber trees are quite young.
The yield of latex is at first small, but increases with successive tappings, which appear to stimulate the local production of latex, and finally reaches a maximum.
wide on each side of the trans-Siberian railway was absolutely prohibited in 1895, and the extent of crown lands sold to a single person or group of persons never exceeds 1080 acres unless an especially useful industrial enterprise is projected, and in that case the maximum is fixed at 2700 acres.
The average elevation of the province is considerable, and the maximum height (6593 ft.) is reached in the Pena Trevinca on the eastern border of Orense.
Spain ranked second in 1850 with about 47,000 tons; this was increased in 1863, 1876 and in 1888 to 84,000, 127,000 and 187,000 tons respectively; but the maximum outputs mentioned were preceded and succeeded by periods of depression.
Elaborate rules are accordingly drawn up to secure the maximum of benefit, and the minimum of inconvenience, from this sacred fire; and in the application of these rules does savage casuistry consist.
That he held to be good which gives the maximum of pleasure.
Those substances which are attracted, or rather which tend, like iron, to move from weaker to stronger parts of the magnetic field, are termed paramagnetic; those which are repelled, or tend to move from stronger to weaker parts of the field, are termed diamagnetic. Between the ferromagnetics and the paramagnetics there is an enormous gap. The maximum magnetic susceptibility of iron is half a million times greater than that of liquid oxygen, one of the strongest paramagnetic substances known.
The ratio of the residual magnetization to its previous maximum value measures the retentiveness, or retentivity, of the metal.'
The body (or each element of it) will tend to set itself with its axis of greatest susceptibility parallel to the lines of force, while, if the field is not uniform, each volume-element will also tend to move towards places of greater or smaller force (according as the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic), the tendency being a maximum when the axis of greatest susceptibility is parallel to the field, and a minimum when it is perpendicular to it.
The current increases to a maximum as E approaches F, and diminishes to almost nothing when E is brought up to D; it can be completely interrupted by means of the switch H.
units in the case illustrated in the figure), an operation which is performed by simply reversing, the direction of the maximum magnetizing current a few times.
Hopkinson pointed out that the greatest dissipation of energy which can be caused by a to-and-fro reversal is approximately represented by Coercive force X maximum induction fir.
Denoting by W the work in ergs done upon a cubic centimetre of the metal (=_fHdB or f HdI), he finds W =nips approximately, where n 47r is a number, called the hysteretic constant, depending upon the metal, and B is the maximum induction.
Steinmetz's formula may be tested by taking a series of hysteresis curves between different limits of B,' measuring their areas by a pianimeter, and plotting the logarithms of these divided by 47r as ordinates against logarithms of the corresponding maximum values of B as abscissae.
Working with two different specimens, he found that the hysteresis loss in ergs per cubic centimetre (W) was fairly represented by o 00125B 1 6 and o o0101B 1 ' 6 respectively, the maximum induction ranging from about 300 to 3000.
of a crowd of small compass needles (representative of magnetic molecules) is proportional to the 1.6th power of the aggregate maximum magnetic moment before or after completion of the cycle.
Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.
These results are of extreme interest, for they show' that under sufficiently strong magnetizing forces the intensity of magnetization I reaches a maximum value, as required by W.
Further, if the alternations take place so slowly that the full maximum and minimum values of the magnetization are reached in the intervals between the reversals, there will again be no dissipation of energy.
The elongation is generally found to reach a maximum under a magnetizing force of 50 to 120 units, and to vanish under a force of 200 to 400, retraction occurring when still higher forces are applied.
merely has the effect of diminishing the maximum elongation and hastening the contraction; with the two greatest loads used in the experiment there was indeed no preliminary extension at all.'
in diameter the maximum elongation was nearly doubled when a current of two amperes was passing through the iron, while the " critical value " of the field was increased from 130 to 200.
Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.
The experiments were not sufficiently numerous to indicate whether, as is possible, there is a critical degree of hardness for which the height of the elongation curve is a maximum.
In the latter case the first application of stress is always attended by an increase-often a very great one-of the magnetization, whether the field is weak or strong, but after a load has been put on and taken off several times the changes of magnetization become cyclic. From experiments of both classes it appears that for a given field there is a certain value of the load for which the magnetization is a maximum, the maximum occuring at a smaller load the stronger the field.
In very strong fields the maximum may even disappear altogether, the effect of the smallest stress J.
] being to diminish the magnetization; on the other hand, with very weak fields the maximum may not have been reached with the greatest load that the wire can support without permanent deformation.
When the load on a hardened wire is gradually increased, the maximum value of I is found to correspond with a greater stress than when the load is gradually diminished, this being an effect of hysteresis.
The maximum susceptibility of one of his bars rose from 5.6 to 29 under a stress of 19.8 kilos per square mm.
Under increasing magnetizing force the magnetization first increased, reached a maximum, and then diminished until its value ultimately became less than when the iron was in the unstrained condition.
Steel behaves in a similar manner, but the maximum permeability is not so high as in iron, and the fall, when the critical point is approached, is less abrupt.
After one of the rings had been annealed at 840°, its maximum permeability at ordinary temperatures was 4000 for H =1.84; when it had been subsequently annealed at 1150°, the maximum permeability rose to 4680 for H =1.48, while the hysteresis loss for 2 B = t 4000 was under 500 ergs per c.cm.
The behaviour of cobalt is particularly noticeable; its permeability increased with rising temperature up to a maximum at 500°, when it was about twice as great as at ordinary temperatures, while at 1600°, corresponding to white heat, there was still some magnetization remaining.
When the curve after its steep descent has almost reached the axis, it bends aside sharply and becomes a nearly horizontal straight line; the authors suggest that the critical temperature should be defined as that corresponding to the point of maximum curvature.
The maximum permeability (for H = 2) was 3400 at 15° and only 2700 at - 186°, a reduction of more than 20%; but the percentage reduction became less as the magnetizing force departed from the value corresponding to maximum permeability.
per cycle being approximately represented by o 002 B1.56 when the maximum limits of B were ± 9000.
The addition of silicon in small quantities considerably diminished permeability and increased coercive force; but when the proportion amounted to 2.5% the maximum permeability (µ =5100 for H =2) was greater than that of the nearly pure iron used for comparison, while the coercive force was only 0.9.
The aluminium-iron attained its greatest permeability in a field of o 5, about that of the earth's force, when its value was 9000, this being more than twice the maximum permeability of the Swedish iron.
Houllevigue7 and others that when the magnetizing force is increased, this effect passes a maximum, while J.
In nickel the maximum change of the elastic constants is remarkably large, .amounting to about 15% for Young's modulus and 7% for rigidity; with increasing fields the elastic constants first decrease and then increase.
In nickel-steels containing about 50 and 70% of nickel the maximum increase of the constants is as much as 7 or 8%.
With small magnetizing forces the hysteresis was indeed somewhat larger than that obtained in an alternating field, probably on account of the molecular changes being forced to take place in one direction only; but at an induction of about 16,00o units in soft iron and 15,000 in hard steel the hysteresis reached a maximum and afterwards rapidly diminished.
The essential point in his advance on Euler's mode of investigating curves of maximum or minimum consisted in his purely analytical conception of the subject.
Besides this most important contribution to the general fabric of dynamical science, we owe to Lagrange several minor theorems of great elegance, - among which may be mentioned his theorem that the kinetic energy imparted by given impulses to a material system under given constraints is a maximum.
His determination 2 of maximum and minimum values for the slowly varying planetary eccentricities was the earliest attempt to deal with the problem.
long with a maximum width of 37 m., and Lagoa Mirim is 108 m.
long with a maximum width of 15 m.
The average rainfall throughout the whole Amazon valley is estimated by Reclus as " probably in excess of 2 ' metres " (78.7 in.), and the maximum rise of the great flood is about 45 ft.
Sao Paulo is partly covered by open cameos, and these also serve to augment the maximum temperature.
This was most noticeable between 1889 and 1898, when exchange, which represents the value of the milreis, fell from a maximum of 274 pence (27d.
The maximum thickness of 2000 ft.
The minimum of the temperature is attained in January and the maximum in July.
It may be added that he first examined the conditions of stability of the system formed by Saturn's rings, pointed out the necessity for their rotation, and fixed for it a period (Io h 33 m) virtually identical with that established by the observations of Herschel; that he detected the existence in the solar system of an invariable plane such that the sum of the products of the planetary masses by the projections upon it of the areas described by their radii vectores in a given time is a maximum; and made notable advances in the theory of astronomical refraction (Mec. cel.
Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
Within the rectangle formed by pairs of consecutive dark lines, and not far from its centre, the brightness rises to a maximum; but these subsequent maxima are in all cases much inferior to the brightness at the centre of the entire pattern (=o, n =o).
or -2/37r:1; so that the brightness in this direction is 4/91r 2 of the maximum at 0=0.
From a measurement of the maximum distance the least angle between consecutive lines consistent with resolution may be deduced, and a comparison made with the rule stated above.
The maximum brightnesses and the places at which they occur are easily determined with the aid of certain properties of the Bessel's functions.
If appears that the maximum brightness in the first ring is only about 5 1 1 of the brightness at the centre.
Thus if A be selfluminous, the illumination is a maximum at B, where all the secondary waves agree in phase.
8) be the direction of the principal maximum (middle of central band) for the wave-length X in the O h spectrum.
Suppose now that X+SX is the wave-length for which BQ gives the principal maximum, then (mn+1)A=mn(X+SX); whence OX/X= limn.
The first maximum in fact occurs when 6=2A-0046X, and the first minimum when 5 = 8X- oo16X, the corrections being readily obtainable from a table of G by substitution of the approximate value of V.
It is easy to see that the length of the chord (which passes in all cases through 0) increases to a maximum near the place where the phase-retardation is s of a period, then diminishes to a minimum when the retardation is about a of a period, and so on.
On the north and south are hills reaching a maximum height of 200 ft.
Since the angles of incidence and refraction are connected by the relation sin i=µ sin r (Snell's Law), µ being the index of refraction of the medium, then the problem may be stated as follows: to determine the value of the angle i which makes D = 2 (i - r) +n (7r - 2r) a maximum or minimum, in which i and r are connected by the relation sin i =µ sin r, µ being a constant.
This was first suggested by Thomas Young, who showed that the rays producing the bows consisted of two systems, which, although emerging in parallel directions, traversed different paths in the drop. Destructive interference between these superposed rays will therefore occur, and, instead of a continuous maximum illumination in the direction of minimum deviation, we should expect to find alternations of brightness and darkness.
Australian deposits were worked in 1872, and in the following year the production was 3000 tons; the maximum outputs were in 1881-1883, averaging 10,000 tons annually; but the supply declined to 2420 tons in 1898 and has since increased to about 5028 tons in 1905.
At Calabozo, for instance, the mean is about 88°, though the maximum in summer is not far from 100°.
At Ciudad Bolivar, which is less sheltered from the trade-winds, the mean is 83° and the maximum 91.4°.
The lowest temperatures recorded in official reports are those of Mucuchies, in the state of Merida, where the maximum is 68°, the minimum 43° and the mean 56°.
In 1869 the maximum burden of the vessels which were able to ply on the upper Elbe was 250 tons; but in 1899 it was increased to Boo tons.
The first attempts to utilize the explosive power of nitroglycerin were made by Nobel in 1863; they were only partially successful until the plan, first applied by General Pictot in 1854, of developing the force of gunpowder in the most rapid manner and to the maximum extent, through initiative detonation, was applied by Nobel to nitroglycerin.
This method of mining affords the maximum of safety to the miners.
Their power is proportioned to requirements of load and maximum gradient; the speed is rarely more than 6 or 8 m.
The maximum load on the engine is thus greater and more power is required than for fixed drums. Steam consumption is economized, whenever possible, by throwing in the clutches of both drums and hoisting in balance.
Transmit antennas also have parameter - a maximum power rating.
It is highest in the central zone, the mean of the maximum readings in such districts as Magwe, Myingyan, Kyaukse, Mandalay and Shwebo in the month of May being close on 100° F., while in the littoral and sub-montane districts it is nearly ten degrees less.
In the hilly district of Mogok (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°.
In the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley, the shade maximum reaches 100° F.
(io) The velocity q is zero in a corner where the hyperbola a cuts the ellipse a; and round the ellipse a the velocity q reaches a maximum when the tangent has turned through a right angle, and then q _ (Ch 2a-C0s 2(3).
sin e 0 - i) U 2 /2g, having a maximum a U 2 /2g, (21) which must be less than the head at infinite distance to avoid cavitation at the surface of the sphere.
The average temperature throughout the year is about 57° Fahr.; the maximum heat is about 96.8°, and the minimum 36.5°, sometimes sinking to 21°.
When they are in flower, and onwards during the swelling of the berries, 85° may be taken as a maximum, running up to 90° with sun heat and the temperature may be lowered somewhat when the fruit is ripe.
The sorghum is hardier than the sugar-cane; it comes to maturity in a season; and it retains its maximum sugar content a considerable time, giving opportunity for leisurely harvesting.
Thus a maximum of filtering surface with a minimum of liquor in each bag is obtained, and a fa .r greater number of bags are got into a given area that would otherwise be possible, while the danger of bursting the bags by leaving them unsupported is avoided.
Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture.
The estuary or bay is funnel-shaped, and its configuration produces at spring tides a " bore " or tidal wave, which at its maximum reaches a height of 15 to 20 ft.
appears to be 60° F.; for July the mean maximum was 77°, mean minimum 54°; for January the figures were 62 ° and 40° respectively, the lowest recorded temperature in 1878 was 26.6° on the 26th of January.
It is not necessary that all electric furnaces shall be run at these high temperatures; obviously, those of the incandescence or resistance type may be worked at any convenient temperature below the maximum.
It is best given in the maximum dose which causes the minimum of irritation.
The vapour pressure composition curve will be convex to the axis of compositions, the maximum vapour pressures corresponding to pure A and pure B, and the minimum to some mixture of A and B.
The curves Pa4Q, having a minimum at a4, Pa3Q, having a maximum at a 31 and Pa 5 Q, with neither a maximum nor minimum, correspond to the types i., ii., iii.
The details of the plant - the material and fittings of the still, the manner of heating, the form of the condensing plant, receivers, &c. - have to be determined for each substance to be distilled in order to work with the maximum economy.
across and has a maximum depth of 50 ft.
Under an act of the 12th of April 1883, as amended on the 4th of April 1902, education is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and fifteen, but the maximum limit is reduced to thirteen for children who are employed at lawful labour.
The average shade maximum temperature is 84°; the minimum 39°.
On the other hand, the average depth of the Japan Sea is only 1200 fathoms, and its maximum depth is 3200.
above sea-level, has a maximum depth of 93 fathoms, and empties itself at one end over a fall (Kegon) 250 ft.
that at every tenth year the number of spots reached a maximum), but it met with scant approval, and he continued his observations, which were afterwards utilized in 1851 by Humboldt in the third volume of his Kosmos.
In mechanics, the amplitude of a wave is the maximum ordinate.
The number of species and individuals steadily decreases in the cooler temperate zones, whilst it reaches its maximum in the tropics.
This was the maximum expansion possible under the conditions prevailing in 1920 -I, of a crisis in the political relations with Poland; but the maintenance of this establishment for any length of time appeared to be impracticable, since on this basis the army absorbed close on 60% of the revenue of the State, viz.
It mixes with water in all proportions, the mixing being attended by a contraction in volume and a rise in temperature; the maximum contraction corresponds to a mixture of 3 molecules of alcohol and I of water.
The entropy tends to a maximum, and the state is one of stable equilibrium when the value of the entropy is the maximum value consistent with the conditions of the problem.
Since the condition of heat-isolation is impracticable, the condition of maximum entropy cannot, as a rule, be directly applied, and it is necessary to find a more convenient method of expression.
of Fontaine Notre Dame, where it connected with the right of the Canadian Corps - a maximum penetration of some 32 m.
The general nature of the phenomena is thus easily understood; but it is at a maximum at pressures comparable with a millimetre of mercury, at which the free path is still small, the greater number of molecules operating in intensifying the result.
The climate is extremely hot, the maximum temperature being III° (Mulhall), minimum 32°, and the mean annual 71°, with an annual rainfall of 25 in.
is still recorded in January and December, a maximum of over Ioo is reached during the hot weather months and at the beginning of the rains, whereas up to the year 1900 a maximum of 93° was considered unusually high.
The maximum separation is consequently at 45° from zero.
Swete writes here: "The voice fixes a maximum price for the main food-stuffs.
A similar range occurs on the Dutch coast in the North Sea, where the maximum level is reached in October, the month of highest rainfall, and there is a range of 8 in.
31a level; thus fifteen years' observations at Aden show a maximum the first chart of the depths of the Atlantic between 52° N.
all soundings exceeding 4000 fathoms, occur in trenches, and there are only a few small trenches known (on the west coast of Central America) in which the maximum depth is less than 3000 fathoms. Jlost trenches are narrow, but of considerable length, and their steeper side is believed to be due in every case to a great fracture of the earth's crust..
This great trench is continued along the Luchu.Islands where the cable-steamer " Stephan " sounded in 4080 fathoms, and through the Bonin Trench (with a maximum of 3595 fathoms) to the famous Marianne Trench in which the U.S.S.
The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
The Balearic Basin, between Spain and the rise bearing Corsica and Sardinia, has a maximum depth of 1742 fathoms, and the Tyrrhenian Basin between that rise, Italy and Sicily deepens to 2040 fathoms. The larger Eastern Mediterranean Basin stretches eastward from Sicily with large tracts more than 2000 fathoms below the surface, and the greatest depth ascertained during the detailed researches of the Austrian expedition on board the " Pola " was 2046 fathoms in 35° 44' 8' N., 21° 46.8' E.
The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.
In the North Sea the depth of ioo fathoms is only exceeded to any extent in the Norwegian gully, which has a maximum depth of 383 fathoms in the Skagerrack.
compared with pure water at the maximum density point (39.2°) as unity.
The temperature of maximum density of sea-water of any specific gravity was found by Knudsen to be given with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes by the formula 0 = 3.950.2660 -0, where 0 is the temperature of maximum density in degrees centigrade.
The temperature of maximum density is lower as the concentration of the sea-water is greater, as is shown in the following table: Maximum Density Point of Sea-Water of Dif f erent Salinities.
The North Atlantic maximum is the highest with water of 37.9 per mille salinity; the maximum in the South Atlantic is 37.6; in the North Indian Ocean, 36.7; the South Indian Ocean, 36.4; the South Pacific, 36.9; and the North Pacific has the lowest maximum of all, only 35'9.
The tropical maxima of salinity on the poleward side of the trade-winds coincide with the regions of minimum rainfall, high temperature, strong winds and consequently of maximum evaporation.
Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.
The second form of deep-sea thermometer is the self-registering maximum and minimum on James Six's principle.
Buchan's discussion of the two-hourly observations on the " Challenger " the total range between the daily maximum and minimum in the warmer seas is between o 7° and o 8° F., and for the colder seas still less (0.2° F.), compared with 3.2° F.
The maximum usually occurs between 1 and 2.30 P.M., the minimum shortly before sunrise.
frequently occurs in the western part of the tropical Pacific, while among seas the Persian Gulf reaches 96° F., only 2° under blood-heat, and the Red Sea follows closely with a maximum of 94°.
and a maximum of 80°, and to the north-east of Japan with a minimum of 27° F.
and a maximum of 83°.
This deflecting force is directly proportional to the velocity and the mass of the particle and also to the sine of the latitude; hence it is zero at the equator and comes to a maximum at the poles.
The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.
The commencement of the Carboniferous period is marked by a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or Sequences Mountain Limestone,which contains a large assemblage of carbon- of marine fossils, and has a maximum thickness in iferous S.W.
when at the maximum of development.
' It is the general opinion of the District Commissioners that owing to physical considerations it is highly probable that the present rate of increase of the putput of coal can long continue - indeed, they think that some districts have already attained their maximum output, but that on the other hand the developments in the newer coalfields will possibly increase the total output for some years.
per second; but, unlike the older machines, in which the cutting is done in a fixed plane, the chain with its motor is made movable, and is fed forward by a rack-and-pinion motion as the cutting advances, so that the cut is limited in breadth (31 to 4 ft.), while its depth may be varied up to the maximum travel (8 ft.) of the cutting frame.
These machines weigh from 20 to 22 cwt., and are mostly driven by electric motors of 25 up to 35 h.p. as a maximum.
applied in about thirty different pits to a maximum depth of 761 metres.
Maximum speed controllers in connexion with the winding indicator, which do not allow the engine to exceed a fixed rate of speed, are also used in some cases, with recording indicators.
Maximum evolution of the gas.
to the maximum.
When a belt, in which the maximum and minimum tensions are respectively P and p lb, drives a pulley, the torque exerted FIG.
(the greatest elevation in the state), and the Great Plains have a maximum elevation in northern Texas exceeding 4000 ft., but from these heights the surface descends to sea level and the mean elevation of the state is about 1700 ft.
the surface is more broken and rises to a maximum elevation of about 700 ft.
The maximum permitted by the constitution is $250,000 per annum.
In 1888 an elective commission was established with power to fix maximum rates, which has met with general commendation throughout the country.
The rift-valley faults continue down the depression, marked by numerous volcanoes, in the region of the Natron Lake and Lake Manyara; while the steep walls of the deep depression of Tanganyika and Nyasa represent the western rift system at its maximum development..
Almost half of the highland towns reached their maximum population before the opening of the, 9th century, although Berkshire was scarcely settled till after 1760, and three-fourths of them before 1850.
On the other hand three-fourths of the lowland towns reached their maximum since that date, and half of them since 1880.
maximum and minimum terms are established by law and on the expiration of the latter a revocable permit of liberty may be issued.
in winter to a maximum of 79° in summer.
Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
It obviously attains its maximum in the case of the firing of pure "oxyhydrogen" gas (a mixture of hydrogen with exactly half its volume of oxygen, the quantity it combines with in becoming water,, German Knall-gas).
The maximum reading of the thermometer is about 87° F.
Ozone occurs, in an amount supposed to be associated with the development of atmospheric electricity (lightning, &c.); this amount varies with the seasons, being a maximum in spring, and decreasing through summer and autumn to a minimum in winter.
The degree of accuracy required is indicated by the " remedy " allowance for weight, which is different for each coin, and is the maximum difference from the standard weight which is allowed by law.
In the theological seminaries there were 417 students in 1907-1908, as compared with a maximum of 596 in 1891-1892, and a minimum of 181 in 1864-1865.
The average maximum summer heat is about 93°, temperature of loo° being rarely reached.
In 1905 the maximum pension was raised to £26 a year.
Its maximum solubility in water is at 34 0; above that temperature it ceases to exist in the solution as a decahydrate, but changes to the anhydrous salt, the solubility of which decreases with rise of temperature.
The state has a maximum length, from E.
and a maximum width of 240 m.; area, 69,127 sq.
part of the state, but they rise northward in the Olympic Mountains and reach a maximum of elevation on Mount Olympus of 8150 ft.
in Washington have a minimum elevation exceeding 3000 ft.; an approximately equal area has a maximum elevation less than 500 ft., and the mean elevation of the entire state is 1700 ft.
The governor's salary is $600o a year, which is the maximum allowed by the constitution.
The maximum particle velocity is 21rna (where n is the frequency and a the amplitude), or 27raU/X.
This gives maximum u=about 8 cm./sec., which would not seriously change the form of the wave in a few wavelengths.
Mag., 1879, 7, p. 219) investigated the transmission of a report from a cannon in different directions; he found that it rose to a maximum of 1267 ft./sec. at 70, to 90 ft.
This will go on continually as long as air is supplied to the cylinder, and the velocity of rotation of the upper plate will be accelerated up to a certain maximum, at which it may be maintained by keeping the force of the current constant.
The maximum height of the curve HM =a is the amplitude.
The maximum velocity of a particle in the wave-train is the amplitude of dy/dt.
At the nodes A, B, C, D, E there is no displacement, but there are maximum volume and pressure changes.
When the displacement is represented by AH'BK'C the particles on each side of B are displaced from it, giving an extension, and since the slope is again the steepest, the extension is a maximum.
At the loops, for instance at H, the displacement is a maximum.
The length of the pipe may be varied by pouring in water, and this is done until we get maximum resonance of the pipe to the fork.
If th' maximum pressure change is determined, the amplitude is given by equation (20), viz.
For a given jet tube there is _ a position of maximum efficiency easily obtained by trial.
If the difference of phase be varied gradually from zero to - X, the resulting sound will 2 gradually decrease from a maximum to a minimum.
On turning round the upper chest into any intermediate position, the intensity of the sound will increase up to a maximum, which occurs when the air in both chests is being admitted.
When two notes are not quite in unison the resulting sound is found to alternate between a maximum and minimum of loudness recurring periodically.
This will be followed by an increase of intensity until the lapse of another sixth of a second, when the less rapidly vibrating note will have lost another half-vibration relatively to the other, or one vibration reckoning from the original period of time, and the two component vibrations will again conspire and reproduce a maximum effect.
In the middle notes of the musical register the maximum harshness occurs when the beats are about 30.
The frequency of beats giving maximum dissonance rises as we rise higher in the musical scale, and falls as we descend.
The two tones are now dissonant, and, as we have seen, about the middle of the scale the maximum dissonance is when there are between 30 and 40 beats per second.
The maximum length from N.
is 145 m.; the maximum breadth E.
This range of mountains, which was formed by a great fault, has a maximum elevation at its southern end of about 9000 ft.
In 1865 the product reached its maximum, as the value of gold and silver combined (the value of the silver being relatively small) was $18,000,000; the production then decreased and in 1903 the value of the gold was only $1,800,000.
Kotelnyi is the highest and most massive of the four, reaching a maximum altitude of 1200 ft.
To Zenodorus (c. 200100 B.C.) is due the important problem in maxima and minima that for a given surface the sphere is the solid of maximum volume.
As to the maximum wind pressure on small plates normal to the wind, there is not much doubt.
for any bridge member is found for the maximum possible live load, a live load which though it may sometimes come on the bridge and must therefore be provided for, is not the usual live load to which the bridge is subjected.
In the Forth bridge for members in which the stress varied from o to a maximum frequently, the limit was 5.0 tons per sq.
As the load travels, the shear at the head of the train will be given by the ordinates of a parabola having its vertex at A, and a maximum F max.
of p. The web of a girder must resist the maximum shear, and, than for complete loading.
42, arranged so that the dead load shear is added to the maximum travelling load shear of the same sign.
If the loads are very unequal in magnitude or distance this condition may be satisfied for more than one position of the loads, but it is not 0 difficult to ascertain which position gives the maximum moment.
51 shows maximum bending moment curves for an extreme case of a short bridge with very unequal loads.
The three lightly W2 dotted parabolas are the curves of maximum moment for each of the loads taken separately.
The three heavily dotted curves are curves of maximum moment under each of the loads, for the three loads passing over the bridge, at the given distances, from left to right.
With short bridges it is best to draw the curve of maximum bending moments for some assumed typical set of loads in the way just described, and to design the girder accordingly.
For longer bridges the funicular polygon affords a method of determining maximum bending moments which is perhaps more convenient.
Now, except for very short bridges and very unequal loads, a parabola can be found which includes the curve of maximum moments.
This parabola is the curve of maximum moments for a travelling load uniform per ft.
run which would produce the maximum moments represented by this parabola.
the same ordinate at one-quarter span as the curve of maximum moments, agrees with it closely enough for practical designing.
To use this line to investigate the maximum moment at C due to a series A D ' C'i iE..
- Another method of investigating the maximum shear at a section due to any distribution of a travelling load has been given by Prof. H.
The value of H is equal to the maximum tension on the bottom flange, or compression on the top flange, of a girder of equal span, equally and similarly loaded, and having a depth equal to the dip of the suspension bridge.
The attempt to fix maximum prices broke down, owing to the temptations to secret dealing, and, as in England, the card system had to be introduced.
Tillage was also made compulsory, but this had little effect on production owing to the shortage of labour, draft animals, manures and agricultural implements, together with the oppressive restrictions caused by the fixing of maximum prices.
The average temperature is 90° in the hot season, and falls to 60° or 61° in the cold season, the maximum and minimum readings being 104° and 56°.
long from north-east to south-west, has a maximum width of nearly 8 m.
The north-east quarter is broken by two ranges of hills having a precipitous east slope and rising to a maximum height of about 400 ft., 1 m.
long and has a maximum breadth of 185 miles.
'Nevertheless, some provision was made for negotiations with foreign countries by establishing a minimum tariff, with rates lower than those of the general or maximum tariff, the rates of this minimum tariff being applicable to countries which might make concessions to France.
As a rule the minimum tariff has been applied, after negotiation, and thus is the tariff in practical effect; yet its rates are still high, and, most significant of all, agricultural products are granted no reductions whatever as compared with the maximum tariff, there being heavy and unrelaxed duties upon grain, animals, meats and the like.
long, lies for its entire length along the Merrimac river, from which it rises picturesquely, its surface being undulating, with several detached round hills (maximum 339 ft.).
But the maximum pressure may exceed the mean in the ratio of 2 or 3 to I, as shown in fig.
6, nearly full size; it records the maximum pressure by the compression of a copper cylinder in its interior; it may be placed in the powder-chamber, or fastened in the base of the shot.
of the charge to the weight of the shot so that the advance of the shot during the conbustion of the charge should prevent the maximum pressure from exceeding a safe limit, as shown by the maximum ordinate of the pressure curve CPD in fig.
The experimental determination of the time of burning under the influence of the varying pressure and density, and the size of the grain, is thus of great practical importance, as thereby it is possible to estimate close limits to the maximum pressure that will be reached in the bore of a gun, and to design the chamber so that the G.D.
They are long, narrow, uniformly-sloping and level-crested mountains, extending along parallel lines from north-east to southwest, and reaching a maximum height in Martin's Ridge of more than 2000 ft.
Until after the middle of the 18th century tobacco was the staple crop of Maryland, and the total yield did not reach its maximum until 1860 when the crop amounted to 51,000 hhds.; from this it decreased to 14,000 hhds., or 12,356,838 lb in 1889; in 1899 it rose again to 24,589,480 lb, in 1907 the crop was only 56,962,000 lb, less than that of nine other states.
Among the Tertiary volcanic rocks those of acid types (granites, granulites) were the first to appear and are developed latitudinally; rocks of intermediate type (dacites, andesites) characterize the Miocene and early Pliocene periods; while the basic rocks (ophites, elaeolite syenites and basalts) attained their maximum in later Pliocene and Quaternary times.
In a vacuum or in sufficiently dilute hydrogen the compound from 200° upwards loses hydrogen, until the tension of the free gas has arrived at the maximum value characteristic of that temperature (Troost and Hautefeuille).
The maximum shock is given when the head and tail of the Gymnotus are in contact with different points in the surface of some other animal.
It is claimed that this system gives the maximum of information about a MS., and that it leaves room for the addition of any number of MSS.
Cardium belongs to the order of Lamellibranchia in which the gills present the maximum of complexity, the original vertical filaments of which they are composed being united by interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions.
The great warming and abundant rainfall of the island regions of the western Pacific, and the low temperature of the surface water in the east, cause a displacement of the southern tropical maximum of pressure to the east; hence we have a permanent " South Pacific anticyclone " close to the coast of South America.
At the surface an extensive area of maximum temperature (over 20° C.) occurs over 10° on each side of the equator to the west of the ocean.
A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N.
High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
South and east of the axis mentioned salinity becomes less to just north of the equator, where it increases again, and the saltest waters of the whole Pacific are found, as we should expect, in the south-east trade-wind region, the maximum occurring in about 18° S.
and over fifty locks, and is navigable for vessels having the maximum dimensions of 982 ft.
But with the exception of that mined in Hopkins and Bell counties, very little is fit for making coke; in 1880 the product was 4250 tons of coke (value $12,250), in 1890, 12,343 tons ($22,191); in 1900, 95,532 tons ($235,505); in 1902, 126,879 tons ($3 1 7, 8 75), the maximum product up to 1906; and in 1907, 67,068 tons ($157,288).
in maximum breadth, 287 ft.
(a) The unit of volume for determinations of a high degree of accuracy is the volume occupied by the mass of 1 kilogram of pure water at its maximum density and under the normal atmospheric pressure; this volume is called litre.
(at 32° F.), is equal to 252.207 grains weight of water at its maximum density (4° C.).
In coinage it is one of the commonest units in early times; from Phoenicia, round the coast to Macedonia, it is predominant (17); at a maximum of 230 (Ialysus), it is in Macedonia 224, but seldom exceeds 220 elsewhere, the earliest Lydian of the 7th century being 219, and the general average of coins 218.
In the Hellenic coinage it varies (18) from a maximum of 200 at Pharae to 192, usual full weight; this unit occupied (17) all central Greece, Peloponnesus and most of the islands.
Such decline is by no means a universal law of life, however, because among many of the continental vertebrates at least we observe extinctions repeatedly occurring during the expression of maximum variability.
Beecher (1856-1905) has pointed out (1898), many animals possessing hard parts tend toward the close of their racial history to produce a superfluity of dead matter, which accumulates in the form of spines among invertebrates, and of horns among the land vertebrates, reaching a maximum when the animals are really on the down-grade of development.
possesses no distinguishing characteristic. The Gulf of California, on the other hand, penetrates the continent for a distance of 739 m., from south-east to north-west, with a maximum breadth of 190 m.
In the Miocene period andesites of various kinds were erupted, while at the close of the Pliocene began the great eruptions of basalt which reached their maximum in Quaternary times and continue to the present day.'
The heavy rainfall on the Gulf coast, however, which reaches a maximum of 90 to too in.
The maximum temperatures in this region are 98° at Hermosillo and 119° at Guaymas.
The climate is comparatively dry (annual precipitation about 21.75 in.); between 1898 and 1902 the minimum recorded temperature was io° (March), the maximum 92° (July), and the greatest monthly range 73° (March).
In colour it is almost pure white; the maximum length is about twelve feet; and the back-fin is replaced by a low ridge.
in many places, but in and near the Appalachian Mountains its thickness is much greatermore than five times as great if the maximum thicknesses of all formations be made the basis of calculation.
Here clastic rocks predominate, while limestone is more abundant in the interior, If the maximum thicknesses of all Devonian formations be added together, the total for the system is as much as 15,000 ft.; but such a thickness is not found in any one pluce.
This epoch, indeed, is the epoch of maximum submerg,ence during the period, and the maximum since the Ordovician.
maximum in Pennsylvania to 1500 ft.
uc un Unlike the older systems of the Palaeozoic, the enbrier Pennsylvanian system has not its maximum thickness - in the Appalachian Mountains, but in Arkansas, in a region which was probably adjacent to high lands at that time.
The system has its maximum known thickness in Texas, where it is said to be 7000 ft.
in maximum thickness.
If maximum thicknesses of its several parts in different localities, as usually measured, are added together, the total would approach or reach 25,000 ft.; but the strata of any one region have scarcely more than half this thickness, and the average is much less.
The marine Pliocene of the continent has its greatest development in California (the Merced series, peninsula of San Francisco), where it is assigned a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 ft., and possibly as much as 13,000 ft.
In wintertime, the cyclonic and anticyclonic areas are of increased frequency and intensity; and it is partly for this reason that many meteorologists have been disposed to regard them as chiefly driven by the irregular flow of the westerly winds, rather than as due to convectional instability, which should have a maximum effect in summer.
This growth has been irregular, but was at a maximum about the middle of the century.
The minimum state average of 1790, which was 5~4 in Georgia, was greater than the maximum of 1900.
Up to 1870 there was more anthracite mined in Pennsylvania than bituminous in the whole country, but since that year the production of the latter has become vastly the greater, the totals in 1907, in which year each stood at its maximum, being 83,268,754 and 332,573,944 tons respectively.
From 1859 to 1902 the total yield of this lode was $204,653,040 in silver and $148,145,385 in gold; the average annual yield from 1862 to 1868 was above eleven millions; the maximum yield $36,301,537 in 1877; and the total product to July 1880 was variously estimated at from $304,752,171.54 to $30618125125.
all states, members of the 1egislature receive a salary, which is the same for both houses, some states fixing an annual sum, but most preferring a per diem rate, while the maximum is generally determined by a limitation on the length of the session.
The financial crisis of that year caused an increase, which continued until the imminence of the Civil War, when it rose from 65 millions in 186o to 91 millions in 1861, to 514 in 1862, to 1120 in 1863, to 1816 in 1864, to 2681 in June, and its maximum (2846 millions) in August 1865.
The amount of the debt per capita of population, less cash in the treasury, was $15-63 in f800; it fell to $0.21 in 1840; rose again, and in 1865 reached a maximum of $7698; since when it had fallen by the 30th of June 1908 to $1076.
6) possesses the advantage that the panels or laths can be diminished in thickness towards the top in proportion to the reduced water-pressure; whereas the needles, being of uniform cross-section, have to be made stout enough to sustain the maximum bottom pressure.
in width can be readily closed, opened or partially opened under a maximum head of 16 ft.
A system coaxal with the two given circles is readily constructed by describing circles through the common points on the radical axis and any third point; the minimum circle of the system is obviously that which has the common chord of intersection for diameter, the maximum is the radical axis - considered as a circle of infinite radius.
Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.
Professor Macoun gives us a few notable species - Calluna vulgaris, Salisb., Alchemilla vulgaris, L., Rhododendron maximum, L., Ilex glabia, Gray, Hudsonia ericoides, L., Gaylussacia dumosa, F.
are several flat-topped mountains, of which Raccoon and Lookout are the most prominent, having a maximum elevation near the Georgia line of little more than 1800 ft.
Proof spirit is defined in the United States as a mixture of alcohol and water which contains equal volumes of alcohol and water at 60° F., the alcohol having a specific gravity of 0.7939 at 60° as compared with water at its maximum density.
The average rainfall for the state is 49.3 in.; the maximum is 71.7 in., at Rabun Gap in the extreme N.E.
The principal heights on its extremely irregular surface are: Mavegani Mountain, which rises in two peaks to a maximum of 2164 ft., and Uchongin, 2100 ft.
at its maximum breadth.
(winter 3 5°, summer 70, with an average maximum of 9 0°, and an average minimum of 17°.
The bay extends northward nearly 162 nautical miles, with a maximum breadth of II m.
The mean annual temperature is slightly under 69° F., the average maximum being a little over 82° and the average minimum 59°.
Partly supported by imported eggs, the production of silk in France was maintained, and in 1853 reached its maximum of 26,000,000 kilos of cocoons, valued at 117,000,000 francs.
Other countries however still appear to cling to the belief that it is wisest to fix a maximum rate of legal interest.
Vordate, Molu and south-eastern Yamdena have a maximum height of 820 ft.; the rest are low and flat, except Laibobar, apparently a volcanic islet on the west, which has an extinct crater 2000 ft.
This motion is evidently not due to parallax, for, in this case, the maximum range should be between the June and December positions; neither was it due to observational errors.
Bradley had already perceived, in the case of the two stars previously scrutinized, that the apparent difference of declination from the maximum positions was nearly proportional to the sun's distance from the equinoctial points; and he realized the necessity for more observations before any generalization could be attempted.
His conclusions may be thus summarized: (r) only stars near the solstitial colure had their maximum north and south positions when the sun was near the equinoxes, (2) each star was at its maximum positions when it passed the zenith at six o'clock morning and evening (this he afterwards showed to be inaccurate, and found the greatest change in declination to be proportional to the latitude of the star), (3) the apparent motions of all stars at about the same time was in the same direction.
In that case the image of the double line shows a diminution of intensity along the centre, just sufficient to give a clear impression that we are not dealing with a single line, and the intensity at the minimum is 0.81 of that at the point of maximum illumination.
If we widen the slit still further rapid loss of purity results, with very little gain in light, the maximum luminosity obtainable with an indefinitely wide slit being four times that obtained with the normal one.
With a guess at the specific heat we might then calculate the maximum temperature to which the substance might be raised, if there were no loss by radiation or otherwise.
The distance between the lines measured on the frequency scale does not, according to the equation, increase indefinitely from the head downwards, but has a maximum which, in Pickering's form as written above, is reached when (s +, u) 2 = 3a.
If a is negative the frequency passes through infinity and the maximum distance between the lines occurs there.
Close to and on either side of the absorptive band µ 2 has large positive and negative values, and if the above expression remains correct the change of frequency would, close to the centre of absorption, be 2 k-2"+3, which for n =3 and k= Io is 1/2000, or 500 times greater than the observed shifts, but this represents now the maximum displacement and not the displacement of the most intense portion of the radiation.
The author, no doubt correctly, remarks that the shift does net indicate a change of frequency but a change of relative intensity, consisting of a great number of fine lines; when the maximum intensity of the distribution of light is altered, the appearance is that of a shift.
The plain country extends from the Chambal river in the extreme southwards for about 80 m., with a maximum width from east to west of about 120 m.
The rock attains its maximum height of 342 ft.
below the sea to a maximum height (Mauna Kea) on the largest island (Hawaii) of 13,823 ft.
above the sea, the maximum height in the Pacific Ocean; blending with Mauna Loa on the N.N.W.
On the land side the Kohala Mountains have been covered with lava from Mauna Kea, and form the broad plains of Kohala, having a maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.; on the ocean side, wherever this lava has not extended, erosion has gone on until bluffs woo ft.
It has a mountain range which rises to a maximum height, S.E.
extremity of the ridge there is a sudden drop to a low and gently rolling plain, but farther on the surface rises gradually towards a range of mountains which comprises more than one-half the island and attains a maximum height of 4958 ft.
of Oahu, has an irregularly circular form with a maximum diameter of about 25 m.
side the island rises precipitously from the sea and attains a maximum height of 1304 ft.
For Honolulu the mean annual rainfall (1884-1899) was 28.18 in.; the maximum 49.82; and the minimum 13.46.
The mean depth is less than 15 ft., with a maximum of 83 ft., the lake being thus one of the shallowest in Scotland.
Mr Balfour's inability to get the maximum amount of work out of the House was largely due to the situation in South Africa, which absorbed the intellectual energies of the House and of the country and impeded the progress of legislation.
If the ship be inclined to starboard or to port additional deviation will be observed, reaching a maximum on north and south points, decreasing to zero on the east and west points.
ii.) that the abnormal values of the variation observed in the wood-built ships of his day was due to deviation of the compass caused by the iron in the ship; that the deviation was zero when the ship's head was near the north and south points; that it attained its maximum on the east and west points, and varied as the sine of the azimuth of the ship's head reckoned from the zero points.
Tyndall's own summary of the course of research on the subject was as follows: The idea of semi-fluid motion belongs entirely to Rendu; the proof of the quicker central flow belongs in part to Rendu, but almost wholly to Agassiz and Forbes; the proof of the retardation of the bed belongs to Forbes alone; while the discovery of the locus of the point of maximum motion belongs, I suppose, to me.
If, however, the energy of surface tension between the two substances were negative the surface would tend to a maximum, and complete mixture would follow.
Thus in interpreting complicated freezing point curves, we must look for chemical compounds where the curve shows a maximum, and for a eutectic or cryohydrate where two curves meet at a minimum point.
At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?
This indicates the appearance of a new compound, which should exist pure at E, the next maximum, and, led by these considerations, Roozeboom discovered and isolated a previously unknown hydrate, Fe 2 C1 6 7 H 2 0.
The second and third figures, too, show that the presence of solid solutions may simulate the phenomena of chemical combination, where the curve reaches a maximum, and of non-variant systems where we get a minimum.
In the hot season the maximum shade temperature rises to a little over ioo° F.
It is much shorter than the typical instruments described, so that the maximum brightness of image is obtained.
In intertropical regions lichens attain their maximum development (and beauty) in the foliaceous Stictei and Parmeliei, while they are especially characterized by epiphyllous species, as Strigula, and by many peculiar corticole Thelotremei, Graphidei and Pyrenocarpei.
in total length; its maximum width is 100 ft., and at the curves it is banked up to a maximum height of 28 ft.
Indeed, in very severe weather it is found better to drop a little from the maximum temperature by fire heat, and the loss so occasioned may be made good by a little extra heat applied when the weather is more genial.
One of the best for the flower border is C. maximum and its varieties - all with beautiful white flowers having yellow centres.
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