Maximilian Sentence Examples
A breach with pope Julius followed, and at this time Maximilian appears to have entertained, perhaps quite seriously, the idea of seating himself in the chair of St Peter.
His lectures and poems had now made him famous, and he was summoned to Munich where, in 1638, he became court chaplain to the elector Maximilian I.
The death of the emperor Maximilian on the 12th of January 1519 had seriously affected the situation.
Albert's descendants ruled over a united Bavaria, until the death of Duke Maximilian III.
He died in 1799, and Maximilian Joseph, the head of the Zweibriicken branch, inherited Bavaria and the Palatinate.Advertisement
He took the title of king as Maximilian I.
But Maximilian was regarded with suspicion by the states of Netherlands, and after suppressing a rising in Gelderland his position was further weakened by the death of his wife on the 27th of March 1482.
Maximilian was compelled to assent to the treaty of Arras in 1482 between the states of the Netherlands and Louis XI.
This treaty provided that Maximilian's daughter Margaret should marry Charles, the dauphin of France, and have for her dowry Artois and FrancheComte, two of the provinces in dispute, while the claim of Louis on the duchy of Burgundy was tacitly admitted.
Maximilian did not, however, abandon the struggle in the Netherlands.Advertisement
Early in 1490 he took a further step and was betrothed to the duchess, and later in the same year the marriage was celebrated by proxy; but Brittany was still occupied by French troops, and Maximilian was unable to go to the assistance of his bride.
In December 1491 Anne was married to Charles VIII., king of France, and Maximilian's daughter Margaret, who had resided in France since her betrothal, was sent back to her father.
The inaction of Maximilian at this time is explained by the condition of affairs in Hungary, where the death of king Matthias Corvinus had brought about a struggle for this throne.
The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France.
A succession difficulty in Bavaria-Landshut was only decided after Maximilian had taken up arms and narrowly escaped with his life at Regensburg.Advertisement
It is at this period that Ranke believes Maximilian to have entertained the idea of a universal monarchy; but whatever hopes he may have had were shattered by the death of his son Philip and the rupture of the treaty of Blois.
Having established his daughter Margaret as regent for Charles in the Netherlands, Maximilian met the diet at Constance in 1507, when the imperial chamber (Reichskammergericht) was revised and took a more permanent form, and help was granted for an expedition to Italy.
Having made an alliance with Christian II., king of Denmark, and interfered to protect the Teutonic Order against Sigismund I., king of Poland, Maximilian was again in Italy early in 1516 fighting the French who had overrun Milan.
Maximilian had many excellent personal qualities.
Maximilian was also a writer of books, and his writings display his inordinate vanity.Advertisement
It is an unfinished autobiography containing an account of the achievements of Maximilian, who is called "the young white king."
These works are all profusely illustrated, some by Albrecht Diirer, and in the preparation of the woodcuts Maximilian himself took the liveliest interest.
The Gothic chapel contains the remains of the emperor Maximilian I., who was born here in 1459.
In 1246 it was the scene of a victory of the Hungarians over the Austrians; and in 1486 it was taken by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, who, however, restored it to Maximilian I.
Her marriage four months later to Maximilian of Austria was the beginning of the long domination -of the house of Habsburg.Advertisement
The next fifteen years were for Maximilian a stormy and difficult period.
The duchess Mary, died from the effects of a fall from her horse (March 1482), and Maximilian became regent (mambourg) for his son.
Philip, surnamed the Fair, was fifteen years of age, and his accession was welcomed by the Netherlanders with whom Maximilian had never been popular.
The claim of the emperor Maximilian to be regent during the minority of his grandson was recognized by the states-general.
Maximilian nominated his daughter Margaret, widow of Austria, was elected emperor.
In 1519 Maximilian died, and the following year his grandson, now the head of the house was at first successful.
In 1490 a treaty was signed at Damme between the people of Bruges and the archduke Maximilian, and very soon after this event the channel became completely closed up, and the foreign merchant gilds or "nations" left the place for Antwerp. This signified the death of the port and was indirectly fatal to Bruges as well.
Three years later, unlessoned by this experience, Louis signed the treaty of Blois (1504), whereby be invited the emperor Maximilian to aid him in the subjugation of Venice.
In 1856 the emperor and empress visited their Italian dominions, but were received with icy coldness; the following year, on the retirement of Radetzky at the age of ninety-three, the archduke Maximilian, an able, cultivated and kind-hearted man, was appointed viceroy.
After the death of Mary of Burgundy, who had resided in the city, they forced her husband, the archduke Maximilian, to conclude the treaty of Arras (1482).
Noteworthy among the monuments of the town is the Maximilian fountain (1880), with statues of Maximilian I.
On the 21st of July 1801 he nearly lost his life by the fall of the house in which he lodged, and the elector of Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph, who was present at his extrication from the ruins, gave him 18 ducats.
He endorsed the claims of Maximilian of Bavaria to the electoral dignity, and was rewarded with the gift of the Heidelberg library, which was carried off to Rome.
It is preserved in a single MS. which was prepared at the command of Maximilian I., and was discovered as late as 1820 in the Castle of Ambras in Tirol.
Maximilian proved a broken reed, and in 2528 Wolsey brought about a general pacification, securing at the same time his appointment as legate a latere in England.
The emperor Maximilian failed to make good his hold on Padua, and was jealous of the French.
This branch of the Capetians is also distinguished by its union with the Habsburgs, through the marriage of Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, with Maximilian, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.
A friend even more sympathetic he found in Maximilian II.
The Turks were defeated here in 1492 by Maximilian I., and an engagement between the Austrians and the French took place here on the 21st of August 1813.
In 1509, at the outset of the war of the League of Cambray, the town gave itself voluntarily to the emperor Maximilian, to whom it was ceded formally by Venice in 1517, and next year incorporated with Tirol.
At Strassburg he was introduced to Prince Maximilian, afterwards elector of Bavaria, and was by him invited to enter the civil and military service of that state.
They were followed by Paul Rici, professor at Pavia, and physi-' cian to the emperor Maximilian I.
In 1494 a crushing victory of the emperor Maximilian drove the Turks out of Styria, which they did not venture again to invade during his reign.
In 1564 Ferdinand died, and was succeeded by Maximilian II.
On the 17th of February 1568, two years after the accession of Suleiman's son Selim, peace was concluded with Austria on the basis of the former terms, the emperor Maximilian having sent ambassadors to congratulate the new sultan on his accession.
It has a palace, built about the middle of the 17th century, on the model of that at Versailles, and long a favourite residence of the Bavarian elector, Maximilian Joseph.
Immediately after his election as archbishop he began to take a leading part in the business of the Empire, and in 1486 was very active in securing the election of Maximilian as Roman king.
The same diet which destroyed the national armaments and depleted the exchequer confirmed the disgraceful peace of Pressburg, concluded between Wladislaus and the emperor Maximilian on the 7th of November 1491, whereby Hungary retroceded all the Austrian conquests of Matthias, together with a long strip of Magyar territory, and paid a war indemnity equivalent to £200,000.
The emperor Maximilian was so absorbed by German affairs, that he could do her little harm, and under Bayezid II.
P g g the emperor Maximilian and Sigismund of Poland, might be dispensed with.
By the close of the i 5th century the Dalberg family had grown to be of such importance that, in 1494, the German King Maximilian I.
Charles Theodore died without legitimate sons in 1799, and his successor was Maximilian Joseph, a member of the Birkenfeld branch of the Zweibriicken family, who later became king of Bavaria as Maximilian I.
His remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, still rest in the church of the monastery of Santa Maria del Carmine at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul; and here in 1847 a marble statue, by Thorwaldsen, was erected to his memory by Maximilian, crown prince of Bavaria.
Turning to a more active life, he accompanied the emperor Maximilian I.
The new master, however, showed no desire to be conciliatory, and as war appeared inevitable, he made strenuous efforts to secure allies, and carried on tedious negotiations with the emperor Maximilian I.
Other eminent names of the same school are Anton de Hain (1704-1776), Anton Stdrek (1731-1803), Maximilian Stoll (1742-1788), and John Peter Frank (1745-1821), father of Joseph Frank, before mentioned as an adherent of the Brownian system, and like his son carried away for a time by the new doctrines.
Although they made some concessions, .the Beaujeus succeeded in maintaining the results of the previous reign, and in triumphing over the feudal intrigues and coalitions, as was seen from the meeting of the estates general in 1484, and the results of the "Mad War" (1485) and the war with Brittany (1488); and in spite of the efforts of Maximilian of Austria they concluded the marriage of Charles VIII.
The fine Dom Platz contains a statue of the Bavarian king, Maximilian I.
The old town, containing many narrow and irregular streets, forms a semicircle with its diameter towards the river, while round its periphery has sprung up the greater part of modern Munich, including the handsome Maximilian and Ludwig districts.
In the Maximilianstrasse, which extends from Haidhausen on the right bank of the Isar to the Max-Joseph Platz, King Maximilian II.
Descending the street, towards the west are passed in succession the old buildings of the Bavarian national museum, the government buildings in which the Composite style of Maximilian has been most consistently carried out, and the mint.
The valuable collections of art are enshrined in handsome buildings, mostly in the Maximilian suburb on the north side of the town.
Among the numerous monuments with which the squares and streets are adorned, the most important are the colossal statue of Maximilian II.
The botanical garden, with its large palm-house, the Hofgarten, surrounded with arcades containing frescoes of Greek landscapes by Rottmann, and the Maximilian park to the east of the Isar, complete the list of public parks.
Among the succeeding rulers those who did most for the town in the erection of handsome buildings and the foundation of schools and scientific institutions were Albert V., William V., Maximilian I., Max Joseph and Charles Theodore.
He treated with Maximilian of Austria to prevent him from entering Picardy during the war with Naples, and then proceeded to Castile to claim promised support.
Among the important buildings are the Cathedral (said to have been built originally about 1535, and subsequently restored at various times), the Iturbide theatre (in which occurred the trial of Maximilian), the government offices, the federal palace and the churches of Santa Rosa, Santa Clara and San Augustin.
By the treaty of the 16th of April 1816, by which the territorial disputes between Austria and Bavaria were settled, the succession to the Baden Palatinate was guaranteed to Maximilian I., king of Bavaria, in the expected event of the extinction of the line of Zahringen.
It has an historical museum, four churches (three of which are Roman Catholic), two fine fountains - a monument of the war of 1870-71 and one to King Maximilian II.
The castle, lying on a rocky eminence, is remarkable for the peace signed here on the 22nd of April 1745 between the elector Maximilian III., Joseph of Bavaria and Maria Theresa.
Maximilian had a villa there, and many of the public men of Mexico, natives of the lowlands, have made their homes there rather than in the national capital.
The palace of Cortes is now occupied by the state legislature and by various public offices, and Maximilian's villa by a school.
Several of these additions were due to the archduke Maximilian, who ruled Tirol from 1490 onwards, becoming emperor in 1493 and dying in 1519.
In T499 the Swiss won a victory in the Calven gorge (near the head of the Adige valley) against Maximilian, which resulted in the Swiss gaining their practical independence of the empire.
Maximilian was planning a journey into Italy in order to be crowned emperor at Rome, and was levying subsidies from the imperial burghs for his expenses.
In 1488 he marched with the imperial forces to free the Roman king Maximilian from his imprisonment at Bruges, and when, in 1489, the king returned to Germany, Albert was left as his representative to prosecute the war against the rebels.
He was successful in restoring the authority of Maximilian in Holland, Flanders and Brabant, but failed to obtain any repayment of the large sums of money which he had spent in these campaigns.
His services were rewarded in 1498 when Maximilian bestowed upon him the title of hereditary governor (potestat) of Friesland, but he had to make good his claim by force of arms. He had I.
Regained by the Habsburgs in 1477 when Mary, daughter and heiress of duke Charles the Bold, married the German king Maximilian the duchy passed to Philip II.
His successor, Maximilian, who was elected emperor in 1493, was mainly preoccupied with his wars and attempts to reform the constitution of the empire; but the diet gave some attention to ecclesiastical reform.
But Wimpheling had only some timid suggestions to make, and, since Maximilian was once more on happy terms with the pope, political considerations served to cool completely his momentary ardour for ecclesiastical reform.
They only succumbed when the weight of the archduke Maximilian was thrown into the scale against them (1484).
Maximilian, archduke of Austria, was crowned emperor of Mexico in the cathedral in June 1864, and held possession of the capital until the 21st of June 1867, when it was captured by General Porfirio Diaz.
In 1856, on the recommendation of Ranke, Sybel accepted the post of professor at Munich, where King Maximilian II.
Einsiedel was now dismissed, Prince Frederick Augustus, son of Maximilian, who resigned the succession, became co-regent, and a constitution was promised.
Mary now made her choice among the many suitors for her hand, and selected the archduke Maximilian of Austria, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I., and the marriage took place at Ghent on the 18th of August 1477.
He was received with public marks of respect by the authorities, who granted him the use of an unfinished residence which had been begun to be built for the late emperor Maximilian.
Eighteen months later (Dec. 14, 1575), mainly through the influence of Jan Zamoyski, Stephen Bathory, prince of Transylvania, was elected king of Poland by the szlachta in opposition to the emperor Maximilian, who had been elected two days previously by the senate, after disturbances which would have rent any other state but Poland to pieces.
He tried the emperor Maximilian, the French and the United States to see if they would serve his turn.
The empty title of grand-marshal given by Maximilian was all he gained.
In his brother Wladislaus, who as king of Hungary and Bohemia possessed a dominant influence in Central Europe, he found a counterpoise to the machinations of the emperor Maximilian, who in 1492 had concluded an alliance against him with Ivan III.
Three hundred thus separated from Rapp in 1833, with $105,000 as their share of the communal property, to build the millennial kingdom of New Jerusalem at Phillipsburg (now Monaca), Beaver county, Pennsylvania, under the lead of Bernhard Muller, who had come to Economy in 1831 as a fellow religionist, and was called Count Maximilian de Leon (or Proli); in 1833 Leon went, with his followers, to Louisiana, and established a religious colony 6 m.
Nothing more was accomplished until after the downfall of Maximilian, and with a liberal subsidy from the Mexican government the Ferrocarril Mexicano was pushed to its completion in 1873.
Its realization was delayed by the wars that devastated the country down to the overthrow of Maximilian, but the leaven was at work, and with the return of peace a marked increase in the number of primary and secondary schools was noted.
Thenceforward, till the second election of Porfirio Diaz to the presidency in 1884, the history of Mexico is one of almost continuous warfare, in which Maximilian's empire is a mere episode.
Maximilian of Austria, brother of the Emperor Francis Joseph, and should he refuse, left its disposal to Napoleon III.
Maximilian, after some difficulty as to renouncing his right of succession to the throne of Austria, accepted the crown Maximilian subject to the approval of the Mexican people, and Emperor, reached Mexico city on the 12th of June 1864.
Before Maximilian arrived the provisional government had refused to cancel the sales of confiscated Church lands, as the clericals demanded.
Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so.
Yet on the 3rd of October 1865, Maximilian, misled by a false report that Juarez had left the country, issued a decree declaring the Juarists guerillas, who, whenever captured, were to be tried by courtmartial and shot.
But Maximilian's decree prepared his own fate.
The American Civil War ended in the spring of 1865, and a strong popular feeling was at once manifested in favour of asserting the Monroe doctrine against Maximilian's government.
In the summer there were threatening movements of United Maximilian States troops towards the Rio Grande; early in 1866 deserted by Napoleon III.
Maximilian now turned for support to the Mexican clericals; meditated abdication, but was dissuaded by his wife Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I.
Maximilian had meanwhile drawn nearer to the clericals and farther from the French, and, to protect French interests, Napoleon III.
But fearing the prospect, they induced Maximilian, who had retired to Orizaba for his 1 Diaz refused parole, and was confined at Puebla for some months, but made his escape, and was soon in the field again.
Hereupon he returned to the capital; the Juarist dominion extended rapidly; the French troops left (in one body) on the 5th of February 1867, and shortly after Maximilian took command of the army at Queretaro.
The great drainage scheme which completed the works of the 17th century by taking out the surplus waters of the southern lakes of the valley of Mexico was devised in 1856, begun under Maximilian, proceeded with intermittently till 1885, then taken up with improved plans, practically completed by 1896, and inaugurated in 1900; 2 the harbour of Vera Cruz was finished in 1902; the Tehuantepec railway, likely to prove a formidable rival to any interoceanic canal, was opened on the 24th of January 1906.
For Maximilian, the Blue-books on Mexican affairs contained in Accounts and Papers (presented to parliament), vol.
By Maximilian's administrative organization of the empire in 1500 the duchy of Westphalia was included as an appanage of Cologne in the scattered circle of the Lower Rhine.
Having passed some time at the court of the emperor Maximilian I., he married in 1524 a daughter of George, duke of Saxony.
He was also one of the most trusted advisers of Frederick's son and successor Maximilian I., and his services were rewarded in 1500 with the provostship of the cathedral at Augsburg and in the following year with the bishopric of Gurk.
In 1496 the city showed its devotion to its new masters by a successful defence against Maximilian and his allies, but it was still a small place; in 1551 there were only 749 inhabitants.
In 1564 he again visited the continent, in order to present his Monas hieroglyphica to the emperor Maximilian, to whom he had dedicated it.
After various adventures he reached Vienna, where he preached, and was protected by the semi-Lutheran archduke (afterwards the emperor) Maximilian II.
Raised to the see of Feltre in 1512, he went on another embassy to Maximilian in 1513, and was created cardinal priest of San Tommaso in Pavione, 27th of June 1517.
The abbey is now a royal castle, and in the neighbourhtood a hunting-lodge was built by King Maximilian II.
The efforts of Leo to promote a crusade, which fall mainly in the years 1517 and 1518, deserve all recognition, but very various opinions have been held as to the attitude of the pope towards the Imperial election consequent on the death of Maximilian I.
By the marriage of Mary, only daughter of Charles the Bold of Burgundy to Maximilian, archduke of Austria, 1477, the grand mastership of the order came to the house of Habsburg and, with the Netherlands provinces, to Spain in 1504 on the accession of Philip, Maximilian's son, to Castile.
The relic was supposed to have been peculiarly treasured by the emperor Maximilian I.
It was revived in 1708 by the elector palatine, John William of Neuberg, and its constitution was altered at various times, its final form being given by the elector Maximilian Joseph, first king of Bavaria, in 1808.
The Order of St George, said to have been founded in the 12th century as a crusading order and revived by the emperor Maximilian I.
It was confirmed by the elector Charles Theodore in 1778 and by the elector Maximilian Joseph IV.
Besides the above Bavaria possesses the Military Order of Maximilian Joseph, 1806, and the Civil Orders of Merit of St Michael, 1693, and of the Bavarian Crown, 1808, and other minor orders and decorations, civil and military.
Barbara brought him a dower of ioo,000 gulden and the support of the Magyar magnates, but the match nearly brought about a breach with the emperor Maximilian, jealous already of the Jagiello influence in Hungary.
On his death in January 1479 he was succeeded by his son George, also called the Rich; and when George, a faithful adherent of the German king Maximilian I., died without sons in December 1503, a war broke out for the possession of his duchy.
Albert's rival was George's son-in-law, Rupert, formerly bishop of Freising, and son of Philip, count palatine of the Rhine; and the emperor Maximilian I., interested as archduke of Austria and count of Tirol, interfered in the dispute.
In 1 597 he abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian I., and retired into a monastery, where he died in 1626.
Maximilian found the duchy encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change.
The result was a unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War; during the earlier years of which he was so successful as to acquire the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity which had been enjoyed since 1356 by the elder branch of the Wittelsbach family.
In spite of subsequent reverses these gains were retained by Maximilian at the peace of Westphalia in 1648.
In 1632 it was invaded by the Swedes, and, when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in 1647, was ravaged by the French and the Swedes.
Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria (1651-1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries, and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.
His good work, however, was largely undone by his son Maximilian II.
Untaught by Maximilian Emmanuel's experience, his son, Charles Albert (1726-1745), devoted all his energies to increasing the European prestige and power of his house.
The funds of the suppressed order of Jesus, which Maximilian Joseph had destined for the reform of the educational system of the country, were used to endow a province of the knights of St John of Jerusalem, for the purpose of combating the enemies of the faith.
Maximilian IV, Joseph (of Zweibrucken), the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance.
In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay in a frank alliance with the French republic; he succeeded in overcoming the reluctance of Maximilian Joseph; and, on the 24th of August, a separate treaty of peace and alliance with France was signed at Paris.
By the 1st article of the treaty the emperor acknowledged the assumption by the elector of the title of king, as Maximilian I.
Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808 were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.
Prussia, however, refused to approve of any coup d'etat; the parliament, chastened by the consciousness that its life depended on the goodwill of the king, moderated its tone; and Maximilian ruled till his death as a model constitutional monarch.
His cabinet was known as the "Lolaministerium"; in February 1848, stimulated by the news from Paris, riots broke out against the countess; on the th of March the king dismissed Oettingen, and on the l0th, realizing the force of public opinion against him, abdicated in favour of his son, Maximilian II.
To the spirit of this Maximilian was faithful Prussian 3' p.
In refusing to agree to the offer of the imperial crown to Frederick William IV, Maximilian had the support of his parliament.
Maximilian was succeeded on the Toth of March 1864 by his son Louis II., a youth of eighteen.
His main attention was afterwards claimed by the business of the Empire, and soon after taking part in the election of Maximilian as king of the Romans he died at Frankfort on the iith of March 1486.
Meanwhile from 1692 onwards brighter prospects were opened out to the unfortunate Belgians by the nomination by the Spanish king of Maximilian Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, to be governorgeneral with well-nigh sovereign powers.
Maximilian Emanuel was an able man, who did his utmost to improve the condition of the country.
The last archbishop-elector, Maximilian of Austria, died in 1801.
Maximilian Street is remarkable for its breadth and architectural beauty.
The successor of Louis, Charles VIII., restored the city to its former name and position, and as part of the inheritance of Mary, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold, it was contended for by the French king, and his rival, the German king, Maximilian I.
The peace of Senlis in 1493 gave Arras to Maximilian, and in spite of attacks by the French, it remained under the rule of the Habsburgs until 1640.
In 1508 he concluded against Venice the famous league of Cambray with the emperor Maximilian, Louis of France and Ferdinand of Aragon, and in the following year placed the city of Venice under an interdict.
Later friendly relations between the United States and Great Britain, where, among the upper classes, there was a strong sentiment in favour of the Confederacy, were seriously threatened by the fitting out of Confederate privateers in British ports, and the Administration owed much to the skilful diplomacy of the American minister in London, Charles Francis Adams. A still broader foreign question grew out of Mexican affairs, when events culminating in the setting up of Maximilian of Austria as emperor under protection of French troops demanded the constant watchfulness of the United States.
In his later years he became more of a recluse than ever, and even before February 1486, when his son Maximilian was chosen German king, he had practically ceased to take any part in the business of the Empire, although he survived until August 1493.
Maximilian came to the throne in 1486 with exceptional advantages.
Having in 1490 driven the Hungarians from Vienna ane recovered his hereditary lands, and having ordered the affair of the Netherlands, Maximilian turned his attention to Italy whither he was drawn owing to the invasion of that country by Charles VIII.
The diet was ad extremely clumsy instrument of government, and it was perhaps never more discredited or more impotent than when it met Maximilian at Worms in March 1495.
Although disappointed in the hope which they had nourished until about 1490 that Maximilian himself would lead them, they had found a capable head in Bertold, elector of Mainz.
Partly to provide for the expenses of this court, partly to furnish Maximilian with the promised monetary aid, a tax called the common penny was instituted, this impost taking the form both of a property tax and of a poll tax.
A series of diets between 1495 and 1499 produced only mutual recriminations, and then Maximilian met with a serious rebuff.
Consequently, in 1499, Maximilian sent such troops as he could collect against them, but his forces were beaten, and by the peace of Basel he was forced to concede all the demands made by the Swiss, who became virtually independent of the Empire.
It is not surprising therefore that Maximilian hated the new body, to the establishment of which he had only consented under great pressure.
Maximilian was not Maxi- slow to resent this interference; he refused to appoint mi/ian a president, and soon succeeded in making the meetings hampers of the council impossible.
Bertold called the electors together to decide upon a plan of campaign; Maximilian on his part tried to destroy the electoral union by winning over individual members.
When the diet met at Cologne in 1505 Maximilian asked for an army and the request was granted, the necessary funds being raised by the old plan of a levy on the estates.
After Maximilian had taken the novel step of assuming the title of Roman emperor at Trent in 1508 the last of the reforming diets met at Cologne in 1512.
Maximilian himself had done a great deal to promote the unity of his Austrian lands and, incidentally, to cut them off from the remainder of the German kingdom, and other princes were following his example.
Maximilian gained his most conspicuous success in his own kingdom in 1504, when he interfered in a struggle over the succession to the duchy of Bavaria-Landshut.
In many respects the reign of Maximilian must be regarded as the end of the middle ages.
When Maximilian died in January 1519 his throne was competed for by his grandson Charles, king of Spain, and by Francis I.
Following the example set by Maximilian he called himself emperor without waiting for the formality of a coronation at Rome.
Lutherans sat among the judges Adminis- of the Reic/sskammergericht, and the Aulic Council, or trave, Hofrat, established by Maximilian I.
Maximilian found time to make earnest but unavailing efforts to mediate between his cousin, Philip II.
Thus, under Maximilian of Bavaria and Christian of Anhalt respectively the two great parties were gaining a better idea of their own needs and of each others aims and were watching vigilantly the position in the duchies of Cleves, Julich and Berg, where a dispute over the succession was impending.
These princes were Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, and Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, the former a member of the house of Wittelsbach, and the latter of the house of Habsburg.
Rendered suspicious by this arbitrary act, the,Protestant princes in 1608 formed a confederation known as the Evangelical Union, and in response the Roman Catholics, under the guidance of Maximilian, united in a similar confederation afterwards called the Catholic League.
Ferdinand was even more vigorous than Maximilian in defence of his religion.
Then at the The conbeginning of 1620 he came to terms with Maximilian of Bavaria, who, after carefully securing his own interests, placed the army of the League, commanded by the celebrated Tilly.
Having been placed under the imperial ban Frederick became an exile from his inheritance, and the electorate which he was declared to have forfeited was conferred on Maximilian.
A little later, yielding to Maximilian and his colleagues in the League, Ferdinand dismissed Wallenstein, whose movements had aroused their resentment, from his service.
When, however, the allied army had retired Maximilian repented of his action.
Several princes and other leading personages, foremost among whom was the emperor Maximilian I., had spent a good deal of time and money in collecting the manuscripts of the medieval chroniclers, and these now began to be printed.
The decline in the fortunes of the family, however, was to be arrested by Frederick's son, Maximilian, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I., who was the second founder The of the greatness of the house of Habsburg.
Soon after his election as king of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian attacked the Hungarians, and in 1490 he had driven them from Austria, and recovered his hereditary lands.
In the same year he made an arrangement with his kinsman, Sigismund of Tirol, by which he brought this county under his rule, and when the emperor Frederick died in 1493, Maximilian united the whole of the Austrian lands under his sway.
In these ways Maximilian proved himself a capable and energetic ruler, although his plans for making Austria into a kingdom, or an electorate, were abortive.
The rulers of Austria lacked the the close prestige which attached to the electoral office, and, of the although five of them had held the position of German middle king, the four who preceded Maximilian had added ages.
Austria proper was policy left to his eldest son Maximilian, Tirol to the archduke The of Ferdi- Ferdinand; and Styria with Carinthia and Carniola nand and to the archduke Charles.
Till 1630 the The ThirrY fortunes of Austria brightened under the active rule years' of Ferdinand, who was assisted by Maximilian of War.
The matter came to an issue in 1777, on the death of the elector Maximilian III.
The acts were accepted in Austria out of necessity; but no Prussian government regarding the position of the South German states; a close friendship was maintained with France; there were meetings of the emperor and of Napoleon at Salzburg in 1868, and the next year at Paris; the death of Maximilian in Mexico cast a shadow over the friendship, but did not destroy it.
As a diplomatist of repute, however, his services were quickly required by the new king, James IV., in whose interests he visited the kings of England and France, and the German king, Maximilian I.
As early as 1835 Mehemet Ali had given orders for a museum to be formed; little however, was accomplished before the whole of the resulting collection was given away to the Archduke Maximilian of Austria in 1855.
This was punished in October of the following year, when Duke Maximilian of Bavaria sacked the town and put nearly all the inhabitants to the sword.
Nothing came of these suspicions till 1777, when, after the death of Maximilian Joseph, elector of Bavaria, without children, the emperor took possession of the greater part of his lands.
Frederick was among the princes who pressed the need of reform upon the German king Maximilian I.
In his own country, all orders of men, from the emperor Maximilian down, delighted to honour him; and he was the familiar companion of chosen spirits among the statesmen, humanists and reformers of the new age.
In the summer of 1520 the desire of Diirer to secure from Maximilian's successors a continuance of the patronage and privileges granted during his lifetime, together with an outbreak of sickness in Nuremberg, gave occasion to the master's fourth and last journey from home.
Ferdinand died in that year (1516) and the emperor Maximilian in 1519.
On the death of Stephen, Zolkiewski vigorously supported the policy of Zamoyski, and took an active part in the battle of Byczyna, when the Austrian archduke Maximilian was defeated by the Polish chancellor.
On the 29th of June 1477, however, he was killed at the siege of Tournai; and Mary gave her hand to Maximilian of Austria, afterwards emperor.
Catherine, Adolf's sister, made an attempt to assert the rights of his son Charles to the duchy, but by 1483 Maximilian had crushed all opposition and established himself as duke of Gelderland.
The efforts of Maximilian to recover the country were vain, and the successive governors of the Netherlands, Philip the Fair and his sister Margaret, fared no better.
Three daughters and four sons were born of this marriage, one of whom succeeded him as Maximilian II., while another, Luitpold, became prince regent of Bavaria on the death of Louis II.
All this made such a deep impression on the king, that on the 10th of March 1848 he abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian.
But the peremptory summons could be construed as an attack on the university of Wittenberg, and both the elector of Saxony and the emperor Maximilian so regarded it.
The emperor Maximilian had died suddenly (12th January 1519), and for long Germany was disturbed with intrigues about the succession - the papal policy being specially tortuous.
The widely expressed desire for a German emperor secured the unanimous election of Charles, the grandson of Maximilian and the king of Spain.
The tomb of Maximilian I., and the statues round it, at Innsbruck, begun in 1521, are perhaps the most meritorious German work of this class in the 16th century, and show considerable Italian influence.
But in his eagerness to seize the whole inheritance of his rival, Louis drove his daughter and heiress, Mary of Burgundy, into marriage with Maximilian of Austria (afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.),who successfully defended Flanders after a savage raid by Antoine de Chabannes.
The town has monuments to the Bavarian king, Maximilian II., and to other famous men; it contains a botanical garden and a public park.
The "perpetual peace" (ewiger Landfriede) was proclaimed by the emperor Maximilian I.
At this date too, or a little earlier, the king of Scotland began to treat as an equal with the powerful princes of Europe, Maximilian I., Louis XII.
A few of the German princes, among whom Maximilian, the prince cardinal Albert of Mainz, Frederick the Wise of Saxony, and Eberhard of Wurttemberg deserve mention, exercised a not insignificant influence on letters by the foundation of new universities and the patronage of learned men.
At the age of twelve his kinsman the emperor Maximilian placed him among his pages.
He left the service of Maximilian, and after a brief employment by another kinsman, the duke of Ferrara, he decided to quit the military life, and in 1514 entered as a student at the university of Bologna.
In 1623 it was sent to Rome by Maximilian I., duke of Bavaria, and stored as the Bibliotheca Palatina in the Vatican.
According to the instructions of Vladislav, Sigismund, king of Poland, and the emperor Maximilian I.
In one of the last years of his life (1562) Ferdinand succeeded in obtaining the coronation of his eldest son Maximilian as king of Bohemia, thus ensuring to him the succession to the Bohemian throne.
Maximilian succeeded his father as king of Bohemia without any opposition.
The reign of Maximilian did not fulfil the hopes that met it.
In 1567 Maximilian, who had also succeeded his father as king of Hungary and emperor, visited the Bohemians for the first time since his accession to the throne.
Maximilian, indifferent as usual to matters of religious controversy, consented to the abolition of the Compacts, and these enactments, which had once been sacred to the Bohemian people, perished unregretted by all parties.
In 1575 Maximilian, who had long been absent from Bohemia, returned there, as the estates refused to grant subsidies to an absentee monarch.
The Confessio Bohemica was presented to Maximilian, who verbally expressed his approval, but would not consent to this being made public, and also refused his consent to the inclusion of the Confessio among the charters of the kingdom.
Maximilian rejected the demand of the Bohemian estates, that they and not the king should in future appoint the members of the consistory.
The results of the diet of 1575 were on the whole favourable to the estates, and they seem to have taken this view, for almost immediately afterwards they recognized Maximilian's eldest son Rudolph as his successor and consented to his being crowned king of Bohemia.
Maximilian died in the following year, and Rudolph succeeded him without any opposition.
He vigorously attacked the royal decree, which he declared to be contrary to the promises made by King Maximilian.
The powerful duke Maximilian of Bavaria joined his forces to those of Ferdinand, who had become Matthias's successor as emperor, and who was determined to reconquer Bohemia.
In order to protect her independence, Anne concluded an alliance with Maximilian of Austria, and soon married him by proxy (December 1489).
But Maximilian was incapable of defending her, and in 1491 the young duchess found herself compelled to treat with Charles VIII.
On the 12th of August 1515 Christian married Isabella of Burgundy, the grand-daughter of the emperor Maximilian.
France had not paralleled the activity of Maximilian's Renaissance historians.
The duke of Milan, Maximilian Sforza, had secured the support of the emperor, the king of Spain, and the pope, and also that of the Swiss cantons, which then supplied the best and most numerous mercenary soldiers in Europe.
Opposite the custom-house is a bronze statue of the Bavarian king Maximilian II., erected in 1856.
When ambassadors from Austria came to Milan towards the close of 1493 to escort the betrothed bride of their emperor Maximilian, Bianca Maria Sforza, away on her nuptial journey, the finished colossal model, 26 ft.
Mention is made of a "Nativity" painted for and sent to the emperor Maximilian, and also apparently of some picture painted for Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary; both are lost or at least unidentified.
In 1857 the archduke Maximilian tried to conciliate the Milanese by the promise of a constitution, and Cantu was one of the few Liberals who accepted the olive branch, and went about in company with the archduke.
By the sudden death of the Duchess Mary in 1482 her possessions, including the county of Holland, passed to her infant son, Philip, under the guardianship of his father the Archduke Maximilian of Austria.
During the regency of Maximilian the turbulence of the Hooks caused much strife and unrest in Holland.
In 1 494, Maximilian having been elected emperor, Philip was declared of age.
Between 1471 and 1481 Gradisca was fortified by the Venetians, but in 1511 they surrendered it to the emperor Maximilian I.
He continued for some years in favour with the king, who made him a knight of the Garter; but, having killed a man in a passion, he fled abroad and was entertained at the court of the emperor Maximilian, and afterwards at that of Philip, king of Castile, when resident in the Low Countries before his departure for Spain.
In 1508 Maximilian I., being refused a passage to Rome by the Venetians, obtained from Pope Julius II.
In 1570 he was married to Elizabeth of Austria, daughter of Maximilian II.
He was entertained in France, and was taken by Maximilian to attend the funeral of the emperor Frederick III.
In July 1495 he was provided with a few ships and men by Maximilian, now emperor, and he appeared on the coast of Kent.
He allied himself with Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and with Maximilian of Austria, who was ruling the Netherlands in behalf of his young son, Philip, the heir of the Burgundian inheritance, for the purpose of preventing France from annexing Brittany, the last great fief of the crown which had not yet been absorbed into the Valois royal domain.
Henry very wisely proceeded to get out of the war on the best terms possible, and, to the disgust of Maximilian, sold peace to the French king for 600,000 crowns, as well as an additional sum representing arrears of the pension which Louis XI.
This treaty of Etaples was, in short, a repetition of Edwards treaty of Picquigny, equally profitable and less disgraceful, for Maximilian of Austria, whom Henry thus abandoned, had given more cause of offence than had Charles of Burgundy in 1475.
France was now too strong for England, and both Maximilian and Ferdinand of Spain were selfish and shifty allies.
Maximilian of Austria also took up his cause, as a happy means of revenging himself on Henry VII.
There can be small doubt that both the duchess and tile German King (Maximilian had succeeded, to his fathers crown in 1493) were perfectly well aware that they were aiding a manifest fraud.
Thereupon., abandoning his Irish schemes, Warbeck sailed to Scotland, whose young king James IV, had just been seduced by the emperor Maximilian into declaring war on England.
Fully conscious of the danger of his position, Suffolk fled to the continent, and lived for many years as a pensioner of the emperor Maximilian.
Flanders was still the greatest customer of England, and it was therefore necessary above all things to keep on good terms with the archduke Philip, the son of Maximilian, who on coming of age had taken over the rule of the Netherlands from his father.
But the real history of the Aulic Council, as that term was understood in the later days of the Empire, begins with Maximilian I.
In these years Maximilian created three organs (apparently following the precedent set by his Burgundian ancestors in the Netherlands) - a Hofrat, a Hofkammer for finance, and a Hofkanzlei.
Primarily intended for the hereditary dominions of Maximilian, these bodies were also intended for the whole Empire; and the Hofrat was to deal with "all and every business which may flow in from the Empire, Christendom at large, or the king's hereditary principalities."
It was thus to be the supreme executive and judicial organ, discharging all business except that of finance and the drafting of documents; and it was intended to serve Maximilian as a point d'appui for the monarchy against the system of oligarchical committees, instituted by Berthold, archbishop of Mainz.
The first two powers were soon induced to withdraw their forces; but the French remained, declared war in 1862, placed Maximilian upon the throne as emperor, and drove Juarez and his adherents to the northern limits of the republic. Juarez maintained an obstinate resistance, which resulted in final success.
In 1867 Maximilian was taken at Queretaro, and shot; and in August Juarez was once more elected president.
He was a statesman of integrity, ability and determination, whose good qualities are too apt to be overlooked in consequence of his connexion with the unhappy fate of Maximilian.
During the Middle Ages Klagenfurt became the property of the crown, but by a patent of Maximilian I.
When Germany was divided into circles by the emperor Maximilian I.
This arrangement was confirmed by the German king, Maximilian I., and the imperial diet in 1495.
In 1501 he sought the German King Maximilian in Tirol, and received from him a promise of substantial assistance in case of an attempt on the English crown.
Then in July 1502 Henry concluded a treaty with Maximilian by which the king bound himself not to countenance English rebels.
Its church of St Gommaire was finished in 1557 and contains three fine glass windows, the gift of the archduke Maximilian, to celebrate his wedding with Mary of Burgundy.
In 1505 it received the right of coining from Philip, son of the emperor Maximilian I.
But Berezowski's pistol shot, which accentuated the estrangement from the tsar, and the news of the death of Maximilian at Queretaro, cast a gloom over the later fetes.
Then Margaret of Burgundy received him as her nephew, and Maximilian, now estranged from Henry, recognized him as king of England.
With a fleet given him by Maximilian he attempted to land at Deal, but sailed away to Ireland and, not succeeding very well there either, sailed farther to Scotland, where James IV.
In 1268 the margrave of Meissen granted a safe-conduct to all frequenters of the fairs, and in 1497 and 1507 the emperor Maximilian I.
Thus either he or his son-in-aw Maximilian would have been emperor.
He seized everything, alleging different rights in each place; but he displayed such violent haste and such trickery that he threw the heiress of Burgundy, in despair, into the arms of Maximilian of Austria.
Lastly, by the treaty of Fontainebleau (May 30th, 1631), Maximilian of Bavaria, the head of the Catholic League, engaged to defend the king of France against all his enemies, even Spain, with the exception of the emperor.
The diet of Regensburg, under the mediation of Maximilian of Bavaria, decided in favor of peace with France, and on the25th of December 1641 the preliminary settlement at Hamburg fixed the opening of negotiations to take place at Munster and Osnabruck.
The marriage of Maximilian of Austria with the heiress of Burgundy was to be productive of a change in the fortunes of that part of Frisia which lies between the Vlie and the Lauwers.
In 1498 Maximilian reversed the policy of his father Frederick III., and detached this territory, known afterwards as the province of Friesland, from the empire.
In 1523 it fell with all the rest of the provinces of the Netherlands under the strong rule of the emperor Charles, the grandson of Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy.
The League of Cambrai is the name given to the alliance of Pope Julius II., Louis XII., Maximilian I., and Ferdinand the Catholic against the Venetians in 1508; and the peace of Cambrai, or as it is also called, the Ladies' Peace, was concluded in the town in 1529 by Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I., and Margaret of Austria, aunt of Charles V., in the name of these monarchs.
The marriage of Juana, called the Mad, with Philip of Habsburg, son of the emperor Maximilian brought a new dynasty to Spain.
The opposite party immediately elected the Austrian Archduke Maximilian, who thereupon made an attempt upon Cracow.
In 1497 he was appointed by the emperor Maximilian I.
There should be mentioned the palace of Duke Alexander of Wurttemberg, the administrative offices, the statue of King Maximilian II.
Afterwards he became imperial commissioner of emigration to the emperor Maximilian of Mexico, and started building "New Virginia" and a "Carlotta" colony in Mexico.
Maximilian and Carlotta had been forwarned.
She chose to go abroad to seek help while Maximilian sincerely believed the largest extent of Mexicans supported him and his ideas for a better Mexico.
In any case, Maximilian would not run from his duties in Mexico.
Hastily quitting his quarters in Upper Swabia, Gustavus hastened towards Nuremberg on his way to Saxony, but finding that Wallenstein and Maximilian of Bavaria had united their forces, he abandoned the attempt to reach Saxony, and both armies confronted each other at Nuremberg which furnished Gustavus with a point of support of the first order.
The next important step was the timely conversion of the count palatine's heir, Wolfgang William of Neuburg, to Roman Catholicism, and his marriage -with a daughter of the powerful Roman Catholic prince, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria.
He helped to arrange the marriage between Henry's son, Arthur, and Catherine of Aragon; he went to Scotland with Richard Foxe, then bishop of Durham, in 1497; and he was partly responsible for several commercial and other treaties with Flanders, Burgundy and the German king, Maximilian I.
An arrangement was effected, however, whereby that citation was cancelled, and Luther betook himself in October 1518 to Augsburg to meet the papal legate, Cardinal Cajetan, who was attending the imperial diet convened by the emperor Maximilian to impose the tithes for the Turkish war and to elect a king of the Romans; but neither the arguments of the learned cardinal, nor the dogmatic papal bull of the 9th of November to the effect that all Christians must believe in the pope's power to grant indulgences, moved Luther to retract.
Maximilian, Freiherr von Gagern (1810-1889), the youngest son, was born at Weilburg on the 26th of March 1810.
This war was very unpopular with the trading cities of the Netherlands, and early in 1488 Maximilian, having entered Bruges, was detained there as a prisoner for nearly three months, and only set at liberty on the approach of his father with a large force.
By this treaty it was agreed that Maximilian should succeed to the crown in case Ladislaus left no legitimate male issue.
Maximilian harboured the idea of driving the Turks from Europe; but his appeal to all Christian sovereigns was ineffectual.
As during his father's lifetime Maximilian had favoured the reforming party among the princes, proposals for the better government of the empire were brought forward at Worms as a necessary preliminary to financial and military support.
The reforms of 1495 were rendered abortive by the refusal of Maximilian to attend the diets or to take any part in the working of the new constitution, and in 1497 he strengthened his own authority by establishing an Aulic Council (Reichshofrath), which he declared was competent to deal with all business of the empire, and about the same time set up a court to centralize the financial administration of Germany.
About this time Maximilian's ally, Ludovico of Milan, was taken prisoner by Louis XII., king of France, and Maximilian was again compelled to ask the diet for help. An elaborate scheme for raising an army was agreed to, and in return a council of regency (Reichsregiment) was established, which amounted, in the words of a Venetian envoy, to a deposition of the king.
The negotiations with France ended in the treaty of Blois, signed in September 1504, when Maximilian's grandson Charles was betrothed to Claude, daughter of Louis XII., and Louis, invested with the duchy of Milan, agreed to aid the king of the Romans to secure the imperial crown.
A facsimile of the original editions of Maximilian's autobiographical and semi-autobiographical works has been published in nine volumes in the Jahrbi cher der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Kaiserhauses (Vienna, 1880-1888).
In 1856 the emperor and empress visited their Italian dominions, but were received with icy coldness; the following year, on the retirement of Radetzky at the age of ninety-three, the archduke Maximilian, an abie, cultivated and kind-hearted man, was appointed viceroy.
It lay too near the French frontier to be safe, and too remote from the centre of Germany to be convenient, as a capital; and in 1562 the election and coronation of Maximilian II.
After the disruption of the league of Cambray, Maximilian, like Louis XII., was thrown into a violent anti-curial reaction, and in 1510 he sent to the well-known humanist, Joseph Wimpheling, a copy of the French Pragmatic Sanction, asking his advice and stating that he had determined to free Germany from the yoke of the Curia and prevent the great sums of money from going to Rome.
Among others may be mentioned Die Narrenbeschworung (1512); Die Schelmenzunft (1512); Die Gduchmatt, which treats of enamoured fools (1519), and a translation of Virgil's Aeneid (1515) dedicated to the emperor Maximilian I.
As a convinced Roman Catholic he forwarded the progress of the counter-reformation, and in general the tolerant policy of Maximilian II.
Maximilian III Joseph (1745-1777), by the peace of Fissen signed on the 22nd of April 1745, obtained the restitution of his dominions in return for a formal acknowledgment of the Pragmatic Sanction.
Bavaria accordingly opposed the Prussian proposals for the reorganization of the Confederation, and one of the last acts of King Maximilian was to take a conspicuous part in the assembly of princes summoned to Frankfurt in 1863 by the emperor Francis Joseph (see Germany).
Bertold retorted that redress of grievances must precede supply, and Maximilian and the princes were soon discussing the proposals put forward by the sagacious elector.
His first suggestion that a council nominated by the estates should be set up with the power of vetoing the acts of the king was abandoned because of the strenuous opposition of Maximilian; but Bertold was successful in getting the diet to proclaim an eternal Landfriede, that is, to forbid private war without any limitation of time, and it was agreed that the diet should meet annually to advise the king on matters of moment.
Like other German sovereigns Maximilian pursued the phantom of religious union.
Maximilian became prominent in 1607 by executing an imperial mandate against the free city of DonauwOrth, where a religious riot had taken place, and afterwards treating it as his own.
The work of unification which was so successfully accomplished by Maximilian was aided by two events, the progress of the Turks in south-eastern Europe, and the loss of most of the Habsburg possessions on the Rhine.
In 1486, when his eldest brother became elector as Frederick III., John received a part of the paternal inheritance and afterwards assisted his kinsman, the German king Maximilian I., in several campaigns.
It was the style from 1821 to 1889 of the princes of the house of Braganza who ruled in Brazil; it has been assumed by usurpers in Haiti, and in Mexico it was borne by Augustin Iturbide in 1822 and 1823, and by the ill-fated Archduke Maximilian of Austria from 1864 to 1867.
He was taken ill, however, in 1901, and died on the 19th of June 1902, being succeeded in the title by his son, Richard Maximilian Dalberg Acton, 2nd Baron Acton (b.1870).