How to use Matte in a sentence
As the matte contains on an average o.
The resulting matte runs 25%.
Dipping a pencil eraser in poster or acrylic paint in a color that contrasts with the matte, stamp a paw-print design on the matte and on a piece of construction paper big enough to cover the can.
This rich matte is then mixed with coke and salt-cake and melted down in an open hearth furnace.
The " American process " or " Pyritic smelting " consists in the direct smelting of raw ores to matte in blast furnaces.Advertisement
But even when the old type of reverberatory is preferred, as at the Argo works, at Denver, where rich goldand silver-bearing copper matte is made, the growth of the furnace in size has been steady.
The low percentage of sulphur in the roasted ore is little more than enough to produce a matte of 40 to 45%, and therefore the escaping gases are better fitted than those of most copper cupola furnaces for burning in a stove.
The largest furnaces are those of the Boston & Montana Company at Great Falls, Montana, which have put through soo tons of charge daily, pouring their melted slag and matte into large wells of io ft.
A combined brickand water-cooled furnace has been adopted by the Iron Mountain Company at Keswick, Cal., for matte concentration.
One of the earliest and most exhaustive series of experiments was made on Rio Tinto ores at the John Brown works by John Hollway, with the aim of both smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the same furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of their sulphur and iron.Advertisement
The difficulty of effecting this double object in one operation was so great that in subsequent experiments the aim was merely to concentrate the matte to metallic copper in converters of the Bessemer type.
Practice, however, in treating copper matte differs essentially from the treatment of pig iron, inasmuch as from 20 to 30% of iron must be eliminated as slag and an equivalent quantity of silica must be supplied.
This is so rapidly consumed that the converters must be cooled and partially relined after 3 to 6 charges, dependent on the iron contents of the matte.
The quantity of air consumed in a converter which will blow up about 35 tons of matte per day is about 3000 cub.
The operation of raising a charge of so% matte to copper usually consists of two blows.Advertisement
The matte also, in all economically planned works, is conveyed, still molten, by electric cranes from the furnace to the converters.
When lead or zinc is not present in notable quantity, the loss of the precious metals by volatilization is slight, but more than 5% of these metals in the matte is prohibitive.
Under favourable conditions in the larger works of the United States the cost of converting a 50% matte to metallic copper is generally understood to be only about 1 o to iw of a cent per lb.
Pyritic smelting is a development of the Russian engineer Semenikov's treatment (proposed in 1866) of copper matte in a Bessemer converter.
Since John Hollway's and other early experiments of Lawrence Austin and Robert Sticht, no serious attempts have been made to utilize the heat escaping from a converting vessel in smelting ore and matte either in the same apparatus or in a separate furnace.Advertisement
Lump ore alone was fed, and the resulting matte showed a concentration of only 3 into i.
When, however, a hot blast is used on highly sulphuretted copper ores, a concentration of 8 of ore into i of matte is obtained, with a consumption of less than one-third the fuel which would be consumed in smelting the charge had the ore been previously calcined.
A portion of the white metal is calcined to such a degree of oxidation that when fused with the unroasted portion, the reaction between the oxygen in the roasted matte and the sulphur in the raw VII.
If it contains more than 55% of copper it is directly refined, while if it contains a lower percentage it is smelted with matte or calcined copper pyrites.
Many attempts have been made to use crude sulphide of copper or matte as an anode, and recover the copper at the cathode, the sulphur and other insoluble constitutents being left at the anode.Advertisement
The final coat can be rubbed with dampened emery cloth for a fine, soft, matte finish.
The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the image for some operations.
Firstly, certain airbrush cosmetics can actually give a matte, powdered look without the need to use powder to set the make-up.
The trim under the window is just a strip of matte board with wood dowel on top, with X-acto lines again.
The ThinkVision L171p's flat, matte screen minimizes glare and reflection without detracting from the display's high brightness score.
The surface should be matte, to avoid reflective glare.
We carry on to John matte which is close to the river in a grove of giant heather.
Use a long wear lipstick like Long Last Soft Matte or Long Last Soft Shine to keep color intact.
Chroma Key filter creates a matte based on color allowing background the show through.
As far as papers are concerned, I mainly use semigloss but I also use matte and gloss.
A flash smelter operating continuously produces a matte containing 65 wt% Cu and 36 wt% Fe from a pure CuFeS 2 concentrate.
For matte paper it's epson's enhance matte or the Hahnemuehle photo rag.
I still have plenty of Epson paper, premium glossy photo paper, color life and archival matte.
If a film is pan and scanned, open matte or hard matted just for the DVD, then this will be mentioned.
This made the object's normally matte looking surface appear more metallic.
The bridge surfaces - previously matte and gold-plated - are now rhodium-plated steel with elegant GlashÃ¼tte ribbing with Langeleist perlage on the underside.
The image matte channel percent transparency is initialized to factor.
Creating a separated or spiky look with a semi matte finish it instantly creates texture and hold for any hair length.
Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to transparent.
The ultra modern vinyl print gives a soft smooth matte finish which is hard wearing, long lasting, crack and fade resistant.
Matte is an extremely rare find because normally it needs to be roasted again and then smelted to produce impure copper.
The matte High Solid Gel creates a very waxy look.
The first process never extracts all the bismuth, as much as onethird being retained in the matte or speiss; the second is more satisfactory, since the extraction is more complete, and also allows the addition of reducing agents to decompose any admixed bismuth oxide or sulphide.
You can buy them made of stainless steel or brushed aluminum, and with matte, black, red, white and chrome finishes.
If you are looking for a modern metal version, look at the Evolution Futon Frame, which has a matte pewter finish and graceful, modern curves.
Black finishes to choose from include glossy, matte, and distressed.
Allow the stain to dry one to two days, and seal the beadboard with a matte finished sealant.
Flat or matte finish works best for walls that are flawed and easily show imperfections.
While a matte white is the most common color, a dark, earthy neutral is also appropriate for a decor that straddles both modernism and minimalism.
Imperfections aren't as obvious, due to their matte appearance and poor light reflecting qualities.
If you have a backsplash behind your stove that adequately covers that wall and if your kitchen is well ventilated so that steam and moisture do not build up, you can choose a matte finish.
All standard finishes are available including matte, egg-shell, satin and semi-gloss.
Handmade tiles come in matte, glossy and crackled finishes, can be used on walls and some floor applications and will have some degree of variation in color.
The tiles themselves may be matte, glossy or crackled in finish and can come in sizes up to 12 x 24-inches as well as mosaics and mid-range sizes of various shapes and colors.
Use polished materials for the medallion, surrounded by a matte floor for additional appeal.
Ralph Lauren paints are also available in standard matte, eggshell, satin and semi-gloss finishes.
Finishes include pewter, white matte, polished silver, antique bronze, faux walnut and matte black.
Finishes include matte black and antique bronze.
They come in sheer, satin, matte and frost finishes.
Matte finishes are perfect for every day wear, while pearlized, shimmer, or glitter shadows are best reserved for wearing on evenings or special occasions.
The matte version does not contain bismuth oxychloride.
Depending on the type of formula you choose, this makeup can give your skin a healthy glow or a matte finish.
You can use a matte or shimmer formula, as this is designed to catch the light and bring out your bone structure.
The foundation is available in a large variety of shades ranging from fair to deep.There are two versions of bareMinerals foundation available for purchase, the original foundation and the matte foundation.
The original formula contains bismuth oxychloride and offers a dewy finish to the skin; the matte formula does not contain bismuth oxychloride.
Some women find bismuth oxychloride irritating to the skin, so they may want to consider the matte product.
The matte version offers less of a glow than the original formula, so if you tried the foundation when it first became available but felt that the original version looked too shiny, the matte version may also be a better choice for you.
Matte Lipstick is the longest lasting type for a basic look, but avoid on over-dry lips.
If you have oily skin, you'll want to select a matte foundation that will soak up extra moisture; if you're lucky enough to have dewy skin already, a light, shimmery foundation will be all you'll need.
Cream or matte lip color is best for a strong red shade.
Mix eye shadow and lip balm to create a specially designed matte lipstick - but avoid colors that are too grey.
I think you should go with a classic look-red lips, matte makeup, rosy cheeks, earthy eyes.
If you don't want anything too heavy but still want the coverage, Chanel's Double Perfection Compact Matte Reflecting Powder Makeup SPF 10.
Oilier skins will need a more matte finish, while dry skins look best with a dewy shimmer foundation.
Even if you are younger, stick to matte looks like pale lipstick or lip stains.
The brow pencils and powders provide a matte and dull color, more natural on the eyebrow.
Additionally, when choosing eye shadow, opt for matte shades and stay away from frosts or shimmery formulas which tend to place emphasis on the areas where they are applied.
As for a day look, try a subtle matte pale purple and for evening, opt for a deeper plum, grape, bold violet or even silver gray in a shimmery formula.
Use soft matte lip colors in pink, berry, coral or peach shades to make your lips fuller.
Follow with any shade of brown either matte or one with shimmer and apply to the crease.
For a very natural effect, use matte not shimmer or frost shadow.
Follow with any shade of brown, either matte or one with shimmer, and apply to the crease.
This is an intense bluish-brown matte red.
Viva Glam III was introduced in 2000 and is a muted brownish plum lipstick with a matte finish.
Whether you desire high shine, matte, cream, or satin, MAC has the lipstick for you.
Don't limit yourself to matte corals, but rather try an iridescent gloss or nail polish that will give you a fun new look without being completely obvious.
You can select either a matte or frost eye shadow.
Matte eye shadows have a flat finish and absorb light.
Matte eye shadow works best if you have mature or puffy eyes.
When it comes to wedding make-up one of the most critical is our custom blended matte foundation.
Makeup fashion was a far cry from the pasty, painted, matte faces of the 50s' starlet era.
The early 90s were characterized by matte lips and faces, whereas the new millennium brought in a bloom of luminous cheeks and shimmering lips.
Select matte colors for eye shadow in shades that will complement your bridal outfit.
I have always had out-of-control oily skin and generally prefer the matte look powder offers me.
Although, the more matte powders do tend to age my skin, as they settle easily into my newer wrinkles.
Makeup fanatics will lose themselves in this enormous collection of matte, shimmery and creamy shadows.
Fashion is going back to that 1950's glam look of bold liner and rich lips in combination with matte skin.
In line with the 1950s glamorous look she told us about, grey and olive green shadow are currently reigning supreme on the runways along with the matte skin and bold lips.
Another use is to put it on top of matte shadows to give them a hint of shimmer without being over the top.
This silky powder quickly diminishes oil and leaves behind a sheer, matte and completely natural finish.
Shiny, gleaming, matte, translucent, opaque, lightweight, heavy - no matter what its particular traits may be, a perfume bottle is sure to delight even the most casual fragrance fan with its beauty.
You can choose from matte eye shadows, shimmer eye shadows or sometimes an eye shadow will have little pieces of glitter infused into the pigment (color).
However, if you prefer matte lip color, that's perfectly fine as well; I'll just illustrate some examples of each.
These have a great matte finish alone and look even better underneath your favorite lip gloss.
You want to keep your eye shadows soft yet defined and the easiest way to achieve this effect is by using matte eye shadows instead of using shimmer eye shadows.
Again I choose to use matte eye shadows because they create much "softer" finished looks for the eyes, which will compliment your darker lip color much better.
Infused with pearl powders, it provides a matte finish by absorbing oil with rice starch, oat protein and coral seaweed.
A diverse selection of colors is divided into seven groups, each consisting of several shades in either matte or pearl formulas.
A few common surprises you may run into while shopping for a lip stain may be the matte finish formula and the color options.
Fear not the matte finish of lip stains, as most will not dry out lips or cause them to feel cracked or parched.
Today, it's as easy to opt for a sheer, shimmery, silver-flecked green eye shadow with blue undertones as it is to seek out a simple matte brown shade.
Long-lasting and available in a number of flattering colors, the NARS Velvet Matte Lip Pencil has been a staple since the day I first tried it.
Like so many other colors in the vast NARS repertoire, the Velvet Matte Lip Pencils have risqué, playful or feminine names (or some combination of the three).
Since it's a matte formula, it does apply dryly and doesn't moisturize the lips, despite its almost creamy texture.
That's when I discovered the problem with the otherwise great Velvet Matte Lip Pencil.
I'm not a big fan of matte lipsticks -their drying tendencies feel very uncomfortable as the day wears on, and the colors tend to look harsh on my fuller lips, and I prefer not to wear glosses without lipstick.
The craze might be attributed to Maybelline's Dream Matte Mousse Foundation, which was introduced to great fanfare and excitement several years ago.
The juxtaposition between matte and shimmer colors is quietly striking.
I do too, but for daytime wear, I tend to like a more sophisticated, matte look.
The last tip for creating Gwen Stefani's makeup look is to keep your face matte.
This hybrid formula makes it a bit different from traditional lip stains on the market, the majority of which feel quite dry upon application and usually appear matte.
From matte earth tones to sparking pinks and purples, Longo's designs cover all the bases!
Choosing the right foundation makeup can mean the difference between a beautiful matte look and one that shines.
What you'll really like about Ulta is that they devote an entire section to oil free products, including foundations, that helps one achieve a beautiful matte finish.
Matte lips tend to keep the color longer than lips with gloss.
The True Tone lipsticks are more matte than the Cream Shine lipsticks.
A deep lip stain is a popular alternative to a red lipstick since it creates a more realistic, matte finish.
Even if I was satisfied with the color alone, I would have worn it with at last a matte lip balm for moisture and sun protection.
If you have gorgeous brown eyes and want to copy that dreamy Bella Swan Twilight or New Moon look, start with two matte neutral shades of eye shadow.
Begin with a color like vanilla or nude as the primary shadow, and then work a matte brown or taupe to the outer corner of your eyelid.
Manufacturers promised a long-lasting matte finish and those who used it were not disappointed.
Using a translucent powder will provide the finishing touch you need to leave you with a natural matte finish.
For a more striking matte look eye shadow can be applied with a dampened applicator.
Instead, use matte foundations or powders to create a smooth, shine-free canvas, and use colors that match your complexion as closely as possible.
To achieve an elegant look, you'll want to go for a beautiful matte finish.
Explain that you want a matte finish to the sales person.
Consider using a lip stain or layer a creamy matte lipstick and top with a bit of gloss for shine.
However, if you plan to take a lot of pictures, a matte eye shadow (no shimmer) will be better as it will not reflect light and create unsightly shine where you may not want it.
Dior's 1-Color Eyeshadow in Bloom Pink - This shadow is available in matte, shimmer or pearl.
As an added bonus, some of the shades are matte and some are shimmer and some are pearl shades.
Combine with a clear gloss for a shiny look or wear alone for an almost matte finish.
The light-hued base coat can be either shimmery or matte depending on what other eyes shadows you will be using next.
If you are trying to create a shimmery look, use a matte eyeshadow on your brow bone, and if you are creating a matte look, use a shimmery shade on your brow bone.
Recently, MAC introduced a Viva Glam lipglass to use as a topcoat to its collection of matte lipsticks.
Both lines feature the company's incredibly successful matte eyshadows.
The deep, matte chocolate brown color of Dipdown is versatile enough that it can be used as either a daytime eyeliner or for a slightly more dramatic look for evening.
Because you're outdoors, stick to a slightly glossy or clear red instead of a dark, matte red.
Instead of a dull matte texture, choose a luminous lipcolor that appears kissable.
Matte eye shadows have no shimmer and are most often accent colors.
It can be paired with shades such as Purple Haze, which is an intense purple color with a matte finish, and Stars 'N' Rockets, a "dirty lavender with red-pink reflects."
It's not all dark and matte where gothic makeup is concerned.
Mineral makeup is known for creating a soft, matte finish that doesn't look dry or settle into the skin.
For the most natural look, choose a matte, nude lipstick.
The Kelly System contains the Luminess airbrush gun and four shades of foundation in your choice of finish - either matte, which controls oil and offers up to 50 hours of wear or satin, which is great for everyday.
It's designed for all skin types and has a natural matte finish.
The dress has long stripes of velvet interwoven into the matte jersey material.
Silver hearts, matte silver frames, ornate victorian frames, swirled ivy, and Cinderella stage coaches are just a few of the types of silver frames available.
For example, a simple matte silk dress with lace wrists and neckline is a modest and simple choice.
Velvet, velour, brocade, and matte satin are the most popular holiday fabrics, and many Christmas wedding dresses are trimmed in faux fur or feathers for an extra touch.
The look of thermography printed invitations is glossy whereas traditionally engraved invitations tend to have a matte finish.
Buttercream fondant is shinier than the other types but a light dusting of icing sugar can create a more matte surface.
They offer more than 40 colors and three finishes, including iridescent, non-iridescent and matte, for all of their tiles.
You'll have to choose between oil and latex, as well as gloss, semi-gloss, satin, eggshell, and matte.
The Cetol DEK Finish is a translucent stain that provides a satin sheen while Cetol SRD stain can be used for a matte look.
While a bright shiny polish remains popular, other finishes include satin and matte.
A matte finish is without any form of shine, but the inner depths of the gold give the earrings a unique feel.
Not every opal is iridescent or fiery; some have a more matte appearance and do not reflect light well at all.
Matte satin and netting make a tea length dress as adorable as the girl who'll wear it.
Classic simplicity is the look of this elegant A-line special occasion dress in a gorgeous matte satin fabric.
The play of color on the off-white bridal gown is readily apparent in satin textures but matte textures offer a hint of color as well.
This is caused by using reflective and matte threads together.
Cotton chiffon is also made from natural fibers, however when compared to silk chiffon, it has a matte finish and the fabric does not move and drape as gracefully.
You may find a matte suit with a satin collar that jazzes it up.
Otherwise choose tights made from thick double knit fabrics that have a matte finish rather than a shiny look.
A shiny finish tend to show off lumps and bumps while a darker matte fabric tends to hide them.
Some popular blends are stretch cotton/spandex jersey, polyester/cotton interlock, and polyester/spandex matte jersey.
The frame is metal and available in shiny brown, matte black/olive, and shiny black/rust.
It's available in matte black, matte dark green/matte light green, and matte dark grey/matte black.
Colors range from gold to matte black to chocolate.
Uvex Orbit Ski Goggles have a matte blue or metallic blue frame with amber or amber flash lenses.
Both of these styles are ergonomically designed to provide extra comfort, and each comes available in a variety of lens colors, including matte black.
The Matte Grey sunglass takes the term "silver fox" to a whole other dimension!
You can expect to pay $100.00 for the Matte Grey sunglass.
If Matte Grey was a nod to the inner tech in all of us, then Matte Rootbeer celebrates the wonderful mod movement of the 1960's.
The shiny counterpart to its Matte cousin, this Polished Rootbeer offers a bronze-toned lens and a silky smooth finish for $100.00 even.
There are eight color combinations available with this one, including Polished Amber/Dark Bronze, Polished White/Violet Iridium, and Matte Black/Grey.
These aren't exactly matte in finish, but they are not as shiny or reflective as the mirrored type.
Find a matte metal that works so well with your skin tone it's almost undetectable from a distance.
You can choose brighter, colored metals or even just opt for a shinier metal as opposed to the matte ones available.
What's wonderful about this wide color selection is that even though there are bold shades like red and black, there are also colors that are more subtle and matte.
They feature a large matte black frame with a dark grey mirrored lens.
You can select a gloss black frame with matte black temples, or choose a style with orange uni-grip nose and temple pads that is vibrant and energizing.
The classic line of a matte black or a gun metal finish frames are accentuated by spring temples.
These have a matte finish for an understated look.
Intrepid comes in matte black which is an opaque black frame with grey lenses.
It's available in matte black with grey/green lens.
Customers can choose brown, plum or matte gun silver frames.
If you choose a matte metal in a color that's close to your skin tone or hair color, the glasses will blend in even more.
They are available in Matte Tortoise with Polarized Brown lenses and Black Matte with Polarized Grey Green lenses.
This model comes in styles such as a silver metal frame with decorative stems in two-tone blue and brown, bright gold frame with black stems or a matte gold frame with tortoise stems.
This has changed with the PS3 Slim, since it now has a charcoal black paint job with a matte finish.
Instead of the regular white casing that the other units have, the Elite comes wrapped in a gorgeous matte black finish.
Wrought iron wine racks are available usually with gun-metal steel, black matte iron, iron powdered, and also other painted finishes.
Parian doll heads are white with a matte finish.
The best product for a fresh clean look is a matte hair paste.
Though you've spent years trying to make your hair as shiny as possible, the summer of 2010 is all about matte tresses, just like the nail polish craze.
Whether you opt for a sleek short cut, long matte waves, or a fun, casual updo, there are many ways to keep your style fresh, modern, and cool this summer.
Whether you're searching for a matte jersey dress or a seersucker suiting jacket, you're sure to find the clothes that will earn rave reviews!
Several fabrics, including matte Lycra, shiny Lycra and athletic mesh are also available.
Made from a matte cotton blend, you'll till be able to find the mesh lining, elastic waistband and side and rear pocket of the Hugo Boss, but for less than half the price at $33.00.
This is your basic matte material that is then cut, or slashed as the case may be, into the smallest of shapes.
Some popular collections include butterfly shimmer, rainbow metallic, sunlight matte and kaleidoscope print.
The bikini here has a slight sheen to it, so when you search for a similar look, stay away from any matte fabrics as that will take away from the glittering effect.
Most believe that G-strings only come in one form; a simple piece of string that's coupled with a matte fabric.
You can grab them in nearly any color under the sun, and their matte finish makes them perfect choice for printed or more flamboyant tops.
Choose shiny fabrics on spots you don't mind emphasizing and fabrics that tend to be more matte for trouble zones.
However, matte silver or metallic jersey fabric is another way to add that holiday glow.
Imitation pearls do not reflect light in the same manner as natural pearls; they are slightly duller, with a flat, matte finish.
Depending on how the metal is then processed, the black shade can be matte or polished.
The rich surface texture of carved wedding bands also means that parts of the ring have a bright shine, while others are matte or satin.
The brand's horseshoe-shaped Marcie and Paraty bag comes in suede or pebbled calf skin, both with matte goldtone hardware.
The Elsie and Heloise straddle the slouchy and structured, accented with pops of matte gold.
This collection is unique with its matte snake-embossed vinyl exterior and cool colors such as black, cream and green.
The finish on naked leather is matte, rather than shiny, giving it a more natural look and feel.
Made with a matte leather upper and followed with a causal thong style, this structured, stitched toe thong and embossed glossy Ariat logo are the perfect summer sandal wear!
The current color option is matte silver with white and black trim.
The current color option is matte silver with a metallic trim.
For an understated look, choose a matte band for a matte face.
The watch is a matte black color with a black leather strap.
Consider adding a watch strap that compliments the overall look of the watch such as selecting a leather band in matte finish to contrast with a shiny metal watch case.
A matte finish is better than a glossy (shiny) finish, because it does not show fingerprints.
Its matte black finish blends easily with other fireplace tools and accessories, making it a functional and attractive addition to your home décor as well as a valuable cleaning tool.
Needlepoint thread comes in a dizzying array of colors, textures and finishes, from matte cotton floss to metallic.
To finish your project, Plaid also makes brush on and aerosol sealers in matte and gloss finishes.
Matte or frame your collage if you like.
Buy a small picture matte or have an adult cut a matte from cardboard or matte board.
You'll find ultra sheer, sheer and nearly opaque as well matte vs. shiny types.
There's enough shine there to keep your legs looking supple-not flat and matte.
They are mostly matte, so that the extent to which they reflect light is considerably less than a plastic strap.
For a true, matte blue-red look, try MAC's Russian Red.
With their matte finish, sandal-ready toe and wide welt tops, Gerbe stockings are worth every penny.
The outside of satin basques have a slight sheen to them, though the inside of the fabric may be completely matte.
The Creative Nail Design nail enamel collection is an array of shades that run the gamut from demure to bold, light to bright, matte to shiny.
In addition to leaving the skin matte and soft, it tightens pores and leaves the skin feeling refreshed.
This will create a matte finish on your skin and prevent some oil production.
These products contain fruit cell extracts and the Matte Fresh™ Complex, which is made to combat excess oil.
Ores are smelted raw if the fall of matte (metallic sulphide) does not exceed 5%; otherwise they are subjected to a preliminary oxidizing roast to expel the sulphur, unless they run too high in silver, say 100 oz.
The slag and matte formed float upon the lead in the crucible and are tapped, usually together, at intervals into slag-pots, where the heavy matter settles on the bottom and the light slag on the top. When cold they are readily separated by a blow from a hammer.
The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).
Sulphuretted hydrogen, obtained by treating iron sulphide or a coarse matte with dilute sulphuric acid, is forced in similarly.
The lowest layer of the molten mass is principally metallic bismuth, the succeeding layers are a bismuth copper matte, which is subsequently worked up, and a slag.
In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.
When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.
The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.
For a wet method of extraction of the matte see Christofle and Bouilhet, French Patent 111591 (1876).
The roasted ore is then smelted to a mixture of copper and iron sulphides, known as copper " matte " or " coarse-metal," which contains little or no arsenic, antimony or silica.
The matte is treated either in reverberatory furnaces (English process), in blast furnaces (German process), or in converters (Bessemer process).
The " Welsh process " closely resembles the English method; the main difference consists in the enrichment of the matte by smelting with the rich copper-bearing slags obtained in subsequent operations.
The " AngloGerman Process " is a combination of the two preceding, and consists in smelting the calcined ores in shaft furnaces, concentrating the matte in reverberatory furnaces, and smelting to coarse-metal in either.
After the ore has been partially calcined, it is smelted to extract its earthy matter and to concentrate the copper with part of its iron and sulphur into a matte.
In America the usual method is to roast ores or concentrates so that the matte yielded by either the reverberatory or cupola furnace will run from 45 to 50% in copper, and then to transfer to the Bessemer converter, which blows it up to 99%.